WorldWideScience

Sample records for affluence food supply

  1. Neighbourhood food environment and dietary intakes in adolescents: sex and perceived family affluence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Lo, Wing-Sze; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Thomas, G Neil; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-10-01

    To examine the effects of perceived availability of fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores on adolescent dietary intakes. Survey data from 34 369 students in 42 Hong Kong secondary schools were collected in 2006-7. Respondents reported the availability of fast-food shops, restaurants and convenience stores in the neighbourhood, and their intakes of fruit, vegetables, high-fat foods and junk food/soft drinks. For intakes of high-fat foods and junk food/ soft drinks, ≤ once a week was defined as low consumption and the rest moderate/high consumption. At least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit daily were defined as sufficient consumption. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each dietary intake in relation to the reported food shops. Potential effect modifications by socio-demographic factors were also examined. Perceived availability of fast-food shops and convenience stores were positively associated with moderate/high consumptions of high-fat foods (OR(fast) =1.10 and OR(con) =1.15) and junk food/soft drinks (OR(fast)=1.10 and OR(con) =1.10). Significant negative associations of the perceived availability of restaurants with intakes of vegetables and fruit were observed (OR(veg) =0.87 and OR(fruit) =0.83). The positive relationship between reporting fast-food shops with intake of junk food/soft drinks were observed only in boys and those with low perceived family affluence. The negative association of reporting restaurants with fruit consumption was found in those with low and middle perceived family affluence only. Perceived availability of neighbourhood fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores may have a negative impact on adolescent dietary intakes particularly for those from poorer families.

  2. Food consumption and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Nonhebel, S.; Krol, Martinus S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives

  3. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.; Krol, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives

  4. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  5. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  6. Obesity under affluence varies by welfare regimes: the effect of fast food, insecurity, and inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Avner; Pechey, Rachel; Ulijaszek, Stanley

    2010-12-01

    Among affluent countries, those with market-liberal welfare regimes (which are also English-speaking) tend to have the highest prevalence of obesity. The impact of cheap, accessible high-energy food is often invoked in explanation. An alternative approach is that overeating is a response to stress, and that competition, uncertainty, and inequality make market-liberal societies more stressful. This ecological regression meta-study pools 96 body-weight surveys from 11 countries c. 1994-2004. The fast-food 'shock' impact is found to work most strongly in market-liberal countries. Economic insecurity, measured in several different ways, was almost twice as powerful, while the impact of inequality was weak, and went in the opposite direction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  8. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  9. Population Model with a Dynamic Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ronald; da Silva Nascimento, Jonas

    2009-09-01

    We propose a simple population model including the food supply as a dynamic variable. In the model, survival of an organism depends on a certain minimum rate of food consumption; a higher rate of consumption is required for reproduction. We investigate the stationary behavior under steady food input, and the transient behavior of growth and decay when food is present initially but is not replenished. Under a periodic food supply, the system exhibits period-doubling bifurcations and chaos in certain ranges of the reproduction rate. Bifurcations and chaos are favored by a slow reproduction rate and a long period of food-supply oscillation.

  10. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challengi...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain.......The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  11. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruoma, Okezie I.

    2006-01-01

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, 'a hazard' is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer

  12. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-03

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer.

  13. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due

  14. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  15. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Garrett Cullity made a significant contribution to the literature on what the world’s relatively affluent owe to the world’s relatively poor through the publishing of The Moral Demands of Affluence. In this discussion note, I draw attention to a logical problem in Cullity’s master argument...

  16. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Göbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC. The aim of this study is (1 to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2 to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste occurs at all stages in the food chain. Thus, there is no single culprit to be blamed. Besides, the identified reasons for food waste differ between product groups; not a single solution can cause notable change. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the causes and effects of food waste are to be found at different stages of the value chain. Hence, it is of high importance to improve communication and to raise a new appreciation for food among all stakeholders of the food supply chain in order to develop a more sustainable food system. Information on the topic of food waste needs to be shared among all actors of the supply chain. They need to share responsibility and work together to reduce food waste.

  17. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    in strategic, tactical, and operational studies, aiming to explain how several key food distribution planning challenges have been dealt with in the Operations Management literature. The next two chapters discuss specific production and distribution planning problems from the foodservice sector. Generic......The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... chain perspective, this thesis mainly focuses on the part of the chain which starts from the food processing industry: the food processing industry, the distribution industry, and final consumers. In the second chapter of this thesis, a thorough review is presented classifying the related contributions...

  19. Transparency in complex dynamic food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Food supply chains are increasingly complex and dynamic due to (i) increasing product proliferation to serve ever diversifying and globalising markets as a form of mass customisation with resulting global flows of raw materials, ingredients and products, and (ii) the need to satisfy changing and

  20. Oil price, biofuels and food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Shrestha, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels, but this issue has yet to be fully investigated in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65% increase in oil price in 2020 from the 2009 level would increase the global biofuel penetration to 5.4% in 2020 from 2.4% in 2009. If oil prices rise 150% from their 2009 levels by 2020, the resulting penetration of biofuels would be 9%, which is higher than that would be caused by current mandates and targets introduced in more than forty countries around the world. The study also shows that aggregate agricultural output drops due to an oil price increase, but the drop is small in major biofuel producing countries as the expansion of biofuels would partially offset the negative impacts of the oil price increase on agricultural outputs. An increase in oil price would reduce global food supply through direct impacts as well as through the diversion of food commodities and cropland towards the production of biofuels. - Highlights: ► A global CGE model to analyze impacts of oil price on biofuels and food supply. ► Global biofuel penetration increases from 2.4% (2009) to 5.4% (2020) in baseline. ► A 150% rise of oil price boosts biofuels more than current mandates and targets do. ► Biofuels partially offset drops in agricultural outputs caused by oil price rise. ► Biofuels as well as oil price rise negatively affect global food supply.

  1. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery supply chain: a ... This paradigm describes a new approach to internal R&D management, which ... a picture of the adoption of open innovation in the food machinery industry.

  2. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A.

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements.

  3. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  4. Supply and consumption of cardiovascular food supplements in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Liubartaitė, Elvyra

    2017-01-01

    Supply and Consumption of Cardiovascular Food Supplements in Lithuania. The aim - to evaluate supply and consumption of cardiovascular food supplements in Lithuania. Work tasks: • To collect information on food supplements for heart health. • To rate the range of food supplements for heart health sold in Lithuania. • To analyze the consumption of food supplements for heart health. Research data were collected through questionnaire data collection method based on January-February, 2017 data. 4...

  5. Measuring supply chain performance in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords : PMS,agri-food, supply chain, efficiency, flexibility, responsiveness, food quality

    The main objective of this research is to contribute to the development of a Performance Measurement System (PMS) foragri-food supply chains that involves the entire chain (i.e. all

  6. Sustainable consumption and production in the food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Increased globalization and a growing world population have a great impact on the sustainability of supply chains, especially within the food industry. The way food is produced, processed, transported, and consumed has a great impact on whether sustainability is achieved throughout the whole food...... supply chain. Due to the complexity that persists in coordinating the members of food supply chain, food wastage has increased over the past few years. To achieve sustainable consumption and production (SCP), food industry stakeholders need to be coordinated and to have their views reflected...... in an optimized manner. However, not much research has been done concerning the influence of stakeholders and supply chain members’ coordination in the food industry's SCP context. To facilitate the theory development for SCP, in this work, a short literature review on sustainable supply chain management...

  7. Supply of basic food, energy, and energy-supplying foodstuffs to the population of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdan, M R

    1979-04-27

    The supply of energy and energy-supplying foodstuffs to the population of Jordan is determined on a regional basis. Food is supplied by the agricultural sector and by imports. The influence of prices on foreign trade and consumption is analyzed. The investigation shows that most of the food supplied is of vegetable origin. The demand for animal protein is covered by 82% on an average. There are no symptoms of malnutrition among the population.

  8. Fostering sustainable urban-rural linkages through local food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas Preiss, Potira; Charão-Marques, Flávia; Wiskerke, Johannes S.C.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream system of food supply has been heavily criticized in the last years due to its social and environmental impacts. Direct food purchasing schemes have emerged in recent decades as a form of supply that may be more ecologically sound and socially just, while allowing for a closer

  9. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    OpenAIRE

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A.

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualization enables supply chain actors to monitor, control, plan and optimize business processes remotely and in real-time through the Internet, based on virtual objects instead of observation on-site. This...

  10. Traceability in the food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, E.J.; Spiegel, van der M.; Prins, T.W.; Manti, V.; Groot, M.J.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels, van der H.J.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Traceability of food implies the ability to trace and follow a food, feed, or a food-producing animal or substance intended to be, or expected to be, incorporated into a food or feed, through all stages of production, processing, and distribution. The importance of traceability has grown due to the

  11. Effective food supply chains : generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to

  12. Defining and Analyzing Traceability Systems in Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Traceability is considered to be a vital issue for all stakeholders in food supply chains. The most important driver is the increasing societal need to guarantee food quality and provenance. Because consumers cannot know in detail what processing steps are executed in the production of food and what

  13. Global Changes in Food Supply and the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Emilie H; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter; von Scholten, Bernt Johan

    2016-12-01

    We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries. The shift in food supply is considered a major driver of the obesity epidemic and the increasing prevalence of accompanying complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the global shift might also have direct effects on the increase in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, independently of overweight and obesity. The shift in the food supply is a major driver of the obesity epidemic.

  14. Issue in Information Sharing of Halal Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrom Nor Ratna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing serves as an essential approach for the companies and antecedents of supply chain integration. Nowadays, with the highly competitive in halal food market, information sharing has become more conceivable. Furthermore, information sharing in supply chains has become more efficient by having meaningful relationship with the members of halal supply chain. There is a lack information regarding information shared within members in halal food supply chain literature. The information needed in order to shed the light of how companies nowadays can be more competitive. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent the information can be shared among the members of the halal food supply chain. This study elaborates the barriers of information sharing leading to enhanced supply chain integration among enterprises, as a result. The interview with four managers from halal certified food manufactures has been deployed to get rich data about the information sharing. The finding shows that most of cases halal certified food manufacturers has low communication with their suppliers. Trust is the key enablers within the members of halal food supply chain.

  15. Supply chain performance within agri-food sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Daniela Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By setting the goals of this scientific paper has been outlined the research methodology. Thus were developed conclusion, and by using the methods, procedures, techniques, rules and tools and know-how has been demonstrated the central hypothesis: 'Inside the agri-food supply chain is created value through operations and logistics activities.' The value created leads to competitive advantages in order to identify companies within market, gaining loyal consumers. The article presents the components of agri-food supply chain, the main Key Performance Indicators measuring its performance, the difference between a traditional supply chain and sustainable supply chain by analyzing the waste management component. In order to get professional expertise referring to Key Performance Indicators a quantitative research has been organized. In closing the article present the development strategies of agri-food supply chain.

  16. Predictive Analytics for Safer Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science based risk analysis improves the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service’s ability to combat threats to public health from food-borne illness by allowing the Agency to focus resources on hazards that pose the greatest risk. Innovative algorithms enable detection and containment of threat by an...

  17. Researches in agri-food supply chain: A bibliometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisjam, Muhammad; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Agri-food is very important for human being. Problems in managing agri-food are very complicated. There are many entities involved in managing agri-food with conflict of interest between them makes the problems become more complicated. Using supply chain approaches in agri-food will help solving the problems. The purpose of this paper is to show that the publications in agri-food supply chain research area are still promising and to show the research trend in agri-food supply chain. The study was a bibliometric study by using some queries on the website with the largest database of peer-reviewed literature. The queries were using various categories and refinements. Firstly the study was exploring all publications in this research area in some categories and then divided the duration into 2 intervals. The last query was to know how many publications are review type publications. The results show that the number of the publications with agri-food supply chain topics are still limited, and tend to increase. It means researches in this area are still promising. The results also show the most publications are from which source title, country, and affiliation. The results also show the research trend in this research area. The quantities of review type publications in agri-food supply chain are still few. It shows the need for more review type publications in this area.

  18. The global food crisis : supply and demand revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sammut, Vince

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to show that the volatility in food prices between 2008 and 2011 cannot be explained merely by the market fundamentals of demand and supply. While global changes in demand and supply are bringing about radical changes to the food equation, evidence shows that market failure in the world grain market aggravated the problem. Excess liquidity, brought about by monetary growth policies after the subprime crises and financial meltdown in 2008, has stimulated speculation and hoar...

  19. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  20. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay

  1. SUPPLY AND UTILISATION OF FOOD CROPS IN GHANA, 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    Due to that much attention has been placed on sustainable management of agricultural ... Supply (import and export) and utilisation (for food, feed, seed, farm manure, waste and other uses) of food crops have ..... Cassava is mainly used in non-poultry livestock production, i.e., for goats, sheep, pigs and some ruminants.

  2. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes......Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...

  3. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  4. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, B; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Dunford, E; Snowdon, W; Webster, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Global Changes in Food Supply and the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H.; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries. The shift in food supply is considered a major driver of the obesity......Purpose of Review We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. Recent Findings Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing...... epidemic and the increasing prevalence of accompanying complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the global shift might also have direct effects on the increase in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, independently of overweight and obesity. Summary...

  7. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...

  8. The logistics of food supply following radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orre, K.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions at the national level about critical infrastructure and its vulnerability are more common now following the events of September 11. The National Emergency Supply Agency organised a training exercise to test the logistics of food supply following passage of a plume containing radioactive material over a district in Finland. This short paper summarises the problems that had to be faced and suggests a way forward for improving emergency preparedness in this area

  9. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Hinder, Stephanie L; Bodger, Owen G; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C

    2014-01-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  10. Reserves and Trade Jointly Determine Exposure to Food Supply Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Zak, Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  11. Psychometric Validation of the Revised Family Affluence Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torsheim, Torbjorn; Cavallo, Franco; Levin, Kate Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to develop and test a brief revised version of the family affluence scale. A total of 7120 students from Denmark, Greenland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Scotland and Slovakia reported on a list of 16 potential indicators of affluence. Responses were subject to item screening and t...

  12. Teaching the Social Issues of a Sustainable Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the pressing need for humans to limit their consumption to more supportable levels, this study investigated how one social studies teacher taught the social issues associated with a sustainable food supply. This article discusses what the teacher's curricular, pedagogical, and assessment strategies were in engaging students with…

  13. The insurability of product recall in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Valeeva, N.I.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Insurers face growing difficulties with insuring food-related risks among others due to an increasing number of product recalls and an increasing amount of claims being pushed back into the chain. This paper focuses on the risk of product recall in dairy supply chains. The paper aims at providing

  14. Food supply from Tauric Chersonesos. Products and Transportation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-80 ISSN 1436-3372. [Annual conference on underwater archaeology of the DEGUWA IN POSEIDON’S REALM XVIII. Manching, 15.03.2013-17.03.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Crimea * Antiquity * Food Supply * Chersonesos * Byzantium Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. Effect of Climate Change on the Food Supply System: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has become an issue of great concern in recent years due to its effect on every aspect of life. The ecosystem, agriculture, industry, households and human well-being are all intertwined with climate change issues. The food supply system worldwide has been affected and is also contributing to climate ...

  16. How social unrest started innovations in a food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, Jan; Hennen, Wil; Verwaart, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Transitions leading to sociotechnical innovations in food supply chains have been described in dramaturgical analyses on the basis of newspaper articles and parliamentary records. The time scale of the transitions driven by aroused public opinion on issues such as animal welfare, is typically a

  17. Food animal supply and consumption pattern in Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-year retrospective study (1994-1996) of food animal supply and consumption in Akwa Ibom State was carried out, based on records kept at the Veterinary Services Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. This was complemented with visits to appraise operational areas and interviews of the operators. The animals ...

  18. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  19. Radioactive contamination of the biosphere and consequences for food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with all aspects of radioactive contamination of the biosphere and corresponding consequences for food supply. In particular, releases of radioactivity by nuclear weapon tests in the early 60's and nuclear accidents in recent years are discussed. Contamination of food in the Federal Republic of Germany by these events and corresponding ingestion dose are demonstrated using examples. Furthermore diffusion of radionuclides and their transfer through the food chains to man are described. Suitable methods of decontamination at different production steps and their viability are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Food retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Middleton, Ann E; Long, Michael W; Luedicke, Joerg; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-06-01

    Non-supermarket food retailers can be a promising channel for increasing the availability of healthy foods in underserved communities. The present paper reports on retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods before and after the introduction of new subsidies for healthy foods by the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in October 2009. We designed and conducted in-person standardized interviews with store owners and managers to assess perceptions of demand and profits for different foods, supply networks, barriers to stocking healthy foods and their changes following implementation of the new WIC packages. Non-supermarket retailers in five towns of Connecticut, USA (n 68 in 2009 and n 58 in 2010). Owners and managers of WIC-authorized and non-WIC convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores. Retailers identified customer demand as the primary factor in stocking decisions. They reported observing a significantly weaker demand for healthy foods compared with unhealthy foods, although it improved for certain foods with the new WIC subsidies. Less healthy foods were also perceived as more profitable. Supplier networks varied by product from convenient manufacturer delivery for salty snacks to self-supply for produce. WIC retailers were able to quickly adapt and supply healthy foods required under the new WIC programme guidelines. Retailers other than supermarkets currently perceive little demand for healthy foods, but new WIC subsidies have the power to change these perceptions. Supply barriers seem secondary in the limited offerings of healthy foods by stores and could be overcome when policy changes generate new demand for healthy foods.

  1. The chaos and control of a food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the

  2. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Peeters, Lotte; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE...

  3. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura; Pé rez-Leó n, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E.; Marbà , Nú ria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K.; Blicher, Martin E.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Olsen, Ylva S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

  4. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

  5. A New Advanced Logistics Supply Chain for Food Management Based on Green Logistics Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lanqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the advanced logistics supply chain for food management using green logistics. To protect the food logistics environment and prevent the environmental pollution, it is crucial to establish powerful modern supply chains to support the food management in transportation. The construction speed of the food companies is very fast; however, the food supply lags behind the food companies. As a result, the environmental pollution caused in the food logistics becomes seve...

  6. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Guarino, L.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop

  7. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Food Supply Chains in Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.; Marsden, T.; Banks, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their

  8. Coopetition in Fresh Food Supply Chains: The Integration Of Supply Chains and Logistical Functions amongst Competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Power, C; Vlachos, I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether coopetition as a strategy could be successfully implemented within the logistical function of the Irish fresh fruit and vegetable industry as a method to improve transport costs and efficiency, as well as demand forecasting techniques, storage costs and the potential for new local and international business opportunities. Effective management of fresh food supply chains is particularly challenging due to the highly perishable nature of the product invol...

  9. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Symmank, Claudia; L Almli, Valérie; de Hooge, Ilona E; Normann, Anne; Karantininis, Kostas

    2017-11-27

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  10. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS: Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration, or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household. The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  11. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Symmank, Claudia; L. Almli, Valérie; de Hooge, Ilona E.; Normann, Anne; Karantininis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply. PMID:29186883

  12. Research on the Food Security Condition and Food Supply Capacity of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1 model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80% under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  13. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  14. Population growth to put pressure on some food supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Continued high population growth in developing countries is likely to lead to intense pressure to produce more rice, according to estimates from the Manila-based International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Ms. Mercedita Sombilla, a research scientist with IRRI, said that the projected increase in Asia's population will be the major force in accelerating demand for rice. According to various issues of the ESCAP Population Data Sheet, the population of the region will have increased from 3.3 billion in 1995 to almost 4.6 billion in 2020. The greatest growth in demand is expected to come from the lower-income countries of Asia, such as Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Philippines, and Viet Nam, she said. However, in terms of overall food supplies, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) estimates that food supplies will be sufficient. "Expecting reasonably strong productivity growth to be sustainable, no global food crisis seems likely to occur" between now and 2020, the organization stated in its report entitled "The World in 2020: Towards a New Global Age". full text

  15. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  16. The organic food supply chain in relation to information management and the interaction between actors

    OpenAIRE

    Kottila, Marja-Riitta; Maijala, Adeline; Rönni, Päivi

    2005-01-01

    Conventional retailers play a significant role in selling organic food, and therefore, it is important to understand how the demand - supply chain of organic food works as an element of the conventional food system. The proportion of organic food in the conventional food chains is small, and this poses a great challenge to the performance of the chain. Surveys and case specific studies on consumers and supply chain actors indicate that the changes in the conventional food system have an impac...

  17. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  18. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  19. Problems Of The Land Use And Food Supply In Bashkortostan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Ravilovich Galiev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the problems of food supply of the population of the region. Subject matter of the research is the relations developed in the conditions of economic reforms in the field of agrarian land use in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Purpose of the work is to develop recommendations on improvement of a situation of the food self-sufficiency and effective land use in Bashkortostan. The research is based on the dialectic approach and economic-mathematical method of the research. The results of the research testify the need of revision of such land features as an indispensability and not susceptibility to obsolescence in the conditions of further growth and development of scientific and technical progress to prevent a lag between our country and developed foreign countries in the theory of rural economics and practice of the food supply. At the differentiation of subsidies for 1 liter of milk and on 1 head of uterine livestock of breeding cattle (on 1 cow, an ewe, a goat as a correcting indicator, it is expedient to use the cadastral cost of the farmland as an integrated indicator reflecting fertility of arable and fodder grounds, an spareness, rockiness, a slope corner, transport availability or remoteness. Results of the research are applicable in the scientific and educational sphere, connected with the rural economics theory, and also in state bodies agriculture at the distribution of subsidies between market participants. Land is replaceable and worn-out means of production in agriculture, and also a basis for the enterprise placement. Ignoring of the remoteness of lands, the soil qualities, and technological properties leads to the state regulation of agriculture without including the nature efficiency of agrarian landscapes.

  20. Efficiency and Integration in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jarzebowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of the food supply chain, an increase of the integration's degree in the chain may be an important aspect in the context of increasing the efficiency of agri-food companies. Therefore, exploring the relationships among these variables was found as an important research area and adopted as the goal of the paper. The paper is focused mainly on the theoretical background showing the relationship between integration and performance. A description of the theoretical and methodological aspects of performance measurement and its extension (including the integration aspect was also made within the framework of the paper.For an empirical illustration of the analyzed relationships two steps were made. Firstly, the integration's degree in the food chain was measured. Secondly, the efficiency of the companies from the cereals processing industry in Europe was assessed. The SFA models (e.g. Translog and Cobb-Douglas functional form were used for assessment of efficiency. By using stochastic method (e.g. the SFA, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, one may show the influence of external variable (the integration in the supply chain on the efficiency performance of enterprises. Efficiency of economic entities is not an unambiguous term. There are several different concepts of efficiency, its measurement and expressions. Within the framework of efficiency, many terms of similar meaning may be applied. However, these concepts are not identical. The actual concept of efficiency is derived from the structure of the production function, therefore it is conditioned by changes in the productivity of production factors and their remuneration and refers to the allocation of production factors in the most technically efficient way.

  1. The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors? influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of c...

  2. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  4. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  5. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  6. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    former KGB official, with polonium - 210 in 2006.25 However, a number of factors make radiological contamination of food unlikely. First, it is...Defense University September 2009 Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military...DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition

  8. Applications of DART-MS for food quality and safety assurance in food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianyang; Yong, Wei; Jin, Yong; Zhang, Liya; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Dong, Yiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-03-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) represents a new generation of ion source which is used for rapid ionization of small molecules under ambient conditions. The combination of DART and various mass spectrometers allows analyzing multiple food samples with simple or no sample treatment, or in conjunction with prevailing protocolized sample preparation methods. Abundant applications by DART-MS have been reviewed in this paper. The DART-MS strategy applied to food supply chain (FSC), including production, processing, and storage and transportation, provides a comprehensive solution to various food components, contaminants, authenticity, and traceability. Additionally, typical applications available in food analysis by other ambient ionization mass spectrometers were summarized, and fundamentals mainly including mechanisms, devices, and parameters were discussed as well. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev. 36:161-187, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems......Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  10. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.

  11. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  12. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  13. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the food supply: strategies to decrease exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply, National Research Council

    2003-01-01

    .... People are exposed to these unintentional environmental contaminants primarily through the food supply, although at low levels, particularly by eating animal fat in meat, dairy products, and fish...

  14. The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors' influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of consumer rights protection and the level of legal protection of consumer rights on the risk spread of food safety. This model contributes to the explicit investigation of the influence relationship among supply-demand factors, the regulation behavioral choice of government, the behavioral choice of food supply chain members and food safety risk spread. And this paper provides a new viewpoint for considering food safety risk spread in the food supply chain, which has a great reference for food safety management.

  15. An optimization approach for managing fresh food quality throughout the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in today's food industry is controlling the product quality throughout the food supply chain. In this paper, we integrate food quality in decision-making on production and distribution in a food supply chain. We provide a methodology to model food quality...... degradation in such a way that it can be integrated in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for production and distribution planning. The resulting model is applied in an illustrative case study, and can be used to design and operate food distribution systems, using both food quality and cost...

  16. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  17. Perceived psycho-emotional influence of aesthetics, affluence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined employees. perception of workplace theft in six industrial organizations at different situations where aesthetics, affluence and environmental sophistication were presented. Participants were one hundred and forty-four employees (72 males and 72 males) selected from. Shell, Mobil, Altec, NBC, Peacock ...

  18. Effective use of product quality information in food supply chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food supply chains have inherent characteristics, such as variability in product quality and quality decay, which put specific demands on logistics decision making. Furthermore, food supply chain organization and control has changed significantly in the past decades by factors such as scale

  19. Effective use of product quality information in food supply chain logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpkema, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food supply chains have inherent characteristics, such as variability in product quality and quality decay, which put specific demands on logistics decision making. Furthermore, food supply chain organization and control has changed significantly in the past decades by factors such as scale intensification and globalization. In practice, these characteristics and developments frequently lead to supply chain problems, such as high levels of product waste, product quality problems, and high lo...

  20. Research on Demand Prediction of Fresh Food Supply Chain Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    He Wang

    2015-01-01

    Demand prediction of supply chain is an important content and the first premise in supply management of different enterprises and has become one of the difficulties and hot research fields for the researchers related. The paper takes fresh food demand prediction for example and presents a new algorithm for predicting demand of fresh food supply chain. First, the working principle and the root causes of the defects of particle swarm optimization algorithm are analyzed in the study; Second, the...

  1. Population growth and food supply in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, J; Cochrane, S H

    1982-09-01

    It is argued in this article that sub-Saharan Africa, given its present institutions and endowments of capital and technology, is already dangerously close to overpopulation. The rapid growth of its population projected for the next decades will greatly increase human misery and depress economic development. Specifically, rapid population growth will have disastrous effects on the region's ability to increase exports and provide people with food. There must be a search for new ways in which these effects could be mitigated. In sub-Saharan Africa fertility either continues to be very high or is increasing, in part due to some decline in traditional practices that reduce fertility, such as prolonged breastfeeding. This situation and the expectation of declining mortality imply that African population growth may increase further. Currently, population in sub-Saharan Africa is about half that of India and a third of China. There are 2 main reasons why reduced fertility in the next few decades is unlikely in sub-Saharan Africa as a whole: Africa has low literacy, high infant and child mortality, and low urbanization; and average African fertility rates may even increase for the next 20 years or so. The question that arises is what are the implications of continuing and rapid population growth for the African food supply. The region's cereal production is largely restricted to 4 grains, i.e., millet, sorghum, maize, and rice. The volume of grain production is less, by weight, than 60% of the production of roots and tubers. There are 2 main differences between the output of these crops in sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world: yields/hectare are lower in Africa than in elsewhere; and yields have generally been decreasing or largely constant in Africa. The low productivity has several causes. Today, population pressure has brought diminishing returns to traditional agriculture in much of the Sahel and the savanna, in parts of East Africa, Southern Africa, and parts

  2. Impact of the Customers’ and Governments’ Demands on Complex Food Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ioana IONESCU FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Food crisis are always of big concern for the consumers and governments. Complex supply chains make it more difficult for all actors involved to manage such a crisis. Companies in the food industry must respond now not only to the concerns of customers about the food safety, but also to their need for fresh and healthy products. Together with governments, to enforce regularly the legislation, customers affect the way food actors conduct their business, and can have a great impact on the food supply chain. In order to answer these needs, companies have to modify their supply chains and operate with more transparency, taking into account the demands for traceability. The objective of this article is to analyze how customers and governments trigger more transparency from the food companies and supply chains, the opportunities and challenges of implementing and communicating transparency and traceability.

  3. Short food supply chains as a meachanism for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Tanasă, Lucian; Dinu Vasiliu, Codrin; Brumă, Ioan Sebastian; Doboş, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    At present, gastronomy is becoming an increasingly stronger motivation and focus of interest in economics, especially in fields related to tourism. At the same time, gastronomic tourism represents one of the most important business opportunities, allowing direct contact between food sector producers and tourists. Moreover, food related tourism is a key factor of success for local food fests and food markets based in touristic destinations. Thus, food related tourism represents an important in...

  4. Technologies of Selective Energy Supply at Evaporation of Food Solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to create innovative evaporating equipment that can produce concentrates with a high content of solids, with a low level of thermal effects on raw materials. The significance of the solution of technological problems of the key process of food technologies - concentration of liquid solutions (juices, extracts, etc. is shown. Problems and scientific contradictions are formulated and the hypothesis on using of electromagnetic energy sources for direct energy transfer to solution’s moisture has been offered. The prospects of such an energy effect are proved by the energy management methods. The schemes of fuel energy conversion for the conventional thermal concentration technology and the innovative plant based on the electromagnetic energy generators are presented. By means of the similarity theory the obtained model is transformed to the criterial one depicted kinetic of evaporation process at the electromagnetic field action. The dimensionless capacity of the plant is expressed by the dependence between the Energetic effect number and relative moisture content. The scheme of automated experimental system for study of the evaporation process in the microwave field is shown. The experimental results of juice evaporation are presented. It has been demonstrated that the technologies of selective energy supply represent an effective tool for improvement of juice concentration evaporative plants. The main result of the research is design of the evaporator that allows reaching juice concentrates with °brix 95 at the temperature as low as 35 °С, i.e. 2…3 times superior than traditional technologies.

  5. Obesity: evolution of a symptom of affluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, H

    2011-04-01

    This paper delineates the evolutionary background of the unprecedented epidemic of obesity that has evolved over the last century. Some two million years ago, a change of climate in the habitat of our primate ancestors triggered dietary adaptations which allowed our brain to grow. A shift from principally carbohydrate-based to fish- and meat-based eating habits provided sufficient fuel and building blocks to facilitate encephalisation. Insulin resistance may have evolved simultaneously as a means to avert the danger of hypoglycaemia to the brain (in view of the reduction of carbohydrate intake). Ensuing cognitive capacities enabled the control of fire and the manufacturing of tools, which increased energy yield from food even further and eased the defence against predators. The latter development relieved the selective pressure to maintain an upper level of bodyweight (driven by predation of overweight ndividuals). Since then, random mutations allowing bodyweight to increase spread in the human gene pool by genetic drift. Also, (seasonal) food insecurity in hunter-gatherer societies spurred the evolution of thrifty genes to maximise nutrient intake and energy storage when food was available. The agricultural and industrial revolutions rapidly changed our habitat: virtually unlimited stocks of (refined) foodstuffs and mechanical substitutes of physical efforts push up energy balance, particularly in those of us who are still adapted to former environmental conditions: i.e. who carry thrifty genes and lack (genetic) protection against weight gain. Intrauterine epigenetic mechanisms potentially reinforce the impact of these genes on the propensity to grow obese.

  6. Evaluating New Chilean National Regulations on the Food Supply ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... warning labels and food marketing controls for television shows watched by children, ... of data on food-related marketing exposure and attitudes, as well as on dietary intake for ... A new publication explores the ethics of these relationships.

  7. Identifying research advancements in supply chain risk management for Agri-food Industries: Literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, W.; Astuti, P.

    2017-12-01

    Agri-food supply chain has different characteristics related to the raw materials it uses. Food supply chain has a high risk of damage, thus drawing a lot of attention from researchers in supply chain management. This research aimed to investigate the development of supply chain risk management research on agri-food industries. These reviews were arranged in steps systematically, ranging from searching related to the review of SCRM paper, reviewing the general framework of SCRM and the framework of agri-food SCRM. Selection of literature review papers in the period 2005-2017, and obtained 45 papers. The results of the identification research were illustrated in a supply chain risk management framework model. This provided insight toward future research directions and needs.

  8. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation

  9. Assessing alternative production options for eco-efficient food supply chains using multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, G.D.H.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to tremendous losses of resources in modern food supply chains, higher priority should be given to reducing food waste and environmental impacts of food production. In practice, multiple production options are available, but must be quantitatively assessed with respect to economic and

  10. Traditional Agroforestry Systems and Food Supply under the Food Sovereignty Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Yazzur Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensive production systems have damaged many natural ecosystems and have altered their capacity to provide ecosystem services such as climate regulation, soil fertility, and vector-borne disease control. Therefore, these agroecosystems are unsustainable and poorly resilient. However, traditional agroforestry systems (TAS contribute to the conservation of biodiversity and to the provision of inputs for the maintenance of local populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the TAS in the food supply under the food sovereignty (FSv approach in three different ethnic groups. The study was conducted in three communities of different origin in the State of Campeche, one Maya Tseltal-Chol, the other Mestizo, and the third Yucatec Mayan. The theoretical-methodological framework of this research was based on agroecology. Ethnographic methods and participatory research activities were carried out to describe and analyze the factors that strengthen FSv using five indicators. Our results present a description and analysis of resource access, current production models, patterns of consumption and food security, commercialization and participation in decision-making of these communities. Traditional agroecological management practices are still preserved and native species are still being cultivated. Farmers obtain about 55% of their food from TAS. The consumption of food is influenced by the culture, the purchasing power linked to economic activities and government support. TAS have played a strategic role for the survival of families but to ensure their contribution to FSv, it is necessary to articulate the actions of the sectors that share the same objective and encourage the active participation of communities in agricultural policies.

  11. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  12. Barriers to the development of the short supply chain for local food producers in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of short food supply chains for the development of rural areas in Romania, considering the increasing demand of the population for healthy food. A proper functionality of these local food supply chains brings benefits to producers, consumers and the local community, but some issues must be solved. This article presents the results of a qualitative marketing research study conducted for identifying the difficulties in this sector. The study aimed to identify the small producers’ opinions on the barriers to the development of these supply chains and how they could be helped to sell their products at a fair price.

  13. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply; the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form, and as menaquinones (MK), a collection of isomers mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Though multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about ...

  14. Impact of Liability Rules on Modes of Coordination for Food Safety in Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Rouviere, Elodie; Latouche, Karine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This article analyzes how the allocation of liability for safety defects could influence coordination in the food supply chain. To do so, we analyzed the strategic reaction of importers and supermarkets who import Spanish fresh produce into France. We considered the implementation and enforcement of the European General Food Law as an exogenous shock for French food operators. In France, depending on the situation, food operators can transfer their liability to someone...

  15. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura; Marbà , Nú ria; Prado, Luis; Peron, Sophie; Lardies, Marco A.; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Vargas, Cristian A.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH ~ 8.0) and low pH (pH ~ 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  16. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura

    2015-12-08

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH ~ 8.0) and low pH (pH ~ 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  17. Food Supply and Nutrition in the Bulgarian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Pavlin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main tasks of food logistics in the military formations are to provide the personnel with food, material and nutritional property, to maintain and refresh the stocks, as well as organize the nutrition of the personnel in peacetime and wartime according to the current nutrition norms.

  18. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the food supply: strategies to decrease exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply; Food and Nutrition Board; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council

    2003-01-01

    .... While the amount of DLCs in the environment has declined since the late 1970s, the public continues to be concerned about the safety of the food supply and the potential adverse health effects of DLC...

  19. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals

  20. Development of sustainability indicator scoring (SIS) for the food supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to identify mechanisms for using a quantitative benchmarking approach to drive sustainability improvements in the food supply chain.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud A literature review was undertaken and then a strategic and operational framework developed for improving food supply chain sustainability in terms of triple bottom line criteria.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud Using a sustainability indicator scoring approach, the paper considers the architecture...

  1. A Big Data Decision-making Mechanism for Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Guojun; Tan KimHua

    2017-01-01

    Many companies have captured and analyzed huge volumes of data to improve the decision mechanism of supply chain, this paper presents a big data harvest model that uses big data as inputs to make more informed decisions in the food supply chain. By introducing a method of Bayesian network, this paper integrates sample data and finds a cause-and-effect between data to predict market demand. Then the deduction graph model that translates foods demand into processes and divides processes into ta...

  2. Traceability in food supply chains Exploring governmental authority and industrial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ringsberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Traceability in food supply chains has received increased attention in the last decade. The efforts of governmental authorities have also increased to regulate and control food supply chains and product characteristics related to information to ensure safety, quality, and preservation of living resources. Previous studies in the area take an industrial focus and exclude the governmental authority focus. This thesis thus focuses on exploring governmental authority and industrial effects on tra...

  3. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  4. Supply chain management problems in the food processing industry: Implications for business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Nguegan Nguegan

    2017-11-01

    Contribution or value-add: Practically, the study enables supply chain professionals in the food processing industry to understand the sources of problems and use this information to develop solutions for the improvement of business performance. Theoretically, the study endorses the view that part of the key to resolving business performance complications in the food processing industry involves streamlining supply chain management by resolving its identifiable problems.

  5. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. C. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest mean TFA content among the 18 food subgroups was the doughnuts/French toast subgroup (0.95 g, followed by the other pastries subgroup (0.49 g and the bread with filling/topping subgroup (0.44 g. Among the samples, the highest TFA content is from a doughnut (4.7 g/100 g, followed by two cream-filled bread with shredded coconut (1.8 and 1.4 g/100 g and a sweetheart cake (1.7 g/100 g. Only consuming one whole piece of doughnut would have reached 100% of the maximum daily TFA intake as recommended by WHO based on a 2000 kcal diet. About 78% of samples had TFA ≤0.3 g/100 g food. For the majority of the food samples available in Hong Kong, if TFA was present, C18:1 trans would possibly be the predominant one.

  6. Design of a supply chain network for pea-based novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an operations research technique that can be used for supply chain design and applies it to create a supply network with a goal to manufacture a pea-based NPF as cheaply as possible. The current food production and consumption pattern has a strong impact on the environment and

  7. Overview of Food Safety Hazards in the European Dairy Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Fels, van der Ine; Marvin, H.J.P.; Bokhorst-van De Veen, Van H.; Nierop Groot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of dairy products should preferably focus on the most relevant food safety hazards in the dairy supply chain. For this purpose, the possible presence of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards as well as trends in the dairy supply chain that may affect their presence were

  8. Quantifying the agri-food supply chain: proceedings of the Frontis workshop on quantifying the agri-food supply chain, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Due to globalization and internationalization of agri-food production, the arena of competition and competitive advantage is moving from individual firms operating on spot markets towards supply chains and networks. Therefore, coordination between firms within the chain becomes more important.

  9. Quality and Operations Management in Food Supply Chains: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a literature review on quality and operations management problems in food supply chains. In food industry, the quality of the food products declines over time and should be addressed in the supply chain operations management. Managing food supply chains with operations management methods not only generates economic benefit, but also contributes to environmental and social benefits. The literature on this topic has been burgeoning in the past few years. Since 2005, more than 100 articles have been published on this topic in major operations research and management science journals. In this literature review, we concentrate on the quantitative models in this research field and classify the related articles into four categories, that is, storage problems, distribution problems, marketing problems, and food traceability and safety problems. We hope that this review serves as a reference for interested researchers and a starting point for those who wish to explore it further.

  10. Using vulnerability performance indicators to attain food supply chain robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Lokven, van S.W.M.; Haijema, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    High effectiveness and leanness of modern supply chains (SCs) increase their vulnerability, i.e. susceptibility to disturbances reflected in non-robust SC performances. Both the SC management literature and SC professionals indicate the need for the development of SC vulnerability assessment tools.

  11. Making traceability work across the entire food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C; Lothian, Paul; Sterling, Brian; Hickey, Caitlin

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists held Traceability Research Summits on July 14, August 22, and November 1, 2011, to address how to meet the growing requirement for agriculture and food traceability. Each meeting had a group of about 50 individuals who came from food companies, trade associations, local, state, and federal governments, 3rd-party traceability solution providers, not-for-profit corporations, consultants, and consumer groups. They discussed and deliberated the objectives of traceability and the means to develop product tracing in the food system. A total of 70 people participated in the 3 summits. These individuals were invited to participate in a small workgroup responsible for considering the details related to product tracing and presenting draft concepts to the larger group on November 1, 2011, in Chicago. During this meeting, the larger assembly further refined the concepts and came to an agreement on the basic principles and overall design of the desired approach to traceability. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Food supply chain disruption due to natural disaster: Entities, risks and strategies for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resilience of food supply chain (FSC) to disruptions has not kept pace with the extended, globalized and complex network of modern food chain. This chapter presents a holistic view of the FSC, interactions among its components, risks and vulnerabilities of disruption in the context of natural d...

  13. Quantifying the agri-food supply chain: Overview and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Frontis workshop ‘Quantifying the agri-food supply chain’ aimed at discussing the possibilities and limitations of quantifying performance, risks and investments in the agri-food chain and at bringing people from international institutes together. Their contributions are organized around five

  14. The impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Winter, de M.A.; Dobson, P.; Bergès-Sennou, F.; Monier-Dilhan, S.; Juhász, A.; Moro, D.; Sckokai, P.; Soregaroli, C.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Szajkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    The report studies the impact of private labels on the competitiveness of the European food processing industry and investigates whether a system of producer indication may improve the functioning of the food supply chain. The impact is studied using economic theory and empirical and legal analysis.

  15. Modeling food logistics networks with emission considerations: the case of an international beef supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes along with growing sustainability concerns lead to the need for decision support tools that can integrate economic considerations with quality preservation and environmental protection in food supply chains. In this study, we develop a

  16. A conceptual framework for supply chain governance: An application to agri-food chains in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link

  17. Robust food supply supply chains : an integrated framework for vulnerability assessment and disturbance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of supply chains (SCs) has for many years been focused on efficiency, leanness and responsiveness. This has resulted in reduced slack in operations, compressed cycle times, increased productivity and minimised inventory levels along the SC. Combined with tight tolerance settings

  18. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo Chavez, Pablo Jose; Seow, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other p...

  19. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  20. Research on Cooperation Strategy of Enterprises’ Quality and Safety in Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent and control risk factors which harm the quality and safety of the food supply chain effectively and reduce the probability of food safety incidents, this paper investigated on some problems of the upstream and downstream enterprises of the food supply chain under the three different forms of cooperation based on the neoclassic economics and game theory method. These problems include the effectiveness of the quality and safety efforts, the profits, the effect of the losses that the food safety incidents caused on the quality efforts’ efficacy, and the social welfare comparison. Meanwhile, we constructed evolutionary game model to analyze the macro and micro factors that influenced the cooperation strategy and demonstrated the effect of diversity of decision-making parameters on evolution results based on numerical simulation. By the theoretical and simulation analysis, we found that (1 the quality efforts’ efficacy, the profits, the sensitivity coefficient of the quality efforts efficiency to the losses, and the social welfare without thinking about the externality all met their maximum under the full cooperation situation; (2 strengthening supervision over the source of the food supply chain can reduce the probability of food safety incidents; (3 macro and micro environment will be the important basis for companies’ decision-making on cooperation strategy in the food supply chain.

  1. Agri-food supply chains and sustainability-related issues: evidence from across the Scottish agri-food economy

    OpenAIRE

    Leat, Philip M.K.; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of agri-food supply chains on the sustainability-related activities and decisions of Scottish farmers, as well as the treatment of sustainability issues by food processors and retailers themselves. It is based on 8 whole chain case studies covering some of Scotland’s major agricultural products. The cases identify differing levels of understanding and activities related to sustainability, but widespread acknowledgement that sustainability involves the develop...

  2. Understanding Children of Poverty and Affluence Through Auto-Photographic Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, Robert C.; And Others

    The self-social-environmenatl orientations of twenty-nine 12-year old children of poverty and children of affluence in Mexico City were obtained through 12 photographs taken by these children in response to the question "Who Are You?" The five findings which differentiated the children of affluence from the children of poverty pertained…

  3. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  4. Dynamic impact of the structure of the supply chain of perishable foods on logistics performance and food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arturo Orjuela Castro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Understanding how the structure affects logistical performance and food security is critical in the supply chains of perishable foods (PFSC. This research proposes a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of structures: lean, agile, flexible, responsive and resilient, in the overall performance and of each agent of the PFSC. Design/methodology/approach: Using a system dynamics model and design of experiments it is studied how the different structures and their combination, affect the behavior of inventory, transportation, responsiveness, efficiency, availability and quality-safety of the fresh fruits supply chain and each echelon. Findings: The studies of supply chains have been done for each structure in an independent way; investigations are scarce in supply chains of perishable foods. The structures modeled in this research do not show the better performance in all the metrics of the chain, neither in all agents for each structure. The above implies the presence of trade-offs. Research limitations/implications: The results show the need to investigate mixed structures with the FPSC´s own characteristics; the model can be applied in other supply chains of perishable foods. Practical implications: Management by combining structures in the FFSC, improves logistics performance and contributes to food security. Social implications: The agents of the FFSC can apply the structures found in this study, to improve their logistics performance and the food security. Originality/value: The dynamics of individual and combined structures were identified, which constitutes a contribution to the discussion in the literature of such problems for FFSC. The model includes six echelons: farmers, wholesalers, agro-industry, third-party logistics operators and retailers. The dynamic contemplates deterioration rate to model perishability and others losses.

  5. Dynamic impact of the structure of the supply chain of perishable foods on logistics performance and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Javier Arturo Orjuela; Jaimes, Wilson Adarme

    2017-07-01

    Understanding how the structure affects logistical performance and food security is critical in the supply chains of perishable foods (PFSC). This research proposes a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of structures: lean, agile, flexible, responsive and resilient, in the overall performance and of each agent of the PFSC. Design/methodology/approach: Using a system dynamics model and design of experiments it is studied how the different structures and their combination, affect the behavior of inventory, transportation, responsiveness, efficiency, availability and quality-safety of the fresh fruits supply chain and each echelon. Findings: The studies of supply chains have been done for each structure in an independent way; investigations are scarce in supply chains of perishable foods. The structures modeled in this research do not show the better performance in all the metrics of the chain, neither in all agents for each structure. The above implies the presence of trade-offs. Research limitations/implications: The results show the need to investigate mixed structures with the FPSC´s own characteristics; the model can be applied in other supply chains of perishable foods. Practical implications: Management by combining structures in the FFSC, improves logistics performance and contributes to food security. Social implications: The agents of the FFSC can apply the structures found in this study, to improve their logistics performance and the food security. Originality/value: The dynamics of individual and combined structures were identified, which constitutes a contribution to the discussion in the literature of such problems for FFSC. The model includes six echelons: farmers, wholesalers, agro-industry, third-party logistics operators and retailers. The dynamic contemplates deterioration rate to model perishability and others losses.

  6. Dynamic impact of the structure of the supply chain of perishable foods on logistics performance and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Javier Arturo Orjuela; Jaimes, Wilson Adarme

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the structure affects logistical performance and food security is critical in the supply chains of perishable foods (PFSC). This research proposes a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of structures: lean, agile, flexible, responsive and resilient, in the overall performance and of each agent of the PFSC. Design/methodology/approach: Using a system dynamics model and design of experiments it is studied how the different structures and their combination, affect the behavior of inventory, transportation, responsiveness, efficiency, availability and quality-safety of the fresh fruits supply chain and each echelon. Findings: The studies of supply chains have been done for each structure in an independent way; investigations are scarce in supply chains of perishable foods. The structures modeled in this research do not show the better performance in all the metrics of the chain, neither in all agents for each structure. The above implies the presence of trade-offs. Research limitations/implications: The results show the need to investigate mixed structures with the FPSC´s own characteristics; the model can be applied in other supply chains of perishable foods. Practical implications: Management by combining structures in the FFSC, improves logistics performance and contributes to food security. Social implications: The agents of the FFSC can apply the structures found in this study, to improve their logistics performance and the food security. Originality/value: The dynamics of individual and combined structures were identified, which constitutes a contribution to the discussion in the literature of such problems for FFSC. The model includes six echelons: farmers, wholesalers, agro-industry, third-party logistics operators and retailers. The dynamic contemplates deterioration rate to model perishability and others losses.

  7. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  8. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jose Arevalo Chavez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other parts of the supply chain. Thus, risks are transmitted through the chain. Even though the dangers from members in the supply chain are small, the cumulative effect becomes significant. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated supply chain risk management framework for practitioners that can provide directions for how to evaluate food quality risk in the global supply chain. For validating the proposed model in‐depth, a case study is conducted on a food SME distributor in Central America. The case study investigates how product quality risks are handled according to the proposed framework.

  9. Metropolitan food supply : case study Cairo : a quick scan study to enhance fresh food supply and minimize postharvest losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate options for “Metropolitan food production systems” in Egypt and specifically in the Cairo region, a ‘cold chain quick scan’ is conducted by Wageningen UR post-harvest specialists. The study comprehends a quick scan for market demand, market willingness and a search for trend

  10. Supply chain management and food safety: exploratory research into Brazil's pork export supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talamini, Edson; Pedrozo, Eugenio Avila; Silva, Andrea Lago da

    2005-01-01

    A crescente preocupação com a segurança dos alimentos propõe que as cadeias produtivas tenham maior domínio sobre o processo produtivo. A Gestão da Cadeia de Suprimentos, aqui genericamente tratada de SCM (Supply Chain Management), pode apresentar importante contribuição na obtenção de um processo mais uniforme ao longo da cadeia, facilitando o compartilhamento de informações e práticas produtivas. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal identificar a estrutura, as ligações e o nível de integ...

  11. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  12. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-17

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant's residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in the National School Lunch

  13. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  14. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Marjorie E

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug resistance (MDR), is an increasing problem globally. MDR bacteria are frequently detected in humans and animals from both more- and less-developed countries and pose a serious concern for human health. Infections caused by MDR microbes may increase morbidity and mortality and require use of expensive drugs and prolonged hospitalization. Humans may be exposed to MDR pathogens through exposure to environments at health-care facilities and farms, livestock and companion animals, human food, and exposure to other individuals carrying MDR microbes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies drug-resistant foodborne bacteria, including Campylobacter, Salmonella Typhi, nontyphoidal salmonellae, and Shigella, as serious threats. MDR bacteria have been detected in both meat and fresh produce. Salmonellae carrying genes coding for resistance to multiple antibiotics have caused numerous foodborne MDR outbreaks. While there is some level of resistance to antimicrobials in environmental bacteria, the widespread use of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture has driven the selection of a great variety of microbes with resistance to multiple antimicrobials. MDR bacteria on meat may have originated in veterinary health-care settings or on farms where animals are given antibiotics in feed or to treat infections. Fresh produce may be contaminated by irrigation or wash water containing MDR bacteria. Livestock, fruits, and vegetables may also be contaminated by food handlers, farmers, and animal caretakers who carry MDR bacteria. All potential sources of MDR bacteria should be considered and strategies devised to reduce their presence in foods. Surveillance studies have documented increasing trends in MDR in many pathogens, although there are a few reports of the decline of certain multidrug pathogens. Better coordination of surveillance programs and strategies for controlling use of antimicrobials need to be implemented in

  15. Food supply (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla and food preferences of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krištín Anton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon, one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia, we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014, common vole (in 2016 and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.

  16. Key characteristics and success factors of supply chain initiatives tackling consumer-related food waste – A multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, De Ilona E.; Rohm, Harald; Normann, Anne; Bossle, Marilia Bonzanini; Grønhøj, Alice; Oostindjer, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Food waste accounts for a considerable share of the environmental impact of the food sector. Therefore, strategies that aim to reduce food waste have great potential to improve sustainability of the agricultural and food supply chains. Consumer-related food waste is a complex issue that needs

  17. A Big Data Decision-making Mechanism for Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guojun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many companies have captured and analyzed huge volumes of data to improve the decision mechanism of supply chain, this paper presents a big data harvest model that uses big data as inputs to make more informed decisions in the food supply chain. By introducing a method of Bayesian network, this paper integrates sample data and finds a cause-and-effect between data to predict market demand. Then the deduction graph model that translates foods demand into processes and divides processes into tasks and assets is presented, and an example of how big data in the food supply chain can be combined with Bayesian network and deduction graph model to guide production decision. Our conclusions indicate that the decision-making mechanism has vast potential by extracting value from big data.

  18. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains....... Similarities of the main environmental impacts were identified to rationalize and justify the selection of key performance indicators chosen for a simplified web based LCA tool developed within the EC funded project SENSE (FP7). Life Cycle Assessment methodology covered many of the key challenges identified...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental impacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  19. Trading Relationship Performance and Market Power in Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xhoxhi, Orjon

    The development of the agri-food industry has led to a considerable increase of intermediaries’ market power vis-à-vis farmers. There are studies and evidence that suggests that due to their power, intermediaries transfer risks and unexpected costs to farmers which compromise the innovation...... and livelihood. The overall objective of this PhD study was to investigate the intermediaries’ power over farmers and its effects on trading relationship performance between them. Two farms survey were conducted, the first one was carried out in the Adana region in Turkey and had an explorative focus aiming......), investigate how intermediaries’ power affects farmers-intermediaries trading relationship performance (paper 3) and analyse the determinants of contract farming and its effects on post-harvest losses (paper 4). The first paper investigates the determinants of intermediaries’ power over farmers’ margin related...

  20. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  1. Importing/Exporting Food Products from Vietnam to Germany and Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to provide information about importing/exporting food products from Vietnam to Germany, to analyze the risks in the supply chain of this kind of business and provide solutions. The theoretical part was based on literature and different internet sources. Fur-thermore, it included some topics related to supply chain management and strategic sourcing. The empirical data was collected by self-administered interviews to companies involved in this kind of busi...

  2. A study on decision-making of food supply chain based on big data

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Guojun; Hu, Limei; Tan, Kim Hua

    2017-01-01

    As more and more companies have captured and analyzed huge volumes of data to improve the performance of supply chain, this paper develops a big data harvest model that uses big data as inputs to make more informed production decisions in the food supply chain. By introducing a method of Bayesian network, this paper integrates sample data and finds a cause-and-effect between data to predict market demand. Then the deduction graph model that translates products demand into processes and divide...

  3. Food supply and bioenergy production within the global cropland planetary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R C; Engström, K; Olin, S; Alexander, P; Arneth, A; Rounsevell, M D A

    2018-01-01

    Supplying food for the anticipated global population of over 9 billion in 2050 under changing climate conditions is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Agricultural expansion and intensification contributes to global environmental change and risks the long-term sustainability of the planet. It has been proposed that no more than 15% of the global ice-free land surface should be converted to cropland. Bioenergy production for land-based climate mitigation places additional pressure on limited land resources. Here we test normative targets of food supply and bioenergy production within the cropland planetary boundary using a global land-use model. The results suggest supplying the global population with adequate food is possible without cropland expansion exceeding the planetary boundary. Yet this requires an increase in food production, especially in developing countries, as well as a decrease in global crop yield gaps. However, under current assumptions of future food requirements, it was not possible to also produce significant amounts of first generation bioenergy without cropland expansion. These results suggest that meeting food and bioenergy demands within the planetary boundaries would need a shift away from current trends, for example, requiring major change in the demand-side of the food system or advancing biotechnologies.

  4. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Family affluence, socio - economic status and dietary habits of 1st year University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Syligardou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low socio-economic status (SES is associated with health risk behaviours contributing to the social inequalities in health. However, the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status have not been investigated in emerging adulthood in detail yet. Aim: To investigate the associations of dietary habits with socio-economic status in 1st year undergraduate university students. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis draws data from the LATO study, a longitudinal study of all 1st year undergraduate students of TEI Crete during the academic year 2012/13 (Ν=1138, 54% girls, Mean age 18,31 years, response rate 96,7%. The consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, breakfast and delivery food were associated with the following socio-economic indicators: Family affluence (FAS II, paternal and maternal educational level and self-reported economic status. The SPSS v21.0 was used to perform logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Only 24,9%, 12% and 17% of the students were consuming breakfast, fruits and vegetables, respectively, in a daily basis. Soft drinks were consumed daily by 6,1% of the participants but most of them consumed delivery/junk food less than 1/week (73,8%. Higher family affluence was associated with increased odds of consuming breakfast (OR=2,90, 95%CI=1,13-7,44, soft drinks (OR=8,10, 95%CI=1,38-47,68 and delivery/junk food (OR=2,44, 95%CI=1,27-4,70 in boys. High paternal educational level was associated in a protective way with boys’ consumption of delivery food (OR=0,42, 95%CI=0,18-0,95 and soft drinks (OR=0,19, 95%CI=0,05-0,72. Fruits and vegetables consumption was not associated with any SES indicator. Conclusions: The majority of 1st year university students were not following current diet recommendations irrespective of SES. Interventions targeting eating behaviours are needed at higher education institutes.

  6. All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size.

  7. Role of Information in an SME in a Local Food Supply Chain - Case Study of a Norwegian Craft Beer Retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Vallandingham, Logan Reed; Sangachhen, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Demand for locally produced food is increasing and the industry is gaining increased attention. But, many challenges are present for actors in local food supply chains (LFSC), and are especially related to limited capacity. Balancing supply and demand of their products is thusly extremely important in regards to inventory management and replenishment decisions. Local food actors, often small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially need to reduce costs in order to be competitive. Supply chai...

  8. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  9. How is ozone pollution reducing our food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Mills, Gina; Illidge, Rosemary; Davies, William J

    2012-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution is already decreasing global crop yields (from ∼2.2-5.5% for maize to 3.9-15% and 8.5-14% for wheat and soybean, respectively), to differing extents depending on genotype and environmental conditions, and this problem is predicted to escalate given climate change and increasing ozone precursor emissions in many areas. Here a summary is provided of how ozone pollution affects yield in a variety of crops, thus impacting global food security. Ozone causes visible injury symptoms to foliage; it induces early senescence and abscission of leaves; it can reduce stomatal aperture and thereby carbon uptake, and/or directly reduce photosynthetic carbon fixation; it can moderate biomass growth via carbon availability or more directly; it can decrease translocation of fixed carbon to edible plant parts (grains, fruits, pods, roots) due either to reduced availability at source, redirection to synthesis of chemical protectants, or reduced transport capabilities via phloem; decreased carbon transport to roots reduces nutrient and water uptake and affects anchorage; ozone can moderate or bring forward flowering and induce pollen sterility; it induces ovule and/or grain abortion; and finally it reduces the ability of some genotypes to withstand other stresses such as drought, high vapour pressure deficit, and high photon flux density via effects on stomatal control. This latter point is emphasized here, given predictions that atmospheric conditions conducive to drought formation that also give rise to intense precursor emission events will become more severe over the coming decades.

  10. U.S. healthcare fix: leveraging the lessons from the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Blair, John T

    2013-01-01

    U.S. healthcare costs consistently outpace inflation, causing growing problems of affordability. This trend cannot be sustained indefinitely. The purpose of this study is to use supply-chain tools for macro-level examination of the U.S. healthcare as a business system and identify options and best use practices. We compare the important and successful U.S. food industry to the essential but problematic U.S. healthcare industry. Supply chain strategies leading to food business operations success are examined and healthcare applications suggested. We emphasize "total cost of ownership" which includes all costs incurred by all stakeholders of U.S. healthcare, including maintenance and cleanup, not just the initial purchase price. U.S. hospitals and clinics can use supply chain strategies in a total cost of ownership framework to reduce healthcare costs while maintaining patient care quality. Supply chain strategies of resource pooling, mass customization, centralized logistics, specialization, postponement and continuous improvement that have been successfully used in the U.S. food industry should be more widely applied to the U.S. healthcare industry. New and growing areas of telemedicine and medical tourism should be included in the supply chain analysis of U.S. healthcare. Valid statistical analysis of results in all areas of U.S. healthcare is an important part of the process. U.S. healthcare industry problems are systematic operational and supply chain problems rather than problems with workforce or technology. Examination of the U.S. healthcare industry through a supply chain framework should lead to significant operational improvement in both prevention and treatment of acute and chronic ailments. A rational and unemotional reorganization of the U.S. healthcare system operations, using supply chain strategies, should help reduce healthcare costs while maintaining quality and increasing accessibility.

  11. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  12. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  13. Food supply chain network robustness : a literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness. However, lean supply chain networks (SCNs) become more vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. Food SCNs have to become robust, i.e. they

  14. Innovation in agro-food supply chains – The EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Dries, L.K.E.; Pascucci, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides insights into the definition of innovation and specifically how policies affect knowledge creation and innovation in agro-food supply chains (D9.1a, objective 1), considering innovation as a key determinant for competitiveness. The innovation system – rather than the linear

  15. Liability Risks in Agri-food supply chains: the case of wet feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Recent animal feed crises caused substantial damage throughout food supply chains and, consequently, initiated debates on the liability insurance cover of animal feed companies. In this framework, a quantitative risk analysis for wet feed producers in the Netherlands is presented. The

  16. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  17. Nitrogen surplus: An environmental performance indicator for sustainable food supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen pollution and negative impacts on human and environmental health are embodied in crop commodities traded domestically and internationally. Food supply chain companies can play a catalytic role in reducing that burden by helping to decrease the environmental nitrogen load from agriculture. T...

  18. Legal-Economic Barriers To Price Transfers in Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Sredojevic, Z.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent price movements have put food supply chains under pressure. On the one side, upward price tendencies on commodity markets result in higher costs to processing firms. On the other side, these firms are confronted with a strong retail sector that is able to prevent compensation to protect

  19. Business Process Modelling in Demand-Driven Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wolfert, J.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-food companies increasingly participate in demand-driven supply chains that are able to adapt flexibly to changes in the marketplace. The objective of this presentation is to discuss a process modelling framework, which enhances the interoperability and agility of information systems as

  20. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  1. An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural

  2. Food supply mechanisms for cold-water corals along a continental shelf edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Øyvind; Ravagnan, Elisa; Fosså, Jan Helge; Berntsen, Jarle

    2006-05-01

    In recent years it has been documented that deep-water coral reefs of the species Lophelia pertusa are a major benthic habitat in Norwegian waters. However, basic information about the biology and ecology of this species is still unknown. Lophelia live and thrive under special environmental conditions of which factors such as temperature, water depth, water movement and food supply are important. The present work explores the hypothesis that Lophelia forms reefs in places where the encounter rate of food particles is sufficiently high and stable over long periods of time for continuous growth. This is done by relating the distribution of reefs with the results of numerical ocean modelling. Numerical simulations have been performed with an idealized bottom topography similar to what is found outside parts of the Norwegian coast. In the simulations the model is first forced with an along slope jet and then with an idealized atmospheric low pressure. The model results show that the encounter rates between the particles and the water layer near the seabed are particularly high close to the shelf break. This may indicate that many Lophelia reefs are located along the shelf edges because the supply of food is particularly good in these areas. A sensitivity study of the particle supply in the area close to the seabed for increasing latitude has also been done. This shows that the Ekman transport in the benthic layer tends to create a steady supply of food for benthic organisms near the shelf edge away from the equator.

  3. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration : the case of food manufacturers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is

  4. Edible energy: balancing inputs and waste in food supply chain and biofuels from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Gianluca; Brambilla, Riccardo; Pileci, Rosaria; Romano, Riccardo; Rosa, Francesca; Spinicci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Energy is life. Without it there is no water, there is no nutrition. Man's ability to live, grow, produce wealth is closely linked to the energy availability and use. Fire has been the first energy conversion technology; since that moment, the link between energy and progress has been indissoluble. Nowadays, a much greater energy input into the food supply chain has made a much higher food production possible. This might have an impact on the water availability. Algae are a promising solution for the energy-food-water nexus.

  5. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  6. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Clarissa ML

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  7. FRONT COMMANDS IN WINTER OF 1917 IN COMBATING CRISIS OF FOOD SUPPLY TO FIELD FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Викторович Оськин

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of food supply to the Eastern front in the winter of 1917 during World War I. In the conditions of the food supply crisis the military authorities managed to avoid the famine in the army. The Front Command and the Supreme Command took some measures to resolve this problem. Attracting extra workers for harvesting, clarity of the resources allocation, calculations of the government funds allocation- all these actions bolstered the army's efforts on the home front. A considerable role in this work was played by Emperor Nicholas II, who timely and positively reacted to the suggestions of the military commanders on the issue. Overall, the Russian military command coped with this problem in the conditions of the general crisis of supplies.

  8. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply: the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Barbara; Karl, J Philip; Booth, Sarah L; Boyaval, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food supply and the relative contribution of MK to total dietary vitamin K intake. Dairy products may be a predominant source of dietary MK in many regions of the world, and there is recent interest in enhancing the MK content of dairy products through identification and selection of MK-producing bacteria in dairy fermentations. This interest is increased by emerging evidence that current dietary recommendations based on the classic role of vitamin K as an enzyme cofactor for coagulation proteins may not be optimal for supporting vitamin K requirements in extrahepatic tissues and that MK may have unique bioactivity beyond that as an enzyme cofactor. Observational studies have reported favorable associations between MK intake and bone and cardiovascular health. Although randomized trials have provided some evidence to support the beneficial effects of MK on bone, the evidence to date is not definitive, and randomized trials have not yet examined MK intake in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Food production practices provide a means to enhance dietary MK availability and intake. However, parallel research is needed to optimize these production practices, develop comprehensive food MK content databases, and test hypotheses of unique beneficial physiological roles of MK beyond that achieved by phylloquinone.

  9. A survey on Bacterial Contamination of Food Supply in the West of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehereh Faramarzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Transfer of food born diseases is a common problem in hygiene and public health. The bacteria are the most important factors of food contamination and intoxications. The aim of this study is to determine the bacterial contamination of food supply in the west of Tehran supermarkets. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 642 samples of foods were taken randomly from west of Tehran supermarkets. The levels of bacterial contamination of the foods were assessed in the department of food and drug microbiology of lab, affiliated to Iran University of medical science. Results: Salads were the most (50% and protein products (6.36% the least rate in terms of mesophilic bacteria contamination. Also, sweets (13.46% and protein products (1.73% in terms of Coliforms. Salads (58.33% and dairy products (9.84% with respect to Escherichia coli, sweets (4.81% and salads (0% in terms of Staphylococcus aureus, sweets (4.81% and dairy products (0.39% with respect to Bacillus cereus, were the most and least contaminated foods, respectively. Conclusion: In overall, salads had the most contamination percentage with respect to mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus (P . According to our study, we conclude that training of dealers and food suppliers are necessary and healthy principals should be followed. Also supervision on food packing and storage should be considered to prevent food microbial contamination.

  10. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g.

  11. The relationship of cancer mortality to life span and food supply rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.; Adler, H.I.; Storer, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Survival curves for men and women dying from cardiovascular disease and similar curves for those dying from cancer in 47 countries were compared with the 1970-1974 per capita incomes of the inhabitants. The data were taken chiefly from 1964 life tables. The steepest survival curves were found in countries with the highest incomes. Comparison of the survival curves in different countries and comparison of cardiovascular survival with cancer survival curves indicate that both groups of diseases are probably diseases of senescence. The differences in survival slopes are interpreted as homeostatic responses in the population to rate of food intake. The response protects the population against long-term effects of changes in food supply by promoting differential reproduction of offspring best suited to the food supply rate fro the environment. The response to food supply rate complicates calculation of the effects of protracted exposure to low-level ionizing radiation because the radiation exposure appears to mimic the effec of extra food

  12. Status of food and raw milk supply and problem just after the reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Syunji; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Iodine 131 was detected in the environment and the food such as vegetables, raw milk and tap water just after the reactor accident following the East Japan Great Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. This article investigated status of refuge of Fukushima residents, their dietary life and food distribution from March 11 to 31 just after the accident so as to reevaluate internal exposure dose with Iodine 131. Investigation results showed most of food taken by refugees was confirmed food stock or relief supplies outside from the disaster area and suggested food contaminated with Iodine 131 was not widely consumed and distributed due to limit to send designated vegetables, restriction of tap water intake, damaged distribution facilities and closing down of retail stores. Restriction of tap water intake was only applied partly, so this might cause internal exposure dose due to tap water. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Sustainable agro-food supply chain design using two-stage hybrid multi-objective decision-making approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allaoui, Hamid; Guo, Yuhan; Choudhary, Alok; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability of agro-food supply chains has recently become the subject of greater interest from consumers, firms, governmental organizations and academia as the environment continues to deteriorate. One of the most critical factors influencing the sustainability of an agro-food supply chain is

  14. Options for reducing food waste by ‘Quality Controlled Logistics’ using intelligent packaging along the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate

  15. Core food of the French food supply: second Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, V; Volatier, J L; Calamassi-Tran, G; Dubuisson, C; Menard, C; Dufour, A; Leblanc, J C

    2009-05-01

    As first described in the 1980s, the core food intake model allows a precise assessment of dietary nutrient intake and dietary exposure to contaminants insofar as it reflects the eating habits of a target population and covers the most important foods in terms of consumption, selected nutrient and contaminant contribution. This model has been used to set up the sampling strategy of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS) with the aim of obtaining a realistic panorama of nutrient intakes and contaminant exposure for the whole population, useful for quantitative risk assessment. Data on consumption trends and eating habits from the second French individual food consumption survey (INCA2) as well as data from a 2004 purchase panel of French households (SECODIP) were used to identify the core foods to be sampled. A total of 116 core foods on a national scale and 70 core foods on a regional scale were selected according to (1) the consumption data for adults and children, (2) their consumer rates, and (3) their high contribution to exposure to one or more contaminants of interest. Foods were collected in eight French regions (36 cities) and prepared 'as consumed' to be analysed for their nutritional composition and contamination levels. A total of 20 280 different food products were purchased to make up the 1352 composite samples of core foods to be analysed for additives, environmental contaminants, pesticide residues, trace elements and minerals, mycotoxins and acrylamide. The establishment of such a sampling plan is essential for effective, high-quality monitoring of dietary exposure from a public health point of view.

  16. Past and Present Biophysical Redundancy of Countries as a Buffer to Changes in Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell' Angelo, Jampel; D' Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; hide

    2016-01-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  17. Past and present biophysical redundancy of countries as a buffer to changes in food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource-constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of ‘spare land’, available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as ‘Low Income Economies (LIEs)’ since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  18. Information technology in formulation of transparency strategies for food chain and supply management in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wac?aw Szymanowski

    2009-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is the presentation of current trends in the development of food distri-bution systems in Poland and their likely remodelling towards supply chains and networks. The new circumstances on the emerging markets such as Poland, in particular after its accession to the Euro-pean Union, create new market challenges to be overcome with the use of information technology. The new technology will also support the remodelling of supply chains and networks based on the trans-par...

  19. Self-Sufficiency versus Security: How Trade Protectionism Challenges the Sustainability of the Food Supply in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii Erokhin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security is increasingly influenced by multilateral trade systems and foreign trade policies implemented by national governments. Many of them are now concerned about the sustainability of food supply and the vulnerability of domestic food markets to price volatility, and seek to support domestic producers and protect themselves from increasing food imports. Such restrictions improve food self-sufficiency, but decrease food security. It is important to understand any changes that may have occurred in the food consumption pattern due to trade protectionism and to observe any nutritional implications of these changes. This paper employs the rational food security (RFS assessment approach, which differentiates sources of food supply on the domestic market, assesses the influence of agricultural and trade frameworks on food consumption patterns, and complies consumption with the appropriate food intake threshold. In the case of Russia, the study demonstrates that the conventional consumption approach to self-sufficiency (FSCA underestimates the food insecurity level by not accounting for nutrition factors. In addition, the gap between the FSCA and the RFS increases in times of protectionist trade policy and decreases when the agricultural and trade policy framework turns to liberalization. The paper concludes that trade protectionism challenges the sustainability of food supply by decreasing food availability and quality of food products, causes dietary changes, and threatens the food security of the country.

  20. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  1. trans Fatty acids in the Canadian food supply: an updated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Scourboutakos, Mary J; Au, Jennifer T C; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2014-10-01

    Dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) increase the risk of heart disease. In 2007, Canada set voluntary TFA limits for industrial TFAs added to food and encouraged substitution of TFAs with unsaturated fats during reformulation. No longitudinal follow-up assessment of TFA amounts in foods has occurred in Canada since termination of a government-led Trans Fat Monitoring Program (TFMP). The objective was to conduct an updated assessment and longitudinally evaluate TFA amounts in the food supply and to determine whether saturated fats have replaced TFAs in reformulation. This was a cross-sectional study that used 3 databases: TFMP (Health Canada, 2005-2009; n = 921), the University of Toronto Food Label Information Program (2010-2011; n = 5544), and the Restaurant Database (2010; n = 4272). Outcomes were TFAs as a percentage of fat, proportion of foods meeting TFA limits, and saturated fat amounts in foods with high or low TFAs. The proportion of foods meeting TFA limits improved from 75% in 2005-2009 to 97% in 2010-2011, particularly in the following packaged foods: croissants (25% to 100%), pies (36% to 98%), cakes (43% to 90%), and garlic spreads (33% to 100%). Most restaurant categories assessed by the TFMP had 100% of foods meeting TFA limits. Some categories had a large proportion that exceeded TFA limits: dairy-free cheeses (100%), frosting (72.0%), lard and shortening (66.7%), coffee whiteners (66.7%), and restaurant-prepared biscuits and scones (47.4%). Saturated fat amounts were significantly higher (P foods with the lowest TFAs, such as cookies, brownies and squares, cakes with pudding/mousse, dessert toppings, and lard and shortening. There has been an impressive improvement in TFA amounts in the Canadian food supply since the termination of the TFMP. However, action by the food industry is required to reduce TFAs in foods that exceed the recommended TFA limits and to minimize the use of saturated fats in replacing TFAs during reformulation. © 2014 American

  2. Linking urban consumers and rural farmers in India: A comparison of traditional and modern food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Minten, Bart; Reardon, Thomas; Vandeplas, Anneleen

    2009-01-01

    "Food supply chains are being transformed in a number of developing countries due to widespread changes in urban food demand. To better anticipate the impact of this transformation and thus assist in the design of appropriate policies, it is important to understand the changes that are occurring in these supply chains. In a case study of India, we find that overall urban consumption is increasing; the urban food basket is shifting away from staples toward high-value products; and modern marke...

  3. Prevalence of Phosphorus-Based Additives in the Australian Food Supply: A Challenge for Dietary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Jemma; Campbell, Katrina; Ferguson, Maree; Day, Sarah; Rossi, Megan

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives may pose a significant risk in chronic kidney disease given the link between hyperphosphatemia and cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-based food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to establish how they were reported on food labels. A data set of 3000 best-selling grocery items in Australia across 15 food and beverage categories was obtained for the 12 months ending December 2013 produced by the Nielsen Company's Homescan database. The nutrition labels of the products were reviewed in store for phosphorus additives. The type of additive, total number of additives, and method of reporting (written out in words or as an E number) were recorded. Presence of phosphorus-based food additives, number of phosphorus-based food additives per product, and the reporting method of additives on product ingredient lists. Phosphorus-based additives were identified in 44% of food and beverages reviewed. Additives were particularly common in the categories of small goods (96%), bakery goods (93%), frozen meals (75%), prepared foods (70%), and biscuits (65%). A total of 19 different phosphorus additives were identified across the reviewed products. From the items containing phosphorus additives, there was a median (minimum-maximum) of 2 (1-7) additives per product. Additives by E number (81%) was the most common method of reporting. Phosphorus-based food additives are common in the Australian food supply. This suggests that prioritizing phosphorus additive education may be an important strategy in the dietary management of hyperphosphatemia. Further research to establish a database of food items containing phosphorus-based additives is warranted. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination of cheese: risk throughout the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauders, B D; D'Amico, D J

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been the most common microbial cause of cheese-related recalls in both the United States and Canada in recent years. Since L. monocytogenes is inactivated by pasteurization, the majority of these cases have been linked to environmental and cross-contamination of fresh-soft, soft-ripened, and semi-soft cheeses. Cross-contamination of foods with L. monocytogenes is a continuous risk throughout the food supply chain and presents unique challenges for subsequent illness and outbreak investigations. Reports on outbreaks of listeriosis attributed to cross-contamination downstream from primary processing help highlight the critical role of epidemiological investigation coupled with coordinated molecular subtyping and surveillance in the recognition and investigation of complex foodborne outbreaks. Despite their complexity, environmental sampling throughout the supply chain coupled with improved genotyping approaches and concomitant analysis of foodborne illness epidemiological exposure data are needed to help resolve these and similar cases more rapidly and with greater confidence.

  5. Governing a Global Food Supply: How the 2010 FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Promises to Strengthen Import Safety in the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fagotto (Elena)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood systems worldwide have experienced a significant level of integration in recent decades, creating a global and dynamic food supply. In the US, imports amount to 15% of the American diet and nearly doubled in value during the last decade, reaching $90 billion in 2008. If food imports

  6. An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural framework. The architectural framework aims to reduce the paper -based administration by improving digitalisation of compliance processes and to enable a more efficient and effective data exchange...

  7. The determination of nutritional requirements for Safe Haven Food Supply System (emergency/survival foods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Safe Haven Food System must sustain 8 crew members under emergency conditions for 45 days. Emergency Survival Foods are defined as a nutritionally balanced collection of high density food and beverages selected to provide for the survival of Space Station flight crews in contingency situations. Since storage volume is limited, the foods should be highly concentrated. A careful study of different research findings regarding starvation and calorie restricted diets indicates that a minimum nutritional need close to RDA is an important factor for sustaining an individual's life in a stressful environment. Fat, protein, and carbohydrates are 3 energy producing nutrients which play a vital role in the growth and maintenance process of human life. A lower intake of protein can minimize the water intake, but it causes a negative nitrogen balance and a lower performance level. Other macro and micro nutrients are also required for nutritional interrelationships to metabolize the other 3 nutrients to their optimum level. The various options for longer duration than 45 days are under investigation.

  8. The Impact of Food Quality Information Services on Food Supply Chain Pricing Decisions and Coordination Mechanisms Based on the O2O E-Commerce Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the price conflict problem between the online channel of a food processing factory and the offline channel of the food retailers in food supply chains by analyzing the pricing decisions and coordination mechanisms between the food processing factory and food retailers under the influence of a food quality information service. First, the Stackelberg game method and the Bertrand game method are used to optimize the pricing decisions with the goal of maximizing the profits of the food processing factory and retailer. The analysis shows that the food quality information service level is positively correlated with the price of the factory’s own channel, and the influence of the food quality information service level on the price of the food processing factory’s or the food retailer’s own channel is stronger than its influence on the price of a competitor’s channel. Second, the food supply chain members’ pricing decisions are analyzed using the case analysis method by considering practical problems in the food supply chain. The results indicate that the food processing factory should use the Stackelberg game to make pricing decisions. However, it is optimal for the food retailer to make pricing decisions under the Bertrand game, and the total profit of the food supply chain is optimized under centralized decision making. Finally, we use both the quantitative discount mechanism and the Stackelberg game method to analyze the profits obtained by the food processing factory and retailer. The results indicate that the food processing factory should implement a quantitative discount mechanism when the quantity discount coefficient is greater than 0.4, and the retailer should implement a quantity discount mechanism when the quantity discount coefficient is in the range of 0.25 to 0.4.

  9. Who will feed China in the 21st century ? income growth and food demand and supply in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fukase, Emiko; Martin, Will

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses resource-based cereal equivalent measures to explore the evolution of China's demand and supply for food. Although demand for food calories is probably close to its peak level in China, the ongoing dietary shift to animal-based foods, induced by income growth, is likely to impose considerable pressure on agricultural resources. Estimating the relationship between income gro...

  10. From Short Food Supply Chains to Sustainable Agriculture in Urban Food Systems: Food Democracy as a Vector of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Chiffoleau

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized nations, local food networks have generally been analyzed through alternative food systems, in spite of the fact that they are much more diverse than this would imply. In France, ‘short food chains’ are both a continuation of a long tradition and a recent trend which now extends beyond activists, to consumers and producers as well. This paper will explore the conditions under which these chains can change the practices and knowledge of ordinary actors in urban food systems, from producers to urban consumers and policy-makers, in the area of agriculture and sustainability. It will consider the case study of the creation and development of an urban open-air market which has been analyzed using intervention research with input from economic sociology. We will highlight how personal relations, which are encouraged by a participatory context, support the evolution of practices and knowledge. We will also illustrate how a system of produce labelling has emerged as a mediation resource, and has increased changes as well as participation within the re-territorialization of the urban food system. By describing a concrete expression of food democracy which is spreading in France via a free collective trademark, and by showing its role in the transition of ‘ordinary’ actors towards a more sustainable agriculture, this paper will shine new light onto local food chains as well as traditional short food chains, and will call for more research on the subject.

  11. Potentials and Limitations of Regional Organic Food Supply: A Qualitative Analysis of Two Food Chain Types in the Berlin Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Doernberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regional food systems and organic agriculture are both considered more sustainable than the conventional, globalized food system they provide an alternative to. The emergence and expansion of alternative forms of food supply are influenced by various factors on different scales. Using the food systems approach we aim to study potentials and limitations of regional organic food supply in the Berlin metropolitan region (BMR. Based on the literature, we developed an analytical framework and identified determinants of regional organic food provision along the three major levels of the supply chain: agricultural production, food chain organization, and consumption. Then, we examined a qualitative case study with two different types of alternative food networks (A organic community supported agriculture (CSA and (B organic retail trade. Factors that hinder or promote the provision of regional organic food were identified through qualitative interviews and assessed by regional stakeholders in a workshop. Our findings show that demand for regional organic food is higher than regional supply, which could offer good possibilities for organic farmers. However, actors in these two food chains need to overcome some obstacles, including limited access to land, increasing renting prices, insufficient processing capacities, and unsupportive political environment for organic farming.

  12. Strategies and Tools for Eco-Efficient Local Food Supply Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide demand for daily meals, the issue of the institutional food system has become very important in highly developed societies and, also, how it affects the flow of energy and matter within a territory. This research originates from a wide multi-disciplinary project aimed at developing a self-sufficient approach to improve the institutional food system in an area of Northern Italy. Thus, the aim of this research is to give some guidelines to implement ideal scenarios of food production, processing, consumption, and waste management at the local level. To that end, the organization of the supply and demand within the local institutional food system is inquired. A methodology has been developed to analyze the main energy flows and matter related to this catering, and to outline possible optimal scenarios. This methodology also allows to analyze case studies and to formulate improvements in order to reduce their energy consumption while exploring all the steps of the supply chain (considering the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach. The use of quantitative indicators allows a comparison of the impacts related to the different steps characterizing the suggested scenarios. This paper presents results related to a test in the context of institutional catering in public schools.

  13. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century; Nachhaltigkeit, Energiewende, Klimawandel, Welternaehrung. Politische und rechtliche Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, Ines (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  14. Eating energy-Identifying possibilities for reduced energy use in the future food supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallgren, Christine; Hoejer, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for reducing future energy use for eating to a sustainable level. A backcasting approach is used to generate an image of the future where energy use for eating is 60% lower in 2050 than in 2000. The currently known potential to reduce energy use in the food supply system for producing, transporting, storing, cooking and eating food is explored and described in terms of a number of distinct changes that are numbered consecutively and presented in both a quantitative and qualitative way. Sweden is used as the case and all data regarding energy use apply for Swedish conditions. An exercise like this illustrates the possible outcome of taking sustainability seriously. If sustainability is to be achieved, some images of the future are needed so that potential targets can be identified. This paper does not present forecasts, but illustrates the kind of changes needed in order to achieve sustainable energy use in the food system.

  15. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hettinger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2 enters seawater and alters ocean pH (termed "ocean acidification". However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on larval growth, total dry weight, and metamorphic success, but high food availability partially offset these influences. The combination of elevated pCO2 and low food availability led to the greatest reduction in larval performance. However, the effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.

  18. Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, N R; Marston, R M

    1986-01-01

    The amount of fat in the U.S. food supply increased one-third between 1909-13 and 1984, from 124 grams to 166 grams per capita per day. Also, the proportion of food energy provided by fat increased from 32 to 43 percent. The gain in fat in the food supply was due to an increase in fat from vegetable sources. The share of fat from vegetable sources increased from 17 to 42 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Although animal fats provided the largest share of fat, their proportionate contribution declined from 83 to 58 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Three food groups--fats and oils; meat, poultry, and fish; and dairy products--provided about 90 percent of the fat in the food supply throughout the past 75 years. However, the shares of fat provided by these groups changed. The share from the fats and oils group increased from 37 to 44 percent between 1909-13 and 1984, while the share from the meat, poultry, and fish group declined from 37 to 34 percent, and the share from the dairy products group declined from 15 to 12 percent. Fat from the fats and oils group increased 59 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Most of the gain in fat from this group was due to increased use of edible oils. Margarine replaced much of the butter and shortening replaced much of the lard as sources of fat. Fat from the meat, poultry, and fish group increased 24 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Pork accounted for the largest proportion of fat from this group and beef ranked second. The share of fat from poultry, although much smaller than either pork or beef, almost tripled. Fat from dairy products was about the same in 1984 as in 1909-13. Cheese was the leading source of fat from dairy products by 1984. Until recent years, whole milk was the leading source, although its share declined substantially after the late 1950's. Despite their low fat content, the share of fat from skim and lowfat milks increased as use increased, particularly in the past 25 years. The proportion of fat provided by

  19. Designing food supply chains- a structured methodology: a case on novel protein foods

    OpenAIRE

    Apaiah, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis proposes and implements a structured methodology to aid in chain design and the evaluation and decision making processes that accompany it.It focusesonhow to design the entire chain from start to finish, so that the consumer gets a product that he/she wants, i.e.concentrating on product attributes rather than on the delivery of the product. The novel protein food (NPF) case from the PROFETAS program was used to develop the methodology. Two attributes of quality were investigated w...

  20. Daphnia magna fitness during low food supply under different water temperature and brownification scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our current knowledge about non-limiting dietary carbon supply for herbivorous zooplankton is based on experimental evidence and typically conducted at ~1 mg C L-1 and ~20°C. Here we ask how low supply of dietary carbon affects somatic growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna and test effects of higher water temperature (+3 °C relative to ambient and brownification (3X higher than natural water color; both predicted effects of climate change during fall cooling. We predicted that even at very low carbon supply (~5µg C L-1, higher water temperature and brownification will allow D. magna to increase its fitness. Neonates (<24 h old were incubated with lake seston for 4 weeks (October-November 2013 in experimental bottles submerged in outdoor mesocosms to explore effects of warmer and darker water. Higher temperature and brownification did not significantly affect food quality, as assessed by its fatty acid composition. Daphnia exposed to both increased temperature and brownification had highest somatic growth and were the only that reproduced, and higher temperature caused the highest Daphnia survival success. These results suggest that even under low temperature and thus lower physiological activity, low food quantity is more important than its quality for D. magna fitness.

  1. Future agriculture and food supply chain - not even doomsday preppers got it right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stefanic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Future agriculture and food supply chain is one of the pillars of human survival and prosperity in the long run. The planet’s ecosystem is very fragile and influenced by a large array of very diverse natural and human factors which are frequently interdependent. Regardless of root cause, climate change, pollution and depletion of non-renewable resources and several other unfavorable processes are in place. We can argue that the increase of the average temperature is just a part of a long-term natural cycle and not the consequence of human negligence and pollution, but in the end, it doesn’t matter. The ecosystem is changed and agricultural plants might not survive the change and adopt in time. Relevant and fairly reliable indicators are available, but it seems that nobody is paying attention to those staggering numbers and trends. Doomsday preppers are well known to be a rather suspicious and concerned group of people about the reliability of future food supply chain. But even they somehow assume that agricultural production will go on, and the only problems that could occur are short run disruptions in distribution. The main challenge for future agriculture and food supply chain is to produce more food with considerably less resources in a sustainable manner for a rapidly growing population, preferably even reducing current levels of pollution. Securing future agriculture and food supply chain is a complex task which requires not only new technologies but a paradigm shift in the current technological and economic system. Possibly the most important change is the change in current agricultural practices and agricultural education. Reliability of the food system is heavily dependent on mineral oil and significant amount of transportation. Moreover, global agriculture is extremely centralized and profit oriented. Intense push of GMOs into standard agricultural practice lead to severe reduction of biodiversity in agriculture. Once upon a time

  2. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  3. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheau-Jane Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan’s food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization.

  6. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheau-Jane; Lin, Cheng-Yao; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984-2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Taiwan's food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization.

  7. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the

  8. The Influence on Population Weight Gain and Obesity of the Macronutrient Composition and Energy Density of the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Michelle; Sacks, Gary; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Neal, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in all regions of the world over the last few decades. Almost all of the world's population now has ubiquitous access to low-cost, but highly-processed, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products. These changes in the food supply, rather than decreases in physical activity, are most likely the primary driver of population weight gain and obesity. To-date, the majority of prevention efforts focus on personalised approaches targeting individuals. Population-wide food supply interventions addressing sodium and trans fat reduction have proven highly effective and comparable efforts are now required to target obesity. The evidence suggests that strategies focusing upon reducing the energy density and portion size of foods will be more effective than those targeting specific macronutrients. Government leadership, clearly specified targets, accountability and transparency will be the key to achieving the food supply changes required to address the global obesity epidemic.

  9. Mycotoxin in the food supply chain-implications for public health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, D; Nastasijevic, I; Petrovic, Z

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxins are a group of naturally occurring toxic chemical substances, produced mainly by microscopic filamentous fungal species. Regarding potential synergisms or even mitigating effects between toxic elements, mycotoxin contamination will continue to be an area of concern for producers, manufacturers, regulatory agencies, researchers, and consumers in the future. In Serbia, recent drought and then flooding confirmed that mycotoxins are one of the foodborne hazards most susceptible to climate change. In this article, we review key aspects of mycotoxin contamination of the food supply chain and implications for public health from the Serbian perspective.

  10. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of the Fokker-Plank-Kolmogorov equation for affluence forecast to hydropower reservoirs (Betania Case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows a modeling technique to forecast probability density curves for the flows that represent the monthly affluence to hydropower reservoirs. Briefly, the factors that require affluence forecast in terms of probabilities, the ranges of existing forecast methods as well as the contradiction between those techniques and the real requirements of decision-making procedures are pointed out. The mentioned contradiction is resolved applying the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation that describes the time evolution of a stochastic process that can be considered as markovian. We show the numerical scheme for this equation, its initial and boundary conditions, and its application results in the case of Betania's reservoir

  12. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  13. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Reynolds, John D; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-05-17

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960-2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km(2) killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6-32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1(st)), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries.

  14. Options for reducing food waste by quality-controlled logistics using intelligent packaging along the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, Jenneke K; Claassen, G D H; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-10-01

    Optimising supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This paper describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on quality-controlled logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate with the critical quality attribute of a food product. The information on the quality of each individual packaged food item that is provided by the intelligent packaging can be used for QCL. In a conceptual approach it is explained that monitoring food quality by intelligent packaging sensors makes it possible to obtain information about the variation in the quality of foods and to use a dynamic expiration date (IP-DED) on a food package. The conceptual approach is supported by quantitative data from simulations on the effect of using the information of intelligent packaging in supply chain management with the goal to reduce food waste. This simulation shows that by using the information on the quality of products that is provided by intelligent packaging, QCL can substantially reduce food waste. When QCL is combined with dynamic pricing based on the predicted expiry dates, a further waste reduction is envisaged.

  15. UHF-RFID solutions for logistics units management in the food supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of systems for automatic and simultaneous identification of several items belonging to a logistics unit during production, warehousing and delivering can improve supply chain management and speed traceability controls. Radio frequency identification (RFID is a powerful technique that potentially permits to reach this goal, but some aspects as, for instance, food product composition (e.g. moisture content, salt or sugar content and some peculiarities of the production environment (high moisture, high/low temperatures, metallic structures have prevented, so far, its application in food sector. In the food industry, composition and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable RF identifier for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags originates simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an extensive analysis of the reading performance of UHF RFID systems for multiple dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered singularly or arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate and reading zone of different factors, among which the type of product, the number and position of antennas, the field polarization, the reader RF power output, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were analysed and compared.

  16. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  17. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-07-21

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners.

  18. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains: the case of the Greek meat supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystallis, Athanassios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork at supermarkets should not be ignored.

  19. Sustainability of processed foods supply chain: Social, economic and territorial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beber Caetano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global market, food companies engaged in sustainable development must now integrate the economic and social component. However the tools to assess it are lacking. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to define social sustainability and its implementation. The attributional approaches, pathways or capabilities methods have emerged, based on a functional unit of a good or service along the supply chain. This paper proposes a new method to assess social economic and territorial performances of a food chain as a whole on a Territory. It is divided into four components: (i dignity and well-being of workers, (ii contribution to local life, (iii fairness and integrity of business practices, and (iv creation of material and intangible wealth. 50 criteria are used according to international, national or sectoral references. This generic method applicable to any sector of processed food products aims to identify where are the areas of improvement to qualify the sector as socially sustainable. An application to the wine Beaujolais and Burgundy wine was performed from surveys of 35 production and trade operators in 2014. The results show that the sector is particularly effective for the promotion of the territory, local life participation, loyalty and integrity of business practices; some improvement is still possible for the welfare of workers and the creation of material wealth. This method can be coupled with the environmental performance determined by the life cycle analysis in order to assess the sustainability in its entirety.

  20. Blue-Collar Affluence in a Remote Mining Town: Challenging the Modernist Myth of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on research in Karratha, a remote resource town in Western Australia, this paper explores the ways in which blue-collar affluence disturbs the meritocratic mythology of formal education. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century Karratha was one of Australia's most affluent towns, yet its adult population was characterised by a level…

  1. Consumers’ Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer’s understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers’ exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers’ exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer’s in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children’s development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers’ exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers’ food preferences and choices. PMID:26569301

  2. Consumers' Exposure to Nutrition and Health Claims on Pre-Packed Foods: Use of Sales Weighting for Assessing the Food Supply in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita

    2015-11-12

    Insights into the use of health-related information on foods are important for planning studies about the effects of such information on the consumer's understanding, purchasing, and consumption of foods, and also support further food policy decisions. We tested the use of sales data for weighting consumers' exposure to health-related labeling information in the Slovenian food supply. Food labeling data were collected from 6342 pre-packed foods available in four different food stores in Slovenia. Consumers' exposure was calculated as the percentage of available food products with particular food information in the food category. In addition, 12-month sales data were used to calculate sales weighted exposure as a percentage of sold food products with certain food information in the food category. The consumer's in-store and sales-weighted exposure to nutrition claims was 37% and 45%, respectively. Exposure to health claims was much lower (13%, 11% when sales-weighted). Health claims were mainly found in the form of general non-specific claims or function claims, while children's development and reduction of disease risk claims were present on only 0.1% and 0.2% of the investigated foods, respectively. Sales data were found very useful for establishing a reliable estimation of consumers' exposure to information provided on food labels. The high penetration of health-related information on food labels indicates that careful regulation of this area is appropriate. Further studies should focus on assessing the nutritional quality of foods labeled with nutrition and health claims, and understanding the importance of such labeling techniques for consumers' food preferences and choices.

  3. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  4. Extreme poverty and affluence, the two sides of our world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the different economic situtions in the industrialized and in the developing parts of the world, and the resulting fears of the populations. These feelings of fear and apprehension are traced back to their manifold causes, discussing among others unsecure raw material supply and the damage to the environment, hostile attitudes towards industrial exploitation or technical sciences, the role of the press and other media in the 'making' of fear of life, the fear of becoming slave of the machines. The problems' solution lies in the supply and utilisation of energy, and any efforts towards maintaining our natural environment so that life may go on will have to be based, the author says, on the technological development from nuclear power to thermonuclear fusion. (HSCH) [de

  5. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable farm in United Kingdom with high crop diversity and a related box scheme food supply system was assessed by emergy evaluation, an environmental accounting method based on the direct and indirect use of solar equivalent joules. The main...

  6. The importance of stakeholder-initiatives for business models in short food supply chains: the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Fondse, M.; Pascucci, S.

    2013-01-01

    While the interest in Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs) is growing, we still await management studies that explore the impact of stakeholders of SFSCs in substantial numbers. This article investigates the differences in the business models of SFSCs that may be attributed to the initiator-stakeholder,

  7. Evaluating the likelihood of the adoption of an animal welfare assessment system in European agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.; Roest, de K.; Tranter, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the likelihood of adoption of a recently designed Welfare Assessment System in agri‐food supply chains and the factors affecting the adoption decision. The application is carried out for pig and poultry

  8. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  9. 78 FR 36711 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII-Drug Supply Chain; Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... inspections, and drive safety and quality throughout the supply chain. Implementation of these authorities... authorities granted to FDA under Title VII and their importance in ensuring drug safety, effectiveness, and.... FDA-2013-N-0683, FDA-2013-N-0684, and FDA-2013-N-0685] Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  10. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    Until now the demand for food has been met by the use of abundant and cheap fossil fuels; however, we need to reconsider our modes of production to avoid a global environmental crisis. Food production systems should increasingly rely on renewable inputs and increase their stability by reducing...... dependency on external inputs. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of a food supply system in the UK. The main questions for this study were how much the system contributes to society by taking advantage of local renewable flows, and how much it depends on input from society....

  11. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Agrarian diet and diseases of affluence – Do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson Tommy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of varying prevalence of diseases of affluence, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, suggests that some environmental factor specific to agrarian societies could initiate these diseases. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that a cereal-based diet could be such an environmental factor. Through previous studies in archaeology and molecular evolution we conclude that humans and the human leptin system are not specifically adapted to a cereal-based diet, and that leptin resistance associated with diseases of affluence could be a sign of insufficient adaptation to such a diet. We further propose lectins as a cereal constituent with sufficient properties to cause leptin resistance, either through effects on metabolism central to the proper functions of the leptin system, and/or directly through binding to human leptin or human leptin receptor, thereby affecting the function. Testing the hypothesis Dietary interventions should compare effects of agrarian and non-agrarian diets on incidence of diseases of affluence, related risk factors and leptin resistance. A non-significant (p = 0.10 increase of cardiovascular mortality was noted in patients advised to eat more whole-grain cereals. Our lab conducted a study on 24 domestic pigs in which a cereal-free hunter-gatherer diet promoted significantly higher insulin sensitivity, lower diastolic blood pressure and lower C-reactive protein as compared to a cereal-based swine feed. Testing should also evaluate the effects of grass lectins on the leptin system in vivo by diet interventions, and in vitro in various leptin and leptin receptor models. Our group currently conducts such studies. Implications of the hypothesis If an agrarian diet initiates diseases of affluence it should be possible to identify the responsible constituents and modify or remove them so as to make an agrarian diet healthier.

  13. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to control Campylobacter in the New Zealand poultry meat food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J; Horn, Beverley J; Dunn, Alex H; Parris, Ruth; Green, F Terri; McNickle, Don C

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of interventions to control Campylobacter in the New Zealand poultry supply examined a series of interventions. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reduced health burden measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Costs of implementation were estimated from the value of cost elements, determined by discussions with industry. Benefits were estimated by changing the inputs to a poultry food chain quantitative risk model. Proportional reductions in the number of predicted Campylobacter infections were converted into reductions in the burden of disease measured in DALYs. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for each intervention, as cost per DALY reduction and the ratios compared. The results suggest that the most cost-effective interventions (lowest ratios) are at the primary processing stage. Potential phage-based controls in broiler houses were also highly cost-effective. This study is limited by the ability to quantify costs of implementation and assumptions required to estimate health benefits, but it supports the implementation of interventions at the primary processing stage as providing the greatest quantum of benefit and lowest cost-effectiveness ratios.

  15. Land and water requirements of biofuel and implications for food supply and the environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Junguo

    2009-01-01

    The increasing thirst for energy to fuel its fast growing economy has made China keen to explore the potential of modern form of bioenergy, biofuel. This study investigates the land and water requirements of biofuel in China with reference to the government biofuel development plans for 2010 and 2020. The concept of land and water footprints of biofuel is applied for the investigation. The result shows that the current level of bioethanol production consumes 3.5-4% of total maize production of the country, reducing market availability of maize for other uses by about 6%. It is projected that depending on the types of feedstock, 5-10% of the total cultivated land in China would need to be devoted to meet the biofuel production target of 12 million metric tons for the year 2020. The associated water requirement would amount to 32-72 km 3 per year, approximately equivalent to the annual discharge of the Yellow River. The net contribution of biofuel to the national energy pool could be limited due to generally low net energy return of conventional feedstocks. The current biofuel development paths could pose significant impacts on China's food supply and trade, as well as the environment. (author)

  16. Food Supply Security and Import Substitution as the Key Strategic Objectives of the Modern Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucially new social- and economic situation has shaped up by now in the rural areas and agricultural sphere; in its many instances such situation does not fit in the national agricultural policy in effect called upon to be a long-term instrument for economic adjustment of the agro-food market and state support of the agricultural sphere, most significantly, its foundation — the farming sector. Ensuring of food supply security by import substitution in the age of the national farm product markets globalization is possible in the macro-economic conditions promoting the development of the agricultural sector. The main reason that retards this sector development is inequitable cross-sector exchange at sacrifice of the agricultural industry. The article sets forward and approbates the author’s method of simple assessment procedure of how the price cross-sector relations and state financial support (in the form of subsidies of the agricultural enterprises influence their profitability generation. Further to the assessment, the following conclusions have been made: — in view of the tangible contribution of the agricultural sector to the country economy, this sector is self-reliant for its own development, i.e. the state is reasonably in a position to increase expenses for eliminating negative consequences of inequitable crosssector exchange; — the amount of expenses for state financial support is supposed to enable the agricultural commodity producers to generate profitability to the level that can stimulate the farm workers’ labour efficiency and build up a system of affordable credit facilities for the objects of techno-engineering modernization necessary to produce competitive products. — the issue of improving the competitiveness of agricultural production should be addressed in the first place at the federal level. Among the essential factors to increase the competitiveness of specific types of domestic food products and

  17. Quality Risk Evaluation of the Food Supply Chain Using a Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model and Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libiao Bai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the quality risk level in the food supply chain can reduce quality information asymmetry and food quality incidents and promote nationally integrated regulations for food quality. In order to evaluate it, a quality risk evaluation indicator system for the food supply chain is constructed based on an extensive literature review in this paper. Furthermore, a mathematical model based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM and failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA for evaluating the quality risk level in the food supply chain is developed. A computational experiment aimed at verifying the effectiveness and feasibility of this proposed model is conducted on the basis of a questionnaire survey. The results suggest that this model can be used as a general guideline to assess the quality risk level in the food supply chain and achieve the most important objective of providing a reference for the public and private sectors when making decisions on food quality management.

  18. FUNCTIONAL SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS IN THE FIELD OF ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM. CASE STUDY: HARGHITA AND NEAMȚ COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian TANASA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one cannot talk about an authentic rural tourism within a certain destination without emphasizing the local cultural heritage (cultural landscape, customs and traditions, gastronomy and so on. In the existing context, the local gastronomy is perceived as a marketing instrument efficient in differentiating the rural touristic destinations. A special place in the development of the traditional cuisine is represented by the setting up and the promotion of the short food supply chains which can be achieved by sustaining the small local producers and by putting into practice an environment-friendly traditional agriculture. Sustaining the partnerships between the owners of accommodation units and the small local agricultural producers represents an essential element in putting into practice a sustainable and qualitative rural tourism. Romania has a substantial potential as regards the enhancement of short food supply chains thanks to: the large number of semi-subsistence agricultural farms (with an area under 5 hectares, the „village-town connection” as regards the food procurement, especially from acquaintances and relatives and the carrying on of a traditional agriculture at a large scale in the rural households.The case studies emphasized in the current paper (Harghita and Neamţ Counties focus on the existence of short food supply chains, functional in the rural tourism sector under very different ways: touristic sheepfolds, trout farms, inns, authentic holiday villages, peasant guest houses etc.

  19. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  20. Metropolitan Foodsheds as Spatial References for a Landscape-Based Assessment of Regional Food Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.; Eupen, van M.; Corsi, S.; Sali, G.; Zasada, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Food Planning and Innovation for Sustainable Metropolitan Regions (FOODMETRES) project strives to assess the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of food chains, with regard to the spatial, logistical, and resource dimensions of growing food as well as the questions of food safety and quality

  1. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Changes in Food Supply at the Time of Sex Differentiation on the Gonadal Transcriptome of Juvenile Fish. Implications for Natural and Farmed Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. Methods and Findings: This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undif...

  3. Perspective: Some Causal and Priority Language about Food Energy Supply as the Sufficient Cause of the Obesity Pandemic is Premature or Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Obesity incidence in military members showed a similar association . The causal effect and relative importance of national food energy supply are...the previously described global ecological data, we seek to evaluate whether nationwide food supply is associated with obesity . Additionally, because...considering food energy availability as a continuous variable, the associations with new onset obesity diagnoses within the Air Force (hazard ratio [HR

  4. [Supply and nutritional composition of salads in the food courts of shopping centers of Metropolitan Lima, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-García, Marifé; Martinez-Feliu, Montserrat; Servan, Karin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-10-01

    To assess supply and nutritional composition of the salads offered as an entrée main course in the food courts of the shopping centers in Lima, Peru. The menus of all food franchises present in the food courts of the eleven shopping centers of Lima were reviewed. The nutritional composition of salads offered as an entrée were calculated for calories, protein content, carbohydrates, fats, cholesterol, fiber and sodium, and the adequacy of intake for a dinner (30% of a diet of 2000 kcal). Salads as entrées accounted for 4.7% of the supply, and only 7 out of 17 franchises offered at least one salad. The average cost of the salads was higher than the other dishes ($5.3 vs $4.7; p<0.001). The average calorie content was 329 kcal and 2.7 g fiber; in relation to a dinner, we found a high percentage of adequacy for protein (172.9%), cholesterol (121.0%), and low adequacy for calories (54.8%), carbohydrates (23.1%) and fiber (36.4%). The salads that are offered in food courts in the shopping centers of Lima are scarce and more expensive, have little fiber content and are high in cholesterol. Strategies should be reviewed to improve the accessibility of quality salads offered in areas where only fast food is offered.

  5. The effect of governance mechanisms on food safety in the supply chain: Evidence from the Lebanese dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Gumataw K; Chalak, Ali; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2017-07-01

    Food safety is a key public health issue worldwide. This study aims to characterise existing governance mechanisms - governance structures (GSs) and food safety management systems (FSMSs) - and analyse the alignment thereof in detecting food safety hazards, based on empirical evidence from Lebanon. Firm-to-firm and public baseline are the dominant FSMSs applied in a large-scale, while chain-wide FSMSs are observed only in a small-scale. Most transactions involving farmers are relational and market-based in contrast to (large-scale) processors, which opt for hierarchical GSs. Large-scale processors use a combination of FSMSs and GSs to minimise food safety hazards albeit potential increase in coordination costs; this is an important feature of modern food supply chains. The econometric analysis reveals contract period, on-farm inspection and experience having significant effects in minimising food safety hazards. However, the potential to implement farm-level FSMS is influenced by formality of the contract, herd size, trading partner choice, and experience. Public baseline FSMSs appear effective in controlling food safety hazards; however, this may not be viable due to the scarcity of public resources. We suggest public policies to focus on long-lasting governance mechanisms by introducing incentive schemes and farm-level FSMSs by providing loans and education to farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Improving yield and composition of protein concentrates from green tea residue in an agri-food supply chain: Effect of pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,

  7. All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Herbert; Kri?tof?k, J?n; Darolov?, Al?beta

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially...

  8. Performance measurement in agri-food supply chains: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Kooten, van O.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Measurement of the performance of entire supply chains is an important issue because it allows for "tracking and tracing" of efficacy and efficiency failures and leads to more informed decision making with regard to chain design. However, the choice of appropriate supply chain performance

  9. Supply chain management for small business--how to avoid being part of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtges, J P; Watts, C A

    2000-08-01

    A supply chain is a series of customer and supplier relationships that extend throughout and beyond the company. It is an interwoven set of links that together form a chain supplying our customers in a seamless and integrated fashion delivering a high level of customer satisfaction. Supply chain management (SCM) integrates all activities so they are focused on customer satisfaction (both internally and externally). One of the things this article will attempt to accomplish is to provide a clear understanding of SCM's positive impact on customer service as well as on improving profitability, cash flow, product cycle times, and communication. Whether we go forward in the supply chain to the final end-user or backward in the supply chain to our supplier's suppliers, SCM will significantly improve our ability to serve our customers.

  10. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, D.; Marklein, A.; Toth, M. A.; Karpoff, M.; Paul, G. S.; McCormack, R.; Kyriazis, J.; Krueger, T.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%. (author)

  11. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  13. The dynamic simulation model of soybean in Central Java to support food self sufficiency: A supply chain perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktyajati, Nancy; Hisjam, Muh.; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2018-02-01

    Consider food become one of the basic human needs in order to survive so food sufficiency become very important. Food sufficiency of soybean commodity in Central Java still depends on imported soybean. Insufficiency of soybean because of there is much gap between local soybean productions and its demand. In the year 2016 the shortage of supply soybean commodity as much 68.79%. Soybean is an important and strategic commodity after rice and corn. The increasing consumption of soybean is related to increasing population, increasing incomes, changing of healthy life style. The aims of this study are to determine the soybean dynamic model based on supply chain perspective, define the proper price of local soybean to trigger increasing of local production, and to define the alternative solution to support food self sufficiency. This study will capture the real condition into dynamics model, then simulate a series of scenario into a computer program to obtain the best results. This study will be conducted the following first scenario with government intervention policy and second without government intervention policy. The best solution of the alternative can be used as government consideration for governmental policy. The results of the propose scenarios showed that self sufficiency on soybean can be achieved after the next 20 years by increasing planting area 4% and land productivity 1% per year.

  14. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-07

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  15. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...... possible without losing the essential character of the raw data. The model produces bio-demographically reasonable forecasts of mortality rates that preserve the sub-group rankings at all ages. It also satisfies reasonableness criteria related to the term structure of correlations across ages and over time...

  16. Future Internet as a Driver for Virtualization, Connectivity and Intelligence of Agri‐Food Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cor N. Verdouw

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The food and agribusiness is an important sector in European logistics with a share in the EU road transport of about 20%. One of the main logistic challenges in this sector is to deal with the high dynamics and uncertainty in supply and demand. This paper discusses the opportunities of Future Internet (FI technologies to addresses the specific demands on information systems for logistics in the food and agribusiness domain. More specifically, it presents a Future Internet (FI based design for smart agri‐food logistic information systems. This design aims to enable new types of efficient and responsive logistics networks with flexible chain‐encompassing tracking and tracing systems and decision support based on that information. These systems effectively virtualise the logistics flows from farm to fork, support a timely and error‐free exchange of logistics information and provide functionality for intelligent analysis and reporting of exchanged data to enable early warning and advanced forecasting.

  17. Pattern formation and control of spatiotemporal chaos in a reaction diffusion prey–predator system supplying additional food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Santu; Poria, Swarup

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of a predator–prey system in presence of spatial diffusion is investigated in presence of additional food exists for predators. Conditions for stability of Hopf as well as Turing patterns in a spatial domain are determined by making use of the linear stability analysis. Impact of additional food is clear from these conditions. Numerical simulation results are presented in order to validate the analytical findings. Finally numerical simulations are carried out around the steady state under zero flux boundary conditions. With the help of numerical simulations, the different types of spatial patterns (including stationary spatial pattern, oscillatory pattern, and spatiotemporal chaos) are identified in this diffusive predator–prey system in presence of additional food, depending on the quantity, quality of the additional food and the spatial domain and other parameters of the model. The key observation is that spatiotemporal chaos can be controlled supplying suitable additional food to predator. These investigations may be useful to understand complex spatiotemporal dynamics of population dynamical models in presence of additional food.

  18. [Impact of an intervention improving the food supply (excluding school meals) with educational support in middle and high schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, C; Lorrain, S; Langevin, C; Barberger Gateau, P; Maurice, S; Thibault, H

    2015-12-01

    Within the Nutrition, Prevention, and Health Program for children and teenagers in Aquitaine, an experimental intervention was implemented in 2007-2008 in the middle and high schools in Aquitaine (southwest France). This intervention aimed to improve the eating habits of adolescents, combining actions to improve the food supply sold during recreational times (remove/limit fat and sugar products sold and promote the sale of fruits and bread) and health education actions to make adolescents aware of the concept of nutritional balance and steer their choice towards recommended products. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the eating behavior of adolescents and the food supply sold during recreational times in middle and high schools in Aquitaine. A survey was conducted before and after the implementation of the intervention in seven middle and high schools that have implemented actions (intervention group) and eight middle and high schools that have not implemented actions (control group). In these schools, 1602 adolescents answered the survey before and 1050 after the intervention (samples were independent because of the anonymity of responses). The impact of the intervention on the dietary behavior of teenagers was modeled using logistic regression adjusted on potential confounding variables (sex, age, and educational status). In multivariate analyses, the intervention was associated with more frequent daily intake of breakfast (OR=2.63; 95% CI [1.89; 3.66]) and lower intake of morning snacks (OR=0.66; 95% CI [0.48; 0.90]), higher consumption of starchy foods (OR=1.77; 95% CI [1.30; 2.42]), bread at breakfast, morning snacks, and a light afternoon meal (OR=1.43; 95% CI [1.07; 1.90]), and the food supply sold at recreational times (OR=1.34 95% CI [1.01; 1.78]). These results show that the "Improving food supply in middle and high schools associated with educational support actions" project led to the sales of recommended foods

  19. Social Interaction and Price Transmission in Multi-Tier Food Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Widyarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on social interaction associated with price transmission in a multi-tier rice supply chain. A case study and qualitative methods are employed to examine a well-established supply network in Karawang District in Indonesia. Farmers and traders used their existing network in selling rice crops to traders and adopted a payment scheme for cash-and-carry transactions. Information on the market situation was obtained through personal interviews and observations including text messaging with farmer and trader informants. Evidence reveals that social relationships are vital in transmitting price information among networked actors to maintain the flow of rice, mitigate risk, and avoid losses due to poor quality of the rice product. Findings show that social interaction enables actors in an end-to-end rice supply chain to deal with the assurance of supply rationing.

  20. Information technology and supply chain management: a study of the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C A

    2000-08-01

    This paper's topic is the use of information technology (IT) for the development of supply chain management (SCM). In today's business environment, both in academics and industry, the term SCM has become a popular paradigm. In particular, the use of IT to facilitate the development of supply chain partners is gaining interest within industry. This paper develops the topic of SCM and further develops the relationship between the use of IT, in the form of electronic data interchange, and the development of supply chain integration. The goal of using SCM along with IT is to develop a supply chain that is capable of responding more quickly and efficiently in the meeting of consumer's requirements.

  1. Business process modelling in demand-driven agri-food supply chains : a reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: Business process models; Supply chain management; Information systems; Reference information models; Market orientation; Mass customisation; Configuration; Coordination; Control; SCOR; Pot plants; Fruit industry

    Abstract

    The increasing volatility and diversity of

  2. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  3. A Strategy Oriented Framework for Food and Beverage E-Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dello Stritto, Giulia; Schiraldi, Massimiliano M.

    2013-01-01

    Several authors have emphasized the importance of analysing the impact of e-business, e-commerce and online-shopping on supply chain and operations management; however, it seems that to date no one has suggested a comprehensive framework that could help identify and support supply chain design decisions for companies about to enter the online-business in the consumer goods retail trade, encompassing the business drivers at a strategic level. This paper aims to bridge the gap between theoretic...

  4. ePedigree Traceability System for the Agricultural Food Supply Chain to Ensure Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.

  5. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  6. Food safety management and risk assessment in the fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.; Allende, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the output of several years of scientific research coordinated by Laboratory of Food Preservation and Food Microbiology at UGent, within the EU FP7 Research project Veg-i-trade (www.vegitrade.org), in collaboration with among other partners, Wageningen University and Cebas-CSIC.

  7. Global food supply and the impacts of increased use of biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    In recent years prices on global food markets showed large fluctuations. The use of biomass as energy source (biofuel) in the developed world is frequently mentioned as one of the reasons for this instability. This paper compares the need for biofuel and needs for food and feed on global scale. A

  8. Price risk perceptions and management strategies in selected European food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Tsion T.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural prices in European food markets have become more volatile over the past decade exposing agribusinesses to risk and uncertainty. This study goes beyond the farm stage and explores through interviews the price risk perceptions and management strategies in multiple stages of the food

  9. The effectiveness of an interactive system of decision-making in the food resources supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Aleksandrovich Klyukach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using modern information technologies in the executive bodies of Moscow and the federal center in the management of wholesale food complex of a metropolis. It is noted that a necessary condition for the effective functioning of all subjects of the wholesale food market of the city, including control structures, is their complete informational provision. A complex of measures aimed at implementation of informational systems into the management of activities in an urban structure. It is proven that the introduction of an information-analytical system as a tool for solving problems of food security in Moscow accelerates and improves the handling of the food market of the city, plus the trends and prospects of its development: the volume of deliveries and sales of goods, prices, and availability of inventory from manufacturers and wholesalers etc. We present architecture of information-analytical system of wholesale food market as a spatially distributed system.

  10. Loss and waste in the food supply chain: an introduction to the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stępień

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of food waste is particularly relevant in the twenty-first century. According to the data from the Food Banks, 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year around the world. This represents a third of the total food production. In Europe, there are almost 100 million tonnes and in Poland there are some 9 million tonnes per annum (Food Banks 2016. The data on Europe do not include losses in agriculture and fisheries, which, in fact, make this figure much higher. However, the scale of waste in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia is much lower and there is a chronic problem of malnutrition and even starvation. As reported by UNICEF, malnutrition is the cause of death of over 5 million children annually (UNICEF 2016. It is therefore necessary to develop strategies to effectively combat this phenomenon. Such attempts are taken by the European Union, which pays attention to the problem in the strategy ‘Europe 2020’. In 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution ‘How to avoid food waste: a strategy for improving the efficiency of the food chain in the EU’. At the same time a large part of the EU population (including Poles declare that they are not aware of the situation, do not notice information campaigns and programmes that aim to reduce food waste. Struggle with this twenty-first century problem should therefore start from building attitudes and awareness of individual households and firms engaged in food production and distribution. The purpose of this article is to point to the problem of food waste, its causes and manifestations, and to identify possible strategies to combat this phenomenon. Research methods used in this work include a critical literature analysis and meta-analysis with elements of deductive reasoning based on available literature and reports.

  11. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  12. Application of a novel PROMETHEE-based method for construction of a group compromise ranking to prioritization of green suppliers in food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kadziński, Miłosz; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    green supply chain management (GSCM) elements is essential for utilizing the food supply chain in an environmentally benign way. As a solution to the above challenge, the economic and green characteristics for supplier selection in green purchasing are studied in this paper. For an organization......, the evaluation and selection of the green supplier is a vital issue due to several tangible and intangible criteria involved. Accordingly, we apply multiple criteria decision aiding techniques.We propose a hybrid approach that combines the revised Simos procedure, PROMETHEE methods, algorithms for constructing......The food sector has a prodigious focus and is constantly gaining in importance in today's global economic marketplace. Due to an increasing global population, society faces a greater challenge for sustainable food production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the food supply chain. Adopting...

  13. Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne Abera

    2017-01-01

    Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern

  14. ORGANIC FOOD AS AN EMERGING MARKET: PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMPTION, SUPPLY GOVERNANCE AND RETAIL STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aertsens, Joris

    2011-01-01

    The literature and my own empirical research indicate that most consumers hold a positive attitude towards organic food and agree that there are good reasons to motivate the purchase and consumption of organic products. However organic consumption remains very limited -with a market share, for organic food, of only 3.4% in 2008 in Germany, the largest European market. This study sheds more light on the factors influencing (slowing down) growth in the emerging organic market, both on the c...

  15. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an initial research on interdependence mong countries on crop diversity provided information helpful for countries to establish the Treaty, and in particular its Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-s...

  16. Testing a performance measurement framework for agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of entire supply chain performance is an important issue, because it allows for `tracking and tracing¿ of efficacy and efficiency failures and leads to more informed decisionmaking with regards to chain organization. The ultimate aim of implementing a performance measurement system is to

  17. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruteau, C.; Voelkl, B.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Noe, R.

    2009-01-01

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply

  18. A Strategy Oriented Framework for Food and Beverage E-Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Dello Stritto

    2013-10-01

    into the internet business while also preserving a consistent alignment with their current company strategy. Some insights on this area are presented along with a field study approach and a proposal of a 6-phase framework to jointly manage all the relevant strategic and functional aspects of supply networks.

  19. The impact of dual sourcing on food supply chain networks: the case of Egyptian strawberries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Rijpkema, W.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management for fresh produce differs significantly from that of other products. Similarly to other products, fresh produce quality plays a key role in consumer selection behavior. The key difference consists in the fact that, for fresh produce, quality varies over time and it is

  20. A simulation environment for the design of food supply chain networks: modeling quality controlled logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.; Zee, van der D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, many industries are confronted with intensified global competition as well as advances in information and process technology. They create both the need and opportunity for a coordinated approach of industrial partners to establish effective and efficient supply chains. Simulation tools are

  1. Managerial responses to transaction cost disequilibrium in food supply chains and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in transaction costs (i.e. costs of information processing, monitoring and control) between firms in local supply chains as well as in an international setting may have a negative impact on competitiveness and on creation of value added. Transaction cost disequilibrium is defined as a

  2. Implementing a Healthy Food Distribution Program: A Supply Chain Strategy to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Access in Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Kwan, Allison; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Gutierrez, Luis; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2018-05-24

    Increasing access to fresh produce in small retail venues could improve the diet of people in underserved communities. However, small retailers face barriers to stocking fresh produce. In 2014, an innovative distribution program, Community Markets Purchasing Real and Affordable Foods (COMPRA), was launched in Los Angeles with the aim of making it more convenient and profitable for small retailers to stock fresh produce. Our case study describes the key processes and lessons learned in the first 2 years of implementing COMPRA. Considerable investments in staff capacity and infrastructure were needed to launch COMPRA. Early successes included significant week-to-week increases in the volume of produce distributed. Leveraging partnerships, maintaining a flexible operational and funding structure, and broadly addressing store owners' needs contributed to initial gains. We describe key challenges and next steps to scaling the program. Lessons learned from implementing COMPRA could inform other jurisdictions considering supply-side approaches to increase access to healthy food.

  3. Institutional analysis of milkfish supply chain using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) (case study of UD. Bunda Foods, Sidoarjo District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, R. L. R.; Mustaniroh, S. A.; Ikasari, D. M.; Sriulina, R. P.

    2018-03-01

    UD. Bunda Foods is an SME located in the district of Sidoarjo. UD. Bunda Foods has problems of maintaining its milkfish’s quality assurance and developing marketing strategies. Improving those problems enables UD. Bunda Foods to compete with other similar SMEs and to market its product for further expansion of their business. The objectives of this study were to determine the model of the institutional structure of the milkfish supply chain, to determine the elements, the sub-elements, and the relationship among each element. The method used in this research was Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM), involving 5 experts as respondents consisting of 1 practitioner, 1 academician, and 3 government organisation employees. The results showed that there were two key elements include requirement and goals elements. Based on the Drive Power-Dependence (DP-D) matrix, the key sub-elements of requirement element, consisted of raw material continuity, appropriate marketing strategy, and production capital, were positioned in the Linkage sector quadrant. The DP-D matrix for the key sub-elements of the goal element also showed a similar position. The findings suggested several managerial implications to be carried out by UD. Bunda Foods include establishing good relationships with all involved institutions, obtaining capital assistance, and attending the marketing training provided by the government.

  4. High agreement on family affluence between children's and parents' reports: international study of 11-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Currie, Candace

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement between parents' and children's reports on four items of family affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays, and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement. DESIGN: Cross sectional child-parent validation study of selec...

  5. Leisure resourcefulness as a predictor of level of affluence and life satisfaction: having more or doing with less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry L. Ricciardo

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the role of affluence in guiding lifestyle orientation in contemporary society. The term "affluenza" is used to denote a lifestyle of consumption and materialism to achieve life satisfaction. The counter to affluenza is quality of life as manifested in self-improvement, community centeredness, and environmental stewardship. Leisure...

  6. Testing the environmental performance of urban agriculture as a food supply in northern climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Fernandez, John

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen a renaissance of urban agriculture in the world's wealthy, northern cities. The practice of producing food in and around cities is championed as a method to reduce environmental impacts of urban food demands (reducing distance from farm to fork - ‘food miles’) whilst......, though opposite findings emerge when external energy inputs are significant. In this study we perform an environmental life cycle assessment of six urban farms in Boston, US producing lettuce and tomatoes, with conventional counterparts across six impact categories. Performance of urban agriculture...... conferring a number of ancillary benefits to host cities (runoff attenuation, urban heat island mitigation) and ex-urban environments (carbon sequestration). Previous environmental assessments have found urban agriculture to be more sustainable than conventional agriculture when performed in mild climates...

  7. At the crossroads of physiology and ecology: food supply and the timing of avian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Deviche, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue “Energy Balance”. The decision of when to breed is crucial to the reproductive success and fitness of seasonally breeding birds. The availability of food for adults prior to breeding has long been thought to play a critical role in timing the initiation of seasonal reproductive events, in particular laying. However, unequivocal evidence for such a role remains limited and the physiological mechanisms by which an increase in food availability results in seasonal activation of the reproductive system are largely speculative. This lack of mechanistic information partly reflects a lack of integration of ecological and physiological approaches to study seasonal reproduction. Indeed, most work pertaining to the role of food availability for adults on the timing of avian reproduction has been ecological and has focused almost exclusively on female traits associated with reproductive timing (e.g., lay date and clutch size). By contrast, most work on the physiological bases of the relationship between food availability and the timing of reproduction has investigated male traits associated with reproductive development (e.g., reproductive hormones and gonadal development). To advance our understanding of these topics, we review the role of proximate factors including food availability, social factors, and ambient temperature in the control of breeding decisions, and discuss the role of three potential candidates (leptin, glucocorticoids, and GnIH-neuropeptide Y) that may mediate the effects of food availability on these decisions. We emphasize that future progress in this area is heavily contingent upon the use of physiology-based approaches and their integration into current ecological frameworks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Evaluation of the Healthiness of the Indian Packaged Food and Beverage Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra; Dunford, Elizabeth; Crossley, Rachel; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Rayner, Mike; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-09

    Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold by India's largest manufacturers. Healthiness was assessed using the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system and the World Health Organization's European Regional Office (WHO Euro) Nutrient Profile Model. Sales-value-weighted mean healthiness and the proportions of "healthy" products (using a validated HSR cut-off of ≥3.5, and products meeting WHO Euro criteria as healthy enough to market to children) were calculated overall, by company and by food category. Nutrient information for 943 products sold by the 11 largest Indian manufacturers was obtained from nutrient labels, company websites or directly from the manufacturer. Healthiness was low overall (mean HSR 1.8 out of 5.0 stars) with a low proportion defined as "healthy" by both HSR (17%) and also by WHO Euro criteria (8%). There were marked differences in the healthiness of similar products within food categories. Substantial variation between companies (minimum sales-value-weighted mean HSR 0.5 for Company G, versus maximum HSR 3.0 for Company F) was a result of differences in the types of products sold and the nutritional composition of individual products. There are clear opportunities for India's largest food companies to improve both the nutritional quality of individual products and to improve their product mix to include a greater proportion of healthy products.

  9. The Use of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Meixner, Oliver; Haas, Rainer; Moosbrugger, Helmut; Magdits, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    In addition to traditional marketing communication instruments, social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with participants within supply chains. An increasing number of com-panies, especially in the US, are using social media platforms not only to market their products and manage their customer relationships, but also to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. One core objective of this study was to evaluate certain content...

  10. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Mor; Sarbjit Singh; Arvind Bhardwaj; Lakhwinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in...

  11. Vertical Cost-Information Sharing in a Food Supply Chain with Multiple Unreliable Suppliers and Two Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjian Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a food supply chain where multiple suppliers provide completely substitutable food products to two manufacturers. Meanwhile, the suppliers face yield uncertainty and the manufacturers face uncertain production costs that are private information. While the suppliers compete on price, the manufacturers compete on quantity. We build a stylized multistage game theoretic model to analyze the issue of vertical cost-information sharing (VCIS within the supply chain by considering key parameters, including the level of yield uncertainty, two manufacturers’ cost correlation, the correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes, and the number of suppliers. We study the suppliers’ optimal wholesale price and the manufacturers’ optimal order quantities under different VCIS strategies. Finally, through numerical analyses, we examine how key parameters affect the value of VCIS to each supplier and each manufacturer, respectively. We found that the manufacturers are willing to share cost information with suppliers only when the two manufacturers’ cost correlation is less than a threshold. While a high correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes and a large number of suppliers promote complete information sharing, a high level of yield uncertainty hinders complete information sharing. All these findings have important implications to industry practices.

  12. Energy supply of food processing plants and breweries from its specific solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmel, U.; Leupold, G.; Meyer-Pittroff, R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Disposal of solid wastes in the food processing industry causes problems. Constant utilization as animal food is not guaranteed any longer and costs for disposal will increase. Biogas production is an alternative for disposal of brewery wastes. Recent investigations have reduced retention time for hydrolysis and total retention time. Retention time is directly proportional to fermenter size consequently resulting in drastic cost reductions. Yielded energy can be utilized in the production line so that fossil fuel use can be reduced with reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. However, some problems remain: sumptous technology; highly qualified specialists; need to reduce ammonia to prevent inhibition of biogas production; cost of technology.

  13. Dynamics of quality as a strategic variable in complex food supply chain network competition: The case of fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagurney, Anna; Besik, Deniz; Yu, Min

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we construct a competitive food supply chain network model in which the profit-maximizing producers decide not only as to the volume of fresh produce produced and distributed using various supply chain network pathways, but they also decide, with the associated costs, on the initial quality of the fresh produce. Consumers, in turn, respond to the various producers' product outputs through the prices that they are willing to pay, given also the average quality associated with each producer or brand at the retail outlets. The quality of the fresh produce is captured through explicit formulae that incorporate time, temperature, and other link characteristics with links associated with processing, shipment, storage, etc. Capacities on links are also incorporated as well as upper bounds on the initial product quality of the firms at their production/harvesting sites. The governing concept of the competitive supply chain network model is that of Nash Equilibrium, for which alternative variational inequality formulations are derived, along with existence results. An algorithmic procedure, which can be interpreted as a discrete-time tatonnement process, is then described and applied to compute the equilibrium produce flow patterns and accompanying link Lagrange multipliers in a realistic case study, focusing on peaches, which includes disruptions.

  14. Potenciali ekološke pridelave za trajnostno lokalno oskrbo s hrano v Sloveniji = Organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Slabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presenting the assessment of organic production potentials for sustainablelocal food supply. Using the results of extensive field research among organic farmers,we analyzed the existing organic production for the market by the type of products andmarketing channels. We defined the main strengths and weaknesses critical to the developmentof the Slovenian market for organic food, and highlighted spatial differences. Weestimate that, especially in the organic production, there is a large untapped potential forsustainable local food supply in Slovenia.

  15. [Evolution of food supply (apart from school catering) between 2004/2005 and 2009/2010 in middle- and high-schools of Aquitaine, France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, C; Carriere, C; Delmas, C; Péchaud, M; Barberger-Gateau, P; Maurice, S; Thibault, H

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of food supply (apart from school catering) between school years 2004/2005 and 2009/2010, in middle- and high-schools from the Aquitaine region (southwest France), in order to evaluate the impact of actions conducted within the framework and the program Nutrition, Prevention and Health of children and adolescents in Aquitaine (southwest France). Two surveys were carried out among all middle- and high-schools of the Aquitaine region in 2004/2005 (n=536) and 2009/2010 (n=539) within the framework of a regional multidisciplinary public health program "Nutrition, prevention and health of children and teenagers in Aquitaine". For both 2004/2005 and 2009/2010, data were collected using the same questionnaire and dealt with school characteristics and modalities of food supply (apart from school catering). Response rate was 84.1% in 2004/2005 and 79.6% in 2009/2010. The proportion of schools offering food to pupils (apart from school catering) significantly decreased in 5 years (from 80.1% to 50.1%, Pcatering) has also been improved: less sweet and fat food, more bread and fruits. This study shows an overall improvement of food supply apart from school catering (food sale, free food and vending machines) in middle- and high-schools from the Aquitaine region (southwest France) between 2004/2005 and 2009/2010. This improvement is related to the proportion of schools offering food (quantitative improvement), as well as to the composition of food supply (qualitative improvement). These results show an improvement of food supply (apart from school catering), suggesting that actions implemented in the framework of the program "Nutrition, prevention and health of children and adolescents in Aquitaine" may have led to these improvements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 rice, 45.54 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  17. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global

  18. The transmission and management of price volatility in food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Tsion Taye

    2016-01-01

    The 2006-2011 period has been marked by increased volatility in food an agricultural commodity prices at a global level. In the EU, the continuous liberalization of agricultural markets under the Common Agricultural Policy has led to the exposure of EU agricultural to increasing market price

  19. Comparing supply-side specifications in models of global agriculture and the food system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, S.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Willenbockel, D.; Valin, H.; Fujimori, S.; Masui, T.; Sands, R.; Wise, M.; Calvin, K.V.; Mason d'Croz, D.; Tabeau, A.A.; Kavallari, A.; Schmitz, C.; Dietrich, J.P.; Lampe, von M.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the theoretical and functional specification of production in partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two model families differ in their scope—partial

  20. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, A.N.; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and

  1. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and

  2. Multi-objective optimization for eco-efficient food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, food production focused mainly on delivering high-quality products at low cost and little attention was paid to environmental impact and depletion of natural resources. As a result of the growing awareness of climate change, shrinking resources, and increasing world population,

  3. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    of the meal production in order to transfer labour-intensive operations from the kitchens to the industry; 2) Systemic use of a new concept: thawing during distribution, which improves shelf-life and reduces waste; 3) Supply chain modelling to improve delivery schedules and reduce environmental impact......An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation...

  4. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  5. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantavaara, A; Wallin, H; Hasunen, K; Härmälä, K; Kulmala, H; Latvio, E; Liskola, K; Mustonen, I; Nieminen, I; Tainio, R

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience.

  6. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Wallin, H.; Hasunen, K.; Haermaelae, K.; Kulmala, H.; Latvio, E.; Liskola, K.; Mustonen, I.; Nieminen, I.; Tainio, R.

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience

  7. Polychaete response to fresh food supply at organically enriched coastal sites: Repercussion on bioturbation potential and trophic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, N.; Pires-Vanin, A. M. S.; Salhi, M.; Bessonart, M.; Muniz, P.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution, abundance, specific and functional structure of polychaete assemblages at four organically enriched sites. The effects of fresh organic matter input from the water column driving by upwelling were evaluated. Temperature and salinity values indicate the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in spring, a nutrient-rich water mass. The dominance of the conveyor belt transport (CONV) in the station influenced by SACW, in the spring survey, is associated with fresh organic matter input as indicated by higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the predominance of the diffusive mixing (DIFF) bioturbation category, in the sites without SACW influence is related to the preferential accumulation of more refractive food resources as indicated by higher concentrations of short chain saturated fatty acids. At the site influenced by SACW, the changes in polychaete assemblages were not all evident during proceeding upwelling conditions, but may persist at the end of the upwelling. Polychaetes in the study area seemed to be limited by the quality but not the quantity of food. The delay in polychaete response to fresh food supply may be related to the organic enrichment and the prevalence of refractory material in the sediments.

  8. Soil resource supply influences faunal size?specific distributions in natural food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Christian; Den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-01-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use...

  9. Food safety management and risk assessment in the fresh produce supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.; Allende, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper is the output of several years of scientific research coordinated by Laboratory of Food Preservation and Food Microbiology at UGent, within the EU FP7 Research project Veg-i-trade (www.vegitrade.org), in collaboration with among other partners, Wageningen University and Cebas-CSIC. Fresh produce and derived products are globally traded and subjected to an inherent sensitive towards enteric pathogens as Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli due to their cultivation practices. As fruits and vegetables are increasingly being consumed raw, a potential health risk towards consumers is present. In the Veg-i-Trade project the extend of presence of pathogens in leafy greens and strawberry fruit and their cultivation environment (as water, soil, manured soil, etc.) was analysed. Insight in the food safety management system enlighted the need for further fostering and guidance towards farmers in good practices in order to reduce the potential pressure of the presence of the pathogens both in EU and non EU countries. Exposure assessment calculations demonstrated the usefulness of mathematic modelling to gain more insight in fragmented microbiological analysis and information of cultivation practices, as such the impact of contamination of irrigation water and the impact of a flooding event. Veg-i-Trade was a challenging project both in scientific and management perspective as 23 partners collaborated.

  10. Managing Food Allergens in the U.K. Retail Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J; Gowland, M Hazel; Points, John

    2018-01-01

    The U.K. food and grocery market is highly significant financially and dominated by 10 retailers within a regulated and extremely economically competitive environment. We summarize the approach of U.K. retailers to allergen risk assessment (RA) and risk management (RM) within the U.K. legal framework and explore public visibility of retailers' allergen policies. RA and RM of allergens appear effective in curtailing retail-triggered severe food allergy reactions. However, allergen recalls remain high, precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) remains an area of confusion, and there is no consistent Web-based provision of information for consumers who have allergies. Resolution of PAL awaits an agreed-on threshold framework, but a key challenge is to engage with patients and gain their trust rather than thrust education at them. It would be helpful for retailers to publish their allergen RA and RM policies. A target should be agreed on between government and retailers for a reduction in the proliferation of PAL wording variants by a given date within the next 3 years. A further hurdle is potentially flawed allergen analysis-development of reference methods and reference materials are acknowledged needs. Laboratories should report allergen results in an informative manner, communicating uncertainty and caveats. Ideally a laboratory representative would be included on any incident control team. Efforts must continue to standardize preparedness for protecting and defending food and drink from deliberate attack.

  11. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  12. Monitoring responses to variation in food supply for a migratory waterfowl: American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Perry S; Jorde, Dennis G

    2018-05-26

    Wintering Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) concentrate in wetlands along the Atlantic coast where natural and anthropogenic disturbances have increased over the last 50 years, a period in which the population of Black Ducks has declined. We studied the sensitivity of Black Ducks to perturbations in food supply that often result from disturbances by storms, predators, and people. In the paper, we characterize the responses of captive Black Ducks to shifts in food quality and availability during winter and apply those measures to a comparison of wild birds. Captive ducks that were fed intermittently (3 consecutive days/week) compensated for fasted days to achieve similar body mass and body fat to control birds that were fed every day on both animal- and plant-based diets. However, birds that were fed intermittently expended 15% more energy each day than controls when both groups were fed (536 vs. 464 kJ/kg 0.75 ), which indicates that variable food supply increases the costs of maintenance and thus reduces the number of birds that can be supported on the same resource of food without interruptions to foraging. Egg production was not affected by diet quality provided in spring or by the frequency of feeding during the preceding winter months. Black Ducks lost body fat through winter in captivity and in the wild. Fat stores of birds in New Jersey were greater than those of birds in Maine (13.3 vs. 8.3% of body mass) in January, which reflected the high energy demands of cold temperatures in Maine. Values for ∂ 15 N were greater in Maine than in New Jersey for both red blood cells and plasma, which indicated a consistent diet of marine invertebrates in Maine. Greater isotopic variation in red blood cells indicated that diets were more diverse in New Jersey than in Maine for both ∂ 15 N (9.7 ± 1.1 vs. 11.2 ± 0.4‰) and for ∂ 13 C (- 15.1 ± 2.2 vs. - 13.8 ± 1.4‰). Plasma ∂ 13 C was enriched over red blood cells in wild birds especially those

  13. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification, supplement to: Ramajo, L; Marba, Núria; Prado, Luis; Peron, Sophie; Lardies, Marco A; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Vargas, C A; Lagos, Nelson A; Duarte, Carlos M (2016): Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2025-2037

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, L

    2016-01-01

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH 8.0) and low pH (pH 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  14. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  15. Transfer of tritium released by nuclear facilities to the food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Delmas, J.; Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Grauby, A.; Hoek, J. van den

    1979-01-01

    The use for agricultural purposes of river waters receiving releases or discharges of tritium results in contamination of irrigated crops and of animals given such water to drink or consuming the contaminated crops. It therefore seemed of importance to assess the part played by tritium in the contamination of the food chain, together with its possible effects on organisms. With this in mind, French, Belgian and Netherlands laboratories have joined forces to study, more especially, the relationship between environmental contamination rates and those of produce harvested in the Mediterranean region and in a humid temperate climate, the transfer process in the chain: water - fodder - bovines - dairy produce, and the role of technology in the contamination of the food chain. The present status of research undertaken jointly by organizations in the three countries is reviewed. In the Atlantic environment the experiments involved four annual crops consumed on a large scale: potatoes, sugar beet, carrots and peas, and in the Mediterranean environment several perennial species such as vine, olive, orange and apple were studied. The results obtained relate to the residence time for tritium in the various organs of each species, the part played by evapotranspiration and the physiological functions of the different parts of the plants, the uptake of tritium by tissue water and organic matter, and the distribution of tritium in the soil profile. (author)

  16. Danube Soya – Improving European GM-free soya supply for food and feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krön Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Soya Association is an international, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental association promoting sustainable and GMO**-free soya production along the Danube River Basin – from Switzerland to the Black Sea. Founded in 2012 the association counts today more than 200 members from the whole value chain and civil society in 16 European countries. The members share the vision of a protein transition towards more European and more sustainable protein sources for food and feed. The Danube Area is an area of large potential agricultural surpluses and Danube Soya promotes the idea of using these surpluses to replace a part of the imported soya. The goals of the association are to increase value-added in the rural economies of Central Eastern Europe, promote European cooperation as well as a production of constant and sustainable local soya sources. The Danube Soya Association runs a certification scheme that reaches from soya seeds all the way to final products, which can be labelled with the consumer label “Fed with Danube Soya” (for animal products and “Danube Soya” (for soya food products. Together with its partners, the Danube Soya Association implements and supports dissemination and research projects on different topics.

  17. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches...... within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well...... as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...

  18. Combining Satellite Data and Models to Assess Vulnerability to Climate Change and Its Impact on Food Security in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloua Rochdane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes satellite and socioeconomic data to explore the relationship between food and wood demand and supply, expressed in terms of net primary production (NPP, in Morocco. A vulnerability index is defined as the ratio of demand to supply as influenced by population, affluence, technology and climate indicators. The present situation (1995–2007, as well as projections of demand and supply, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Scenarios A2 and B2, are analyzed for a 2025 horizon. We find that the food NPP demand increased by 34.5%, whereas the wood consumption NPP demand decreased by 19.3% between 1995 and 2007. The annual NPP required to support the population’s food and wood appropriation was 29.73 million tons of carbon (MTC in 2007, while the landscape NPP production for the same year was 60.24 MTC; indicating that the population appropriates about 50% of the total NPP resources. Both scenarios show increases in demand and decreases in supply. Under A2, it would take more than 1.25 years for terrestrial ecosystems in Morocco to produce the NPP appropriated by populations in one year. This number is 0.70 years under B2. This already high vulnerability for food and wood products is likely to be exacerbated with climate changes and population increase.

  19. An Agri-food Supply Chain Model to Enhance the Business Skills of Small-scale Farmers Using Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi Sutopo; Muh. Hisjam; Yuniaristanto

    2012-01-01

    In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC) should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC) model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities t...

  20. Survey the Outbreak of Giardiasis Among Food Supply and Distribution Staff of South Pars Economic Zone Petrochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Niazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Giardiasis is one of the parasitic infections in the gastrointestinal tract which caused by flagellate protozoa that called giardia and it causes diarrhea. Giardia cysts defecate from infected people. These cysts can enter the body through contaminated hands, water, and food products. Diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pains, growth failure, malabsorption of carbohydrates, fats and vitamins are the giardiasis symptoms. Methods: In this study, samples were taken from 203 people that were working in different food supply and distribution centers in the South Pars petrochemical. After sampling, samples were analyzed according to standard procedures. The results of examinations were studied after verification them by laboratory chief and their related physicians. Results: Out of the whole examined people in this study, kitchen (28% and salad maker (14% centers were the maximum and minimum population, respectively. 8.87% of the total populations were infected by giardia, which salad making center had the greatest share. As well as, the rate of infectious by giardia among the administrative and dishes washing centers was the lowest. Conclusion: Education level and personal hygiene such as hand washing with a detergent can be important in reducing infection due to giardia. So, the training of workers and also periodic testing of individuals can reduce these pollutants.

  1. Understanding Transferable Supply Chain Lessons and Practices to a “High-Tech” Industry Using Guidelines from a Primary Sector Industry: A Case Study in the Food Industry Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E.; Coronado, Etienne S.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a “high-tech” industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a “high-tech” industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in “low-tech” industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived “low-tech” industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a “high-tech” industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a “low-tech” industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry. PMID:25821848

  2. Understanding transferable supply chain lessons and practices to a "high-tech" industry using guidelines from a primary sector industry: a case study in the food industry supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E; Coronado Mondragon, Christian E; Coronado, Etienne S

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility and innovation at creating shapes, adapting processes, and modifying materials characterize composites materials, a "high-tech" industry. However, the absence of standard manufacturing processes and the selection of materials with defined properties hinder the configuration of the composites materials supply chain. An interesting alternative for a "high-tech" industry such as composite materials would be to review supply chain lessons and practices in "low-tech" industries such as food. The main motivation of this study is to identify lessons and practices that comprise innovations in the supply chain of a firm in a perceived "low-tech" industry that can be used to provide guidelines in the design of the supply chain of a "high-tech" industry, in this case composite materials. This work uses the case study/site visit with analogy methodology to collect data from a Spanish leading producer of fresh fruit juice which is sold in major European markets and makes use of a cold chain. The study highlights supply base management and visibility/traceability as two elements of the supply chain in a "low-tech" industry that can provide guidelines that can be used in the configuration of the supply chain of the composite materials industry.

  3. Evolution of Stored-Product Entomology: Protecting the World Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, David W; Phillips, Thomas W

    2017-01-31

    Traditional methods of stored-product pest control were initially passed from generation to generation. Ancient literature and archaeology reveal hermetic sealing, burning sulfur, desiccant dusts, and toxic botanicals as early control methods. Whereas traditional nonchemical methods were subsequently replaced by synthetic chemicals, other traditional methods were improved and integrated with key modern pesticides. Modern stored-product integrated pest management (IPM) makes decisions using knowledge of population dynamics and threshold insect densities. IPM programs are now being fine-tuned to meet regulatory and market standards. Better sampling methods and insights from life histories and ecological studies have been used to optimize the timing of pest management. Over the past 100 years, research on stored-product insects has shifted from being largely concentrated within 10 countries to being distributed across 65 countries. Although the components of IPM programs have been well researched, more research is needed on how these components can be combined to improve effectiveness and assure the security of postharvest food as the human population increases.

  4. An art report to analyze internal and external research status for the establishment of the safe supply system of the foods for military meal service using ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jang Ho; Jo, Cheol Hun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, You Seok

    2003-09-01

    Since the risk of food-borne pathogenic diseases such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella always remains in the military meal service system, it is necessary to develop the method to eliminate this problem. According to the preference survey of military meals, it is shown that soldiers preferred the improvement in quality such as tastes and variety to the increase in quantity. For this reason, the supply of diverse foods, improvement of cooking methods, and the complement of meal service facilities are required. The developed countries such as the United States maintain the facilities to control the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and oxygen and they develop and use the rapid methods to test the storage times of each category of foods based on the theoretical studies of food storage/preservation/processing and their experimental data. Due to the ordinary sanitation methods are gradually limited all over the world, as new technology for prevention of food-borne diseases and establishment to manufacture wholesome food, a radiation technology is very effective to ensure safe food and preservation/distribution, improve the safety of processed food and its manufacturing processes. And, the military meal service including combat rations furnishes viability, energy, ability for duty, and mental rest to soldiers. Furthermore, it ensures combat capabilities, enhances mobility power of troops, improves combat efficiency, and establishes the military supply system. It is necessary to study irradiation technique in order to establish the safe food supply system for military meal service and eliminate contamination such as food-borne disease for combat crews as an essential element in military power

  5. THE ROLE OF CONSUMERS IN THE TRANSITION TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD SUPPLY. THE CASE OF GRUPPI DI ACQUISTO SOLIDALE (SOLIDARITY PURCHASING GROUPS IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Randelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of ethical consumers in the transition process towards a sustainable food supply. The questions that immediately come to mind are: can the consumers put changes in motion in the established food supply regime? Which are the mechanisms hindering a transition driven by consumers? In order to answer to these questions we analyse the case of Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale (Solidarity Purchasing Groups in Italy, as a support for a broader reflection to the topic. The growing dissatisfaction with the established food supply, dominated by the duopoly supermarket-global food supplier, has driven a few pioneers to search for new solutions. In the case of Italy, consumers have organized themselves into informal networks, in order to purchase quality food together from local farmers. They are motivated by the meeting of social, ethical and environmental needs (providing sustainable food and support local farmers which were not served in the beginning by incumbent firms and they operate in the social economy as community groups.

  6. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification, supplement to: Ramajo, L; Marba, Núria; Prado, Luis; Peron, Sophie; Lardies, Marco A; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Vargas, C A; Lagos, Nelson A; Duarte, Carlos M (2016): Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2025-2037

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, L; Marba, Nú ria; Prado, Luis; Peron, Sophie; Lardies, Marco A; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Vargas, C A; Lagos, Nelson A; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    to control (pH 8.0) and low pH (pH 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth

  7. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2014-04-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern.

  8. Increased affluence explains the emergence of ascetic wisdoms and moralizing religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Hyafil, Alexandre; Morris, Ian; Boyer, Pascal

    2015-01-05

    Between roughly 500 BCE and 300 BCE, three distinct regions, the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Ganges Valley, saw the emergence of highly similar religious traditions with an unprecedented emphasis on self-discipline and asceticism and with "otherworldly," often moralizing, doctrines, including Buddhism, Jainism, Brahmanism, Daoism, Second Temple Judaism, and Stoicism, with later offshoots, such as Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam. This cultural convergence, often called the "Axial Age," presents a puzzle: why did this emerge at the same time as distinct moralizing religions, with highly similar features in different civilizations? The puzzle may be solved by quantitative historical evidence that demonstrates an exceptional uptake in energy capture (a proxy for general prosperity) just before the Axial Age in these three regions. Statistical modeling confirms that economic development, not political complexity or population size, accounts for the timing of the Axial Age. We discussed several possible causal pathways, including the development of literacy and urban life, and put forward the idea, inspired by life history theory, that absolute affluence would have impacted human motivation and reward systems, nudging people away from short-term strategies (resource acquisition and coercive interactions) and promoting long-term strategies (self-control techniques and cooperative interactions). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Díaz

    Full Text Available Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish.This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2 testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i sustained fast growth, ii sustained slow growth, iii accelerated growth, iv decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish.Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex

  10. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2) testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i) sustained fast growth, ii) sustained slow growth, iii) accelerated growth, iv) decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish. Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex differentiation; however

  11. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  12. Spatial and tidal variation in food supply to shallow cold-water coral reefs of the Mingulay Reef complex (Outer Hebrides, Scotland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, G.C.A.; Jeffreys, R.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Davies, A.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Watmough, T.; Witbaard, R.

    2012-01-01

    The finding of a previously undescribed cold-water coral reef (Banana Reef) in the Scottish Mingulay reef complex, with denser coverage of living Lophelia pertusa than the principal Mingulay 1 Reef, was the incentive for a comparative study of the food supply to the 2 reefs. Suspended particulate

  13. Temporal changes in deep-sea sponge populations are correlated to changes in surface climate and food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Amanda S.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-01

    Density and average size of two species of abyssal sponges were analyzed at Station M (∼4100 m depth) over an 18-year time-series (1989-2006) using camera sled transects. Both sponge taxa share a similar plate-like morphology despite being within different families, and both showed similar variations in density and average body size over time, suggesting that the same factors may control the demographics of both species. Peaks in significant cross correlations between increases in particulate organic carbon flux and corresponding increases in sponge density occurred with a time lag of 13 months. Sponge density also fluctuated with changes in two climate indices: the NOI with a time lag of 18 months and NPGO with a time lag of 15 months. The results support previous suggestions that increased particulate organic carbon flux may induce recruitment or regeneration in deep-sea sponges. It is unknown whether the appearance of young individuals results from recruitment, regeneration, or both, but the population responses to seasonal and inter-annual changes in food supply demonstrate that sponge populations are dynamic and are capable of responding to inter-annual changes despite being sessile and presumably slow-growing.

  14. Can a community of practice equip public health nutritionists to work with remote retail to improve the food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Stacey; Ferguson, Megan; Brimblecombe, Julie; Palermo, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence on practice of a community of practice designed for public health nutritionists who work with retail stores in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. A descriptive evaluation of the community of practice participants' perspectives using the most significant change technique and individual in-depth interviews was conducted. Data were analysed using thematic and content analysis with a focus on answering the evaluation questions. Twelve public health nutritionists employed to work with remote Indigenous community stores were involved. The community of practice was reported to develop competence through problem solving, knowledge sharing and building confidence for innovative work. Building competence was achieved through accessible and timely professional support. Sharing stories and being encouraged to reflect on practice was valued and supported the participant's practice. Working to improve the food supply is challenging but there is value in being supported by like-minded colleagues to stay focused on this work. Most participants perceived the community of practice intervention to be an effective strategy to improve their work. These findings provide evidence of a promising intervention for building the public health nutrition workforce in remote Indigenous community store retail settings.

  15. Can Arable Land Alone Ensure Food Security? The Concept of Arable Land Equivalent Unit and Its Implications in Zhoushan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Tan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The requisition–compensation balance of farmlands (RCBF is a strict Chinese policy that aims to ensure food security. However, the process of supplementing arable land has substantially damaged the ecological environment through the blind development of grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands to supplement arable land. Can arable land alone ensure food security? To answer this question, this study introduced the concepts of arable land equivalent unit (ALEU and food equivalent unit (FEU based on the idea of food security. Zhoushan City in Zhejiang Province, China was selected as the research area. This study analyzed the ALEU supply and demand capabilities in the study area and presented the corresponding policy implications for the RCBF improvement. The results showed that the proportion of ALEU from arable land and waters for aquaculture is from 46:54 in 2009 to 31:69 in 2015, thereby suggesting that aquaculture waters can also be important in food security. Under three different living standards (i.e., adequate food and clothing, well-off, and affluence, ALEU from arable land can barely meet the needs of the permanent resident population in the study area. However, ALEU from aquaculture waters can provide important supplementation. Therefore, we suggest that food supply capability from land types other than the arable land be taken seriously. Furthermore, RCBF can be improved with ALEU as core of the balance.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  17. Affluence as a predictor of vaccine refusal and underimmunization in California private kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Louise-Anne; Desemone, Cristina; DeNicola, Erica; El Chebib, Hassan; Nadeau, Jessica A; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Shaw, Jana

    2016-03-29

    Non-medical vaccine exemption rates in California private schools far exceed those of public schools, but little is known about specific factors which may be associated with high exemption rates in private schools. The percent of personal-belief exemptions (PBEs) among California public and private kindergartens were computed for 2000-2001 to 2014-2015 academic years. For the 2014-2015 academic year, a random sample of private schools was selected to investigate associations between kindergarten characteristics (tuition amount, religious affiliation) and vaccine profile (non-medical vaccine exemptions, vaccine coverage). The proportion of private kindergartens reporting 5% or more children with PBEs increased from 9% (2000-2001) to 34% (2013-2014), followed by a small decrease in 2014-2015 (31%). Overall, 93.7% (565/605) of kindergartens sampled in 2014-2015 had data available. Very high PBE levels (>20%) were seen among secular and non-Catholic, Christian kindergartens but not Roman Catholic, Jewish or Islamic kindergartens. However, the majority of schools at all tuition levels had fewer than 5% of children with a PBE. Kindergartens with an annual tuition of $10,000 or more were over twice as likely to have 20% or more children with PBEs than kindergartens with a lower tuition (ptuitions of $10,000 or more were 39% compared to 22% for less expensive kindergartens (pprivate kindergartens had 95% coverage of the MMR (49%) and pertussis-containing vaccines (51%). School-entry vaccination requirements are critical to preventing outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases in the US. Nonmedical exemptions increased between the 2000-2001 and 2014-2015 academic years and appear to be associated with affluence, raising social justice concerns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Capital, Perceived Economic Affluence, and Smoking During Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Kleio; Kritsotakis, George; Linardakis, Manolis; Ratsika, Nikoleta; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastas

    2017-01-28

    Smoking is among the health risk behaviors taken up by many adolescents with lifelong consequences and associations with multiple health risk behaviors. Smoking and smoking initiation in adolescence involves an interaction between micro-, meso-, and macro systems, including neighborhoods and the greater community. To examine the associations of individual social and economic capital with self-reported health, life satisfaction, and smoking behavior in adolescents. Using a multistage random sampling of junior high school students (16-18 years old) in Crete, Greece, 703 adolescents (90.2% 16 years old; 55.6% girls, participation rate 84.2%) completed an anonymous questionnaire based on HBSC study and the Youth Social Capital Scale (YSCS) during April-June 2008. Multiple logistic regression models were performed adjusted for potential confounders. Adolescents with high participation in their neighborhoods and communities (higher structural social capital) displayed lower odds for daily smoking; those feeling unsafe (lower cognitive social capital) were at greater odds of daily smoking. Adolescents with less friends and acquaintances had lower odds of having tried tobacco products. Smoking was not related to any economic capital variables (perceived affluence, paternal and maternal employment status). Adolescents with low/medium versus high total social capital were at higher odds for low life satisfaction and fair/bad versus excellent self-rated health. Conclusions/Importance: Social capital theory may provide a better understanding in identifying the social context that is protective or harmful to adolescents' smoking. Public health organizations at all levels need to incorporate social capital theory in their interventions.

  19. The future of food tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Yeoman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The authors identify five driving forces of changes that are shaping the discourses about food tourism. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – The approach used by this paper is a general review. Findings – The five driving forces identified are: food tourism as political capital; food tourism as a visionary state; what it means to be a foodie; the drive for affluence and exclusivity; fluid experiences in a post-modernist world. Originality/value – The five drivers of change are identified as the core of any food tourism strategy for policy makers.

  20. The Analysis of Orders of Perishable Goods in Relation to the Bullwhip Effect in the Logistic Supply Chain of the Food Industry: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocholáč, Jan; Průša, Petr

    2016-12-01

    The bullwhip effect generally refers to the phenomenon where order variability increases as the orders move upstream in the supply chain. It is serious problem for every member of the supply chain. This effect begins at customers and passes through the chain to producers, which are at the end of the logistic chain. Especially food supply chains are affected by this issue. These chains are unique for problems of expiration of goods (particularly perishable goods), variable demand, orders with quantity discounts and effort to maximize the customer satisfaction. This paper will present the problem of the bullwhip effect in the real supply chain in the food industry. This supply chain consists of approximately 350 stores, four central warehouses and more than 1000 suppliers, but the case study will examine 87 stores, one central warehouse and one supplier in 2015. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the order variability between the various links in this chain and confirmation of the bullwhip effect in this chain. The subject of the analysis will be perishable goods.

  1. Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Nadine; Jeffries, Jayne K; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Kharmats, Anna; McDermott, Ann Yelmokas; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-12-01

    Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. Factorial design randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA. Stores were randomized to pricing intervention, communications intervention, combined pricing and communications intervention, or control. Stores that received the pricing intervention were given a 10-30 % price discount by wholesalers on selected healthier food items during the 6-month trial. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests and refrigerators. All interventions showed significantly increased stock of promoted foods v. There was a significant treatment effect for daily unit sales of healthy snacks (β=6·4, 95 % CI 0·9, 11·9) and prices of healthy staple foods (β=-0·49, 95 % CI -0·90, -0·03) for the combined group v. control, but not for other intervention groups. There were no significant intervention effects on storeowner psychosocial factors. All interventions led to increased stock of healthier foods. The combined intervention was effective in increasing sales of healthier snacks, even though discounts on snacks were not passed to the consumer. Experimental research in small stores is needed to understand the mechanisms by which store-directed price promotions can increase healthy food supply and demand.

  2. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  3. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William

    2008-01-01

    , it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence......, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together...... with ideas for future development of the measure....

  4. Genetic Relatedness Among Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated Along the Animal Food Supply Chain and in Gastroenteritis Cases in Qatar Using Multilocus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Srikanth; Chang, YuChen; Scaria, Joy; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Peters, Kenlyn E; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli has been listed among the most important bacteria associated with foodborne illnesses around the world. We investigated the genetic relatedness among Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated along the animal food supply chain and from humans diagnosed with gastroenteritis in Qatar. Samples were collected from different sources along the food supply chain and from patients admitted to the hospital with complaints of gastroenteritis. All samples were screened for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC using a combination of bacterial enrichment and molecular detection techniques. A proportional sampling approach was used to select positive samples from each source for further multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Seven housekeeping genes described for STEC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed by MLST. Isolates were characterized by allele composition, sequence type (ST) and assessed for epidemiologic relationship within and among different sources. Nei's genetic distance was calculated at the allele level between sample pools in each site downstream. E. coli O157:H7 occurred at a higher rate in slaughterhouse and retail samples than at the farm or in humans in our sampling. The ST171, an ST common to enterotoxigenic E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, was the most common ST (15%) in the food supply chain. None of the genetic distances among the different sources was statistically significant. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenic strains are present along the supply chain at different levels and with varying relatedness. Clinical isolates were the most diverse, as expected, considering the polyclonal diversity in the human microbiota. The high occurrence of these food adulterants among the farm products suggests that implementation of sanitary measures at that level might reduce the risk of human exposure.

  5. Consideration of food wastage along the supply chain in lifecycle assessments: A mini-review based on the case of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna Karin; Cánovas, Alba; Valle, Rogerio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, increased light has been shed on the large amounts of food wasted along the food supply chain (FSC). As lifecycle assessments (LCAs) are commonly used for estimations of environmental impacts from food production, it is relevant to investigate and discuss how such wastage is reflected in foodstuff LCAs. The objective of the present paper is to review a larger set of LCAs of foodstuff in order to (1) investigate if and how wastage along the FSC is addressed and (2) explore the importance of including wastage accumulated along the FSC in terms of environmental impacts. Twenty-eight LCA case studies and two review papers, focusing on tomatoes, were reviewed and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions chosen as indicator for the second objective. Only one third of the studies consider wastage at some part of the supply chain, in many cases in an inconsistent manner, and only in nine cases were GHG emissions from wastage included in overall systems GHG emissions. In these, wastage accounts for between 2 and 33% of total contribution to climate change. Omitting wastage when conducting LCA of foodstuff could result in underestimations of environmental impacts. Occurrence of wastage along all phases of the supply chain should be acknowledged in order to estimate environmental benefits from prevention and to identify areas where strategies with the aim of reducing wastage could be most efficient.

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  7. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  8. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs

  9. Adjusting energy expenditures to energy supply: food availability regulates torpor use and organ size in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Muñoz, José L P; Naya, Daniel E; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P

    2007-05-01

    We studied how food abundance and consumption regulates torpor use and internal organ size in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans (Dielphidae), a small nocturnal marsupial, endemic in southern South America. We predicted that exposure to food rations at or above the minimum energy levels necessary for maintenance would not lead to any signs of torpor, while reducing food supply to energy levels below maintenance would lead to marked increases in frequency, duration and depth of torpor bouts. We also analyzed the relationship between food availability and internal organ mass. We predicted a positive relationship between food availability and internal organ size once the effect of body size is removed. Animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups and fed either 70, 100 or 130% of their daily energy requirement (DER). We found a positive and significant correlation between %DER and body temperature, and also between %DER and minimum body temperature. In contrast, for torpor frequency, duration and depth, we found a significant negative correlation with %DER. Finally, we found a significant positive correlation between the %DER and small intestine and ceacum dry mass. We demonstrate that when food availability is limited, T. elegans has the capacity to reduce their maintenance cost by two different mechanisms, that is, increasing the use of torpor and reducing organ mass.

  10. Coping with chaos: unpredictable food supplies intensify torpor use in an arid-zone marsupial, the fat-tailed dunnart ( Sminthopsis crassicaudata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J.; Kern, Pippa; McAllan, Bronwyn M.

    2010-06-01

    The severity, duration and amplitude of extreme weather events are forecast to intensify with current climate trends, over both long (e.g. seasonal) and short (e.g. daily) time-scales. As such, the predictability of food supplies for many small endotherms is likely to become increasingly important. Numerous small mammals and birds combat food shortages using torpor, a controlled reduction in metabolic rate and body temperature that helps lower their daily energy requirements. As such, torpor often has been cited as a key feature allowing some small endotherms to survive highly unpredictable climates, such as tropics or dry deserts, but mensurative demonstrations of this are lacking. We have shown here that when a small desert marsupial, the fat-tailed dunnart ( Sminthopsis crassicaudata), is offered unpredictable levels of daily food, they increase frequency of daily torpor and length of bouts compared with animals offered ad libitum food, but this was not found for animals offered a 70% food-restricted diet. Our data suggest that simple food restriction may not be sufficient for evaluating the efficacy of torpor as a strategy for managing unpredictable climates.

  11. Anthropogenic Food Subsidy to a Commensal Carnivore: The Value and Supply of Human Faeces in the Diet of Free-Ranging Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. A. Butler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, particularly human faeces (i.e., coprophagy have not previously been fully quantified. In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy. Free-ranging dog diets, body condition, and sociology were studied amongst 72 dogs over 18 months using scat analysis and direct observations. Human faeces constituted the fourth most common item in scats (56% occurrence and contributed 21% by mass to the observed diet. Human faeces represented a valuable resource because relative to other food items it was consistently available, and of higher nutritional value than ‘sadza’ (maize porridge, the human staple and primary human-derived food, yielding 18.7% crude protein and 18.7 KJ/kg gross energy, compared to 8.3% and 18.5 KJ/kg for sadza, respectively. Human faeces had protein and energy values equivalent to mammal remains, another important food item. Dog condition was generally good, with 64% of adult females and 74% of adult males in the highest two body condition scores (on a five point scale, suggesting a plentiful and high quality food supply. Dogs largely fed alone, perhaps as a consequence of the small, inert, and spatially dispersed items that comprise their diet, and its abundance. We discuss the relationships between sanitation, human development, the supply of human faeces, female dog fertility, and population control.

  12. The Emerging Geopolitics of Food: A Strategic Response to Supply Risks of Critical Imports for the Dutch Agro-Food Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de M.; Jong, de S.; Selleslaghs, J.; Achterbosch, T.J.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Berkhout, P.; Heide, van der M.

    2013-01-01

    Interdependencies in the field of food, agriculture, and raw materials are growing. Global population growth, rising prosperity, and changing consumption patterns in emerging economies have increased the demand for all three. Geopolitical trends shape global markets for food, agriculture, and raw

  13. Role of Waterborne Pathogens in the Food Supply Chain: Implications to Risk Management with Local and Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) in the food industry is used to support HACCP – which largely focuses on bacterial pathogen control in processing foodstuffs Potential role of microbially-contaminated water used in food production is not as well understood Emergence...

  14. Toward the prevention of childhood undernutrition: Diet diversity strategies using locally produced food can overcome gaps in nutrient supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Geelhoed, Diederike; Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    nutritious food baskets (FNFB) by stepwise addition of micronutrient-dense local foods. Results. Only the top quintile of Mozambican households, using average expenditure data, could afford the FNFB that was designed using linear programming from a spectrum of local standard foods. The addition of beef heart...... programming, to investigate whether diet diversification using local foods should be prioritized in order to reduce the prevalence of chronic undernutrition. Methods. Market prices of local foods were collected in Tete City, Mozambique. Linear programming was applied to calculate the cheapest possible fully...... or liver, dried fish and fresh moringa leaves, before applying linear programming decreased the price by a factor of up to 2.6. As a result, the top three quintiles could afford the FNFB optimized using both diversification strategy and linear programming. CDFPs, when added to the baskets, were unable...

  15. Exploring the Relations, Bargaining Forms and Dynamics of the EU Food Supply Chain under the Perspective of the Key Actors: Evidence from Greece and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Galanopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  The objective of this paper is to offer qualitative and quantitative insights on the perceptions of the actors in the EU food supply chain on a broad spectrum of topics that characterise its operation and conduct, highlighting also potential differences in North and South European countries. Issues explored pertained to actors’ relations with up- and downstream partners, the future dynamic and challenges of the food sector, the influence of policy intervention and attitudes towards genetically modified products (GMPs and organic production. For this purpose, a total of 34 food supply chain actors in Denmark and Greece were interviewed using a semi-structured interview process. A comparative analysis of the interviews pinpointed many similarities in the behaviour and the perceptions of the Greek and Danish farmers, cooperatives, processors and retailers alike. Still, while it is evident that companies and farmers of both countries struggle with a lot of the same problems, several differences in perceptions are also identified. These refer mainly to attitudes towards mergers and acquisitions, innovations, GMPs and the effects and limitations of EU policy intervention.

  16. National income and income inequality, family affluence and life satisfaction among 13 year old boys and girls: a multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequ...

  17. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  18. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe: Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, S.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries' economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  19. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe : Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, Susanne; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, Ellen

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries’ economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  20. Item response drift in the Family Affluence Scale: A study on three consecutive surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, C. W.; Makransky, G.; Kreiner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparable data on socio-economic position (SEP) is essential to international studies on health inequalities. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) has used the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) on material assets. The present study used data collected from adolescents in eight countries...

  1. On the practice and theory of affluence and poverty: some reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Kuitenbrouwer (Joost)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractOne of the major contradictions in the world of today surely is the fact that most third World countries, although the majority of their population is involved in agriculture, are not in a position to feed themselves and have to import food on a large scale. While agricultural and food

  2. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain.

  3. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原

    2003-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  4. Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2016-10-24

    Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p habits and decrease social inequalities in youth.

  5. A new version of the HBSC Family Affluence Scale - FAS III: Scottish Qualitative Findings from the International FAS Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Levin, Kate; Currie, Candace

    A critical review of the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) concluded that FAS II was no longer discriminatory within very rich or very poor countries, where a very high or a very low proportion of children were categorised as high FAS or low FAS respectively (Currie et al. 2008). The review concluded that a new version of FAS - FAS III - should be developed to take into account current trends in family consumption patterns across the European region, the US and Canada. In 2012, the FAS Development and Validation Study was conducted in eight countries - Denmark, Greenland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Scotland. This paper describes the Scottish qualitative findings from this study. The Scottish qualitative fieldwork comprising cognitive interviews and focus groups sampled from 11, 13 and 15 year-old participants from 18 of the most- and least- economically deprived schools. These qualitative results were used to inform the final FAS III recommendations.

  6. An information System for Food Safety Monitoring in Supply Chains based on HACCP, Blockchain and Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Feng

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid growth of China's economy, people's living standard has been increased continuously, which changed the consuming habit of consumers, and more and more attention is paid to food safety and quality. However, in recent years, a series of serious food safety incidents occurred, such as "Sudan red", "clenbuterol", "Sanlu toxic milk powder" and "trench oi". It is worth noting that not only in China, but even in Europe these kinds of scandals have broken out during the past 20 years, ...

  7. Innovative Agrifood Supply Chain Network: Leading to traditional, ¡°back to the future¡± foods

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevi Christina Sakali; Dimitris Skalkos

    2017-01-01

    non- economic environments, to changes in consumers’ lifestyles, from global increases in food consumption, to diminishing production base and now days from the not stable political and economic situation and the continuous global economic deceleration of growth. The challenges cannot be met by any individual enterprise but it requires concerted actions and coordination of initiatives within an effective food chain management. By utilizing basic concepts of innovation management techniques (I...

  8. Differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yui; Akamatsu, Rie; Tamaura, Yuki; Sakai, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiko; Tsutsuura, Satomi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items in hospitals and to find factors influencing the validity of a visual estimation method. There are two procedures by which we obtained the information on dietary intake of the patients in these hospitals. These are both by visual assessment from the meal trays at the time of their clearing, by the attending nursing staff and by weighing conducted by researchers. The following criteria are set for the target trays: A) standard or therapeutic meals, which are monitored by a doctor, for energy and/or protein and/or sodium; B) regular, bite-sized, minced and pureed meal texture, and C) half-portion meals. Visual assessment results were tested for their validity by comparing with the corresponding results of weighing. Differences between these two methods indicated the estimated and absolute values of nutrient intake. A total of 255 (76.1%) trays were included in the analysis out of the 335 possible trays and the results indicated that the energy consumption estimates by visual or weighing procedures are not significantly different (412 ± 173 kcal, p = 0.15). However, the mean protein consumption was significantly different (16.3 ± 6.7 g/tray, p food items were significantly misestimated for energy intake (66 ± 58 kcal/tray) compared to trays with no additions (32 ± 39 kcal/tray, p food items were significantly associated with increased odds of a difference between the two methods (OR: 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-13.85). There were high correlations between the visual estimation method and the weighing method measuring patients' dietary intake for various meal types and textures, except for meals with added supplied food items. Nursing staff need to be attentive to supplied food items. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical

  9. Innovative Agrifood Supply Chain Network: Leading to traditional, ¡°back to the future¡± foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Christina Sakali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available non- economic environments, to changes in consumers’ lifestyles, from global increases in food consumption, to diminishing production base and now days from the not stable political and economic situation and the continuous global economic deceleration of growth. The challenges cannot be met by any individual enterprise but it requires concerted actions and coordination of initiatives within an effective food chain management. By utilizing basic concepts of innovation management techniques (IMTs, and developing an innovative management (M.I. process we have applied innovation in two enterprises of the same traditional food chain for a three year period and evaluated the results based on the 12 different parameters developed by the innovation radar. The results show that the applied methodology had a major impact to the growth of both companies and the upgrade of their innovation capacity. In terms of the impact of the methodology within the food chain itself the success is evaluated based on the new, innovative, “BACK TO THE FUTURE” foods which were developed and promoted in the market by these companies and their close collaboration. Thus, we have developed a useful and valuable innovation practical tool available to managers of companies and to policy makers which can be used effectively for local development and regional growth of the agri food sector. Further research applying the methodology in agri food chains of other sectors such as dairy, meat etc., in bigger companies in the traditional and non-traditional sector is required in order to better evaluate its validity and effectiveness.

  10. Stakeholder discussion to reduce population-wide sodium intake and decrease sodium in the food supply: a conference report from the American Heart Association Sodium Conference 2013 Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Elliott M; Appel, Lawrence J; Balentine, Douglas; Johnson, Rachel K; Steffen, Lyn M; Miller, Emily Ann; Pappas, Antigoni; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-06-24

    A 2-day interactive forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing sodium in the food supply and to identify opportunities for stakeholder collaboration. Participants included 128 stakeholders engaged in food research and development, food manufacturing and retail, restaurant and food service operations, regulatory and legislative activities, public health initiatives, healthcare, academia and scientific research, and data monitoring and surveillance. Presentation topics included scientific evidence for sodium reduction and public health policy recommendations; consumer sodium intakes, attitudes, and behaviors; food technologies and solutions for sodium reduction and sensory implications; experiences of the food and dining industries; and translation and implementation of sodium intake recommendations. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted to allow for sharing of current practices, insights, and expertise. A well-established body of scientific research shows that there is a strong relationship between excess sodium intake and high blood pressure and other adverse health outcomes. With Americans getting >75% of their sodium from processed and restaurant food, this evidence creates mounting pressure for less sodium in the food supply. The reduction of sodium in the food supply is a complex issue that involves multiple stakeholders. The success of new technological approaches for reducing sodium will depend on product availability, health effects (both intended and unintended), research and development investments, quality and taste of reformulated foods, supply chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference facilitated an exchange of ideas and set the stage for potential collaboration opportunities among stakeholders with mutual interest in reducing sodium in the food supply and in Americans' diets. Population-wide sodium reduction remains a critically important component of

  11. Ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after long-term exposure to nanodiamonds supplied with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    The biosafety of nanoparticles and the potential toxicity of nanopollutants and/or nanowastes are all currently burning issues. The increased use of nanoparticles, including nanodiamonds (ND), entails the real risk of their penetration into food chains, which may result in the contamination of animal and, as a result, human food. Knowledge about changes in the ultrastructure of tissues in organisms that have been exposed to ND is still very limited. The aim of the study was to describe the ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after exposure to different concentrations of ND (0, 20 or 200 μg g(-1) - control, ND20 and ND200 groups, respectively) administered with food over a five-week period. The ultrastructure of the foregut, midgut and hindgut was assessed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A number of changes in the structure of the gut in crickets that had consumed nanodiamond-contaminated food were observed. The epithelium of the midgut and hindgut were clearly damaged by ND, although the foregut was not affected. A positive relationship between the ND concentration in food and the degree of damage to the structure of epithelial cells was observed. Autophagy, especially mitophagy and reticulophagy, was activated in relation to the appearance of ND particles. A putative ND toxicity mechanizm is proposed. Extreme caution should be maintained when using nanodiamonds on a large scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of implementation of a healthy food and drink supply strategy throughout the whole school environment in Queensland state schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M; Lee, A; Bright, M; Turner, K; Edwards, R; Dawson, J; Miller, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of the Smart Choices healthy food and drink supply strategy for Queensland schools (Smart Choices) implementation across the whole school environment in state government primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. Three concurrent surveys using different methods for each group of stakeholders that targeted all 1275 school Principals, all 1258 Parent and Citizens' Associations (P&Cs) and a random sample of 526 tuckshop convenors throughout Queensland. Nine hundred and seventy-three Principals, 598 P&Cs and 513 tuckshop convenors participated with response rates of 78%, 48% and 98%, respectively. Nearly all Principals (97%), P&Cs (99%) and tuckshop convenors (97%) reported that their school tuckshop had implemented Smart Choices. The majority of Principals and P&Cs reported implementation, respectively, in: school breakfast programs (98 and 92%); vending machine stock (94 and 83%); vending machine advertising (85 and 84%); school events (87 and 88%); school sporting events (81 and 80%); sponsorship and advertising (93 and 84%); fundraising events (80 and 84%); and sporting clubs (73 and 75%). Implementation in curriculum activities, classroom rewards and class parties was reported, respectively, by 97%, 86% and 75% of Principals. Respondents also reported very high levels of understanding of Smart Choices and engagement of the school community. The results demonstrated that food supply interventions to promote nutrition across all domains of the school environment can be implemented successfully.

  13. Key environmental challenges for food groups and regions representing the variation within the EU, Ch.3 Salmon Aquaculture Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been ch...... chosen: • Orange juice • Beef and dairy • Aquaculture (salmon)...

  14. Impact of Research on Development in Cameroon: convergence between supply and research needs in the food sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkoua, J.R.; Temple, L.

    2016-07-01

    The study analyse the convergence of research priorities to development issues especially from the agricultural and food sector in terms of environmental protection and improvement of the business climate, due to weak institutional interconnection devices. Two types of data are used: bibliometric data and a survey of enterprises. Altogether, 1214 and 1708 bibliographic references were generated from WoS and Scopus respectively (from a total of 9146 and 10 557 publications) in Agriculture, Food and Environment for the period 1991- 2015 subject to the condition that the author or at least one of the authors is affiliated to an institution based in Cameroon. A total of 317 agro-food companies were identified from the National Institute enterprise’s census. The overall message is a relative weak convergence between development priorities identified from perceptions over agricultural and food companies and research works expressed in the scientific literature. This reflects the weak link between research institutions (universities, research centers) and professional milieus that shape entrepreneurship (firms, policy makers) for guidance of scientific production. (Author)

  15. Extreme poverty and affluence, the two sides of our world. Energy, raw materials, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, G

    1987-07-01

    The author discusses the different economic situtions in the industrialized and in the developing parts of the world, and the resulting fears of the populations. These feelings of fear and apprehension are traced back to their manifold causes, discussing among others unsecure raw material supply and the damage to the environment, hostile attitudes towards industrial exploitation or technical sciences, the role of the press and other media in the 'making' of fear of life, the fear of becoming slave of the machines. The problems' solution lies in the supply and utilisation of energy, and any efforts towards maintaining our natural environment so that life may go on will have to be based, the author says, on the technological development from nuclear power to thermonuclear fusion. (HSCH).

  16. Measurement of Multiple Vitamin K Forms in Processed and Fresh-Cut Pork Products in the U.S. Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyan; Shen, Xiaohua; Finnan, Emily G; Haytowitz, David B; Booth, Sarah L

    2016-06-08

    Vitamin K food composition data have historically been limited to plant-based phylloquinone (vitamin K1). The purpose of this study was to expand analysis of vitamin K to animal products and to measure phylloquinone and 10 forms of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in processed and fresh-cut pork products. Nationally representative samples of processed pork products (n = 28) were obtained through USDA's National Food and Nutrition Analysis Program, and fresh pork (six cuts; n = 5 per cut) and bacon (n = 4) were purchased from local retail outlets. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (phylloquinone and menaquinone-4) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (menaquinone-5 to menaquinone-13). Although low in phylloquinone (processed pork products and fresh pork cuts contained menaquinone-4, menaquinone-10, and menaquinone-11 (range: [35.1 ± 11.0]-[534 ± 89.0] μg of menaquinones per 100 g). The total menaquinone contents of processed pork products were correlated with fat contents (r = 0.935). In summary, processed and fresh-cut pork products are a rich dietary source of menaquinones that are currently unaccounted for in assessment of vitamin K in the food supply.

  17. Strengths and weaknesses in the supply of school food resulting from the procurement of family farm produce in a municipality in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Martinelli, Suellen Secchi; Melgarejo, Leonardo; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Cavalli, Suzi Barletto

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess compliance with school food programme recommendations for the procurement of family farm produce. This study consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilising a qualitative approach based on semistructured interviews with key informants in a municipality in the State of Santa Catarina in Brazil. Study participants were managers and staff of the school food programme and department of agriculture, and representatives of a farmers' organisation. The produce delivery and demand fulfilment stages of the procurement process were carried out in accordance with the recommendations. However, nonconformities occurred in the elaboration of the public call for proposals, elaboration of the sales proposal, and fulfilment of produce quality standards. It was observed that having a diverse range of suppliers and the exchange of produce by the cooperative with neighbouring municipalities helped to maintain a regular supply of produce. The elaboration of menus contributed to planning agricultural production. However, agricultural production was not mapped before elaborating the menus in this case study and an agricultural reform settlement was left out of the programme. A number of weaknesses in the programme were identified which need to be overcome in order to promote local family farming and improve the quality of school food in the municipality.

  18. Food supply and actions to improve dietary behaviour of students - a comparison between secondary schools participating or not participating in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Ivon E J; Mikolajczak, Jochen; van den Berg, Saskia W; van de Veen-van Hofwegen, Madelon; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2015-02-01

    (i) To identify determinants of participation in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program', a programme that encourages schools to set up their canteen in a way that promotes healthy dietary behaviour. (ii) To compare food supply and actions between participating and non-participating schools. (iii) To investigate what reasons schools have to increase attention for nutrition in the curriculum. A cross-sectional study based on information from questionnaires performed in 2010/2011. All secondary schools (age group 12-18 years) in the Netherlands (n 1145). Response was 33 % (n 375). Analyses included all schools with a canteen in which food is offered (28 %, n 325). None of the investigated determinants was associated with participation. Participating schools offered significantly (P schools. However, there was no difference in the number of less healthy products offered (e.g. candy bars, cakes and regular soft drinks). Participating schools reported more often that they took actions to improve dietary behaviour and more often had a policy on nutrition. Participating schools more often increased attention for nutrition in the curriculum in recent years than non-participating schools (57 % v. 43 %, P = 0·01). Reported reasons were similar and included media attention, eating behaviour of students and 'overweight'. Schools that participate in the programme seemed to offer more healthy products in their canteens and took more actions to improve dietary behaviour than non-participating schools. However, at all schools less healthy foods were also available.

  19. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Meixner; Rainer Haas; Helmut Moosbrugger; Philipp Magdits

    2013-01-01

    Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the applic...

  20. Passive ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for single-item identification in food supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, composition, size, and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable radio frequency (RF identifiers for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags could originate simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the reading performance of ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for multiple static and dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered when arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate of different factors, among which the product type, the gate configuration, the field polarisation, the power output of the RF reader, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were statistically analysed and compared.

  1. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  2. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The

  3. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U.

    1999-01-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  4. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Physics Dept.

    1999-06-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  5. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  6. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  7. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains: case of green bean chain in Kenya versus hot pepper chain in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, Archileo N; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, Pieternel A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High-risk context characteristics combined with basic FSMS are expected to increase the risk on unsafe produce. In Uganda both farmers and export traders of hot peppers operate in a high- to moderate-risk context but have basic FSMS and low systems output. In Kenya, both farmers and export traders of green beans operate in a low- to moderate-risk context. The farmers have average performing FSMS, whereas export trade companies showed more advanced FSMS and system output scores ranging from satisfactory to good. Large retailers supplying the EU premium market play a crucial role in demanding compliance with strict voluntary food safety standards, which was reflected in the more advanced FSMS and good system output in Kenya, especially traders. In Kenya, a clear shift in more fit-for-purpose FSMS and higher system output was noticed between farms and trade companies. In the case of Uganda, traders commonly supply to the less demanding EU wholesale markets such as ethnic specialty shops. They only have to comply with the legal phytosanitary and pesticide residue requirements for export activities, which apparently resulted in basic FSMS and low system output present with both farmers and traders. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. OFERTA ALIMENTARIA: LOS CONSUMIDORES Y SUS EXPECTATIVAS OFERTA ALIMENTAR: CONSUMIDORES E SUAS EXPECTATIVAS FOOD SUPPLY: CONSUMERS AND THEIR EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Sylvan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En un siglo de progresos significativos en salud para una gran parte del mundo, lo último que los consumidores podrían haber esperado al finalizar el milenio es que los antiguos problemas de seguridad alimentaria se vieran intensificados por la introducción de nuevos métodos y de la aplicación de nuevas tecnologías en la agroindustria. Los consumidores y los ciudadanos en general han reaccionado con indignación por el riesgo al que han sido expuestos por el gobierno y los expertos. Aunque presentadas como opciones con base estrictamente científica, muchas de las decisiones relativas a la seguridad alimentaria y al comercio de alimentos a niveles nacionales o internacionales contienen un significativo elemento de interés ético, muchas veces no identificado o ignoradoEm um século de significativos progressos para a saúde de uma grande parte do mundo, o que menos poderiam os consumidores esperar ao finalizar o milênio era o fato de que antigos problemas de segurança alimentar sofressem acentuação como resultado da introdução de novas tecnologias agro-industriais. Os consumidores e os cidadãos, de um modo geral, reagiram com indignação ante o risco que são expostos por iniciativa do governo e especialistas. Ainda que apresentadas como opções viáveis e calcadas em base estritamente científicas, muitas das decisões relativas à segurança alimentar e ao comércio de alimentos em níveis nacionais e/ou internacionais contém significativos elementos de interesse ético, muitas vezes não identificados ou, até mesmo, ignoradosIn a century of significant improvements in health for many in the world, the last thing consumers expected at the close of this millennium was that the old problems of food safety would be intensified due to the introduction of new methods and technologies in the agri-business domain. Consumers and citizens have often reacted angrily at the risk that governments and experts have been willing to expose

  9. Inter-annual cascade effect on marine food web: A benthic pathway lagging nutrient supply to pelagic fish stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohengrin Dias de Almeida Fernandes

    Full Text Available Currently, spatial and temporal changes in nutrients availability, marine planktonic, and fish communities are best described on a shorter than inter-annual (seasonal scale, primarily because the simultaneous year-to-year variations in physical, chemical, and biological parameters are very complex. The limited availability of time series datasets furnishing simultaneous evaluations of temperature, nutrients, plankton, and fish have limited our ability to describe and to predict variability related to short-term process, as species-specific phenology and environmental seasonality. In the present study, we combine a computational time series analysis on a 15-year (1995-2009 weekly-sampled time series (high-resolution long-term time series, 780 weeks with an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model to track non-seasonal changes in 10 potentially related parameters: sea surface temperature, nutrient concentrations (NO2, NO3, NH4 and PO4, phytoplankton biomass (as in situ chlorophyll a biomass, meroplankton (barnacle and mussel larvae, and fish abundance (Mugil liza and Caranx latus. Our data demonstrate for the first time that highly intense and frequent upwelling years initiate a huge energy flux that is not fully transmitted through classical size-structured food web by bottom-up stimulus but through additional ontogenetic steps. A delayed inter-annual sequential effect from phytoplankton up to top predators as carnivorous fishes is expected if most of energy is trapped into benthic filter feeding organisms and their larval forms. These sequential events can explain major changes in ecosystem food web that were not predicted in previous short-term models.

  10. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper.

  11. Local scale water-food nexus: Use of borehole-garden permaculture to realise the full potential of rural water supplies in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Halcrow, Alistair W; Schmalfuss, Janine; Stark, John A; Truslove, Jonathan P; Kumwenda, Steve; Harawa, Kettie A; Nhlema, Muthi; Songola, Chrispine; Wanangwa, Gift J; Miller, Alexandra V M; Kalin, Robert M

    2018-03-01

    Local-scale opportunities to address challenges of the water-food nexus in the developing world need to be embraced. Borehole-garden permaculture is advocated as one such opportunity that involves the sustainable use of groundwater spilt at hand-pump operated borehole supplies that is otherwise wasted. Spilt water may also pose health risks when accumulating as a stagnant pond. Rural village community use of this grey-water in permaculture projects to irrigate borehole gardens is proposed to primarily provide economic benefit whereby garden-produce revenue helps fund borehole water-point maintenance. Water-supply sustainability, increased food/nutrition security, health protection from malaria, and business opportunity benefits may also arise. Our goal has been to develop an, experience-based, framework for delivery of sustainable borehole-garden permaculture and associated benefits. This is based upon data collection and permaculture implementation across the rural Chikwawa District of Malawi during 2009-17. We use, stakeholder interviews to identify issues influencing uptake, gathering of stagnant pond occurrence data to estimate amelioration opportunity, quantification of permaculture profitability to validate economic potential, and critical assessment of recent permaculture uptake to identify continuing problems. Permaculture was implemented at 123 sites representing 6% of District water points, rising to 26% local area coverage. Most implementations were at, or near, newly drilled community-supply boreholes; hence, amelioration of prevalent stagnant ponds elsewhere remains a concern. The envisaged benefits of permaculture were manifest and early data affirm projected garden profitability and spin-off benefits of water-point banking and community micro-loan access. However, a diversity of technical, economic, social and governance issues were found to influence uptake and performance. Example issues include greater need for improved bespoke garden design input

  12. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger.

  13. The impact of anthropogenic food supply on fruit consumption by dusky-legged guan (Penelope obscura Temminck, 1815: potential effects on seed dispersal in an Atlantic forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcellos-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Frugivorous birds are important seed dispersers and influence the recruitment of many plant species in the rainforest. The efficiency of this dispersal generally depends on environment quality, bird species, richness and diversity of resources, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we compared the sighting number of dusky-legged guans (Penelope obscura by km and their movement in two areas of Serra do Japi, one around the administrative base (Base where birds received anthropogenic food and a pristine area (DAE with no anthropogenic resource. We also compared the richness of native seeds in feces of birds living in these two areas. Although the abundance of P. obscura was higher in the Base, these individuals moved less, dispersed 80% fewer species of plants and consumed 30% fewer seeds than individuals from DAE. The rarefaction indicated a low richness in the frugivorous diet of birds from the Base when compared to the populations from DAE. We conclude that human food supply can interfere in the behavior of these birds and in the richness of native seeds dispersed.

  14. Critical Review of the Effects of Glyphosate Exposure to the Environment and Humans through the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a synthesis product and chemical substance that entered in the global market during the 70s. In the beginning, the molecule was used as an active principle in a wide range of herbicides, with great success. This was mainly due to its systemic and non-selective action against vegetable organisms and also to the spread of Genetically Modified Organism (GMO crops, which over the years were specifically created with a resistance to glyphosate. To date, the product is, for these reasons, the most sprayed and most used herbicide in the world. Because of its widespread diffusion into the environment, it was not long before glyphosate found itself at the center of an important scientific debate about its adverse effects on health and environment. In fact, in 2015 the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, an organization referred to as the specialized cancer agency of the World Health Organization (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, classified the substance as “likely carcinogenic” to humans. This triggered an immediate and negative reaction from the producer, who accused the Agency and claimed that they had failed to carry out their studies properly and that these conclusions were largely contradictory to published research. Additionally, in 2015, just a few months after the IARC monography published on glyphosate, the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy, another WHO related organization, declared that it was “unlikely” that the molecule could be carcinogenic to humans or that it could cause any type of risk to human health. The conflict between the two organizations of the World Health Organization triggered many doubts, and for this reason, a series of independent studies were launched to better understand what glyphosate’s danger to humans and the environment really was. The results have brought to light how massive use of the herbicide has created over time a real global contamination that has

  15. Impact of WHO recommendations to eliminate industrial trans-fatty acids from the food supply in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Campos, Hannia

    2014-08-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has deemed that there is enough evidence to recommend the elimination of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the food supply. This article evaluates government-led public health strategies in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and factors perceived to affect following WHO's recommendation to eliminate industrially produced TFA. Descriptive, prospective multiple case studies integrated data from open-ended questionnaires to representatives of ministries of health, and systematic review of internal and publicly available documents in 13 LAC countries. Overall, government efforts to follow WHO recommendations have not been well co-ordinated throughout the region. Evidence for this includes the lack of standardization of TFA definitions. For example, some countries exclude naturally occurring TFA from the definitions, whereas others leave the option open to their inclusion. As a consequence, the criteria for trans-free nutrient claims and labelling requirements are inconsistent across the region. Government-led strategies varied from banning or limiting TFA content in the food supply to voluntary labelling of TFA. The identified challenges to the implementation of policies to reduce TFA include the shortage of information on TFA content of diets and foods, consumer unawareness of TFA and lack of monitoring and surveillance. The identified enabling factors were intersectoral collaboration with industry, mandatory labelling regulation and international and national visibility of the topic, which facilitated reduction of TFA content. A co-ordinated effort is required to achieve virtual elimination of all TFA in the region, as recommended by WHO. Standardization of the definition of TFA across the region would facilitate regulation, consumer education efforts and monitoring and surveillance efforts. Simultaneously, countries need to determine their level of exposure to TFA through the implementation of

  16. 21 CFR 1403.33 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplies. 1403.33 Section 1403.33 Food and Drugs... Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest, upon acquisition, in...

  17. Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Voráčová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001 and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001 were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05 and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05. In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001, fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05, sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001 and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05, and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05. These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth.

  18. Sustainability assessment of one industrial region: A combined method of emergy analysis and IPAT (Human Impact Population Affluence Technology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaoman; Geng, Yong; Dong, Huijuan; Ulgiati, Sergio; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Zuoxi; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Sun, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Resource over-exploitation and resource depletion have received increasing attentions, especially for industrial regions. In this paper an innovative method that combines emergy analysis and an IPAT (Human Impact Population Affluence Technology) equation is developed in order to create an integrated framework for uncovering the driving forces on resource consumption in one industrial region. Liaoning province, one of the old heavy industrial bases in China, is selected as the case study region. The main results show that total emergy of Liaoning province increased from 9.25E + 23 sej in 2002 to 1.92E + 24 sej in 2012, with 165% growth on non-renewable emergy and 250% growth on imported emergy. Regional emergy/RMB ratio was higher than other developed regions and the average value of China, indicating that this province consumed more local free non-renewable resources to support its own development. The lower ESI (emergy sustainability index) indicates that Liaoning province's sustainability is still weak and far away from sustainable development. IPAT analysis further identifies that rapid economic growth was the main driving force to increase its total emergy use, while technology innovation offset the increase of total emergy use. Policy insights suggest that industrial regions should improve their energy efficiency and optimize their economic and energy structure by applying economic instruments and capacity building efforts. - Highlights: • Emergy analysis and IPAT are combined to evaluate the sustainability of Liaoning. • Total emergy of Liaoning increased from 2002 to 2011 and then decreased in 2012. • Economic scale is the key driving force to induce higher emergy consumption. • Valuable policy insights are proposed in order to promote sustainable development.

  19. Integration and self regulation of quality management in Dutch agri-food supply chains : a cross-chain analysis of the poultry meat, the fruit and vegetable and the flower and potted plant chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaggenhoef, van W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction During the last decade, concerns about quality and safety in agri-food supply chains have been raised. Several sector-wide crises, such as the BSE and the dioxin crises, classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease and Aviaire Influenza have fuelled these concerns. These

  20. AuNP-RF sensor: An innovative application of RF technology for sensing pathogens electrically in liquids (SPEL) within the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Leann Lerie; Karuppuswami, Saranraj; Chahal, Premjeet; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2018-07-15

    Rapid detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria in the liquid food supply chain are of significant research interest due to their pivotal role in preventing foodborne outbreaks, and in maintaining high standards of public health and safety. Milk and dairy products are of particular interest due to their widespread consumption across the globe. In this paper, a biosensor for detecting pathogenic bacteria in milk using dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (d-AuNP) as labels decoded at microwave frequencies is presented. The SPEL (sensing pathogens electrically in liquids) biosensor consists of a 3D printed vial and uses an RF reader and an RFID (radio-frequency identification) compatible Split Ring Resonator (SRR) based tag. The SPEL biosensor is capable of detecting bacteria at 5 log CFU/mL within 75 min, with the possibility of testing multiple concurrent samples. Detection is based on impedance loading of SRR by d-AuNP bound to pathogenic bacteria. Spectrophotometry, along with carbohydrate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) cell capture, is used to verify the sensitivity of the SPEL biosensor with respect to d-AuNP presence. The proof-of-concept device, along with challenges and opportunities for commercialization, are also outlined. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  2. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  3. Evaluating the hydrological functioning and the supply of water provisioning services to support the ecosystem-water-food-energy nexus in the Arno river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Willaarts, Barbara; Caporali, Enrica; Schroeder Esselbach, Boris

    2017-04-01

    Water, flowing in a basin, underpins key provisioning ecosystem services like freshwater supply, food and energy production. River basin management largely determines the type of water-related ecosystem services (WES) that are provided and the extent to which trade-offs and synergies might arise. Gaining insights on the ecohydrological behavior of a basin and on the conflicting anthropic pressures on the available water resources allows to identify the most important WES, as well as the existence of WES supply and demand hotspots. This information is crucial for water resources management and, in the context of the European Union, also required to comply with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this research is to quantify the provisioning WES in the upstream part of the Arno river basin (Central Italy) and identify WES hotspots and fluxes. Current information on how water is allocated in the Arno basin remains scarce, despite the increasing water demand by some sectors, particularly irrigation, and a number of emerging conflicts among users. It is expected that research outputs can support the improvement of the existing management framework, moving from the classical DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact e Response) approach, where impacts must be reduced or mitigated, to a more proactive framework to support the sustainability of the Arno basin and meet the different policy goals. The eco-hydrological model SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) is applied to spatially quantify the provision of WES. The preliminary results of this research indicate that the highest amount of water yield, i.e. net amount of water that contributes to streamflow and represents the main blue water fund, originates in the northern part of the basin, characterized by forest areas. In contrast, the southern part of the basin, which is mainly agriculturally used, gives a minor contribution to the overall water yield, in direct proportion to the

  4. Highly resistant Salmonella Newport-MDRAmpC transmitted through the domestic US food supply: a FoodNet case-control study of sporadic Salmonella Newport infections, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Jay K; Marcus, Ruthanne; Stenzel, Sara A; Hanna, Samir S; Gettner, Sharmeen; Anderson, Bridget J; Hayes, Tameka; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Crume, Tessa L; Joyce, Kevin; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Voetsch, Andrew C; Angulo, Frederick J

    2006-07-15

    A new multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain of Salmonella serotype Newport, Newport-MDRAmpC, has recently emerged. We sought to identify the medical, behavioral, and dietary risk factors for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Newport infection, including that with Newport-MDRAmpC. A 12-month population-based case-control study was conducted during 2002-2003 in 8 sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), with 215 case patients with Salmonella Newport infection and 1154 healthy community control subjects. Case patients with Newport-MDRAmpC infection were more likely than control subjects to have taken an antimicrobial agent to which Newport-MDRAmpC is resistant during the 28 days before the onset of diarrheal illness (odds ratio [OR], 5.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.6-16]). Case patients with Newport-MDRAmpC infection were also more likely to have eaten uncooked ground beef (OR, 7.8 [95% CI, 1.4-44]) or runny scrambled eggs or omelets prepared in the home (OR, 4.9 [95% CI, 1.3-19]) during the 5 days before the onset of illness. International travel was not a risk factor for Newport-MDRAmpC infection but was a strong risk factor for pansusceptible Salmonella Newport infection (OR, 7.1 [95% CI, 2.0-24]). Case patients with pansusceptible infection were also more likely to have a frog or lizard in their household (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.1-7.7]). Newport-MDRAmpC infection is acquired through the US food supply, most likely from bovine and, perhaps, poultry sources, particularly among persons already taking antimicrobial agents.

  5. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout; Radiakproblem inom livsmedelssektorn: En studie inriktad paa behoven foer beslutsfattande i tidigt skede efter radioaktivt nedfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs.

  6. Fornecimento de hortifrutigranjeiros para unidades de alimentação e nutrição hospitalares The supply of fruits and vegetables for food and nutrition hospitals units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Petter Schneider

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O fornecimento de hortifrutigranjeiros para o setor hospitalar é um importante segmento dentro da cadeia de suprimento agroalimentar. Este fornecimento demanda altos padrões de qualidade, incluindo o cumprimento de normas higiênico-sanitárias, padrão do tamanho, da forma, da procedência, da isenção de resíduos e agrotóxicos, entre outros. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o processo atual de fornecimento de hortifrutigranjeiros e identificar as necessidades e exigências das unidades hospitalares. A metodologia empregada foi a de estudo de múltiplos casos. Foram analisados os hospitais do município de Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e a Central de Abastecimento e Distribuição de Hortifrutigranjeiros e seus distribuidores. Os resultados obtidos demonstram, por parte dos hospitais, grande preocupação quanto ao atual método de fornecimento, bem como a necessidade de um fornecimento especializado. No que se refere aos fornecedores, verificou-se o descumprimento de fatores considerados indispensáveis pelos hospitais, entre os quais o controle na utilização de agrotóxicos, as condições higiênico-sanitárias, a procedência e as condições de transporte. Como conclusão, verificou-se que o fornecimento atual não é eficiente e se dá de maneira inadequada, não atendendo a maioria dos requisitos hospitalares de fornecimento. Sugere-se a implementação da metodologia de Análise dos Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle, das Boas Práticas de Fabricação, do Gerenciamento da Cadeia de Suprimentos e do Cooperativismo, como propostas para a otimização do fornecimento.The food and vegetables supply to hospitals is an important part of food supply channel. This supply demands, among others, high patterns of quality, including size, shape, origin, low levels of residuals and pesticides, as well as the accomplishment of hygiene and sanitary rules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current process of food and

  7. Sweden's primary production and supplies of food - Possible consequences of a lack of fossil energy; Sveriges primaerproduktion och foersoerjning av livsmedel - Moejliga konsekvenser vid en brist paa fossil energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Widerberg, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Norberg, Ida; Berlin, Johanna; Engstroem, Jonas; Svanaeng, Karin; Lorentzon, Katarina; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Pettersson, Ola

    2013-07-01

    This report provides an insight into what may be the consequences for Sweden's food supply if the ability to import sufficient quantities of fossil energy decreases. The situation described is an imaginary situation that arose quickly and unexpectedly by political unrest or natural disaster. There has thus been no preparation for the situation. The length of the crisis is set to a period of 3-5 years. During that time, there is assumed no technological development or other structural change, that will change conditions compared to the current situation. If the crisis becomes more prolonged it will however gradually force major changes. Today's food supply in Sweden and much of the world depends on a constant supply of fossil energy. In the production of food is used, for example, large amounts of diesel, heating oil and mineral fertilizers. This applies to primary production of vegetables and animal breeding but also to a high degree of for user-industries , which ensures that the raw materials become finished food products for consumers. Between the different stages there are transport's in many directions that depend on fossil energy. Three different scenarios are termed low deprivation, lack of resources and high deprivation. They represent different failure scenarios where the availability of fossil energy is assumed to decrease. The three levels are tentatively set as a decrease of 25%, 50% and 75% compared with current levels. These percentages are set as initial discussion-levels from which calculations have been made of how the different stages of production will be affected.

  8. Housing the Citizen-Consumer in Post-war Britain: The Parker Morris Report, Affluence and the Even Briefer Life of Social Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefford, Alistair

    2018-06-01

    This article examines debates about the design and provision of post-war housing within the papers and report of the Parker Morris committee. It does so to show how the models of citizens' rights and expectations which underpinned post-war welfare provision were transformed by mass affluence and the dynamic sphere of commercial consumption. Parker Morris's deliberations demonstrate that, as early as the 1950s, the citizen-subject was reimagined as a consuming individual, with requirements based on their expressive needs and consuming desires, and that this had far-reaching consequences for social democratic systems of universal welfare provision. The introduction of consumerist imperatives into publicly defined models of citizens' needs enhanced the political and cultural authority of the commercial domain, prompted a heightened role for commercial experts and market logics within public governance, and served to devalue socialized forms of provision in favour of consumer choice in the private market. The article thus engages with the growing scholarship on the politics of mass consumerism by showing how the material and emotional comforts of post-war affluence came to be constructed as critical to social democratic citizenship and selfhood. Situating this uneasy entanglement of social democratic rights with consumer satisfaction as part of a wider trajectory of political change, the piece suggests that Parker Morris marks an early but significant moment in the transition from post-war welfarism and social democracy to the consumer- and market-oriented forms of governance which came to dominate British politics and society in the latter part of the twentieth century.

  9. Can organic farming feed the world? : a contribution to the debate on the ability of organic farming systems to provide sustainable supplies of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulding, K.W.T.; Trewavas, A.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper Badgley et al. (2007) claimed that organic farming, if used worldwide, would provide sufficient food for a growing world population. The paper stimulated much critical response. Our paper makes a critical assessment of this claim for wheat, a major cereal crop and source of food

  10. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  11. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general...

  12. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  13. Beech-mast crop evaluation in Kněhyně forest complex (Beskydy Mts. Czech Republic) as a food supply for granivorous rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Čepelka, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-32 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : beech mountain forests * biomass of beechnuts harvest * diet supply for granivorous species Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  14. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  15. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  16. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  17. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  18. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  19. Principles in Halal Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Maznah Che Ghazali,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new framework to optimise the design of halal food supply chains, called the “Halal Supply Chain Model”. In this research the main logistics business processes are defined, which are the determinants for the halal supply chain performance.

  20. Measurement of multiple vitamin K forms in processed and fresh-cut pork products in the U.S. food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K food composition data have historically been limited to plant-based phylloquinone (vitamin K1). Recent reports from Europe attribute heart health benefits to menaquinones. The purpose of this study was to expand analysis of vitamin K to animal products, and measure phylloquinone and 10 f...

  1. Spatial and Supply/Demand Agglomeration Economies: An Evaluation of State- and Industry-Linkages in the U.S. Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Jeffrey P.; Morrison Paul, Catherine J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we postulate, measure, and evaluate the importance of cost-impacts from spatial and industrial spillovers for analysis of economic performance. To accomplish this, we incorporate measures of "activity levels" of related states and industries in a cost function model, and estimate their associated thick market and agglomeration effects in terms of shadow values and elasticities. We focus on the food processing sector, the proximity of own-industry activity in neighboring states...

  2. Influence of salinity, competition and food supply on the growth of Gobiosoma robustum and Microgobius gulosus from Florida Bay, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The code Gobiosoma robustum and clown Microgobius gulosus gobies were grown in the laboratory over 27 days at two salinities (5 and 35), two food levels [low (a fixed proportion of initial mass) and high (saturation)] and both with and without the presence of the other species. Both species exhibited greatest growth at the high food level and the low (5) salinity. Neither species was affected by the presence of the other species, and there were no overall differences in growth between the two species. Thus, the observed competitive superiority of G. robustum over M. gulosus does not seem to confer an advantage relative to feeding success. Furthermore, as growth of G. robustum was greater at the lower salinity, it is clear that some factor other than salinity is restricting this species from north-eastern Florida Bay. Additional work on the importance of predation and food resources in various regions of Florida Bay is needed to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the bay-wide distribution of these species. ?? 2004 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  4. Estimation of committed effective dose from radioactive caesium contained in kindergarten supply of food during one year after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Miho; Hayashi, Toru

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of contributing to an understanding about the situation of radioactive contamination of kindergarten lunch, contents of radioactive caesium and 40 K in lunch supplied by the attached kindergarten of Seitoku University was calculated by using the data on radioactive contamination of foodstuffs published by the Japanese Government. The average value of daily intake of radioactive caesium was estimated at lower than 1Bq and that of 40 K was 8.6Bq. Total amount of radioactive caesium in the lunch for one year was about 100Bq and that of 40 K was 1100Bq, resulting in a committed effective dose from radioactive caesium at about 1μSv. (author)

  5. Food and feed supply and waste disposal in the industrialising city of Vienna (1830-1913): a special focus on urban nitrogen flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlinger, Sylvia

    Taking an urban metabolism perspective, this article investigates food and feed consumption as well as flows of nitrogen in the city of Vienna during the industrial transformation. It addresses the question of the amount of agricultural products consumed in the city and their nitrogen content, their origin and their fate after consumption. Changes in dietary nitrogen flows in nineteenth century Vienna are embedded in the context of a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian to an industrial socio-metabolic regime. Similarities and differences in the size and dynamics of urban nitrogen flows in Vienna and Paris are discussed. Critical reading of historical sources and historical material flow accounting are the methodological backbone of this study. Between 1830 and 1913, inflows of dietary nitrogen into the city increased fivefold. Throughout the time period under observation, the urban waterscape was the most important sink for human and animal excreta. The amount of nitrogen disposed of in the urban waterscape via urban excreta increased sevenfold. The average daily consumption of nitrogen per capita was very similar to that in Paris, but the composition of foodstuff differed. In Vienna, the share of meat in food consumption was considerably higher. Both cities had to face the challenge of increasing output flows. However, urban authorities in Vienna and Paris came to different solutions of how to deal with this challenge. Besides institutional settings, the specific geomorphology of the cities as well as biogeographic factors such as the absorption capacity of the Danube in Vienna and the Seine in Paris mattered.

  6. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  7. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  8. Gestão da cadeia de suprimentos e a segurança do alimento: uma pesquisa exploratória na cadeia exportadora de carne suína Supply chain management and food safety: exploratory research into Brazil's pork export supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Talamini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação com a segurança dos alimentos propõe que as cadeias produtivas tenham maior domínio sobre o processo produtivo. A Gestão da Cadeia de Suprimentos, aqui genericamente tratada de SCM (Supply Chain Management, pode apresentar importante contribuição na obtenção de um processo mais uniforme ao longo da cadeia, facilitando o compartilhamento de informações e práticas produtivas. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal identificar a estrutura, as ligações e o nível de integração da Cadeia de Suprimentos da carne suína brasileira destinada à exportação, seguindo o modelo de Lambert et al. (1998, bem como as relações da SCM com a valorização de atributos da carne suína e a implementação de programas de segurança do alimento. A pesquisa empírica foi baseada em uma amostra de dez agroindústrias que atuam nesse setor, as quais foram responsáveis por aproximadamente 73% da quantidade de suínos abatidos em 2002. Os resultados mostram uma cadeia de suprimentos com forte influência da empresa focal (agroindústrias, cuja maioria das ligações com os demais níveis de fornecedores e compradores são do tipo gerenciadas. Estas constatações, somadas àquelas que revelam a importância da SCM na valorização de certos atributos da carne suína e na implementação de programas de segurança do alimento, colocam as agroindústrias como membros-chave para o direcionamento de políticas de promoção da segurança do alimento da carne suína brasileira.Growing concern about food safety indicates that supply chains play a predominant role in the productive process. The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM may contribute substantially toward a more uniform process throughout the chain, facilitating the sharing of information and productive practices. This paper discusses the structure, links and degree of integration of Brazil’s pork export supply chain based on the model of Lambert et al. (1998, and

  9. Measuring Dutch consumers' willingness-to-pay for ethically-improved foods and supply chains through the performance of experimental auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.

    for ethical benefits to be introduced in fish production, namely for those perceived to be associated with food safety. Nevertheless, these findings also point out that consumers' may not always value the ethical attributes they consider relevant in a consistent manner, especially if these seem to contradict......This paper presents the outcome of a pilot study on Dutch consumers' willingness-to-pay for fresh fish originating from production systems with different levels of ethical attributes, as estimated through the performance of experimental auctions. Fifteen Dutch citizens living in Noord......-Holland and being regular consumers of fresh fish were selected to participate in this study. Two experimental sessions were held in December 2003. Information regarding the subjects, their knowledge about fish production systems and the perceived relevance of different ethical attributes was collected prior...

  10. Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Strauss, Juliette A; Shepherd, Sam O; Keske, Michelle A; Cocks, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This review concludes that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and ageing impair the vasodilator response of the muscle microvasculature to insulin, exercise and VEGF-A and reduce microvascular density. Both impairments contribute to the development of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic age-related diseases. A physically active lifestyle keeps both the vasodilator response and microvascular density high. Intravital microscopy has shown that microvascular units (MVUs) are the smallest functional elements to adjust blood flow in response to physiological signals and metabolic demands on muscle fibres. The luminal diameter of a common terminal arteriole (TA) controls blood flow through up to 20 capillaries belonging to a single MVU. Increases in plasma insulin and exercise/muscle contraction lead to recruitment of additional MVUs. Insulin also increases arteriolar vasomotion. Both mechanisms increase the endothelial surface area and therefore transendothelial transport of glucose, fatty acids (FAs) and insulin by specific transporters, present in high concentrations in the capillary endothelium. Future studies should quantify transporter concentration differences between healthy and at risk populations as they may limit nutrient supply and oxidation in muscle and impair glucose and lipid homeostasis. An important recent discovery is that VEGF-B produced by skeletal muscle controls the expression of FA transporter proteins in the capillary endothelium and thus links endothelial FA uptake to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, potentially preventing lipotoxic FA accumulation, the dominant cause of insulin resistance in muscle fibres. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  11. Sheep milk yogurt from a short food supply chain: study of the microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters in relation to shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicla Marri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to analyse some microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters of sheep milk yogurt during and after its declared shelf-life. Five samples of a sheep’s milk yogurt of the same lot, collected from a short supply chain ovine dairy farm of the Roman province, were analysed. Declared shelf-life of the product was 30 days. The products were examined at 2, 14, 30, 35 and 40 days from the production date, performing the following microbiological analyses: enumeration of i colony-forming units characteristic of the yogurt, ii Enterobacteriaceae, iii yeasts and/or moulds at 25°C. Microbiological identification was performed by miniature biochemical tests and for the lactic acid bacteria also by PCR. At every test interval, evaluation of organoleptic parameters and pH was also performed. The analysed product maintained an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria until the end of the declared shelf-life. Concerning lactic acid bacteria, a 100% concordance of the results observed by using biochemical identification methods and PCR assays was obtained. After 14 days from the production, the presence of yeasts (Candida famata was revealed, while the presence of moulds was detected after 30 days. Ralstonia picketii, an environmental microorganism, was also isolated. The results obtained in this study indicate that yogurt spoilage is mainly due to the growth of specific microorganisms of spoilage, such as yeasts and moulds.

  12. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  13. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  14. Global patterns of socioeconomic biomass flows in the year 2000. A comprehensive assessment of supply, consumption and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gingrich, Simone; Lauk, Christian; Haberl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Human use of biomass has become a major component of the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. The use of land for biomass production (e.g. cropland) is among the most important pressures on biodiversity. At the same time, biomass is indispensable for humans as food, animal feed, raw material and energy source. In order to support research into these complex issues, we here present a comprehensive assessment of global socioeconomic biomass harvest, use and trade for the year 2000. We developed country-level livestock balances and a consistent set of factors to estimate flows of used biomass not covered by international statistics (e.g. grazed biomass, crop residues) and indirect flows (i.e. biomass destroyed during harvest but not used). We found that current global terrestrial biomass appropriation amounted to 18.7 billion tonnes dry matter per year (Pg/yr) or 16% of global terrestrial NPP of which 6.6 Pg/yr were indirect flows. Only 12% of the economically used plant biomass (12.1 Pg/yr) directly served as human food, while 58% were used as feed for livestock, 20% as raw material and 10% as fuelwood. There are considerable regional variations in biomass supply and use. Distinguishing 11 world regions, we found that extraction of used biomass ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 t/ha/yr, per-capita values varied between 1.2 and 11.7 t/cap/yr (dry matter). Aggregate global biomass trade amounted to 7.5% of all extracted biomass. An analysis of these regional patterns revealed that the level of biomass use per capita is determined by historically evolved patterns of land use and population density rather than by affluence or economic development status. Regions with low population density have the highest level of per-capita biomass use, high-density regions the lowest. Livestock, consuming 30-75% of all harvested biomass, is another important factor explaining regional variations in biomass use. Global biomass demand is expected to grow during the next decades

  15. Strategies for food longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genuchten, E.J.S.; Mulder, I.J.; Schaaf, N.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    Although food has been circular by nature, the current food supply chain has turned into an unfortunate linear system. The challenges of transitioning towards a sustainable food eco-system requires radical changes and new perspectives, where things are done differently. Starting with related work in

  16. Measuring the food and built environments in urban centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; Knai, Cecile; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The authors designed an instrument to measure objectively aspects of the built and food environments in urban areas, the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire, within the EU-funded project ‘Tackling the social and economic determinants of nutrition and physical activity for the prevention...... of obesity across Europe’ (EURO-PREVOB). This paper describes its development, reliability, validity, feasibility and relevance to public health and obesity research. Study design: The Community Questionnaire is designed to measure key aspects of the food and built environments in urban areas of varying...... levels of affluence or deprivation, within different countries. The questionnaire assesses (1) the food environment and (2) the built environment. Methods: Pilot tests of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire were conducted in five to 10 purposively sampled urban areas of different socio...

  17. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  18. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  19. The Future of Resilient Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donadoni, Mattia; Roden, Sinéad; Scholten, Kirstin

    This research aims to advance theoretical understanding around the management of supply chain disruptions through a multi-stage Delphi study on supply chain resilience. Stage one focused on polling academic experts followed by a second stage with practitioners from automotive, electronics and food...

  20. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  1. Ethical, religious and factual beliefs about the supply of emergency hormonal contraception by UK community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Bissell, Paul; Wingfield, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Community pharmacists' role in the sale and supply of emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) represents an opportunity to increase EHC availability and utilise pharmacists' expertise but little is known about pharmacists' attendant ethical concerns. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with 23 UK pharmacists to explore their views and ethical concerns about EHC. Dispensing EHC was ethically acceptable for almost all pharmacists but beliefs about selling EHC revealed three categories: pharmacists who sold EHC, respected women's autonomy and peers' conscientious objection but feared the consequences of limited EHC availability; contingently selling pharmacists who believed doctors should be first choice for EHC supply but who occasionally supplied and were influenced by women's ages, affluence and genuineness; non-selling pharmacists who believed EHC was abortion and who found selling EHC distressing and ethically problematic. Terminological/factual misunderstandings about EHC were common and discussing ethical issues was difficult for most pharmacists. Religion informed non-selling pharmacists' ethical decisions but other pharmacists prioritised professional responsibilities over their religion. Pharmacists' ethical views on EHC and the influence of religion varied and, together with some pharmacists' reliance upon non-clinical factors, led to a potentially variable supply, which may threaten the prompt availability of EHC. Misunderstandings about EHC perpetuated lay beliefs and potentially threatened correct advice. The influence of subordination and non-selling pharmacists' dispensing EHC may also lead to variable supply and confusion amongst women. Training is needed to address both factual/terminological misunderstandings about EHC and to develop pharmacists' ethical understanding and responsibility.

  2. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  3. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Porkka

    Full Text Available Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (15% of dietary energy supply increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  4. Food Service and Nutritional Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulty is that as we go into the Space Station world, the cost, effort, hardware, food trash, and food waste that the food service system will generate (which is quite tolerable on a 7 day mission), probably will be intolerable on a 90 day Space Station mission. The challenge in the food service supply is not so much packaging but systems engineering. The big constraints are in the supply pipeline. Those constraints and the possible tradeoffs are discussed.

  5. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors

  6. Local Foods and Food Cooperatives: Ethics, Economics and Competition Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.; Woods, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer interest in locally produced foods marketed through local food networks has been increasing. Local food networks utilize local supply chains such as direct market sales to consumers through CSAs, farmers markets, farm stands, and other alternative outlets. Our goal is to examine the role of food cooperatives in strengthening the local food networks and distributing locally produced products. We utilize data from a national study which includes case studies with three leading food co-...

  7. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Niclasen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use. Design. The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11–12 year-olds, and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23–2.06 (p<0.001, for reporting physical symptoms 1.34 (95% CI 1.06–1.68 (p=0.01 and for medicine use 1.79 (95% CI 1.42–2.26 (p<0.001. Stratification on age groups suggested that children in different age groups experience different health consequences of food insecurity. The oldest children reported food insecurity less often and experienced less negative health effects compared to the younger children. Conclusions. All 3 measures of health were negatively associated to the occurrence of food insecurity in Greenlandic school children aged 11–17. Food security must be seen as a public health issue of concern, and policies should be enforced to prevent food poverty particularly among boys, younger school children and children from low affluence

  8. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical/conceptual ......Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical...... of solutions that might assist production managers in better understanding their situation and thinking about improvements. Originality/Value of the paper: The paper introduces buyer focus, shared resources and the limitations of supply chain integration into the field of food supply chains....

  9. Developing the food supply chain in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Engels, Jeffrey E.; Sardaryan, Gagik

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of Armenia's planned economy resulted in the breakup of all Soviet vertically and horizontally established marketing arrangements in the agricultural sector. A decade later, distribution channels continue to be underdeveloped and are primarily integrated with processors which increases transaction costs and decreases efficiency. Due to the marketing, technical and financial support initiated by the USDA Marketing Assistance Project (1993- 2005) and continued by its Armenian legac...

  10. Reverse Logistics in Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeimpekis, V.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Bourlakis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse logistics can be defined as the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, and finished goods from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal. In environmental and economic

  11. Development of Environmentally Sustainable Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper

    Afhandlingen starter med forestillingen om, at der er et presserende behov for at udvikle mere miljøvenlige forsyningskæder, og at forskere bør spille en vigtig rolle i at finde den bedste måde at opnå den nødvendige omstrukturering af forsyningskæder. Samtidig anerkender denne forskning, at udvi...

  12. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  13. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  14. Household food waste in Nordic countries: Estimations and ethical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Gjerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B explanations for food waste at household level; (C a number of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives need to be developed to establish cultural habits replacing a focus on affluence and individual choice with a focus on participatory embeddedness in a more-than-human lifeworld.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1786

  15. Rural Dwellers' Knowledge of Nutrition and their Food Consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Food is the main source of good nutrition and we eat food to supply us with .... Table 3: Distribution of Respondents on Frequency of Food Consumption. Food Groups. F. (%). Never. F. (%) ..... they alone cannot solve the problem of malnutrition.

  16. Identifying sources of uncertainty to generate supply chain redesign strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic demands and constraints imposed by a rapidly changing business environment make it increasingly necessary for companies in the food supply chain to cooperate with each other. The main questions individual (food) companies face are whether, why, how and with whom they should start supply

  17. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Petzold, M.; Schnohr, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported...... by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use. Design. The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children...... in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk...

  18. Organic foods in Danish municipal school food systems – a multistakeholder analysis of available evidence on constraints and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Olsen, Tenna Doktor

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic supply and healthy eating initiatives in school food services share common features. Both types involves changes in supply, the collaboration of a number of different stakeholders and both include a physical food part as well as a non physical symbolic aspect. Studies have shown that introducing organic food in public food systems seems to affect the nutritional profile of the food service and anecdotal evidence suggest that organic supply forces food ...

  19. Socio-economic differences in outdoor food advertising in a city in Northern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Ganiti, Ellie; White, Martin

    2011-06-01

    To explore differences in the prevalence of outdoor food advertising, and the type and nutritional content of advertised foods, according to an area-based marker of socio-economic position (SEP) in a city in Northern England. All outdoor advertisements in the city were identified during October-December 2009, their size (in m2) estimated and their location determined using a global positioning system device. Advertisements were classified as food or non-food. Food advertisements were classified into one of six food categories. Information on the nutritional content of advertised foods was obtained from packaging and manufacturer's websites. An area-based marker of SEP was assigned using the location of each advertisement, grouped into three affluence tertiles for analysis. A city in Northern England. None. In all, 1371 advertisements were identified; 211 (15 %) of these were for food. The advertisements covered 6765 m2, of which 1326 m2 (20 %) was for food. Total advertising and food advertising space was largest in the least affluent tertile. There was little evidence of socio-economic trends in the type or nutritional content of advertised foods. Despite an absence of socio-economic differences in the type and nutritional content of advertised foods, there were socio-economic differences in food advertising space. There may also be socio-economic differences in exposure to outdoor food advertising.

  20. Competition around biomass. Development of a land use model for the derivative of possible future developments of the agriculture regarding the supply of food and energy biomass; Konkurrenz um Biomasse. Entwicklung eines Landnutzungsmodells zur Ableitung moeglicher zukuenftiger Entwicklungen in der Landwirtschaft hinsichtlich der Bereitstellung von Nahrungsmitteln und Energiebiomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, Stefan Markus

    2010-08-23

    In this work a land use model is developed, which derives possible developments of the agriculture regarding the supply from food and energy biomass. The comparative static model LaNuOpt is based on an optimization of the total land rent using linear optimization. The results are determined in scenarios with different market situations and political basic conditions. With a continuance of the current basic conditions the model computes a doubling of the biogas capacities. Classic procedures of the food production are displaced, depending upon accepted market price.As side effect greenhouse gas emissions are saved. With the help of the model further questions can be examined. (orig.)

  1. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  2. The role of food irradiation in food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeferstein, F.K.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce foodborne pathogens in food an improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. With the wholesomeness of irradiated food clearly established by extensive scientific studies, food irradiation has important roles to play in both ensuring food safety and reducing food losses. Food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (J.P.N.)

  3. Providing Sustainable Food in Urban Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for sustainable foods can be a driver for environmental improvements along the food-supply chain as a whole. Research in Western Europe has confirmed the importance of distribution channel s in supplying sustainable food and particularly in how they are able to combine consumer

  4. Tropical food chains: Governance regimes for quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Tilburg, van A.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    International supply chains of vulnerable tropical food products face major problems in the fields of quality performance and coordination between supply chain partners. Degradation and variability of quality, segmentation of supply networks and scattered production by smallholder producers could

  5. THE ROLE OF FARMERS IN MANAGING WATER Dr Tony Colman Professor Tony Allan Farmers manage about 92% of the water consumed by society which needs to recognise that farming practices and the decisions made by those who operate food supply chains - including corporates and those making public policy - determine how water is stewarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Title Food-water and society Dr. Tony Colman and Professor Tony Allan Abstract The purpose of the paper is to highlight some key relationships between water resources and society. First, water is an very important resource for society in that it provides an essential input to society's food supply chains. Secondly, it is an essential input to farmer livelihoods. About half of the families of the world still work in agriculture - albeit a declining proportion. Thirdly, farmers manage about 92% of the water consumed by society - including the blue water (surface and groundwater) for irrigation and the green water (effective rainfall) consumed on rainfed farms. They also account for about 66% of society's impacts on biodiversity and about 25% of emissions. Finally it will be argued that those who analyse allocation and management of water must recognise that farming practices and the decisions made by those who operate food supply chains - including corporates and those making public policy - must recognise that it is farmers and food consumers who determine how water is stewarded. It will be suggested that we need to understand that well informed consumers could be the regulators.

  6. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases

  7. Global supply chain: The consolidators’ role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Caiazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenges and opportunities of the global market lead agro-food small and medium firms (SMEs to focus their source of value on production of high quality goods and implementation of flexible and robust supply chains. Despite the relevance of consolidators in the supply chain, few articles demonstrate their role in internationalization strategies of SMEs. In order to fill this literature gap, this article shows factors that affect global success of SMEs and offers some advice to decision makers.

  8. The fishing industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling P.

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing supply chain aspects such as distribution planning and optimal use of raw materials are widely used. However, modelling based on a holistic chain view is less studied, and food-related aspects such as quality and shelf life issues enforce additional...... requirements onto the chains. In this paper, we consider the supply chain structure of the Danish fishing industry and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. This is a first step toward innovative supply chain modelling aimed to identify benefits...... for actors along chains in the fishing industry....

  9. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed

  10. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  12. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  13. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  14. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  15. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  16. Food sustainability, food security and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helms, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people

  17. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  18. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  19. Atomic energy and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    International activities aimed at improving, increasing and conserving food supplies are fostered in special ways by the Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established by the Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An examination of the processes by which food is produced and of the skills arising from nuclear techniques which are being applied is made here by Maurice Fried and Bjorn Sigurbjornsson. They are the Director and Deputy Director of the Joint Division, which is an integral part of both the Agriculture Department of FAO and of the Agency's Department of Research and Isotopes. (author)

  20. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.