Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda
Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.
Heilman, Madeline E.
Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)
This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...
Full Text Available Affirmative action was launched by American presidents J.F. Kennedy and L.B. Johnson, yet by ironic historical accident it attained its greatest expansion and most radical form during R. Nixon’s conservative administration. Affirmative action was originally a government programme aimed at improving the social position of Afro-Americans, mostly in the sphere of employment and education, as a kind of compensation for racial discrimination, and also other forms of social injustice suffered by minority and underprivileged groups. Its goal was to increase the proportion of Afro-Americans, and later members of other minorities, as well as women, in higher education institutions and in various types of employment. It was supported by many social researchers and activists. Law courts, namely their verdicts and explanations in the case of precedents, had an especially important role in the debate on affirmative action. Political conservatives attacked various affirmative action programmes (especially preferential enrolment quotas for minority students, basing their criticism on the American constitutional principles on equal rights for every citizen. Market conservatives, furthermore, claimed that the government’s policy of racial preference brought into question the very basis of the capital system (competition and at the same time was not in the interest of the Afro-American working class. Namely, the social strata that profited most was the relatively affluent segment of the Afro-American community, which only increased economic and social differences within the latter. Recently the debate on affirmative action in the US has not been limited only to two opposing sides (liberals and conservatives. More and more scientists and other participants have recognised the negative aspects and also the failures of affirmative action, while at the same time refuting conservative opinions and goals.
Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…
If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…
Discusses class-based, or economic, affirmative action, touted by the Bush administration as a race-neutral alternative to race-conscious affirmative action in college admissions. Explores whether such policies will result in fewer minority admissions and considers the "fairness" of the approach. (SLD)
Full Text Available IMGIP and ICEOP are minority graduate fellowship programs sponsored by the State of Illinois in order to increase the number of minority faculty and professional staff at Illinois institutions of higher education through graduate fellowships, networking and mentoring support. Nearly 850 fellowships have been awarded since 1986. A performance audit examined immediate (areas of graduate study, ethnicity of awards, intermediate (graduation areas and rates, and long-range results (academic job placement. The primary source for the audit was the database maintained by the programs' administrative office. These data were compared with data sets maintained by the Illinois Board of Higher Education and with national benchmarks (NSF and Ford Foundation Minority Graduate Fellowships. Findings revealed: (a the IMGIP and ICEOP programs led to major diversification of minority doctoral study in Illinois; (b a high percentage of all fellows graduated, both absolutely and in relation to national benchmarks, and fellows made up a large percentage of doctoral degrees awarded to minorities by Illinois institutions (e.g., 46% of doctorates in the hard sciences awarded to African Americans from 1988-1998; and (c fellows made up an important proportion of all minority faculty in Illinois (9%. Most ICEOP doctoral fellows and many other fellows have taken academic positions. The audit revealed outcomes-based evidence of a successful affirmative action program in higher educationevidence that is not otherwise available.
Pang, Valerie Ooka; Strom, David; Young, Russell L.
Explores the challenges of using affirmative action programs when competing groups of underrepresented people vie for limited school resources. The case study of a San Francisco (California) high school illustrates the difficulties of balancing competing goals when affirming diversity and addressing patterns of discrimination conflict with equal…
Thomas, R R
Affirmative action is based on a set of 30-year-old premises that badly need revising. White males are no longer dominant at every level of the corporation (statistically, they are merely the largest of many minorities), while decades of attack have noticeably weakened racial and gender prejudices. At the intake level, affirmative action quite effectively sets the stage for a workplace that is gender-, culture-, and color-blind. But minorities and women tend to stagnate, plateau, or quit when they fail to move up the corporate ladder, and everyone's dashed hopes lead to corporate frustration and a period of embarrassed silence, usually followed by a crisis-and more recruitment. Some companies have repeated this cycle three or four times. The problem is that our traditional image of assimilating differences-the American melting pot-is no longer valid. It's a seller's market for skills, and the people business has to attract are refusing to be melted down. So companies are faced with the task of managing unassimilated diversity and getting from it the same commitment, quality, and profit they once got from a homogeneous work force. To reach this goal, we need to work not merely toward culture- and color-blindness but also toward an openly multicultural workplace that taps the full potential of every employee without artificial programs, standards, or barriers. The author gives his own ten guidelines for learning to manage diversity by learning to understand and modify your company's culture, vision, assumptions, models, and systems.
McGinnis, James W.
The Bakke case is the latest and most serious challenge to the constitutionality of voluntary affirmative action programs. If Bakke is upheld, it could virtually wipe out efforts to include minorities in most professional schools and some government employment. (Author)
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action. 1607.13 Section 1607.13 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.13 Affirmative action. A. Affirmative action... relieve users of any obligations they may have to undertake affirmative action to assure equal...
Altman, Ellen; Promis, Patricia
Data about managerial positions and applicants were collected in an attempt to draw conclusions about the extent to which gender and ethnicity relate to the outcomes of the search and screen process for middle and senior management positions in academic libraries, and to determine any effects of affirmative action on promotion from within.…
Full Text Available Affirmative action embodies a model of compensatory justice which aims al counteracting Discrimination on account of race, colour, sex or creed. This article focuses on race because it has had a devastating effect on blacks in South Africa. The author tries to evaluate the moral merits of affirmative action. An analysis of the ideas of black American conservatives and a South African academic of a perhaps more liberal mind, is used as a means of questioning the widely prevalent liberal legacy. By highlighting its pretensions and inconsistencies a picture of the implications of affirmative action for South Africa emerges that is both a threat and a challenge. Equal opportunities d o not necessarily entail equal results. Other factors such as culture, world view and labour ethos should also be taken into account. The "legacy of dignity" (King is incompatible with the victim-status some blacks exploit. Much was done in South Africa before Julv 1991 that could be labelled affirmative action. The scrapping of the Population Registration A ct as the last pillar of apartheid has tremendous implications for the dignity of blacks. But history promises yet a number of traumatic decades of democratization of the South African community. Positively, affirmative action in South Africa will have tofocus on quality education, bridging courses to enable black students to compete on equal footing for admission, on training employees to qualify for special jobs, community upliftment, housing programmes and the improvement of health services. The most urgent need is the cultivation of a common value system.
van Wyk, Berte
In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…
The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.
Resnik, David B.
This article examines the legal and moral basis of affirmative action in science and engineering, in light of recent legal rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court. It argues that affirmative action programs can be morally and legally justified on the grounds that they enhance educational experiences and promote creativity, productivity, and success in…
Some affirmative action and diversity program critics are cheering President Barack Obama's election because they believe his success dramatically undermines the argument that discrimination remains a significant barrier for minorities in American life. Ward Connerly Jr., arguably the most visible anti-affirmative action activist in the United…
Pipes, Randolph B.
This article contains comments on the article by Vasquez and Jones (see record 2006-01690-003), which focuses on diversity and begins with a discussion of affirmative action. The current author discusses his own three related points: first, it is virtually impossible, in our current culture, to agree on what constitutes affirmative action and…
Marino, Kenneth E.
Applied a structural-contingency model to the particular adaptive situation created by Affirmative Action requirements. The model was supported among a sample of small manufacturing firms. Concludes that formalization is the predominant structural characteristic associated with Affirmative Action compliance. (Author)
Kolling, Alan T.
Reviews developments in the law regarding student affirmative action in college admission and financial aid, and reflects on the growing trend toward state referenda banning preferences based on race and gender. (Author)
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action policy... OF LABOR 250-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS... PROTECTED VETERANS Affirmative Action Program § 60-250.43 Affirmative action policy. Under the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action policy... OF LABOR 300-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS... MEDAL VETERANS Affirmative Action Program § 60-300.43 Affirmative action policy. Under the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action... OF LABOR 4-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.4 Affirmative action requirements. (a) To implement the affirmative action requirements of Executive Order 11246 in the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action policy... OF LABOR 741-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Affirmative Action Program § 60-741.43 Affirmative action...
Affirmative action is a subject of intense debate. Supporters point to the increased representation of women and minority groups while critics contend that affirmative action can lead to inefficiencies. In this paper we present results from two field experiments that were designed to test how applicants sort in response to affirmative action rules that favor of women. Our results suggest that the criticism of affirmative action is misplaced. We find that affirmative action does not lead to lo...
Muhammad, Habibah P.
Recent lawsuits and judgments brought against colleges and universities for enacting affirmative action policies are threatening to dismantle the core principles of the Bakke decision (Regents of the University of California v. Bakke) and undermine the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This paper discusses current issues and challenges that pertain to…
Describes how, during oral arguments at the U.S. Supreme Court over the University of Michigan's race-conscious admissions policy, several justices indicated that they did not see any viable alternatives to the use of affirmative action in college admissions. (EV)
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative actions. 83.3 Section 83...; Coverage § 83.3 Remedial and affirmative actions. (a) Remedial action. If the Director finds that an entity... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 422.804 Section 422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Affirmative action programs....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 22.804 Section 22.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Affirmative action programs....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1422.804 Section 1422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....804 Affirmative action programs....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 522.804 Section 522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Affirmative action programs....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 922.804 Section 922.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC... Affirmative action programs....
Andrews, J F; Martin, G
Minority-deaf students constitute 43.5% of the deaf school-age population, yet only 11.7% of teachers and administrators in programs serving deaf students are persons of color. The ruling in Hopwood v. State of Texas (1996) banned the use of race as a major determinant in admissions to colleges and universities in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This ruling, along with the current backlash against affirmative action policies, has hindered college administrators' efforts to recruit minorities in deaf education. We discuss Hopwood, affirmative action policies, and how both affect deaf education teacher training today. We also present an eight-step action plan for teacher-training colleges and universities to meet the need to increase the number of minority teachers and leaders and encourage state educational agencies and schools for the Deaf to do likewise.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action by... Determining Age Discrimination § 18.516 Affirmative action by recipients. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted...
... CORPORATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.4 Formulation of affirmative action plan. (a) The developer, in formulating the Affirmative Action Plan, should consider all phases of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formulation of...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action by recipients. 110.15 Section 110.15... ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.15 Affirmative action by recipients. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative action and... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.2 Affirmative action and equal opportunity. When so indicated in TVA...: Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity (a) To the extent applicable, contract incorporates the...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action records. 60-2.32 Section 60-2.32 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 2-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Miscellaneous § 60-2.32 Affirmative action records....
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action by... Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 7.924 Affirmative action by recipient. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action by recipients. 17.315... Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.315 Affirmative action by recipients. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action... written affirmative action program for each of its establishments, if it has 50 or more employees and: (i... each nonconstruction subcontractor to develop and maintain a written affirmative action program...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action by recipient. 91.16 Section 91... for Determining Age Discrimination § 91.16 Affirmative action by recipient. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects of...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action plans. 34.8 Section 34..., applicants or recipients shall have an acceptable affirmative action plan which has been approved by the... paragraph (c) of this section. The affirmative action plan must set forth overall goals and timetables...
Vernon-Gerstenfeld, Susan; Burke, Edmund
The authors describe the findings of a field study of affirmative action programs in companies in a variety of industries. The distinction between equal employment opportunity and affirmative action is addressed. Methods used to train managers in implementing affirmative action are examined. Also explores employee development, community…
Frazer, Ricardo A
Legal challenges to affirmative action are growing, a trend suggesting that a proactive stance is needed to maintain a policy that still has viability, legitimacy, and utility. Medical schools admissions offices in the United States emphasize the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), even though many studies have found that grade point averages are better single predictors of future academic achievement, regardless of the student's socioeconomic or racial category. The current essay suggests there is an overreliance on the MCAT in medical school admissions. Medical colleges should encourage the development of additional applicant selection criteria, while continuing to use affirmative action programs, in part to address the need for increased community-oriented health care.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative action plan: General. 152.407... shall have an affirmative action plan that meets the requirements of § 152.409 and is kept on file for... on file for review by the FAA Office of Civil Rights, one of the following: (1) An affirmative...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative action steps. 152.411 Section...) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.411 Affirmative action steps. (a) Each grantee which is not described in § 152.407(a) and is not subject to an affirmative...
....222-25 Affirmative Action Compliance. As prescribed in 22.810(d), insert the following provision: Affirmative Action Compliance (APR 1984) The offeror represents that (a) it □ has developed and has on file... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative...
This report documents Reynolds Electrical Engineering Co., Inc., analysis of all major job groups with explanations if minorities and females are underutilized in any one or more job group. Goals and timetables have been developed and good faith efforts are directed to correct any deficiencies. In addition, Affirmative Action Plans for the Handicapped, Vietnam Era Veterans, and Disabled Veterans are included which set forth policies, practices, and procedures in accordance with Department of Labor regulations. All personnel decisions are made at the Company level. Decisions regarding the General Manager or Deputy General Manager are made at the corporate level.
Glaser, J W; Madden, M J
The U.S. bishops' statements on racism over the last 40 years have addressed the structural as well as the personal aspects of racial discrimination. They have noted its persistence, described it as a moral and religious problem, and called for aggressive action among Catholics to combat it. "Meaningful equality" for blacks, however, remains a distant dream, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in a recent case involving institutional discrimination, because of the basically disadvantaged position into which blacks are born. As statistics on health, education, work, and standard of living illustrate, the socioeconomic opportunities available to blacks are markedly lower than those available to white Americans. Despite these odds, efforts to improve blacks' chances of contributing to society--through affirmative action programs--have achieved striking results in industry. Hospitals, as major workplaces, likewise should focus greater attention on developing and extending minority employment and advancement programs. Catholic health care facilities especially should evaluate their commitments to affirmative action. Increased efforts to eliminate discrimination in all aspects of a hospital's relationships with the business community as well as with its own employees will cause them to be recognized as symbols of justice not only in the workplace but also in society.
This paper reviews the literature on affirmative action in undergraduate education and law schools, focusing in particular on the tradeoff between the quality of an institution and the fit between a school and a student. We first discuss the conditions under which affirmative action for under-represented minorities (URM) could help or harm their educational outcomes. We then provide descriptive evidence on the extent of affirmative action in law schools, as well as a review of the contentious...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action. 8... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Enforcement § 8.52 Remedial and affirmative action. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the responsible civil rights official finds that a recipient has...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action. 42.724... affirmative action. (a) If the Department finds that, in violation of this subpart, a recipient has discriminated on the basis of age, the recipient shall take remedial action that the Department...
Affirmative action remains one of the most controversial of social policies in complex democracies. Altman and Promise (1995), in their article entitled "Affirmative Action: The Law of Unintended Consequences," focuses on the phenomenon that almost every action of government, no matter how well intentioned, has unexpected results. They suggest…
Chow, Rosalind M; Lowery, Brian S; Hogan, Caitlin M
This article explores the possibility that dominant-group members will attempt to appease subordinate groups to protect the hierarchy. In four studies, we find that (a) prohierarchy Whites perceive more intergroup threat when they believe ethnic minorities hold Whites in low regard, (b) prohierarchy Whites respond to ethnic minorities' low regard for Whites by increasing their support for redistributive policies (e.g., affirmative action), (c) the increase in support only occurs when prohierarchy Whites perceive the hierarchy to be unstable, and (d) prohierarchy Whites perceive the hierarchy to be more stable if they believe Whites support redistributive policies. These results suggest that prohierarchy dominant-group members' support for redistributive policies can stem from a concern about maintaining the hierarchical status quo, and provides evidence that support for redistributive policies can be a hierarchy-enhancing strategy.
... 20-SEX DISCRIMINATION GUIDELINES § 60-20.6 Affirmative action. (a) The employer shall take affirmative action to recruit women to apply for those jobs where they have been previously excluded. Note... women's colleges where graduates with skills desired by the employer can be found, and female...
Legal challenges to affirmative action continue in a variety of contexts within higher education, creating confusion and uncertainty for colleges and universities. This paper examines cases brought in federal court, although other complaints related to affirmative action programs have been filed in state courts and with the U.S. Department of…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action by... affirmative action to overcome the effects resulting in limited participation in the recipient's program or... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.708...
Gaertner, Matthew N.
In November, 2008, Colorado and Nebraska voted on amendments that sought to end race-based affirmative action at public universities. In anticipation of the vote, Colorado's flagship public institution--The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU)--explored statistical approaches to support class-based affirmative action. This paper details CU's…
Park, Julie J.
This paper examines student attitudes towards affirmative action over 4 years of college. Asian American and Latino/a students were more likely than White students to disagree strongly or somewhat with abolishing affirmative action after 4 years of college. A student's attitude towards the policy as a first-year student, peer group influence, and…
Davis, James Edward
This thesis discusses the evolution, development, and future of affirmative action in government. Executive Order 11246 formally created affirmative action in 1965 as a remedy for underuse of minorities and women in the workplace and classroom. Many private businesses believe government organizations promote diversity and social equity. Many local…
Brown, Sarita E.
Defends affirmative action and explains its historical principles in order to dispel myths surrounding the program. Discusses the pervasiveness of inequality in society and discusses ways that decision makers in higher education can respond to critics of affirmative action. Examines college admission needs and the current legal and political…
Argues in support of affirmative action in college and university admissions, noting the actual, relatively small effect of affirmative action on white admission and opportunity, and suggesting other possible reasons for the heated debate. Notes two related Supreme Court decisions made a century apart and reviews statistical studies in support of…
Arredondo, Marisol; Sax, Linda J.
A national survey of 277,850 college freshmen examined attitudes toward affirmative action in college admissions for four racial/ethnic groups: Whites, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Mexican-Americans. The study analyzed the extent to which student opposition to affirmative action is driven by factors such as self-interest, political…
Arredondo, David G.
The legal activity in federal courts related to affirmative action indicates a strong possibility the Supreme Court will abolish affirmative action in college admission. Such a decision would inevitably alter the landscape of higher education. Campus diversity will have to be achieved without using race or ethnicity to offer preference to some at…
... action plan. 906.5 Section 906.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.5 Administration of affirmative... follows: (i) Minority Group Member; (ii) Handicapped Person; (iii) Woman; (iv) Vietnam Era Veteran;...
Olivas, Michael A.
In response to criticism of affirmative action in higher education, it is argued that affirmative action has brought demonstrable improvements in U.S. society. The debate, and the related research and literature, are reviewed from both perspectives, and it is concluded that the time has come to end white male privilege. (MSE)
In this paper, we study two kinds of affirmative action policies, quota-based and reserve-based, under the Gale-Shapley student-optimal stable mechanism (SOSM). We first try to reveal the source of perverse affirmative action policies, especially on the purported beneficiaries. We show...... that a variant of Ergin-acyclicity structure, type-specific acyclicity, is crucial for effective affirmative action policies. This result may provide a simple criterion to decide whether affirmative action is appropriate to implement under certain market structure. We next include college's incentive...... into consideration, and indicate that for all markets without type-specific cycles and with sufficient competition for each unfilled seat, the reserve-based affirmative action is more vulnerable to manipulation compare to its quota-based counterpart. This argument implies that the efficiency gain from the more...
Hanks, Lawrence J.; Sullivan, Jas; Spencer, Sara B.; Rogers, Elgin
The literature opposed to affirmative action in hiring, granting tenure and promotion in the university claims that it lowers standards. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that in the decades prior to the institutionalization of affirmative action in the Academy, hiring, tenure and promotion standards were quite lax--resembling an "old boys…
... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Part 60-741 RIN 1250-AA02 Affirmative Action and...) proposes revising the regulations implementing the nondiscrimination and affirmative action regulations of... rule entitled, ``Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and...
Uses "affirmative action" interchangeably with expressions such as employment equity, positive action, diversity management, etc. Surveys countries where ethnic or racial groups represent a majority of the population, as in Malaysia and South Africa, or a minority, as in the USA, Canada, India, or the case of religious dichotomy in Northern Ireland. Explores the impact of affirmative action on labour market outcomes and human resources management, and suggests ways how to assess the costs and...
Francis, L P
The justifications of affirmative action, the compensatory, corrective and redistributive, have been widely recognized in legal thinking. They have been applied, principally, to employment practices. They can also be applied to health care. Arguments for affirmative action in health care allocation shift the burden of proof to those who deny that racism is the root cause of differential morbidity and mortality experienced by, for example, African Americans. At the very least, these arguments mandate much needed research into the causes of minorities' poor health. Without such research, racism remains the presumptive cause of, and affirmative action the appropriate remedy for, the health care problems minorities face.
Caste in India and race in the USA are often compared for their institutional similarities, and also because these categories form the social basis on which the affirmative action program in the two countries is based. While disadvantage and discrimination produce similar outcomes for certain groups within caste- or race-divided societies, it is important to understand the differences between the two systems. In India, affirmative action policies have a much longer history than the US, are co...
Reklaitis, Robert F.; And Others
This paper reviews critical court cases regarding affirmative action and offers guidelines to institutions of higher education evaluating and developing their affirmative action programs in the context of continuing changes in this aspect of law. It discusses the following aspects of affirmative action: what affirmative action is and the need for…
... elements of affirmative action programs. 60-2.17 Section 60-2.17 Public Contracts and Property Management... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 2-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Purpose and Contents of Affirmative Action Programs § 60-2.17 Additional required elements of affirmative action programs. In addition to...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action plans or programs under State or local... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.7 Affirmative action plans or programs under State or local law. Affirmative action...
... affirmative action program. 60-250.41 Section 60-250.41 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 250-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND... OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Affirmative Action Program § 60-250.41 Availability of affirmative...
... affirmative action program. 60-300.41 Section 60-300.41 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 300-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND... FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Affirmative Action Program § 60-300.41 Availability of affirmative...
Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.
Describes history of legal theory behind affirmative action, with examples from case law and Department of Education regulations, identifying legal pitfalls in admissions and financial aid, including categorization of students by race, racially disproportionate financial aid awards after accounting for need, racially disproportionate scholarship…
Harris, Michael S.; Roth, John H.
The U.S. Supreme Court's decisions in 2003 in the affirmative action cases of "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003), sometimes referred to as the "Michigan cases," provided the first indication of the role that race-conscious admission policies will play in higher education in the new century since the Court's decision…
This article reports the results of a new study on the impact of bans on race-conscious admissions policies which seem to confirm what many critics of affirmative action have long suspected: It is Asian-Americans, rather than whites, who are most disadvantaged by elite universities' consideration of ethnicity and race. Left unanswered are the…
Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.
Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…
Kahlenberg, Richard D.
After almost a half century, American higher education's use of racial preferences in admissions to selective colleges may well be coming to an end. The good news for people concerned about racial and economic justice is that in several states that have banned racial affirmative action by voter referendum or executive order, legislators and…
Moses, Michele S.; Yun, John T.; Marin, Patricia
In this article we examine the current status of affirmative action in postsecondary admissions through a concurrent review of recent court rulings, state legislation, and higher education enrollment data. Analyzing each of these factors in the context of the others is important because the court decisions and state-level legislation interact to…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action. 60-3.13 Section 60-3.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles §...
Robinson, William L.; Spitz, Stephen L.
Affirmative action policies which specifically mention race generate controversy because of a misunderstanding of their history and intent. These approaches to ending discrimination against minorities in the workplace evolved slowly after alternative methods failed. They have been upheld by Federal courts and should be adopted at state and local…
Lawrence, Charles R.
The internment of Japanese Americans in World War II must be understood as a manifestation of the racism that is deeply embedded in our culture. Real affirmative action can be liberating by recognizing that the systemic disestablishment of racism in society is the only remedy for racial subordination. (SLD)
Garces, Liliana M.
This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…
Davidson, Kristen L.; Moses, Michele S.
This study investigated the relevance of participants' social group differences with regard to the processes and outcomes of community dialogues on affirmative action. We found that participants' professional status was most salient to both the quantity of participants' contributions as well as their persuasiveness within the dialogues, with…
Sunstein, Cass R.
Asserts that conservatives in the U.S Supreme Court failed to see that affirmative action in higher education is an important and constitutionally protected institutional liberty, suggesting that Grutter v. Bollinger was correctly decided, and Gratz v. Bollinger was a mistake (but not a disaster). Suggests that such difficult issues should not be…
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the Secretary finds that a recipient has.... (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 41.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 25.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 86.3 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the Director... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and... Introduction § 5.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 17.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... Introduction § 101-4.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the... recipient may take affirmative action consistent with law to overcome the effects of conditions...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 1253.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 54.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 1042....110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency... deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and... Introduction § 8a.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 36.110... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 146.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... Introduction § 229.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the... official deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action... Receiving Federal Financial Assistance Introduction § 113.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... affirmative action program requirement. 60-741.40 Section 60-741.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 741-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Affirmative Action Program §...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the affirmative action plan requirements... affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees? A recipient of Federal assistance must develop and implement an affirmative action plan to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action by... 1975, AS AMENDED § 117.6 Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. (a) Where a recipient is found...) Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 3.110 Remedial and affirmative action and... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... affirmative action program. 60-741.41 Section 60-741.41 Public Contracts and Property Management Other... OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 741-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Affirmative Action Program § 60-741.41 Availability...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 106.3 Remedial and affirmative action and... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 23.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, a recipient may take affirmative action consistent with law to overcome...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the affirmative action requirements? 364.31... Requirements? § 364.31 What are the affirmative action requirements? The State plan must include satisfactory... Act will take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...
... affirmative action and self-evaluation. 1317.110 Section 1317.110 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1317.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 1040... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES General Provisions § 1040.7 Remedial and affirmative action and self... to overcome the effects of the discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action for individuals with disabilities... Administration § 361.19 Affirmative action for individuals with disabilities. The State plan must assure that the State agency takes affirmative action to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 618.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 2555.110 Remedial and affirmative action and... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. 1040.88... Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1040.88 Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. (a... take affirmative action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited participation...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative Action for... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-36 Affirmative Action for Workers With Disabilities. As prescribed in 22.1408(a), insert the following clause: Affirmative Action for Workers With Disabilities (OCT 2010) (a) General....
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action by... Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. (a) Where the Secretary finds that a recipient has... action. (b) Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative...
... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, a recipient may take affirmative...
... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Part 60-741 RIN 1250-AA02 Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations of Contractors and Subcontractors; Evaluation of Affirmative Action Provisions Under... public to provide input on how OFCCP can strengthen the affirmative action requirements of...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.3 Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is appropriate. (a) Adverse...
... affirmative action program requirement. 60-250.40 Section 60-250.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 250-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Affirmative Action Program § 60-250.40 Applicability of...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. 4.338... and affirmative action by recipients. (a) Where NRC finds a recipient has discriminated on the basis... discrimination, a recipient may take affirmative action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted...
... affirmative action program requirement. 60-300.40 Section 60-300.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 300-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND NONDISCRIMINATION OBLIGATIONS OF... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Affirmative Action Program § 60-300.40 Applicability...
... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, a recipient may take affirmative...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 28.110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial... activity, a recipient may take affirmative action consistent with law to overcome the effects of...
This update reviews affirmative action cases in higher education in the context of the Supreme Court's recent decision to hear the Michigan affirmative action cases. The Supreme Court's decision on the Michigan cases will be the first Supreme Court opinion on affirmative action in higher education since "Bakke." Individual federal circuits and…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action compliance programs under Executive... 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.5 Affirmative action compliance programs under Executive Order No. 11246, as amended. Under title VII, affirmative action compliance programs adopted pursuant to Executive Order...
Aberson, Christopher L
The current study examined the role of diversity experiences in promoting changes in attitudes toward affirmative action (AA). Using longitudinal data from a survey of over 1000 college students at admission and in their fourth year, results demonstrated that participation in diversity-related campus activities related to positive changes in attitudes toward affirmative action. This result was consistent across samples of White, African American, and Asian American students. Positive changes in attitudes persisted despite statistical controls for established predictors of attitudes toward AA such as merit and prevalence of discrimination beliefs, and individual-level characteristics such as experiences of discrimination and political liberalism. I discuss the relevance of this finding to the AA literature and to changing attitudes toward AA.
The future of affirmative action in education--not just for colleges but potentially for K-12 schools as well--may be on the line when the U.S. Supreme Court takes up a race-conscious admissions plan from the University of Texas next month. That seems apparent to the scores of education groups that have lined up behind the university with…
Banning affirmative action from college admissions decisions cannot prevent an admissions office that cares about diversity from achieving it through channels other than the explicit consideration of race. We construct a model of college admissions where candidates from two groups with different average qualifications compete for a fixed number of seats. When an admissions office that cares both about the quality and diversity of its entering class can use group identity as a criterion for ad...
This document is the Affirmative Action Plan for January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (``LBL`` or ``the Laboratory.``) This is an official document that will be presented upon request to the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, US Department of Labor. The plan is prepared in accordance with the Executive Order 11246 and 41 CFR Section 60-1 et seq. covering equal employment opportunity and will be updated during the year, if appropriate. Analyses included in this volume as required by government regulations are based on statistical comparisons. All statistical comparisons involve the use of geographic areas and various sources of statistics. The geographic areas and sources of statistics used here are in compliance with the government regulations, as interpreted. The use of any geographic area or statistic does not indicate agreement that the geographic area is the most appropriate or that the statistic is the most relevant. The use of such geographic areas and statistics is intended to have no significance outside the context of this Affirmative Action Plan, although, of course, such statistics and geographic areas will be used in good faith with respect to this Affirmative Action Plan.
An overview was given of how affirmative action for Blacks and women in South Africa in fact marginalizes Black women. The definition of the problem influences the solution; affirmative action obscures the complex nature of discrimination experienced by Black women by class, role, and culture and focuses only on gender and race. Secondly, the power of White women and Black men supercede the power of Black women. Apartheid benefitted White women over Black men. Affirmative action, as shifting power between groups, would solidify White women's power. The debates have taken place within university and academic contexts, a place where Black women have been excluded and the dominant groups are White men, followed by White women, and then Black men. The debate in the private sector also is devoid of Black women's voices; multinationals began to hire and train Black male managers, and there was criticism that standards were falling. Recruitment of Black women is unknown, but only 1.1% of managers are Black. Visibility within the academic and private sector debates has excluded Black women. In the articulation of ideas, most literature has been written by White men. The intersection of power and privilege belongs to males and White women as part of the larger dominant ideology. Black women's marginalization means their issues will not be addressed. The people who stand to benefit the most from affirmative action are those who are in need of improved living conditions, literacy, and employment, or those excluded from jobs and position in spite of being qualified. Black women without a societal power base have no bargaining power. To insure that Black women benefit, there is need to treat Black women as a distinctive group with priority. There is also a need to examine the myths that have been spun around Black women, their needs, abilities, and controlling images. There is a need to integrate Black womens ideas into the mainstream and recognize that maybe Black women need
Atwell, Robert; Wilson, Reginald
Two administrators from the American Council on Education, long-time proponents of affirmative action policy in higher education, discuss the role of the organization in supporting continued affirmative action, progress in establishing multicultural college curricula, the influence of accreditation agencies, and the challenges affirmative action…
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 5.110... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, a recipient may take affirmative...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in an education program or activity, a recipient may take affirmative...
This paper explores affirmative action as a social movement with two goals in mind: (a) to challenge dominant notions of higher education reform, while advancing a social movement perspective; and (b) to advance understanding of the role of collective action in supporting affirmative action in college admissions. The authors highlight ways in which proponents and opponents of affirmative action have utilized collective action as a means for advancing particular ideological visions relative to...
O'Brien, Laurie T; Garcia, Donna; Crandall, Christian S; Kordys, Justin
We focused on a powerful objection to affirmative action - that affirmative action harms its intended beneficiaries by undermining their self-esteem. We tested whether White Americans would raise the harm to beneficiaries objection particularly when it is in their group interest. When led to believe that affirmative action harmed Whites, participants endorsed the harm to beneficiaries objection more than when led to believe that affirmative action did not harm Whites. Endorsement of a merit-based objection to affirmative action did not differ as a function of the policy's impact on Whites. White Americans used a concern for the intended beneficiaries of affirmative action in a way that seems to further the interest of their own group.
Eduardo de São Paulo
Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.
Affirmative action remains one of the most highly sensitive, emotive and hotly debated subjects in South Africa. It is nevertheless an important legislated strategy that needs to be thoroughly researched and constructively debated to bring change to the lives of previously disadvantaged individuals. The present study describes how five black middle managers experience affirmative action at a media company. Emphasis was placed on how these managers define affirmative action, whether they feel...
The Employment Equity Act (EEA) was enacted to achieve equity in the workplace by prohibiting unfair discrimination and by requiring the implementation of affirmative action measures to ensure the adequate representation of designated groups. To ensure compliance with the EEA a designated employer must ensure that it formulates an affirmative action policy within which employment equity targets are stipulated and met. One of the on-going debates around affirmative action is whether it has a l...
Morgan, R C
The nation's medical, dental and health profession school admissions of African American and other under-represented minority students needs reassessment in view of recent challenges to anti-affirmative action policies. Data suggest that low-income and medically underserved communities are more likely to be cared for by minority physicians. Experts project that the U.S. will need about twice as many African-American physicians as it now has to serve future patient needs. Currently, African Americans comprise 3% of the physician workforce. Decisive actions and policies--such as the recommendations made by the National Medical Association--are needed to ensure parity and cultural diversity in the medical workforce.
Rhoads, Robert A.; Saenz, Victor; Carducci, Rozana
This paper explores affirmative action as a social movement with two goals in mind: (a) to challenge dominant notions of higher education reform, while advancing a social movement perspective; and (b) to advance understanding of the role of collective action in supporting affirmative action in college admissions. The authors highlight ways in…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. 90..., Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 90.49 Remedial and affirmative action by recipients. (a) Where a... remedial action. (b) Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient may take...
Springer, Ann D.
This review comments on the recent class action suits in Michigan related to affirmative action and college admission. It reviews related cases and the legal basis for the Supreme Court decisions that are expected to have widespread effects. Affirmative action plans exist at all levels of government and business, and a broad ruling invalidating…
Marino, Kenneth E.
Identifies specific actions firms might undertake in an effort to meet their compliance obligations and empirically organizes those actions into the principal behavioral dimensions that constitute an affirmative action compliance effort. (Author/IRT)
Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter
This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.
Katyal, Neal Kumar
Shows why prior rulings of a key Supreme Court justice are not in conflict with a final ruling that race may be considered as one factor in admissions to higher education. Discusses the Supreme Court's decision to hear the cases on affirmative action policies at the University of Michigan, asserting that affirmative action in the university…
Background/Context: Although frequently associated with the United States, affirmative action is not a uniquely American social policy. Indeed, 2003 witnessed review and revision of affirmative action policies affecting higher education institutions in both France and the United States. Using critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical lens, this…
Thacker, R A
Three recent Supreme Court decisions have aroused fears about the future of a key weapon against employment discrimination: the affirmative action plan. The author reviews these cases and pronounces affirmative action alive and well--but warns that thoughtful planning is required to ward off challenges by nonminority groups claiming adverse impact.
Hartlep, Nicholas D.; Ecker, Madonna M.; Miller, Donald D.; Whitmore, Kimberly E.
Affirmative action is perceived as a corrective policy intended to promote social equity (Crosby, Iyer, & Sincharoen, 2006; Curry & West, 1996; Kaplin & Lee, 2007; Oppenheimer, 1996). Indeed, affirmative action as a policy has been used to address minority underrepresentation (Ball, 2000), remedying the effects of past/current…
Higham, Rob; Shah, Alpa
This article explores the combination of education and affirmative action in challenging historic inequalities faced by adivasis, or indigenous peoples, living in a remote region of Eastern India. We show how the combined effects of education and affirmative action can act as a "contradictory resource". On the one hand, policies of…
... regulations implementing the affirmative action provisions of the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment..., 2011, OFCCP published a proposed rule entitled ``Affirmative Action and Nondiscrimination Obligations... of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Parts 60-250 and 60-300 RIN 1250-AA00...
Bertrand, Marianne; Hanna, Rema; Mullainathan, Sendhil
Many countries mandate affirmative action in university admissions for traditionally disadvantaged groups. Little is known about either the efficacy or costs of these programs. This paper examines affirmative action in engineering colleges in India for "lower-caste" groups. We find that it successfully targets the financially…
Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay
This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…
The article examines the outcomes of affirmative action policies aimed at improving access for women students to university education in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Different interpretations of affirmative action are found in the three countries. These include lower entry scores, remedial pre-university programmes and financial assistance. There…
Cortes, Kalena E.
In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…
Saenz, Lauren P.; Moses, Michele S.
This article offers a qualitative content analysis of the print news media coverage of Proposal 2, an anti-affirmative action ballot initiative that passed on November 7, 2006. Our purpose was to determine what type of information on the initiative and affirmative action was available to the public. Results indicate that little substantive…
Argues that affirmative action policies have been helpful in integrating women and minorities into the work force and into college athletics. Progress in women's sports should be a model for all minority groups, but affirmative action programs should be strengthened and further integrated into college athletics and the workplace. (SLD)
Zamani, Eboni Mie'l
This dissertation, written in April 2000, focuses on African American, Hispanic, and White community college students' attitudes toward affirmative action in college admissions. Specifically, the study examines the association between attitudes toward affirmative action in college admissions, student background characteristics, educational…
Dickson, Lisa M.
The purpose of this study is to determine how ending affirmative action in public colleges in Texas affected the percent of minority high school graduates applying to college. I find the end of affirmative action significantly lowered the percent of Hispanic students applying to college by 1.6 percentage points and significantly lowered the…
Chin, Gabriel; And Others
In this policy analysis of affirmative action, four Asian Pacific American law professors make a case for affirmative action with a special focus on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs). It is asserted that affirmative action produces many benefits, such as reducing the harm of racism, promoting equal opportunity, and advancing racial justice. However,…
Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy
We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…
... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. 52.222-23 Section 52.222-23... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. As prescribed in 22.810(b), insert the following provision: Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission...) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.6 Affirmative action plans which are part of...
Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance
Affirmative action (AA) policies are among the most effective means for enhancing diversity and equality in the workplace, yet are also often viewed with scorn by the wider public. Fairness-based explanations for this scorn suggest AA policies provide preferential treatment to minorities, violating procedural fairness principles of consistent treatment. In other words, to promote equality in the workplace, effective AA policies promote inequality when selecting employees, and the broader public perceives this to be procedurally unfair. Given this inconsistency underlies negative reactions to AA policies, we argue that better preparing individuals to deal with inconsistencies can mitigate negative reactions to AA policies. Integrating theories from the fairness and cognitive styles literature, we demonstrate across 4 studies how dialectical thinking-a cognitive style associated with accepting inconsistencies in one's environment-increases support for AA policies via procedural fairness perceptions. Specifically, we found support for our propositions across a variety of AA policy types (i.e., strong and weak preference policies) and when conceptualizing dialectical thinking either as an individual difference or as a state that can be primed-including being primed by the framing of the AA policy itself. We discuss theoretical contributions and insights for policy-making at government and organizational levels. (PsycINFO Database Record
Garces, Liliana M.
This study examines the effects of affirmative action bans in four states (California, Florida, Texas, and Washington) on the enrollment of underrepresented students of color within six different graduate fields of study: the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, business, education, and humanities. Findings show that affirmative action…
Farley, Amy N.; Gaertner, Matthew N.; Moses, Michele S.
In this article, Amy N. Farley, Matthew N. Gaertner, and Michele S. Moses examine the use of ballot initiatives as a particularly attractive form of direct democracy for opponents of affirmative action in higher education. Building on previous scholarship, the authors question whether anti-affirmative ballot initiatives validly reflect voters'…
Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Villeval, Marie Claire
We conduct an artefactual field experiment to examine various spillover effects of Affirmative Action policies in the context of castes in India. We test a) if individuals who compete in the presence of Affirmative Action policies remain competitive in the same proportion after the policy has been...... frequently a tournament payment scheme. However, we find no spillover effect on confidence and competitiveness once Affirmative Action is withdrawn: any lower caste’s gain in competitiveness due to the policy is then entirely wiped out. Furthermore, the strong existing bias of the dominant caste against...
Magnus, S A; Mick, S S
Medical schools' affirmative action policies traditionally focus on race and give relatively little consideration to applicants' socioeconomic status or "social class." However, recent challenges to affirmative action have raised the prospect of using social class, instead of race, as the basis for preferential admissions decisions in an effort to maintain or increase student diversity. This article reviews the evidence for class-based affirmative action in medicine and concludes that it might be an effective supplement to, rather than a replacement for, race-based affirmative action. The authors consider the research literature on (1) medical students' socioeconomic background, (2) the impact of social class on medical treatment and physician-patient communication, and (3) correlations between physicians' socioeconomic origins and their service patterns to the disadvantaged. They also reference sociological literature on distinctions between race and class and Americans' discomfort with "social class."
The aim of the study was to investigate affirmative action as a mechanism for education reform in South Aftica. This investigation was prompted by political changes, which took place after the democratic elections of April 1994, impacting on the provisioning of education in South Africa. The South African education system and its institutions were confronted by many new laws and policies, including affirmative action programmes that had to be implemented. Structural chang...
In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of lower-ranked minority students. Results show that both fall-to-fall freshmen retention and six-year college graduation of seconddecile minority students d...
White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.
The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…
Barnard B Motileng
Full Text Available Affirmative action remains one of the most highly sensitive, emotive and hotly debated subjects in South Africa. It is nevertheless an important legislated strategy that needs to be thoroughly researched and constructively debated to bring change to the lives of previously disadvantaged individuals. The present study describes how five black middle managers experience affirmative action at a media company. Emphasis was placed on how these managers define affirmative action, whether they feel that others question their abilities because of this policy, and the extent to which affirmative action affects their job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Results of the study revealed that participants experienced affirmative action positively as a mechanism that provides employment opportunities, but encounter many challenges and obstacles. These problems can be addressed by sustained commitment from organisations to make the function of the affirmative action policy explicit and to create a shared culture in the workplace. Opsomming Regstellende aksie is tans ’n sensitiewe saak wat vurige debat en emosies in Suid Afrika uitlok. Dit is egter ’n belangrike wetlike strategie wat deeglik nagevors en konstruktief gedebatteer moet word om verandering in die lewens van vorige benadeeldes te bring. Die huidige studie beskryf hoe vyf middelvlak bestuurders regstellende aksie by ’n mediamaatskappy beleef het. Klem word geplaas op hoe hierdie bestuurders regstellende aksie definieer, of hulle voel dat ander hul vaardighede betwyfel as gevolg van hierdie beleid, en die mate waartoe regstellende aksie hul werksbevrediging en verbintenis tot die organisasie beïnvloed. Resultate wys dat die deelnemers regstellende aksie positief beleef het as ’n meganisme wat werksgeleenthede skep maar data heelwat uitdagings en struikelblokke beleef word. Hierdie probleme kan aangespreek word deur volgehoue verbintenis van organisasies om die regstellende aksie
Moscoso, Silvia; García-Izquierdo, Antonio L; Bastida, María
A mediation model of the relation between gender and attitudes toward affirmative action in favor of working women was tested. Four mediation variables were considered: perceived unfairness in the situation of working women, perceived threat to the non-designated group (men), self-esteem, and gender self-concept (masculinity and femininity). 192 women and 128 men, with differing occupations, participated. Gender affects individuals' attitudes toward affirmative actions for women, mediated by perceived unfairness in the situation of working women, perceived threat to the non-designated group, and feminine self-concept. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Clarence D. Kreiter
Full Text Available Background: The U.S. Supreme Court has recently heard another affirmative action case, and similar programs to promote equitable representation in higher education are being debated and enacted around the world. Understanding the empirical and quantitative research conducted over the last 50 years is important in designing effective and fair initiatives related to affirmative action in medical education. Unfortunately, the quantitative measurement research relevant to affirmative action is poorly documented in the scholarly journals that serve medical education. Methods: This research organizes and documents the measurement literature relevant to enacting affirmative action within the medical school environment, and should be valuable for informing future actions. It provides summaries of those areas where the research evidence is strong and highlights areas where more research evidence is needed. To structure the presentation, 10 topic areas are identified in the form of research questions. Results: Measurement evidence related to these questions is reviewed and summarized to provide evidence-based answers. Conclusions: These answers should provide a useful foundation for making important decisions regarding the use of racial diversity initiatives in medical education.
Gonzales, Leslie D.
In this article, readers are asked to suspend conventional notions of affirmative action as a policy that ensures equitable admissions practices to the nation's most elite post secondary institutions, and instead to consider how affirmative action might be understood as a way to challenge the relations of power that govern the legitimation of…
Hinz, Serena E.
Although affirmative action in college admissions has not been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the consideration of race in admissions has been banned in nine states--in six of them by public vote. This article analyzes the campaigns to ban affirmative action in California and Michigan as a battle between interest groups. The…
Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.
This article examines the attitudes of baccalaureate aspiring community college students with regard to affirmative action in college admissions. Using data from UCLA's Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Annual Freshman Year Survey, the study assessed determinants of approval or disapproval of affirmative action for 20,339 community…
Vasquez, Melba J. T.; Jones, James M.
Responds to comments made by Pipes and Kuncel and Sackett on the current authors' original article (see record 2006-01690-003). The current authors respond to the various points raised in the commenting articles, and suggest that diversity is a compelling interest and affirmative action is one means of achieving it. They stand by their original…
This article examines the necessary shift to a sociality of meaning-making for university entrants if the goals of affirmative action within higher education, and the possible effects of its continued application, are to be fulfilled. Given that the practice of education in universities is meant to be the organisation of knowledge in ways that…
The purpose of this article is to attempt a surfacing of the assumptions and discourses surrounding the affirmative action debate in higher education in South Africa. The article draws attention to two dominant discourses--the first being that of the patriotic university, and the second being that of the global university. In terms of the first…
Verônica Toste Daflon
Full Text Available A substantial part of the scholarly literature on Veja magazine has pointed to the marked conservative political bias of its journalism, be it when dealing with themes such as public policies or with values and behavior. In other words, Veja rejects the ideal of journalistic neutrality, rhetorically espoused by other news media operations, and practices a journalism that is ridden with opinion. In this article we intend to test the hypothesis that Veja also treats race-based affirmative action with bias, which is openly against these policies. We first conduct a valence analysis of all texts published by the magazine on this issue, from January 2001 to June 2009. Next, we do a content analysis of the main arguments employed against affirmative action, also taking into consideration their temporal evolution. Results show that until 2003 Veja did not have an editorial stance regarding the matter, starting that year, it adopted a clear contrarian point of view that remained constant until the end of the period studies. From 2003 to 2006, the most prevalent arguments accused affirmative action of violating the principles of merit and equality before the law. Around 2006, Veja changes the tone of its discourse, and starts to echo the voices of academics who accused affirmative action of promoting racialization and racial conflict in the country.
Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.
Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…
Winston, Judith A.
Challenges to civil rights and affirmative action in the 1990s are identified. Five cases of racial, sex, ethnic, and reverse discrimination behind the Civil Rights bills of 1990 and 1991 are discussed. The ultimate challenge is to demonstrate that if civil rights litigants win, others need not lose. (SLD)
Redd, Kenneth E.
Discusses the recent challenges to affirmative action and the alternative policies states have used to diversify their college campuses, and describes the role minority-serving institutions and financial aid administrators may play in providing access to higher education for underrepresented groups. (EV)
Lew, Gena A., Ed.
This collection of policy papers is intended to educate and inform business and community leaders, policymakers, the Asian Pacific community, and the general public about the complex issues and far-reaching implications of the affirmative action debate on Asian Pacific Americans as well as all Americans. Essays are grouped into sections on…
Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
Examined the impact of personal belief systems and the college experience on Asian Pacific American undergraduate college students' views of affirmative action in higher education. Survey results indicated that Asian Pacific American students' social interactions and perceptions, as well as their dominant ideology beliefs and racial/ethnic…
Moses, Michele S.
The author's primary aims are to clarify the differing rationales for affirmative action that have emerged in five nations--France, India, South Africa, the United States, and Brazil--and to make the case for the most compelling rationales, whether instrumentally or morally based. She examines the different social contexts surrounding the…
Affirmative action in higher education remains a controversial topic in the US today, as it is tied in directly with citizens' varying conceptions of the larger society, and the importance of racial and other differences (in particular, socioeconomic class) in individual experiences and outcomes. This essay examines different arguments for and…
Teranishi, Robert T.; Briscoe, Kamilah
Using a critical race theory framework, this study examines the ways in which race and racialized ideologies are manifested in high-stakes college admissions, the debate over affirmative action, and the college choice behavior of Black high school students. This study allows for the voices of Black high school students in California to describe…
Hughes, Sherick; Thompson Dorsey, Dana N.; Carrillo, Juan F.
Justice Goodwin Liu reexamined seminal affirmative action in higher education legal cases beginning with the landmark 1978 case, "Regents of the University of California v. Bakke" and leading up to the U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision in "Gratz v. Bollinger." Liu argued that the "Bakke and Gratz" lawsuits were…
Antonovics, Kate; Backes, Ben
This paper uses student-level data to investigate how the college application behavior of underrepresented minorities (URMs) changed in response to the 1998 end of affirmative action in admissions at the University of California (UC). We show that all URMs experienced a drop in their probability of admission to at least one UC campus. However, the…
Garces, Liliana M.
This study uses data from the CGS/GRE Survey of Graduate Enrollment and Degrees and a methodology that supports causal inference to examine the effects of affirmative action bans in Texas, California, Washington, and Florida on graduate student of color enrollment. The findings show that the bans have reduced by 12.2% the average proportion of…
Katchanovski, Ivan; Nevitte, Neil; Rothman, Stanley
Direct comparisons of American and Canadian faculty and students' views concerning issues of race, gender, and affirmative action in higher education are rare. The 1999 North American Academic Study Survey provides a unique opportunity to analyze the role of national and positional factors in faculty and student attitudes towards race, gender, and…
The author reports on the U.S. Supreme Court hearing regarding the Texas admissions case that exposes gaps in the affirmative-action law. As the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in a lawsuit challenging race-conscious admissions at the University of Texas at Austin, it became evident that the court's past rulings on such policies have failed to…
This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…
Rothstein, Jesse; Yoon, Albert H.
The Supreme Court has held repeatedly that race-based preferences in public university admissions are constitutional. But debates over the wisdom of affirmative action continue. Opponents of these policies argue that preferences are detrimental to minority students--that by placing these students in environments that are too competitive,…
Frisancho, Veronica; Krishna, Kala
Using detailed data on the 2008 graduating class from an elite engineering institution in India, we evaluate the impact of affirmative action policies in higher education focusing on three issues: targeting, catch up, and mismatch. We find that admission preferences effectively target minority students who are poorer than average displaced…
Using institutional data on race-specific college enrollment and completion, I examine whether minority students were less likely to enroll in a four-year public college or receive a degree following a statewide affirmative action ban. As in previous studies, I find that black and Hispanic enrollment dropped at the top institutions; however, there…
Examines major decisions in the United States, South Africa, and the European Court of Justice related to affirmative action in the workplace. Suggests explanations for differences among the conclusions reached and argues that more rigorous reasoning might enable courts to reach just and realistic decisions. (JOW)
Rout, Bharat Chandra
Affirmative action (AA) is one of the most suitable mechanisms to promote equity and social justice in education in India. This essay deals with the impact of the different conceptualizations of AA in terms of its vision and the historic approaches to social inequalities in India. Primarily focusing on the various perspectives of affirmative…
Lynch, Frederick R.; Beer, William R.
Discusses the growing sense of grievance among younger working-class and middle-class White males most affected by affirmative action preferences. Suggests that measures intended to ensure equal opportunity and proportional representation for minority groups may be contributing to racial polarization on college campuses, in workplaces, and in…
Henry, Samuel D.
Discusses need for development of a theory of affirmative action in higher education. Six hypotheses are given to develop the theory, which should (1) embrace a concept of multi-intelligence; (2) utilize social technologies for change; (3) entail a group solution approach; and (4) be able to generate models for testing, among other…
Palmer, Scott R.
This chapter asserts that to make the case for affirmative action in higher education based on the diversity rationale, the legal debate must be reconceptualized into a policy-oriented framework. It presents a model dividing policy development into four interrelated parts: goals, objectives, strategy, and design. The policy framework is applied to…
This book examines legal cases and related literature emerging from three academic practices: affirmative action in college admissions, the enforcement of hate speech codes, and the tenure of faculty of color. It considers these cases as cultural texts, revealing the role of courts and universities in circulating dominant discourses on race. By…
Johnson, Constance A.
The ban on affirmative action in college and university admissions has stimulated law schools to recruit underrepresented minorities more aggressively, in some cases producing more competition for historically black institutions. Declines in law school minority enrollments are also attributed to student preferences for other areas of study, such…
Kende, Anna; van Zomeren, Martijn; Ujhelyi, Adrienn; Lantos, Nóra Anna
The mobilizing potential of the internet has been widely recognized but also sharply criticized. We propose and test in two studies that the social affirmation use of social media motivates individuals for collective action to achieve social change. In Study 1, we surveyed participants of a universi
This paper briefly reviews the various efforts undertaken by the University of California to maintain diversity in the institution, and especially at its highly competitive flagship campuses, UCLA and Berkeley, in the face of the loss of affirmative action during the mid-1990s. It demonstrates the continuing decline in representation of…
New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany. Research and Statistics Office.
Prepared to provide employers and government agencies with data needed to effectively develop, implement, and analyze Affirmative Action Compliance Programs as required by Revised Order No. 4 of the U.S. Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance, this booklet specifically covers the following factors enumerated in the Order: (1)…
... central premise underlying affirmative action is that, absent discrimination, over time a contractor's workforce, generally, will reflect the gender, racial and ethnic profile of the labor pools from which the... progress toward achieving the workforce that would be expected in the absence of discrimination. (2)...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances must recipients take remedial or affirmative action? 1309.18 Section 1309.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.18...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversification of medical school student and faculty bodies via race-conscious affirmative action policy is a societal and legal option for the U.S. Supreme Court has recently ruled its use constitutional. This paper investigates the implications of affirmative action, particularly race-conscious compared to race-blind admissions policy; explains how alternative programs are generally impractical; and provides a brief review of the history and legality of affirmative action in the United States. Discussion Selection based solely on academic qualifications such as GPA and MCAT scores does not achieve racial and ethnic diversity in medical school, nor does it adequately predict success as practicing physicians. However, race-conscious preference yields greater practice in underserved and often minority populations, furthers our biomedical research progression, augments health care for minority patients, and fosters an exceptional medical school environment where students are better able to serve an increasingly multicultural society. Summary The implementation of race-conscious affirmative action results in diversity in medicine. Such diversity has shown increased medical practice in underserved areas, thereby providing better health care for the American people.
Kravitz, D A; Klineberg, S L
Houston-area Whites (n = 414), Blacks (n = 392), American-born Hispanics (n = 162), and Hispanic immigrants (n = 177) evaluated a self-defined "typical" affirmative action plan (AAP) and a tiebreak AAP that applies under conditions of equal qualifications and underrepresentation. Whites preferred Tiebreak; Blacks and Hispanics preferred the typical AAP. The groups differed in beliefs about the procedures and fairness of affirmative action (AA), perceptions of workplace discrimination, and political orientations. Perceived fairness predicted support for both AAPs in all American-born groups, but the impact of other predictors varied greatly across AAPs and ethnic groups. The results clarify the bases for Whites' opposition to AA as they construe it. The results also underscore the importance of specifying the AAP procedures, of uncovering the predictors of AA attitudes among target-group members, and of conducting separate analyses in each ethnic community.
Long, Mark C.
The 2013 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin case clarified when and how it is legally permissible for universities to use an applicant’s race or ethnicity in its admissions decisions. The court concluded that such use is permissible when “no workable race-neutral alternatives would produce the educational benefits of diversity.” This paper shows that replacing traditional affirmative action with a system that uses an applicant’s predicted likelihood of being an underrepresented racial minority as a proxy for the applicant’s actual minority status can yield an admitted class that has a lower predicted grade point average and likelihood of graduating than the class that would have been admitted using traditional affirmative action. This result suggests that race-neutral alternatives may not be “workable” from the university’s perspective. PMID:25750473
South Africa is experiencing a process of formidable and fundamental change. Public administrators as well as politicians are under tremendous pressure as heavy demands are being placed on them. These demands include coping with interventions such as Affirmative Action, Employment Equity, and the importance of managing diversity in the workplace. Despite improvements in race relations in the past twenty years, dysfunctional and ineffective behaviour still occur. This may be a r...
This paper develops a theoretical model of college admissions to study the effects of affirmative action policies on the high school achievement of college bound students. The innovation is to include endogenous human capital decisions in the model. When colleges switch admissions policies, they implicitly alter the likelihood of acceptance earned by a given human capital investment. Thus, human capital investments are sensitive to changes in admissions policies. The main results are that ban...
Full Text Available Qual é o balanço das ações afirmativas na experiência brasileira? Como compreender as primeiras iniciativas de adoção de marcos legais instituidores das ações afirmativas? Qual tem sido o impacto da agenda global na ordem doméstica? Em que medida a Convenção sobre a Eliminação de todas as formas de Discriminação Racial e a Conferência de Durban fomentaram avanços internos? Quais são os principais desafios, dilemas e tensões das ações afirmativas? Quais são as possibilidades e perspectivas de construção da igualdade étnico-racial no caso brasileiro? São estas as questões centrais a inspirar este artigo.How do we take stock of affirmative action in Brazil? How should we understand the first initiatives of introduction of a legal framework that institutes affirmative action? What has been the impact of the global agenda on the domestic order? To what extent have the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Conference of Durban fostered domestic progress? What are the key challenges, dilemmas and tensions facing affirmative action? What are the possibilities and prospects for the attainment of ethnical and racial equity in Brazil? These are the key questions that inspire this paper.
DeVille, Kenneth; Kopelman, Loretta M
The U.S. Supreme Court's seminal 1978 Bakke decision, now 25 years old, has an ambiguous and endangered legacy. Justice Lewis Powell's opinion provided a justification that allowed leaders in medical education to pursue some affirmative action policies while at the same time undermining many other potential defenses. Powell asserted that medical schools might have a "compelling interest" in the creation of a diverse student body. But Powell's compromise jeopardized affirmative action since it blocked many justifications for responding to increases in political opposition and legal challenges. The Bakke decision and its moral background and legal legacy are traced and analyzed. Despite recent legal setbacks, the framework sketched by Powell can be used to defend diversity in medical education both morally and legally as a "compelling state interest." Because trust is a central component of the physician-patient relationship and a prerequisite to the profession's ability to provide effective medical care, the state has a compelling interest in training physicians with whom patients can feel comfortable and safe if the population is (1) distrustful; (2) underserved; (3) faces significant discrimination in the allocation of benefits, goods and services and (4) affirmative action programs would be likely to promote their trust in the system. Similar narrowly-tailored arguments could be used in other professions and for other groups. Bakke is an important background for the pending Grutter case.
Robert C. Farrell
Full Text Available When the Supreme Court, or one its Justices, writes an opinion invalidating a race-conscious affirmative action program, it is commonplace for the opinion to note that the rights protected by the Equal Protection Clause are “individual” or “personal,” and thus require the state to treat every person as an individual, not simply as a member of a class. This assertion about the nature of equal protection rights is assumed to be inconsistent with the classbased underpinning of affirmative action programs, and thus determinative of their invalidation. The problem with affirmative action programs, under this view, is that they ignore the individual characteristics of the persons affected and instead assign different treatment to persons based on their membership in a class. If, for example, the University of California Medical School at Davis assigns a certain number of seats in its entering class to black, Chicano, Asian, and Native-American applicants,2 it has made overly broad assumptions about the characteristics of the members of those classes, and then assigned a benefit on the basis of class membership without regard to individual merit or accomplishment.
Edward I. Fubara
Full Text Available The current study explores some of the challenges associated with Affirmative Action (AA by clarifying the relationship between individuals’ ethical frameworks and equality justice norms and their effects on attitudes toward AA specifically targeting African Americans. The study reveals that employer support for affirmative action plans and programs not only reduce negative attitudes toward AA but also moderate the effects of ethical frameworks and equality values on such attitudes. More specifically, consequentialist ethical values relate negatively and nonconsequentialist ethical values relate positively to attitudes toward affirmative action. Additionally, organizational support positively moderates the relationship between both equality norms and consequentialist ethical values and attitudes toward affirmative action for African Americans. Implications for future research and practice are offered.
The current study explores some of the challenges associated with Affirmative Action (AA) by clarifying the relationship between individuals’ ethical frameworks and equality justice norms and their effects on attitudes toward AA specifically targeting African Americans. The study reveals that employer support for affirmative action plans and programs not only reduce negative attitudes toward AA but also moderate the effects of ethical frameworks and equality values on such attitudes. More sp...
This study takes an in depth look at the constitutional and legislative changes that led to the development of labour laws and the subsequent implementation of affirmative action measures in South Africa. The central question of this study is to investigate whether affirmative action is reverse discrimination or another form of apartheid in disguise as viewed by the white community. The study reveals that though the Employment Equity Act intends to achieve equality in the wo...
Christiena Maria van der Bank
Full Text Available We will, demonstrate what affirmative action entails, its origin and the relationship with discrimination and equality. The paper will also highlight the implementation of affirmative action in the Higher Education sector in South Africa. Affirmative action or black and white are the additional corrective steps which must be taken in order that those who have been historically disadvantage by unfair discrimination before 1994 are able to derive full benefits from an equitable employment environment. While there has been a significant increase in the number of women appointed into management positions, the proportion in relation to the total number of women in senior posts such as those of Vice Chancellors, Deputy-Vice Chancellors and Executive Deans still remains problematic. Considerations should be taken with regard to issues of access, equity and relevance. Indeed, affirmative action should be located within a rigorous process that will ensure that those who are for example, promoted to senior positions both in private and public sectors are able to demonstrate strategic thinking and action, quality execution of tasks, efficiency and effectiveness in achieving organisational goals. This will also be followed by a brief South Africa’s case study of different entities (South African Breweries and Sowetan Newspaper. A comparison of USA’s affirmative action and whether “there is a light at the end of a tunnel – affirmative action” will be done.
Weil, Peter A; Mattis, Mary C
We examined the findings of a recent national survey of healthcare executives that showed 90% of women but only 53% of men favoured efforts to increase the proportion of women in senior healthcare management positions. Using the theories of relative deprivation and social identity, we tested hypotheses to suggest the background, work characteristics and attitudes about existing discriminatory practices in their own organizations that correlate with respondents' views about affirmative action for women. Some support is evidenced for the two theories and explanations are suggested to account for apparent anomalies.
The association between the percent change in first-year and total underrepresented minority student enrollment and the presence of preadmission programs at Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) accredited medical schools was assessed before and during successful legal and legislative challenges to affirmative action. The percent change in under-represented minority student enrollment was determined by comparing enrollment data for the academic years 1993-94 and 1996-97. Schools were categorized as having either a negative or positive percent change in their enrollment of underrepresented minority students. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of the percent change in under-represented minority student enrollment and the presence of a preadmission program while controlling for schools' financial support and the presence of postbaccalaureate programs. Fifty-six percent of the included medical schools had preadmission programs. Schools with a positive percent change were significantly more likely to have preadmission programs compared with schools with a negative percent change. There was no association between the presence of preadmission programs and the percent change in total enrollment. These results indicate that the presence of preadmission programs is positively associated with increases in first-year underrepresented minority student enrollment during the successful challenges to affirmative actions.
Desai, Sonalde; Kulkarni, Veena
Indian society suffers from substantial inequalities in education, employment, and income based on caste and ethnicity. Compensatory or positive discrimination policies reserve 15% of the seats in institutions of higher education and state and central government jobs for people of the lowest caste, the Scheduled Caste; 7.5% of the seats are reserved for the Scheduled Tribe. These programs have been strengthened by improved enforcement and increased funding in the 1990s. This positive discrimination has also generated popular backlash and on-the-ground sabotage of the programs. This paper examines the changes in educational attainment between various social groups for a period of nearly 20 years to see whether educational inequalities have declined over time. We use data from a large national sample survey of over 100,000 households for each of the four survey years--1983, 1987-1988, 1993-1994, and 1999-2000--and focus on the educational attainment of children and young adults aged 6-29. Our results show a declining gap between dalits, adivasis, and others in the odds of completing primary school. Such improvement is not seen for Muslims, a minority group that does not benefit from affirmative action. We find little improvement in inequality at the college level. Further, we do not find evidence that upper-income groups, the so-called creamy layer of dalits and adivasis, disproportionately benefit from the affirmative action programs at the expense of their lower-income counterparts.
W. Lee Grubb III
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how justifications for hiring procedures and hiring decisions impact white nonbeneficiaries’ perceptions of fairness. The results for the procedural and distributive justice hypotheses were strikingly similar. Both the diversity justification and no justification were perceived to be fairer than the affirmative action justification for both procedural and distributive justice. Interestingly, however, the respondents perceived no justification to be fairer than the diversity justification. Of the three different scenarios, no justification was perceived to be the most fair and affirmative action was perceived to be the least fair justification.
Slaughter, Jerel E; Sinar, Evan F; Bachiochi, Peter D
This study examined the effects of plan content and previous experience with discrimination on Black respondents' reactions to affirmative action plans. Black engineering students (N = 1,173) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 plans implemented by a hypothetical organization and were asked to provide ratings of perceived fairness and intention to pursue a position at the organization. There were significant effects of plan content on perceived faimess and job pursuit intentions. Perceived fairness mediated the effect of content on intentions. Furthermore, previous experience with discrimination interacted with content to affect intentions. Individuals who had experienced relatively more discrimination in the workplace reported stronger intentions to pursue a position at an organization whose plan specified special training opportunities for minorities.
Son Hing, Leanne S; Bobocel, D Ramona; Zanna, Mark P
Typically, people who strongly endorse the merit principle and believe that outcomes should be given to those most deserving oppose affirmative action (AA) programs that violate this principle. However, how do they respond to AA when faced with a great deal of workplace discrimination? The authors hypothesized that people who care strongly about merit should be motivated to combat discrimination because it biases the assessment of merit. Consequently, these individuals should make concessions for AA. The authors found support for their hypothesis when investigating (a) participants' preexisting perceptions of workplace discrimination and (b) experimentally induced perceptions of discrimination. They discuss the implications of these results for the psychology of meritocracy and for resistance to AA.
Douglass, John Aubrey
Once again, the U.S. Supreme Court will decide on the contentious issue of Affirmative Action, and specifically the use of race in admissions decisions in public universities. Despite differences in the details, seasoned veterans of affirmative action debates are experiencing déjà vu. In this case, Abigail Noel Fisher claims overt racial…
Waters, Harold Davon
This dissertation explores the controversial issues surrounding affirmative action in higher education. Are anti-affirmative action ballot initiatives in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by restructuring the political process of minorities in such a way that places special burden on their ability to secure…
Cortes, Kalena E.
In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…
Garces, Liliana M.; Mickey-Pabello, David
This study examines the impact of affirmative action bans in six states (California, Washington, Florida, Texas, Michigan, and Nebraska) on the matriculation rates of historically underrepresented students of color in public medical schools in these states. Findings show that affirmative action bans have led to about a 17% decline (from 18.5% to…
Pike, Gary R.; Kuh, George D.; Gonyea, Robert M.
Affirmative action in college admissions is based on the premise that a diverse student body contributes to interactions among students from different backgrounds, which are in turn positively related to desirable outcomes of college. This study evaluates the merits of this rationale for affirmative action by examining the direct and indirect…
Among the many arguments against affirmative action discussed in the academic literature, there is one stating that affirmative action fails to target the most marginalised members of a disadvantaged group, and instead it supports the group's most affluent members whose socio-economic position may be comparable to that of the mainstream…
The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…
Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
This study examines Asian Pacific American undergraduates' views on affirmative action and their perspectives on U.S. race relations through Herbert Blumer's (1958) theory of group position. Results indicate that Asian Pacific American (APA) students may perceive other minority student applicants as inferior to APA applicants and feel threatened…
De Mars, Douglas V.
Litigation against colleges and universities has prompted the need to re-examine the legalities of the means by which they strive for a diverse student population. Court decisions have resulted in mixed signals about the use of various types of affirmative action policies. This study' method presented an analysis of archival data to provide a…
Espino, Michelle M.
This article focuses on the extent to which affirmative action policies and practices as remedies for racial injustice in higher education reflect a silent covenant that sacrifices the cultivation and presence of Latina/o faculty. Drawing upon the lived experiences of 22 Mexican American faculty and post-doctoral fellows, the author argues that,…
Reardon, Sean; Baker, Rachel; Kasman, Matt; Townsend, Joe; Klasik, Daniel
The creation of racially diverse colleges at all levels of selectivity has proven to be no small task, even with the legal use of race-conscious affirmative action. As evidenced in the postsecondary destinations of the high school class of 2004, very selective schools (those with Barron's Selectivity rankings of 1, 2 or 3) have many more White,…
Stulberg, Lisa M.; Chen, Anthony S.
What explains the rise of race-conscious affirmative action policies in undergraduate admissions? The dominant theory posits that adoption of such policies was precipitated by urban and campus unrest in the North during the late 1960s. Based on primary research in a sample of 17 selective schools, we find limited support for the dominant theory.…
Burton, Johnie A., Jr.
In 2003, the United States Supreme Court decided on two cases that involved affirmative action policies for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School and the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Those cases, "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003) had implications for the…
Francis, Andrew M.; Tannuri-Pianto, Maria
This paper contributes to research on affirmative action by examining issues of equity in the context of racial quotas in Brazil. We study the experience of the University of Brasilia, which established racial quotas in 2004 reserving 20% of available admissions slots for students who self-identified as black. Based on university admissions data…
Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.
Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…
Discusses the consequences to the nation and to Blacks of abolishing affirmative action in college and university admission policies. It examines the impact of abandoning racial preferences on school admissions, particularly as it concerns graduate and medical schools. The author argues that without the use of racial preferences far fewer Blacks…
This brief explores the pros and cons of three alternative approaches to college admissions policies: race-based preferences, which are backed by most Democrats; class-rank plans (admitting the top students in each high school), which is backed by the Bush administration; and economic affirmative action for the disadvantaged of all races, which…
Fair, Bryan K.
This book is a defense of remedial affirmative action and an assertion that it is a policy that is a fair and workable solution to the chronic problem of racial caste in the United States. The personal narrative of the author, eighth of 10 children born to a single mother on public assistance, is combined with the discussion of American history…
White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K
The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level.
Wellman, Joseph D; Liu, Xi; Wilkins, Clara L
The current research examines how status-legitimizing beliefs (SLBs) influence White people's perceptions of anti-White bias, endorsement of zero-sum beliefs, and support for Affirmative Action. We suggest that SLBs perpetuate inequality by increasing White people's perceptions of zero-sum beliefs and anti-White bias, which in turn lead to decreased support for Affirmative Action. White individuals primed with SLBs perceived greater anti-White bias, endorsed greater zero-sum beliefs, and indicated less support for Affirmative Action than individuals primed with neutral content. Mediation analysis revealed that the SLB prime decreased support for Affirmative Action by increasing perceptions of anti-White bias. This research offers experimental evidence that SLBs contribute to White people's perceptions of anti-White bias and to decreased support for Affirmative Action.
John L. Festervand
Full Text Available This paper explores the University of Alabama's positions, actions, policies, and accomplishments over the past forty years with respect to minority representation among its students and faculty. The impact and progression of these initiatives by the University of Alabama demonstrates strides have been made. The paper also examines the University's recruiting efforts to attract more minority faculty and students. The transition from integration to affirmative action to diversity in higher education also are examined.
Myrone Christopher Stoffels
Full Text Available The implementation of affirmative action measures can give rise to unfair discrimination. In cases where members of the “designated groups” compete with one another for the same position, there can be allegations of unfair discrimination. The question arises as to how the employer needs to act in order to avoid unfair discrimination in cases where more than one person from the designated group applies for the same position. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of unfair discrimination on the designated group, specifically with regard to the subgroup “black people” as well as how the employer can avoid unfair discrimination in the implementation of the affirmative action measures aimed at advancing “black people” by selecting the most suitably qualified person from the sub group black people based on the national and regional demographics.
Sanchez, Diana T; Good, Jessica J; Chavez, George
The present study examined the causal role of amount of Black ancestry in targets' perceived fit with Black prototypes and perceivers' categorization of biracial targets. Greater Black ancestry increased the likelihood that perceivers categorized biracial targets as Black and perceived targets as fitting Black prototypes (e.g., experiencing racial discrimination, possessing stereotypic traits). These results persisted, controlling for perceptions of phenotype that stem from ancestry information. Perceivers' beliefs about how society would categorize the biracial targets predicted perceptions of discrimination, whereas perceivers' beliefs about the targets' self-categorization predicted trait perceptions. The results of this study support the Black ancestry prototype model of affirmative action, which reveals the downstream consequences of Black ancestry for the distribution of minority resources (e.g., affirmative action) to biracial targets.
The best Brazilian universities are public, free of charge, and highly selective. At the beginning of the twentyfirst century, many public universities began to allocate places on all of their courses to underrepresented groups. The targets of these affirmative action policies were usually African-Brazilian and Native students coming from public schools. This article introduces data on Brazil’s higher education system since its early beginnings: its expansion, the segmentation between public ...
Full Text Available In the recent Supreme Court decision, Grutter v. Bollinger, the Court upheld the use of race-based affirmative action in admissions processes at higher education institutions. In the course of holding that diversity is a compelling interest, and that narrowly tailored race-conscious programs may be used to achieve diversity at graduate and undergraduate institutions, the Court also noted that such “race-conscious admissions policies must be limited in time.”
... the contractor to state and thereby affirm in solicitations and advertisements that it is an equal... discussed in Sec. 60-250.2, above. Section 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol We propose a correction to...
Affirmative action measures within the workplace seek to ensure equal employment opportunities and create a workforce that is representative of South African society. Accordingly, employers need to ensure that the substantive goal of equality is achieved when implementing affirmative action. One of the challenges faced by employers is the choice of beneficiary from designated groups which is diverse and unequal within itself. This paper seeks to address this challenge by looking at the defini...
Following the U.S. Supreme Court's "Grutter" decision, universities must now make the judgment that student diversity is essential to their educational mission. This article examines the prospects for increasing Latino representation in higher education in this post- "Grutter" era. The article further explores the effect of affirmative action…
Graziella Moraes Dias da Silva
Full Text Available Neste artigo, comparo as políticas de ações afirmativas no ensino superior no Brasil e na África do Sul. Algumas perguntas orientam essa comparação: por que países com histórias e estruturas raciais completamente diferentes estão implementando políticas semelhantes para lidar com a desigualdade entre as raças? Mais especificamente, por que o Brasil, um país de fronteiras raciais menos rígidas do que a África do Sul, implantou uma forma mais radical de a��ão afirmativa? Como as diferentes compreensões nacionais do que é raça influenciam a adoção e as discussões sobre as ações afirmativas dirigidas às questões raciais? Por fim, e talvez mais importante, como essas políticas "importadas" influenciam os debates raciais no Brasil e na África do Sul?In this paper I compare race-targeted affirmative action policies in higher education in Brazil and South Africa. A few questions guide this comparison. Why are countries with completely different racial structures and histories currently implementing similar policies to address racial inequality? And, more specifically, why did Brazil - a country with historically less rigid racial boundaries than South Africa - implement a more radical form of affirmative action than South Africa? How do these different national understandings of race influence the implementation and debates about race-targeted affirmative action? And, maybe more importantly, how do these "imported" policies influence the above mentioned national contexts?
Full Text Available L’offensive contre l’affirmative action engagée depuis les années 1980 s’est accrue pendant les deux mandats de la présidence Bush, et l’opinion publique s’est radicalisée, percevant désormais de plus en plus fréquemment ces programmes comme une série d’avantages indûment octroyés à un certain nombre de « privilégiés ». Tout programme d’affirmative action doit désormais être étayé par des disparity studies démontrant la réalité de la discrimination, et seules des mesures très ciblées (narrowly tailored sont autorisées pour y remédier. La charge de la preuve a été en quelque sorte inversée. Mais contrairement aux idées reçues, l’affirmative action n’est pas sur le point de disparaître aux États-Unis et malgré son hostilité de principe, le gouvernement Bush n’a pris aucune mesure concrète pour démanteler ces programmes. L’affirmative action connaît aujourd’hui plusieurs transformations majeures, l’évolution la plus marquante étant l’effacement du critère ethno-racial au profit de critères plus neutres et moins idéologiquement polarisants, essentiellement d’ordre géographique et territorial. Dans l’enseignement supérieur par exemple, des procédures d’admission codées ont vu le jour pour favoriser l’accès des minorités ethniques sous-représentées aux campus d’élite, et diverses stratégies de contournement ont été mises en place dans l’adjudication des marchés publics. Ces transformations sont également intéressantes à analyser d’un point de vue transnational, puisque l’on observe une convergence croissante avec le modèle français de discrimination positive, lui aussi fondé sur le camouflage et l’euphémisation de l’identité ethno-raciale et sur une logique de territoire.This article examines the fate of affirmative action in the United States during the eight years of the Bush administration. After a brief reminder of the major landmarks
Full Text Available Affirmative action measures within the workplace seek to ensure equal employment opportunities and create a workforce that is representative of South African society. Accordingly, employers need to ensure that the substantive goal of equality is achieved when implementing affirmative action. One of the challenges faced by employers is the choice of beneficiary from designated groups which is diverse and unequal within itself. This paper seeks to address this challenge by looking at the definition given to beneficiaries of affirmative action and the concept of multi layered disadvantage within the Employment Equity Act. The paper will focus on the decision in Naidoo v Minister of Safety and Security and National Commissioner of the South African Police Service which is an example of the disadvantages experienced by members of the designated groups who are also part of a minority group within the designated groups. Particular focus will be placed on the disadvantages experienced by a black female who is also part of a minority. This paper highlights the multi-layered nature of disadvantage experienced by such members of the designated groups and the need to ensure that new forms of disadvantage are not created in the implementation of affirmative action policies by using a situation sensitive approach. It argues that affirmative action as a means to an end needs to evolve with the understanding that it functions within an ever changing social and economic environment. If such changes are ignored the true beneficiaries of affirmative action will not be given recognition and the desired end of creating a workforce representative of South African society together with the goal of substantive equality cannot be realised.
Full Text Available Since the inception of a fully democratic government in South Africa in 1994, government and trade unions have been placing increasing pressure on government departments and public institutions to introduce steps to correct racial discrimination through the implementation of affirmative action (AA. This study, which was carried out in the Standerton Health District, assesses employees’ perceptions of and attitudes towards the implementation of AA. A quantitative design was used. Data was gathered from a total population of 360 employees by means of a questionnaire. The study revealed the following major themes: • Respondents feel that if AA were effectively implemented, there would be an increase in productivity. • There is strong support for the implementation of AA appointments. • The implementation of AA will fail if the goals of AA are not properly and effectively communicated to all employees.
Levi, Ariel S; Fried, Yitzhak
This study examines the reactions of African Americans and Whites to affirmative action programs (AAPs) applied to 4 human resource activities: hiring, promotion, training, and layoffs. The results of a scenario-based experimental study conducted on a large sample (N > 800) of advanced undergraduate and MBA business school participants generally supported the hypothesis that human resource activity elicited systematic differences in reaction to AAPs between African Americans and Whites. The authors also replicated previous research on the effect of AAP strength and prior discrimination by the organization on reactions to AAPs. Results indicated that AAP strength levels moderated racial differences in reaction to AAPs, while the moderating role of prior discrimination by the organization was not supported. Implications for future research are discussed.
Good, Jessica J; Chavez, George F; Sanchez, Diana T
Multiracial individuals are in the unique position of being able to categorize themselves as members of multiple racial groups. Drawing on self-categorization theory, we suggest that similarity to the minority ingroup depends on self-perceptions of physical appearance and connectedness to the minority ingroup. Moreover, we argue that similarity to the ingroup determines self-categorization as minority, which predicts category-based entitlements such as perceived eligibility for minority resources (e.g., affirmative action). Using path analysis, we found support for this model on a convenience sample of 107 mixed-race minority-White participants. The results suggest that affective processes rather than observable characteristics such as prototypical physical appearance better predict self-categorization among mixed-race individuals.
Jane Felipe Beltrão
Full Text Available Research analyzes the Admissions Program and the new reality of affirmative action measures at the Federal University of Pará, its context and implications. A special interest regards higher education and cultural diversity. Study reflects upon the goals of such policy; the different arguments among actors involved; the institutional conduct; and the benefits and difficulties faced to implement the program. The principle that guides the study understands the rights of indigenous populations in their access to University and sees the measures as a victory of the indigenous movement. Challenges remain, though, at two levels: first, it is necessary to develop policy to face institutional and social resistance to the implementation of the program; second, it is paramount to support the indigenous students in their needs in their new academic life.
Full Text Available The concept of diversity has become increasingly salient in equality discourse. In the EU and in many of its member states, the term ‘diversity’ is now often used in place of ‘equality’ by advocates of voluntarist antidiscrimination policies. This trend echoes a phenomenon observable in the United States, where the notion of diversity has acquired a major place in discussions over affirmative action. Interestingly, the US Supreme Court has played an important role in this evolution: ‘promotion of diversity’ has progressively become almost the sole justification admitted for affirmative action programmes in higher education. This paper critically explores the use of diversity argument in US legal discourse on antidiscrimination. It argues that while the notion of diversity may valuably contribute to the promotion of equal opportunities, it is not without ambiguities. A first ambiguity results from the vagueness of the term “diversity.” Considered in the abstract, it may encompass all kind of differences and particularities. Absent further explanation, it is not self-evident that “achieving diversity” requires a special focus on disadvantaged racial or ethnic minorities. The second ambiguity lies with the fact that the diversity argument, as constructed in the US case law, tends to justify efforts to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged groups on the basis of its utility for the dominant majority. This line of argument may obfuscate more principled justifications and makes equality discourse more vulnerable to attacks based on claims that combating discrimination is in fact not “efficient” and thus not in the interest of the dominant majority.
Impact of Affirmative Action on Quality of Service Delivery in the Public Service Sector of Kenya: A Comparative Case Study of the Ministry of State in the Office of the President and Ministry of Higher Education
Kilonzo, Evans Mbuthi; Ikamari, Lawrence
This study was carried out to determine the impact of affirmative action policy on the quality service delivery in the public service sector of Kenya. The study was carried out on the premise that there is a relationship between affirmative Action implementation and the quality of service delivery in the public service sector of Kenya. A lot of…
Frisancho Robles, Veronica C.; Krishna, Kala
Affirmative action policies in higher education are used in many countries to try to socially advance historically disadvantaged minorities. Although the underlying social objectives of these policies are rarely criticized, there is intense debate over the actual impact of such preferences in higher education on educational performance and labor…
White, Tarsha D.
Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…
As the General Principles of the Civil Law and the Law of Contract of China do not provide the limitation of actions concerning the affirmation of invalid contracts ,there are disputes over the question of limitation of actions in theory and practice .This paper ,through the research on the trade-off of prescription system function and the invalid contract system function ,helps to determine wheth-er the affirmation of invalid contracts is applicable to the limitation of actions .Moreover ,this paper analyzes the limitation of right of claim after the affirmation of invalid contract ,the beginning time of prescription period ,and other issues as well .%中国《民法通则》和《合同法》没有就无效合同确认是否受诉讼时效限制做出相应的明确规定，无效合同诉讼时效问题引起了合同法理论界和实务界的争论。文章将时效制度与合同无效制度能力加以权衡比较，对合同无效的确认是否适用诉讼时效做出了肯定判断，并对合同无效确认后时效期间起算等问题进行了分析阐述。
Science and engineering departments need more women as faculty-and not only to show their undergraduate students (the majority of whom are now women in many disciplines) that a career in academia is a viable path. In my field, statistics show that one-third of U.S. Ph.D.s in chemistry are awarded to women, yet according to cocktail folklore, applications from women for advertised positions are only 10% (or less!) of the total. Why aren't women applying to academia in proportion to their numbers? Why are they voting with their feet against a career in an institution they know all too well? The disproportionate absence of women from the applicant pool warns that an unhealthy environment exists in U.S. academic departments: unhealthy to those professors who want to play a continuing, rather than merely genetic role in the lives of their children and unhealthy to those women, who once they demonstrate productivity, scholarship, and mentorship, still reap less respect (and the ancillary rewards of space, salary, funding, and awards) than their male colleagues. Should Federal funds be withheld from those universities that do not increase their departmental faculty hires to reflect the pool of U.S.-granted Ph.D.s? Can the threat of the loss of Federal dollars be the impetus for the changes necessary in American universities in order to create a departmental environment that women are willing to call home? Many posit that such changes will concomitantly improve the academic experience for women *and* men, faculty *and* students. If the ``system" is broken, and many of its citizens think it is, can it be fixed? Plausible action items up for discussion include such practical, achievable alternatives as aggressively recruiting good women candidates for faculty openings, fairer evaluation of the contributions and productivity of candidates and faculty who are women, ensuring on-campus day care, mentoring the junior faculty through the minefields, and really rewarding the good
Full Text Available Orientation: Apartheid in South Africa constructed racial, economic, social and political segregation, the consequences of which are still experienced today. Government has made concerted efforts to ‘deracialise’ South Africa, most notably through affirmative action (AA measures. Research purpose: This study aimed to explore employees’ social constructions of AA in a South African organisation. Motivation for the study: Research in this field focuses mostly on attitudinal perspectives of AA with an emphasis on traditional approaches. Subjective, contextualised approaches to AA have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to critically engage with the embodied nature of prejudice, particularly in reference to how we understand and experience AA. Research approach, design and method: This study aimed to explore AA from a social constructionist orientation, using semi-structured interviews. More specifically, this study used Potter and Wetherell’s discursive psychology. Main findings: The findings illustrate how participants engage in discursive devices that continue to rationalise a racial order of competence. Ultimately, AA is a controversial subject that traverses many segments of life for all South Africans. Practical/managerial implications: The findings contribute to the discipline of industrial psychology, particularly with regard to policies around preferential treatment, and can add value to the ways in which organisational policy documents are conceptualised. The findings also suggest the importance of developing an inclusive, non-discriminatory organisational culture. Contribution/value-add: This approach adds to the existing body of knowledge around the embodied nature of prejudice. The study’s methodology highlights the value of studying context in meaning-making and implied inferences that underlie talk.
When my daughter, Janna, was a junior in high school, she was accepted as a foreign exchange student2 to Germany. We were delighted that she had been chosen for such a special experience. Then the exchange organization informed us that we had to pay $4,000 in costs --and the money was due3 on June 5, two months away.
Grutterink, Hanneke; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Molleman, Eric; Jehn, Karen A.
In this paper we argue that reciprocal expertise affirmationi.e. the mutual recognition by team members that they respect, value, and affirm each other's expertiseis positively related to team performance, but only in teams with high levels of shared expertise perceptions. Moreover, we propose that
South Africa is in the process of change. This changes taking place in South Africa at present have influenced all people in some other way. These people come from different cultures, each with its own background, beliefs and values. South Africa is a new nation, focusing especially on a non-racial, non-sexist democracy with equal representation on all levels. Therefore the authors of the new Labour Relations Act found it expedient to introduce the concept of affirmative act...
"肯定性行动计划(affirmative action)"是美国民权运动、反战运动等社会政治运动的产物,在美国高等教育发展史上具有里程碑的意义."肯定性行动计划"的实施,扩大了少数民族的高等教育机会,推动 .了少数民族高等教育的发展,开启了少数民族高等教育援助政策的先河.该政策在促进政治稳定、经济繁荣、社会和谐等方面发挥了巨大作用.新的时代背景下,随着政策环境的变化,以及政策对不同利益群体的影响,"肯定性行动计划"在实践中面临重重阻力,步履维艰,美国少数民族高等教育的前景不容乐观.
Larsen, Max D.; Wadlow, Joan K.
Offers practical suggestions as to how the academic dean in a college or university can provide opportunities to women and minority faculty, even given current fiscal conditions. Discusses: (1) the screening and search process; (2) strategies for recruiting faculty; (3) strategies for coping with retrenchment; and (4) other strategies which…
采用实验研究的方法评价机会公平规则和倾斜政策对员工努力水平及雇主收益的影响.利用对130个被试进行的7个实验,本文获得了如下研究结论:与基准实验相比,在不公平锦标赛实验中,被试的努力水平有所降低；在不对称锦标赛实验中,随着代理人能力不对称程度逐渐增加,有利被试和不利被试选择的努力水平均会减少；在倾斜政策实验中,实施倾斜政策并没有增加员工的总产出,因而也没有提高雇主的收益.文末从企业组织和政府政策两方面分析了研究结论的实际意义.%Since 1980's, the rank-order tournament theory based on relative performance evaluation (RPE) has received attention by scholars in many different disciplines. In the business discipline, the tournament theory has been extended into three models: unfair tournament model, uneven tournament model and affirmative action model. According to the unfair tournament model, some workers have competitive advantages over others in the sense that their output has been added artificially in order to exceed the output of their competitors. According to the uneven tournament model, employees with different abilities are assigned different cost functions so that some employees are faced with higher costs than the others. The combination of unfair tournament and uneven tournament would define an affirmative action model in which the cost-disadvantaged workers are compensated by the increase of output.This paper is intended to answer the following three questions. First, in order to address the discrimination problem in the unfair tournament, should employer treat all employees equally? Is it reasonable to implement the equal opportunity law? Second, how much effort will be chosen by employees with different abilities in the uneven tournament? Does the problem " Race between Hare and Tortoise" emerge? Third, should the affirmative action policy be adopted to favor those
Fernanda Vieira Guarnieri
Full Text Available Ações Afirmativas são medidas que visam à democratização do acesso ao emprego e à educação. Nas universidades brasileiras essas ações constituem programas de cotas para a inserção de grupos sociais com histórico de exclusão. No entanto a questão torna-se complexa quando são levantados critérios étnicos para sua definição. O objetivo do presente estudo, de revisão da literatura - do tipo estado da arte - é contribuir para a discussão no cenário brasileiro sobre as ações afirmativas no Ensino Superior a partir do levantamento do estado da arte nos últimos cinco anos. Foram utilizadas bases de dados eletrônicas (SCOPUS e Jstor; e os dados tratados conforme a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin (1977. Os resultados foram organizados em três unidades de análise: (a dicotomia entre artigos a favor ou contra as medidas; (b enriquecimento do debate sobre "diversidade"; e (c visualização dialética, mais integrada e reflexiva. Os achados contribuem para a compreensão da situação brasileira no cenário atual de proposição de políticas públicas na Educação Superior.Affirmative actions are social measures that seek to democratize the access to jobs and education. In Brazilian higher education, those actions consist of programs of vacancy quotes in universities for historically excluded social groups. The issue is complex in relation to defining ethnical and/or social criteria. The aim of this article, using state-of-art literature review, is to contribute in the discussion about affirmative action in Brazilian higher education, based on the survey of the state of the art in the last five years. Electronic data bases were used (SCOPUS and Jstor and Bardin's (1977 content analysis was carried out. The results were organized into three analysis units: (a a dichotomy existing between articles for and against the measures; (b improvement on the debate about "diversity"; and (c a dialectical, more integrated and reflective
@@ 所谓平权措施(Affirmative Action),是指美国政府在本世纪六七十年代民权运动的压力下,为缓和种族矛盾、解决由来已久的种族和性别歧视问题所制定的一系列补救性行政命令和立法措施.1961年3月,约翰·肯尼迪总统颁布10925号行政令,宣布凡属联邦的平权项自,禁止存在种族歧视,违反者追究其法律责任.
Sales Augusto dos Santos
Full Text Available O artigo analisa a importância do papel do Estado para a implementação das políticas públicas de a��ão afirmativa, especialmente para estudantes negros ingressarem no ensino superior público. Argumenta-se que a ação afirmativa é uma das alternativas para reduzir ou minimizar a desigualdade de inserção entre estudantes negros e brancos de escolas públicas e/ou particulares no ensino superior, especialmente por meio de uma de suas técnicas de implementação: o sistema de cotas. Embora haja vários argumentos contra o sistema de cotas, os autores se concentraram em debater ou contra-argumentar apenas um: o de que o sistema de cotas poderá gerar conflitos raciais no Brasil.The article analyses the importance of the role of the State for the implementation of public policies of affirmative action, especially for black students to enter public higher education. It argues that affirmative action is one of the alternatives to reduce or minimize the inequality in this field between black and white students and/or students from public schools and private schools, in particular by means of one of its techniques of implementation: the quota system. In spite of there being various arguments against the quota system, the authors concentrate on debating or counter-arguing only one: that the quota system may generate racial conflicts in Brazil.
Mozart Linhares da Silva
Full Text Available O artigo problematiza as abordagens racialistas e não-racialistas que marcam o debate sobre ações afirmativas no Brasil tomando a miscigenação como eixo norteador de ambas as posturas político-teóricas. Propõe uma crítica às abordagens que visam a racialização das identidades no país bem como às abordagens dos intelectuais que, em nome das idiossincrasias locais ou mesmo dos princípios igualitaristas, procuram contornar as políticas diferencialistas. É na tensão entre as políticas de redistribuição e reconhecimento que o texto assenta, portanto, a análise sobre os dilemas entre cor/raça/mestiçagem e políticas de ações afirmativas no Brasil.Abstract The article discusses the racialists and non-racialist approaches that mark the debate on affirmative action’s in Brazil taking miscegenation as a guideline for both political andtheoretical stances. It proposes a critique of the approaches to the racialization of the identities in the country as well as the approaches of the intellectuals who, on behalf of local idiosyncrasies or even egalitarian principles, try to avent differential policies. It is the tension between the redistribution and recognition policies that the text is based on, therefore, the analysis of the dilemmas between color/race/miscegenation and affirmative action policies in Brazil.
Full Text Available O ensaio tem por objetivo refletir sobre a utilidade do conceito de não sincronia, na educação, entre desigualdades de gênero e raça. Para tanto, apresenta e discute o perfil de estudantes e candidatos/as ao Programa Internacional de Bolsas de Pós-Graduação da Fundação Ford no Brasil, propondo interpretações referentes à sobrerepresentação feminina no ensino superior e na pós-graduação. Termina alertando sobre a necessidade de se abrir o debate sobre o melhor desempenho educacional das mulheres no contexto atual de discussão sobre ação afirmativa no ensino superior para negros e indígenasThe essay is a reflection on the usefulness of the concept of non synchrony between gender and racial inequalities in education. It presents and discusses the profile of the students and candidates in the International Fellowships Program of the Ford Foundation in Brazil, proposing interpretations with respect to the over-representation of women in higher education and in graduate studies. It ends by calling attention to the need to open up the discussion about the better educational performance of women in the present context of the debate on affirmative action in higher education for blacks and the indigenous population.
Tonini, Adriana Maria
Full Text Available O final do século XX e o ingresso no século XXI produziram um modelo de democracia que procura reunir o direito das minorias, garantido pelo sistema de cotas, o entendimento de “escola para todos” como fator crucial para a produção de uma possível igualdade e, por fim, a ação das instituições políticas para melhor organizar os conflitos sociais. É evidente que tais ideias, para se concretizarem, necessitam de fórmulas que devam colocá-las “na prática”, particularmente em virtude de que isso se confronta com todo um sistema cultural produzido ao longo de dois séculos, pelo menos (o sistema político, econômico e social denominado liberalismo. Assim, para dar conta da “escola para todos” não há como não pensar em atrelar o currículo às questões sociais e suas demandas. É preciso, portanto, entender o papel do currículo no processo. The late twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century have produced a model of democracy that seeks to bring together the right of minorities guaranteed by the quota system, the understanding of “education for all” as a crucial factor for the production of a possible equality, and finally, the action of political institutions to better organize social conflicts. Clearly these ideas, in order to become real, require formulas that should put them “in practice”, particularly because that confronts an entire cultural system produced over two centuries at least (the political, economic and social system called liberalism. Thus, to account for the “education for all” it is imperative to think of tying the curriculum to social issues and their demands. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the role of the curriculum in the process.
Michele S Moses
Full Text Available
In this article we examine the current status of affirmative action in postsecondary admissions through a concurrent review of recent court rulings, state legislation, and higher education enrollment data. Analyzing each of these factors in the context of the others is important because the court decisions and state-level legislation interact to affect enrollment. We not only present the state of the law, but also examine several outcomes of affirmative action case law and ballot initiatives as well as political implications for the future of affirmative action. From a broad philosophical and legal perspective, then, we ask first, what is the current legal and political status of race-conscious policy in higher education admissions?
And second, given that current status, what is the likelihood that by 2028 affirmative action will no longer be needed to further the goals of diversity and equality on college and university campuses? Our methods include analyses of prominent court decisions and state legislation, as well as analyses of enrollment data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System to examine the racial/ethnic diversity of first-time, degree-seeking undergraduates at several state flagship institutions from 1994 to 2005 and compare that to the racial/ethnic diversity of the same undergraduate students attending all 2- and 4-year degree granting public and private institutions in the flagship’s state. In states potentially facing anti-affirmative action ballot initiatives, these analyses provide one approach to examining the current need for affirmative action in admissions and the likely consequences if the ballot initiatives pass.
Full Text Available Este trabajo examina si existen diferencias entre mujeres y hombres en sus reacciones hacia diferentes tipos de medidas de acción afirmativa (MAAs para mujeres, para lo que 192 mujeres y 128 hombres ocupantes de diferentes puestos respondieron a un cuestionario. Los resultados muestran que las mujeres reaccionan de manera más positiva que los hombres hacia las MAAs, aunque las reacciones de ambos varían en función del tipo de medida de acción afirmativa. Las reacciones son más positivas cuando las decisiones de personal se basan en el mérito y se vuelven más negativas cuando las decisiones están basadas principalmente en el género. También encontramos que las reacciones hacia las MAAs se relacionan con las variables "percepción de injusticia" y "percepción de amenaza para los hombres", y especialmente con la primera. Otro resultado es que las reacciones hacia el concepto genérico de acción afirmativa son más positivas que hacia medidas específicas de AA. Por último, comentamos las implicaciones de estos resultados para la investigación y la práctica.
In signing off the majority opinion in "Grutter v. Bollinger," Justice Sandra Day O'Connor opined, "That 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary to further the interest approved today" (2003, p. 342). The Supreme Court's acceptance of "Fisher v. University of Texas," however, may signal an end to affirmative…
This paper views the interrelatedness of political, economic, and family systems as they are being affected by the growing awareness of sex discrimination. The reduction in sex inequalities throughout the world, regardless of political or economic orientation, will necessitate a new perception of the woman's role in the family unit. The hypothesis…
Group leaders who offer affirmations to participants in outdoor education encourage healthy relationships and group cohesion and increase individuals' self-esteem. Personal affirming includes actions and statements that make participants feel comfortable in their environment, support capable work, and encourage behavior change in a supportive and…
美国肯定性行动与中国民族优惠政策比较研究--兼论对我国民族政策转型的启示%The Comparative Research on American Affirmative Action and Preferential Minority-Treatment Policy in China--The Enlightenment on the Reform of Ethnic Policy in China
美国的肯定性政策与中国的民族优惠政策在发展历程和政策内容上存在一定的相似性。中国的民族优惠政策自新中国成立以来也在我国民族政策中占据着主要的地位。但不同的是，美国的肯定性行动计划在不断地调整和修正，近十年来开始逐步淡化，甚至取消相关政策（部分州）。而中国的民族政策执行到现在虽然也遇到了很多问题，但总体来讲，调整步伐相对缓慢。通过对美国肯定行动与我国民族优惠政策的比较，可以看出中美两国在处理相似问题上一些规律性特征，对我国民族政策的转型具有启迪作用。%The developing history and policy contents are similar when we compare American affirmative action and China preferential minority-treatment policy. Since founding of the nation, preferential minority-treatment policy plays a key role in the course of China’s ethnic policies. But the difference is that America’s affirmative action began to gradually fade over the past decades, accompanying with adjustment and amendment, and even has been cancelled in some states. The implementation of China’s ethnic policies also faced many problems, but as a whole, the pace of adjustment has been relatively slow. By comparing America’s affirmative action and China’s preferential minority-treatment policy, it put forwards that there are regular features in dealing with similar issues between both countries, and this will provide enlightenments for the reform of China’s ethnic policies.
Las acciones afirmativas en educación superior: el caso de los Estados Unidos Açôes afirmativas na educação superior: o caso dos Estados Unidos Affirmative Action in Higher Education: The Case of the United States
Jorge Enrique Celis-Giraldo
Full Text Available Se analiza la importancia y la evolución políticas de las acciones afirmativas en la educación superior en Estados Unidos. Se acoge esta experiencia porque ha influido en algunos países interesados en proporcionar, a los ciudadanos históricamente excluidos, igualdad social de oportunidades en el acceso a la educación superior, con miras a que tengan movilidad social. En primer lugar, se hace una reconstrucción de los principales hitos que influyeron en la concepción de las acciones afirmativas en el contexto laboral y después en el de la educación superior. Ulteriormente se muestran las controversias y decisiones legales que se han adoptado en algunos estados con las acciones afirmativas en educación superior. Por último, los resultados hallados en estudios sobre los desempeños académicos y profesionales de la población que ha sido beneficiada con las acciones afirmativas.Neste artigo se analisam a importância e a evolução políticas das açôes afirmativas na educação superior nos Estados Unidos. Recolhe-se esta experiência pela sua influencia em muitos países interessados em dar igualdade social de oportunidades aos cidadãos excluídos tradicionalmente do acesso à educação superior, a fim de que tenham mobilidade social. Primeiro se reconstroem os principais marcos que influenciaram na conceição das açôes afirmativas no contexto de trabalho; depois, mostram-se as controvérsias e decisôes legais, adotadas em vários estados, respeito da educação superior. Por último, revelam-se os resultados de estudos sobre desempenhos acadêmicos e profissionais da população beneficiada pelas açôes afirmativas.The importance and development of policies for affirmative action in higher education in the United States are analyzed in this article. The U.S. experience is selected because it has influenced a number of countries that seek to provide historically excluded citizens with equal opportunities for access to higher
美国联邦最高法院对“密歇根诉讼案”的判决对于美国高等教育具有重要意义。“密歇根诉讼案”是美国高校实施扶持行动计划所引发的争议与矛盾不断激化的必然结果，联邦最高法院在审理中出现了巨大的意见分歧。判决结果一方面为高校实施扶持行动设定了“个体化审查”、“严格限制”等法律原则，一方面加强了对族群倾向性教育政策的限制。美国联邦最高法院对高等教育发展具有重要影响，但由于其特殊性，这种影响的发挥也受到了限制。%The Supreme Court＇s ruling on the Michigan Cases in 2003 is of great significance in American higher education. The Michigan Cases ,which provoke sharp disputes among the justices ,is the very result of conflicts and disputes on the Affirmative Action in higher education. The ruling of the Michigan Cases builds several legal principles such as ＂individualized consideration＂ and ＂being narrowly tailored＂ for affirmative action programs. The Supreme Court also imposes severe limitations on race-conscious polices. The impacts of the Supreme Court on higher education are both far-reaching and limited for its specialties.
Ehrlich, Gaven A; Gramzow, Richard H
It has been well established in the literature that affirming the individual self reduces the tendency to exhibit group-favoring biases. The limited research examining group-affirmation and bias, however, is inconclusive. We argue that group-affirmation can exacerbate group-serving biases in certain contexts, and in the current set of studies, we document this phenomenon directly. Unlike self-affirmation, group-affirmation led to greater ingroup-favoring evaluative judgments among political partisans (Experiment 1). This increase in evaluative bias following group-affirmation was moderated by political party identification and was not found among those who affirmed a non-political ingroup (Experiment 2). In addition, the mechanism underlying these findings is explored and interpreted within the theoretical frameworks of self-categorization theory and the multiple self-aspects model (Experiments 2 and 3). The broader implications of our findings for the understanding of social identity and affirmation theory are discussed.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM)...
Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.
Maria da Penha Nery
Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo de caso cujo objetivo foi investigar a afetividade intergrupal com base na implantação de política afirmativa para o ingresso de negros nas universidades públicas. O enfoque teórico foi o da Socionomia e o contexto foi a Universidade de Brasília. Os sujeitos foram 5 estudantes e 5 integrantes de uma ong. Os instrumentos foram um sociodrama e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. A autocobrança para excelente desempenho acadêmico, por parte dos cotistas e do estudante negro, foi uma das atitudes mais presentes, na busca de saída para a discriminação vivida ou sentida no processo inclusivo. A dinâmica afetiva dos estudantes universalistas foi a indiferença e o descaso ou desqualificação em relação às causas raciais. Concluímos que um projeto de inclusão racial efetiva depende de uma intervenção psicossocial multidisciplinar voltada para as redes sociométricas visando à flexibilização da identidade, o diálogo empático, a solidariedade entre os estudantes.This text refers to a case study that analyzed the intergrupal affectivity in the implementation of the afro descendents admission affirmative polictic at public universities. Socionomy was used as the theoretical focus of the study and it was carried out in the University of Brasília context. The participants were 5 students and 5 members of an NGO. The instruments used were the Sociodrama and semi-structured interviews. Self-demanding for an excellent academic performance was the most noticeable attitude of the quota students and afro descendents in their search for a way out of the discrimination situation lived or perceived in the inclusive process. In regard to the affective dynamics, the university students showed unresponsiveness and unconcerned attitudes towards racial causes. We concluded that an effective racial inclusive project depends on a multidisciplinary psychosocial intervention directed to the sociometric nets, aiming at identity
Self-affirmation establishes the basis for self-esteem through self-realisation in daily life and at the workplace. Examples of attainment of self-affirmation support motivation during adolescence where a lack of orientation in life causes socialisation to be at risk. Personal ambition to achieve superiority may provoke critical trends when assuming morally questionable behaviour at the workplace. Beginners in employment often face an atmosphere of unbalanced tension at work and deserve protective understanding and experienced support when striving for self-affirmation.
Full Text Available In this article I reflect on the controversy generated in the higher education expansion context in Brazil by the quotas measure for black and indigenous students at the University, to see what the discourses reveal about the perceptions of affirmative actions. To do this, I analyze two manifestos delivered to the National Congress in 2006 by Brazilian intellectuals who laid their position publicly in relation to the quota policy. The analysis, guided by a conception of Bakhtinian language, shows that the concept of “affirmative action” appeared in dispute: first it is taken as a racist measure and it is percieved as unequal while on second place it is understood as a measure of racism deconstruction. By characterizing the debate in the Brazilian scenario, I sought to contribute to the construction of a regional overview on race and affirmative actions in the Latin American context.
Montesino, Max U.
This paper looks at the net societal balance of post-independence affirmative action policies in Malaysia. Social imbalances prompted the country to implement affirmative policies to uplift the majority natives (Malays, Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak, etc.). These policies were reluctantly accepted by the immigrant communities (Chinese,…
Brown, R P; Charnsangavej, T; Keough, K A; Newman, M L; Rentfrow, P J
Two studies explored the relation between academic performance and preferential selection. In Study 1, female participants were led to believe that they had been selected to be leaders in a team problem-solving task because of their gender, because of their gender and ability, or at random. Results showed that women who believed they had been selected because of their gender performed significantly worse on a subsequent problem-solving test than women who believed they had been selected at random and women who believed they were selected because of both their gender and their ability. In Study 2, students' suspicion of having benefited from race-based preferences in college admissions was negatively related to their grade point average (GPA). Furthermore, this suspicion partially mediated the GPA gap between academically stigmatized (Black and Latino) and nonstigmatized (Caucasian and Asian) students.
Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar e refletir a dança no contexto escolar, bem como a forma de propiciar sua inclusão nesse contexto. Discutem-se algumas questões sobre os alunos portadores de necessidades especiais, como as possibilidades para que eles tenham acesso ao conhecimento e utilizem suas capacidades de expressar, verbalizar e atuar de maneira crítica e criativa, sem que nenhuma de suas potencialidades seja negligenciada. Sob essa perspectiva, reavaliam-se conceitos e preconceitos presentes nas aulas de Educação Física e na Dança. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Dança - Inclusão - Educação. This study aims at analyzing and reflecting upon dance in the school context, and how dance can assist and encourage affirmative action, especially discussing the insertion of special needs students in regular schools and the possibilities for them to have access to learning, to use their capacities in expressing and verbalizing themselves, as well as acting in a more creative and analytical way, with not one of his/her potential skills being neglected, and reevaluating concepts and prejudice that are present in Physical Education and Dance classes. KEY WORDS: Dance - Insertion - Education. Este estudio tiene por objetivo analizar y reflexionar la danza en el contexto escolar, y de qué forma se puede favorecer y propiciar la inclusión, discutiendo algunas cuestiones sobre los alumnos portadores de necesidades especiales y las posibilidades para que ellos tengan acceso al conocimiento, utilicen sus capacidades de expresarse, con palabras y actuar de manera crítica y creativa, sin que ninguna de sus potencialidades sea tratada con negligencia reevaluando conceptos y prejuicios presentes en las clases de Educación Física y en la Danza. PALABRAS CLAVES: Danza - Inclusión - Educación.
Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L.; McInroy, Lauren B.
Social work has professional and academic standards consistent with transgender affirmative education and practice. Nevertheless, a growing body of research suggests that transgender issues are largely absent from social work education, resulting in practitioners who are uninformed or biased against transgender issues. The present study expands…
Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann; Katz, Claudia Anne
Presents four questions from teachers regarding "classroom dilemmas" (such as seating assignments, requests for bathroom visits, and parent/teacher communication) with the responses by "Ms. Affirmation," a middle-school guidance counselor who collaborates with teachers to assist them in working with students. (SR)
Schmeichel, Brandon J; Martens, Andy
To the extent that cultural worldviews provide meaning in the face of existential concerns, specifically the inevitability of death, affirming a valued aspect of one's worldview should render reminders of death less threatening. The authors report two studies in support of this view. In Study 1, mortality salience led to derogation of a worldview violator unless participants had first affirmed an important value. In Study 2, self-affirmation before a reminder of death was associated with reduced accessibility of death-related thoughts a short while thereafter. The authors propose that actively affirming one's worldview alters reactions to reminders of mortality by reducing the accessibility of death-related thoughts, not by boosting self-esteem. These studies attest to the flexible nature of psychological self-defense and to the central role of cultural worldviews in managing death-related concerns.
Alessi, Edward J; Dillon, Frank R; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung
The current study tested a conceptual model based on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), highlighting the influence of attitudes toward sexual minority individuals, training hours, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice on therapist engagement in lesbian and gay affirmative practice. We recruited via the Internet 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in various parts of the United States. The majority of participants identified as female (70%) and White (88%). A path analysis indicated that beliefs and affirmative counseling self-efficacy mediated associations between attitudes and therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relation between training hours and engagement in affirmative practice. Results suggest that more affirmative attitudes are linked with higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy and more positive beliefs, which in turn positively influences therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Additionally, more hours of training influence affirmative counseling self-efficacy, which in turn correlates with higher levels of therapist engagement in affirmative practice. The discussion includes implications for affirmative practice training.
... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.625 Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. Each applicant for participation in FHA housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing...
Langan, Elise S.
The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…
... of minority and female employees in Career Days, Youth Motivation Programs, and counseling and... accordance with the following: (1) An analysis of the employer's aviation workforce which groups employees... selection procedures which cause the disparity in accordance with the “Uniform Guidelines on...
... career advancement training, both classroom and on-the-job, to employees locked into dead end jobs; and... prohibiting employment discrimination. In conducting a self analysis, the employer, labor organization, or... to enter and, with appropriate training, to progress in a career field; Revamping...
Marshall, Joanne M.; Marsh, Tyson E. J.
This case tells the story of a new principal who wants to lead inclusively by including people of all religious and non-religious beliefs. When she questions some of the existing practices in her school, she faces resistance from school members and from the community, who question her identity, her intentions, and her authority. The case is…
This article uses the example of Northern Ireland to illustrate how political mobilization maybe deployed to challenge structural forms of inequality. The experience suggests that regulatorymodels can be designed for particular contexts to shape approaches that present challenges todominant economic and political orthodoxies. The intention is not to overstate the significanceof this specific transitional context but simply to highlight elements that might feature in anyattempt to mobilize suc...
...) Granting advance standing or credit on the basis of previously acquired experience, training, skills, or... disseminated at least 30 days in advance of the earliest date for application at each interval. For programs... entry into apprenticeship programs. (4) Internal communication of the sponsor's equal opportunity...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section... fair housing marketing. As a condition of the guarantee, the lender must ensure that the lender and borrower are in compliance with the approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. This plan must...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements...
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Warren, Allison R; Steffen, Ann M; Wayland, Sherrill
This study utilized the theory of planned behavior to examine individual intentions to engage in gay affirmative practice among aging-focused professionals (N = 83) in the Midwestern United States. Participants completed self-report measures of perceived agency norms and individual attitudes related to the treatment of gay men and lesbians, intentions to provide gay affirmative care, and perceived behavioral control. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioral control were examined as predictors of intentions; attitudes of individual aging-service professionals emerged as the strongest predictor. Results indicated that affirmative attitudes within the agency may be important in predicting intentions to provide this type of care.
Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Major, Brenda; Forster, Daniel; Peng, Kaiping
Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit). All then participated in a (fictitious) second study, in which half completed a group affirmation manipulation (wrote about the top three values of a self-defining group) and half completed a control writing exercise. The self-esteem of women who were threatened by sexism, but group affirmed, was protected from the negative effects of perceiving sexism.
J. David Creswell; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M.P.; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M.
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indi...
This article draws on the experience of the charity Educational Action Challenging Homophobia (EACH) to explore the limitations of current practice around homophobic and transphobic bullying. Since 2002, EACH has worked to affirm the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people and reduce discrimination experienced due to sexuality or…
... is required to submit its affirmative action program to OFCCP (e.g., for a compliance evaluation... OFCCP notifies the contractor of completion of the compliance evaluation or other action, unless within... give rise to each apparent violation; (ii) The corrective actions necessary to achieve compliance...
J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
van Dijk, Wilco W; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Ouwerkerk, Jaap W; Wesseling, Yoka M
In two studies we demonstrated that self-esteem has a negative relationship with schadenfreude toward a high achiever and that this relationship was mediated by the self-threat evoked by this high achiever. Moreover, we showed that this indirect relationship was contingent on an opportunity to affirm the self. When no self-affirmation opportunity was available, low self-esteem participants experienced a stronger self-threat when confronted with a high achiever, and this self-threat increased their schadenfreude, whereas this response was attenuated when they were given an opportunity to self-affirm. These findings indicate that the misfortunes of others can evoke schadenfreude because they provide people with an opportunity to protect or enhance their self-views.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative marketing; minority outreach program. 92.351 Section 92.351 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements §...
Gallagher, Michael P.
The 1984-85 cost-effects study represents the third annual analysis of the components of Cleveland's Affirmative Reading Skills Plan, which offers three instructional strands--developmental (regular reading/language arts), support (additional enrichment, corrective or remedial), and compensatory (instruction for students having reading scores in…
@@ China has confirmed its participation in the 2012 World Expo in Yeosu,South Korea.On October 29,Wan Jifei,director of China's Council for the Promotion of International Trade,firmly handed over the affirmation document to the visiting 2012 World Expo organizing committee.This represents the beginning of China's preparations to attend the World Expo in 2012.
Rodriguez, Esther M.
This monograph summarizes discussions focusing on postsecondary diversity at two regional meetings attended by senior representatives of 22 state higher education agencies. The meetings addressed the effects of recent challenges to affirmative action and discussed the actions institutions are taking or are contemplating in the face of these…
Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.; Garcia, Maurice M.
Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation i...
Carlson, Thomas Stone; McGeorge, Christi R.; Toomey, Russell B.
This study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual…
Lee, Julia J; Gino, Francesca; Cable, Daniel M.; Bradley R. Staats
Working in teams often leads to productivity loss because the need to feel accepted prevents individual members from making a unique contribution to the team in terms of the information or perspective they can offer. Drawing on self-affirmation theory, we propose that pre-team relational self-affirmation can prepare individuals to contribute to team creative performance more effectively. We theorize that relationally-affirming one’s self-views increases general feelings of being socially valu...
Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M
Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS.
Full Text Available Public needs cannot be adequately funded without a clear and legally based affirmative legal status of taxpayers. The promotion and protection of their rights and regular fulfilment of tax obligations by taxpayers is the basis of fiscal and financial stability of the country and other public collectivities. It is essential for Montenegro to overcome the traditional gap between taxpayers and tax administration through their partnership. At the same time, we must not jeopardize the basic purpose of taxation - legal and timely payment of taxes. Simple and stable tax regulations and a non-discriminating and subtle approach to building tax discipline and development of tax morale should serve that purpose.
... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final... mm to 5.0 mm. \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary... on said entries.\\4\\ \\2\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Initiation of...
Kessels, Loes T E; Harris, Peter R; Ruiter, Robert A C; Klein, William M P
OBJECTIVE: Self-affirmation has been shown to reduce defensive responding to threatening information. However, little is known about the cognitive and attentional processes underlying these effects. In the current eye-movement study, the authors explored whether self-affirmation affects attention al
Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie
The current research shows that people differ in their inclination to use positive self-images when their self is threatened (i.e., cognitive self-affirmation inclination, CSAI). Just as self-affirmation manipulations do, the use of positive self-images induces open mindedness towards threatening me
Rose, David Edward
The following paper proposes a discipline-affirming response to the challenge facing higher education in the context of the knowledge economy. It resists the drive to reduce the value of a humanities based education to the mere production of skills and instead affirms the substantial body of knowledge of specific disciplines. It uses as its model…
Lordahl, Jo Ann
This publication of 180 affirmations offers teachers encouragement and strength for the beginning of each school day as well as help in the search for personal growth. A daily quote is provided, along with an affirmation based on the theme of the quote. The quotes are drawn from a wide variety of sources in philosophy and religion, ethics and…
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... Marketing (AFHM) Plan. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0013. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-935.2A Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan (Multifamily),...
Lindsay, Emily K.; Creswell, J. David
Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-min of writing about an important personal value vs. writing about an unimport...
Lindsay, Emily K.; J David Creswell
Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-minutes of writing about an important personal value versus writing about an u...
... decisions are based only on valid job requirements. The policy shall state that employees and applicants... veteran is having significant difficulty performing his or her job and it is reasonable to conclude that... participation in career days, youth motivation programs, and related activities in their communities. (6)...
... employment decisions are based only on valid job requirements. The policy shall state that employees and... business. If an employee with a known disability is having significant difficulty performing his or her job.... Individuals with disabilities should be made available for participation in career days, youth...
... decisions are based only on valid job requirements. The policy shall state that employees and applicants... to be a special disabled veteran is having significant difficulty performing his or her job and it is... career days, youth motivation programs, and related activities in their communities. (6) The...
Katyal, Neal Kumar
Discusses recent Supreme Court decisions that suggest policies of preferential admissions in higher education are safe, at least in the moderate form established in the Bakke case. The article examines the meaning of the Bakke case, reviews the benefits of diversity to higher education, and speculates about the survivability of the Bakke decision…
Qual é o balanço das ações afirmativas na experiência brasileira? Como compreender as primeiras iniciativas de adoção de marcos legais instituidores das ações afirmativas? Qual tem sido o impacto da agenda global na ordem doméstica? Em que medida a Convenção sobre a Eliminação de todas as formas de Discriminação Racial e a Conferência de Durban fomentaram avanços internos? Quais são os principais desafios, dilemas e tensões das ações afirmativas? Quais são as possibilidades e perspectivas de ...
Objetiva o artigo desenvolver uma análise a respeito das ações afirmativas sob a perspectiva dos direitos humanos. Inicialmente, trata da concepção contemporânea de direitos humanos, introduzida pela Declaração Universal de 1948, com ênfase na universalidade, indivisibilidade e interdependência dos direitos humanos. Em um segundo momento são apreciadas as ações afirmativas da perspectiva dos direitos humanos, com destaque dos valores da igualdade e diversidade. Por fim, são avaliadas as persp...
The Supreme Court's members generally are too decorous to exclaim "I told you so." But U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy stands perched on the edge of an I-told-you-so moment, thanks to the court's decision to take up a challenge to a race-conscious college-admission policy that poses some of the same questions he had accused…
The 21st century has brought new challenges and opportunities for higher education. In the wake of the transition from elitist to mass education, universities worldwide are under pressure to enhance access and equity, on the one hand, and to maintain high standards of quality and excellence, on the other. Today the notion of equity not only implies greater access to higher education, but also opportunities for progress. In recent debates on higher education, the notions of equity and access g...
Tedesco, Lisa A
This article describes several aspects of the University of Michigan Supreme Court cases regarding diversity in higher education. It provides a number of resources that are useful in shaping the rationale and institutional practices and policies for admissions and the recruitment and retention of diverse classes of students for the health professions.
Kassebaum, Peter A.
A study was conducted to compare the College of Marin's (CM's) ethnic profile for fall 1979 credit students and for full-time tenured or tenure track faculty employed in spring 1980 with local, regional, and state census data for 1980. The number and percentage of Blacks, Hispanics, Asian-Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans were tabulated for…
Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da
The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration.
Balafoutas, Loukas; Sutter, Matthias
Gender differences in choosing to enter competitions are one source of unequal labor market outcomes concerning wages and promotions. Given that studying the effects of policy interventions to support women is difficult with field data because of measurement problems and potential lack of control, we evaluated, in a set of controlled laboratory experiments, four interventions: quotas, where one of two winners of a competition must be female; two variants of preferential treatment, where a fixed increment is added to women's performance; and repetition of the competition, where a second competition takes place if no woman is among the winners. Compared with no intervention, all interventions encourage women to enter competitions more often, and performance is at least equally good, both during and after the competition.
Shweder, Richard A
Freely staying on the move between alternative points of view is the best antidote to dogmatism. Robert Merton's ideals for an epistemic community are sufficient to correct pseudo-empirical studies designed to confirm beliefs that liberals (or conservatives) think deserve to be true. Institutionalizing the self-proclaimed political identities of social psychologists may make things worse.
Charles, Camille Z.; Fischer, Mary J.; Mooney, Margarita A.; Massey, Douglas S.
The use of race-sensitive criteria in admissions continues to be controversial, and critics have leveled three basic charges against it. For one, opponents say the practice constitutes reverse discrimination, lowering the chance of admission for better-qualified white students. They also contend that it creates a mismatch between the skills of…
Good research does not mean good policy, but policy or legal conclusions that rely on false assumptions are certain to be bad. When the rights of U.S. students of color are at stake, the Supreme Courts need the best research findings the country can offer. The U.S. Constitution contains sweeping and undefined terms. Reaching a conclusion about the…
Long, Mark C.
The 2013 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin case clarified when and how it is legally permissible for universities to use an applicant's race or ethnicity in its admissions decisions. The court concluded that such use is permissible when "no workable race-neutral alternatives would produce…
Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel
This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to…
... Disability at Work, and U.S. Chamber of Commerce, ``Leading Practices on Disability Inclusion,'' http://www.usbln.org/pdf-docs/Leading_Practices_on_Disability_Inclusion.pdf (last accessed Aug. 9, 2013). The USBLN... Regarding Individuals With Disabilities; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 185 /...
Belanger, Charles H.; Coleman, Daniel R.
Basic issues involved in planning and implementation of a equal employment opportunity plan are outlined: leadership, constraints, data requirements, administrative responsibilities, policies and procedures (recruitment, selection, employment, promotion-termination, remuneration, assignment, grievance, subcontractor-supplier, leave, and benefits),…
In the aftermath of SP-1 and Proposition 209, the University of California has adopted several strategies in order to maintain access. In the long term, the university seeks to work with individual students to improve their academic preparation and to expand partnerships with the K-12 public sector. The state’s need to educate more of its minority citizens is urgent, however, so in the shorter term the University has focused on three strategies in its admissions process: comprehensive review,...
Bastedo, Michael N.; Howard, Joseph E.; Flaster, Allyson
Selective colleges and universities purport to consider students' achievement in the context of the academic opportunities available in their high schools. Thus, students who "maximize" their curricular opportunities should be more likely to gain admission. Using nationally representative data, we examine the effect of "maximizing…
... of job applicants, access to new markets by developing a workforce that mirrors the general customer base, lower turnover based on increased employee loyalty, and lower training costs resulting from...
Orfield, Gary, Ed.; Marin, Patricia, Ed.; Flores, Stella M., Ed.; Garces, Liliana M., Ed.
The United States Supreme Court's landmark 2003 decisions in "Grutter v. Bollinger" and "Gratz v. Bollinger" firmly established that university admissions policies which are designed to promote student body diversity and which employ race in a carefully crafted selection process can withstand constitutional challenge. The Supreme Court ruled that…
... disabilities. Prior to publishing this NPRM, OFCCP conducted multiple town hall meetings, webinars, and... those who are unfamiliar with the regulations, this ordering makes it difficult to locate specific terms... this comparison, it may be useful, in appropriate cases, to consider the condition under which...
... of a long-term goal, and short-range, interim goals and timetables for the specific job... persons lacking “journeyman” level knowledge or skills to enter and, with appropriate training, to... the selection; (f) A systematic effort to provide career advancement training, both classroom and...
... following: (a) The establishment of a long-term goal, and short-range, interim goals and timetables for the... opportunities for persons lacking “journeyman” level knowledge or skills to enter and, with appropriate training... classroom and on-the-job, to employees locked into dead end jobs; and (g) The establishment of a system...
Ledesma, María C.
The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…
... South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race). (b) If the Contractor, or a... and in collective bargaining agreements; (iii) Publicizing the policy in the company newspaper, annual.... (14) Ensure that all facilities and company activities are nonsegregated except that separate...
This is an initial and exploratory comment on the pilot phase of a study into adolescent female white identity and socio-sexual desire in post-apartheid South Africa. In the course of this pilot it became apparent that historical issues of race and racism are openly discussed in these girls' classrooms. Yet, despite these everyday interactions the…
This qualitative paper explores Roma students' perceptions on the policy of assigning "special places" for Roma in Romania's universities. Findings suggest that Roma see themselves as occupying a precarious social space, concerned not as much to hide perceived merit violation but to handle (alleged) inadequacies given by their…
De Wit, H.
This document acknowledges the substantial benefits of the internationalization of higher education but also draws attention to potentially adverse unintended consequences, with a view to alerting higher education institutions to the need to act to ensure that the outcomes of internationalization ar
... bank loan benchmark. Subsequently, on September 14, 2010, the DP Master Group filed rebuttal comments... China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 33245 (June 11, 2010...: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination with Final Antidumping Duty Determination, 75 FR...
Sleegers, W.W.A.; Proulx, T.; van Beest, I.
In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this ar
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated May 21, 2012, the State...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TRG Insurance Solutions, LLC; Beckley, WV; Notice of Affirmative... Solutions, LLC, Beckley, West Virginia (subject firm). The negative determination was issued on July...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 29, 2013,...
Proulx, Travis; Heine, Steven J; Vohs, Kathleen D
The meaning maintenance model asserts that following a meaning threat, people will affirm any meaning frameworks that are available. Three experiments tested (a) whether people affirm alternative meaning frameworks after reading absurdist literature, (b) what role expectations play in determining whether absurdities are threatening, and (c) whether people have a heightened need for meaning following exposure to absurdist art. In Study 1, participants who read an absurd Kafka parable affirmed an alternative meaning framework more than did those who read a meaningful parable. In Study 2, participants who read an absurd Monty Python parody engaged in compensatory affirmation efforts only if they were led to expect a conventional story. In Study 3, participants who were exposed to absurdist art or reminders of their mortality, compared to participants exposed to representational or abstract art, reported higher scores on the Personal Need for Structure scale, suggesting that they experienced a heightened need for meaning.
... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary... of Antidumping Duty Order. SUMMARY: In response to a request from the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey Association (collectively ``Petitioners''), the Department of...
... fair housing marketing plan satisfactory to HUD for both the market-rate units and the units that will... (a satisfactory affirmative fair housing marketing plan must include marketing of affordable units...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Xilinx, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 8, 2010, the petitioners...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Flowserve Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated March 23, 2011, a State of...
Narcissists, characterised by an excessive need for admiration, are among the most prolific users of social media as it may aid narcissists reach their goals of being admired by many people, without needing to build intimacy. Adapted from the Michelangelo phenomenon, this thesis proposes to test the Facebook affirmation model in Thailand. The model asserts that individuals, particularly those with high levels of narcissism, can benefit from using Facebook to receive affirmation of the ideal s...
As políticas públicas de ação afirmativa na educação e sua compatibilidade com o princípio da isonomia: acesso às universidades por meio de cotas para afrodescendentes Las políticas públicas afirmativas en educación y su compatibilidad con el principio de isonomía: acceso a las universidades por medio de cuotas para afrodescendientes The public policies of affirmative action on the education and its compatibility with the principle of isonomy: access to the universities by quotes for afro-descendents
Elaine Barbosa Santana
principios de reglas, previsión histórica, así como los criterios adoptados por Celso Bandeira de Mello para verificación de la constitucionalidad de las prerrogativas atribuidas a los afrodescendientes. Al final, se presentan algunas consideraciones relacionadas con las controversias existentes acerca del beneficio social resultado de las políticas públicas orientadas para las acciones afirmativas en la educación y del principio de la isonomía y acceso a las universidades por medio de cuotas.The work intends to analyze the public politics of affirmative action in education considering the aspects concerning the educational legislation and the constitutional principles of isonomy, especially in regard to the access of afro-descendants to the universities by means of quotes. It emphasizes the social problematic of afro-descendants' difficulty due to some historical inequalities, showing that they are not politics of discrimination and favoritism, but of attendance to constitutional principles. Thus, it presents the evolution of the principle of isonomy, the inherent elements and the social and legal aspects that concern the thematic. Therefore, it differentiates principles from rules, historical forecast, as well as the criteria adopted by Celso Bandeira de Mello to verify the constitutionality of the prerogatives attributed to the afrodescendants. In the end, there are some considerations in regard to the controversies concerning the social benefit that arises from the public politics directed toward the affirmative actions in the education will be presented and the principle of isonomy, and a comparison between the principle of the isonomy and the access to the universities by means of quotes.
Napper, Lucy E; Harris, Peter R; Klein, William M P
There is potential for fruitful integration of research using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) with research using Self-affirmation Theory. However, to date no studies have attempted to do this. This article reports an experiment that tests whether (a) the effects of a self-affirmation manipulation add to those of EPPM variables in predicting intentions to improve a health behavior and (b) self-affirmation moderates the relationship between EPPM variables and intentions. Participants (N = 80) were randomized to either a self-affirmation or control condition prior to receiving personally relevant health information about the risks of not eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. A hierarchical regression model revealed that efficacy, threat × efficacy, self-affirmation, and self-affirmation × efficacy all uniquely contributed to the prediction of intentions to eat at least five portions per day. Self-affirmed participants and those with higher efficacy reported greater motivation to change. Threat predicted intentions at low levels of efficacy, but not at high levels. Efficacy had a stronger relationship with intentions in the nonaffirmed condition than in the self-affirmed condition. The findings indicate that self-affirmation processes can moderate the impact of variables in the EPPM and also add to the variance explained. We argue that there is potential for integration of the two traditions of research, to the benefit of both.
Full Text Available The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular team sports, depends on a combination of the skills of players and coaches and a number of external factors which, due to their complex nature, are presumably best viewed as random. Such parameters include the unpredictabilities of playing the ball, the players' shape of the day or environmental conditions such as the weather and the behavior of the audience. Under such circumstances, it appears worthwhile to analyze football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from stochastic effects and see what impact the cooperative and social nature of the "agents" of the system has on the resulting stochastic observables. Considering the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams, it turns out that especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. On the contrary, some more specific probability densities such as those discussed in the context of extreme-value statistics or the so-called negative binomial distribution fit these data rather well. There seemed to be no good argument to date, however, why the simplest Poissonian model fails and, instead, the latter distributions should be observed. To fill this gap, we introduced a number of microscopic models for the scoring behavior, resulting in a Bernoulli random process with a simple component of self-affirmation. These models allow us to represent the observed probability distributions surprisingly well, and the phenomenological distributions used earlier can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the "FIFA World Cup" series, and found the proposed models to be applicable in
Zheng, Aiguo; Luo, Shuangling; Xia, Haoxiang
The propagation of memes on online social networks often depends on the mechanism of social affirmation. Centola termed such social-affirmation-driven diffusion as complex contagion and partly validated it through an online experiment. However, for actual online meme propagation, the mechanism of social affirmation often takes effect in combination with various other factors and mechanisms. In this paper, we examine the combinatorial effects of social affirmation and the attractiveness and persistence of the meme by proposing and analyzing a UACI model, where an agent’s activities to receive and transfer a meme is associated with the transition between its four possible states of “Uninformed”, “Attended”,“Convinced” and “Immune”. The numerical simulations illustrate nontrivial patterns of propagation. Especially, it is revealed that the effects of simple and complex contagions co-exist and equilibrate in accordance with the joint functions of meme attractiveness and social affirmation. Furthermore, the low-persistence of the meme hinders the propagation-scale more remarkably on the regular network than on the random one, indicating that the persistence may be critical for retaining complex contagion.
Full Text Available Consumers construct and maintain self-concepts through the use of branded consumer products. Yet product choice not only reflects an actual or desired image of the self but can also directly influence a person’s sense of self and even boost self-esteem. The aesthetics of a product is an attribute that has the power to transform how consumers perceive themselves. The mere act of choosing a beautiful product over a less good-looking one affirms people’s sense of self - who they are and what their values are. It goes beyond personal image building and self-presentation; its impact is also turned inwards. Choice of high design works as a unique form of affirmation. It works unconsciously, and high design may even be a particularly powerful form of affirmation precisely because its relationship to the self and one’s values is not obvious. And design is more powerful than other features in this respect. Comfort and ease of use, taste and brand do not have the same self-affirming quality as design. It is not simply that “treating” oneself or going for the pleasurable option has an affirming effect; it is specific to the choice of aesthetics.
Shu, Suzanne B; Townsend, Claudia
Research has shown self-affirmation to be a powerful tool for increasing openness to arguments. However, prior examinations of its effects involved manipulations with limited applicability outside the laboratory. Building on recent work suggesting that choice of highly aesthetic products can be a form of affirmation, we proposed and tested whether merely affiliating people with high aesthetics can affirm their sense of self and thus encourage openness to arguments advocating selection of one option over another. In 3 experiments we examined this effect in financial and consumer decisions in which choices varied in their inherent risk. Across the experiments, after affiliating people with high (vs. low) aesthetics, they were more likely to select the advocated option--whether that option was the riskier or less risky option. This occurred using actual annual reports and a sample of experienced investors (Experiment 1), when the aesthetic affiliation and the choice tasks were in entirely unrelated areas (Experiment 2) and was driven by greater openness to arguments (Experiment 3). Together these studies offer a self-affirmation manipulation that is relevant and easily used by practitioners in a variety of fields. They also provide novel insights on the link between aesthetics, self-affirmation, openness, and risk taking.
Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang
Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.
Cláudia Regina Costa Pacheco
Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da pesquisa sobre ações afirmativas na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM. Questionou-se: em que medida a implantação de um programa de ações afirmativas na UFSM pode contribuir para os processos de democratização no ensino superior? O objetivo deste estudo é compreender o processo de implantação do Programa de Ações Afirmativas e as contribuições que este programa pode trazer para uma democratização do ensino superior. Buscou-se apreender como aconteceu o processo de implantação, acesso e permanência nos cursos da UFSM. A universidade, configurando-se num espaço de construção de identidades, também precisa desempenhar o papel de mediadora no processo de construção de cidadania. A participação conjunta de professores, gestores, alunos e comunidade em geral enriquece o planejamento e possibilita uma melhor atuação frente à diversidade escolar. Palavras-chave: ações afirmativas, ensino superior, gestão educacional. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION’S PROGRAM AT UFSM: THE PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER THE WATCH OF YOURS MANAGERS Abstract This work presents a study made at UFSM about Affirmative Action’s Program. The basic question in this work is: to what extent may the program affirmative action’s implementation at UFSM contribute to a democratic public higher education managing? This research’s main objective is to comprehend the Affirmative Action program’s implementation and its contributions to a democratic higher education managing. It is needed first to apprehend the process of implementation, access and permanency apprehension at UFSM. The university configuring itself to a place where there is the construction of identities, also needs to develop a role of mediator in the process of citizenship construction, to that the participation of teachers, managers, students and the community is elementary, this combined action enriches the planning and allows better
Marco Tullio Liuzza
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theories of embodied language suggest that the motor system is differentially called into action when processing motor-related versus abstract content words or sentences. It has been recently shown that processing negative polarity action-related sentences modulates neural activity of premotor and motor cortices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether reading negative polarity sentences brought about differential modulation of cortico-spinal motor excitability depending on processing hand-action related or abstract sentences. Facilitatory paired-pulses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pp-TMS was applied to the primary motor representation of the right-hand and the recorded amplitude of induced motor-evoked potentials (MEP was used to index M1 activity during passive reading of either hand-action related or abstract content sentences presented in both negative and affirmative polarity. Results showed that the cortico-spinal excitability was affected by sentence polarity only in the hand-action related condition. Indeed, in keeping with previous TMS studies, reading positive polarity, hand action-related sentences suppressed cortico-spinal reactivity. This effect was absent when reading hand action-related negative polarity sentences. Moreover, no modulation of cortico-spinal reactivity was associated with either negative or positive polarity abstract sentences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that grammatical cues prompting motor negation reduce the cortico-spinal suppression associated with affirmative action sentences reading and thus suggest that motor simulative processes underlying the embodiment may involve even syntactic features of language.
Krater, Joan; And Others
Presenting classroom experiences and a process to help writing teachers see their own hard-to-reach students with new eyes, this book tells the story of a 6-year action research project committed to building classroom environments where cultural differences are affirmed and high achievement is fostered among all students. The book notes that the…
Matheny, David L.
This study attempted to determine if the "comparative advantages" debate case is a legitimate and logical approach to affirmative case construction in college and high school debate. The study population totaled 25 high school debate directors and 40 college and university debate directors. Four tape-recorded debates, in which an affirmative team…
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 184.1 Section 184.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The direct human food ingredients...
...., Carbon and Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Germany, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... the PRC. \\4\\ See, e.g., Carbon and Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Germany, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and... Affirmative Final Determination of Critical Circumstances: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from...
... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: We preliminarily determine that carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) with an actual diameter between 4.75 mm and 5.00 mm produced in Mexico and...
Niles, Andrea N; Byrne Haltom, Kate E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher; Stanton, Annette L
Expressive disclosure regarding a stressful event improves psychological and physical health, yet predictors of these effects are not well established. The current study assessed exposure, narrative structure, affect word use, self-affirmation and discovery of meaning as predictors of anxiety, depressive and physical symptoms following expressive writing. Participants (N = 50) wrote on four occasions about a stressful event and completed self-report measures before writing and three months later. Essays were coded for stressor exposure (level of detail and whether participants remained on topic), narrative structure, self-affirmation and discovery of meaning. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software was used to quantify positive and negative affect word use. Controlling for baseline anxiety, more self-affirmation and detail about the event predicted lower anxiety symptoms, and more negative affect words (very high use) and more discovery of meaning predicted higher anxiety symptoms three months after writing. Findings highlight the importance of self-affirmation and exposure as predictors of benefit from expressive writing.
... Employment and Training Administration ASC Machine Tools, Inc., Spokane Valley, WA; Notice of Affirmative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of ASC Machine Tools, Inc., Spokane Valley, Washington (the subject firm). The Notice of negative determination...
... Marketing (AFHM) Plan AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, HUD.... Developers of new projects describe their intent (marketing efforts) to assure that they meet the Fair.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing...
... Federal Register on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54187). The termination of investigation was based on... Employment and Training Administration The Jewelry Stream, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmation... investigation applicable to workers and former workers of M&L Manufacturing, Inc. and The Jewelry Stream,...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and affirmative marketing requirements. 511.13 Section 511.13 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Darryl J. Mohr, M.D.; Affirmance of Immediate Suspension Order On January 20, 2011... a doctor shopper and then all of a sudden no pharmacy is gonna give you any medication.''...
..., the Department selected three Chinese producers/exporters of multilayered wood flooring (``wood... Using Sheet-Fed Presses from Indonesia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 59209... the PRC, loans provided by Chinese banks reflect significant government intervention in the...
... Employment and Training Administration Pension Systems Corporation, Sherman Oaks, CA; Notice of Affirmative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Pension Systems Corporation, Sherman Oaks, California (Pension Systems). The negative determination was issued on July...
Poteat, V Paul
To counter homophobic behavior in schools, research is needed on heterosexual youth who act as allies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth by engaging in LGBT-affirming behavior (e.g., voicing support, engaging in advocacy, countering homophobia). Among 624 heterosexual high school students (M age = 16.11; 53 % female; 88 % white), this study found that critical thinking, self-reflection, lower sexual prejudice, having more LGBT friends, and having sexual orientation-based discussions with peers were associated with engaging in more LGBT-affirming behavior. Several factors moderated the association between having sexual orientation-based discussions and LGBT-affirming behavior: the association was stronger among youth who described the tone of these discussions as more positive, who more often used positive problem-solving strategies, and who reported low sexual prejudice. The degree to which conversations were challenging did not moderate this association. Finally, having LGBT friends was more strongly associated with affirming behavior for youth who felt more connected and had more sexual orientation-based discussions with these friends. The findings underscore the need for research to identify other factors that prompt heterosexual youth to act as allies to LGBT youth.
... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination and Termination of Critical Circumstances Inquiry AGENCY: Import..., fines or solution. For purposes of the investigation, the narrative description is dispositive, not the... and is terminating the critical circumstances inquiry. We will, therefore, instruct U.S. Customs...
... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative... Department'') continues to determine that steel wire garment hangers (``garment hangers'') exported by Angang... circumventing the antidumping duty order \\1\\ on garment hangers from the People's Republic of China...
... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination of... determined that blends of honey and rice syrup are subject to the antidumping duty Order on honey from the... Determination for this final determination. \\1\\ See Honey from the People's Republic of China:...
Cohen, Geoffrey L; Sherman, David K
People have a basic need to maintain the integrity of the self, a global sense of personal adequacy. Events that threaten self-integrity arouse stress and self-protective defenses that can hamper performance and growth. However, an intervention known as self-affirmation can curb these negative outcomes. Self-affirmation interventions typically have people write about core personal values. The interventions bring about a more expansive view of the self and its resources, weakening the implications of a threat for personal integrity. Timely affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and relationship outcomes, with benefits that sometimes persist for months and years. Like other interventions and experiences, self-affirmations can have lasting benefits when they touch off a cycle of adaptive potential, a positive feedback loop between the self-system and the social system that propagates adaptive outcomes over time. The present review highlights both connections with other disciplines and lessons for a social psychological understanding of intervention and change.
... Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts. 52.223-2 Section 52.223-2 Federal Acquisition... Procurement of Biobased Products Under Service and Construction Contracts (DEC 2007) (a) In the performance of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-2 Affirmative Procurement of Biobased Products...
Maliepaard, Mieke; Gijsberts, Mérove; Phalet, Karen
To what extent are perceptions of discrimination associated with religious affirmation among Muslim minorities in the Netherlands? Drawing on recent nationally representative surveys among self-identified Muslims from five ethnic groups in the Netherlands, we test boundary conditions of reactive rel
McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.
More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.
Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.
Cascio, Christopher N; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Tinney, Francis J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Taylor, Shelley E; Strecher, Victor J; Falk, Emily B
Self-affirmation theory posits that people are motivated to maintain a positive self-view and that threats to perceived self-competence are met with resistance. When threatened, self-affirmations can restore self-competence by allowing individuals to reflect on sources of self-worth, such as core values. Many questions exist, however, about the underlying mechanisms associated with self-affirmation. We examined the neural mechanisms of self-affirmation with a task developed for use in a functional magnetic resonance imaging environment. Results of a region of interest analysis demonstrated that participants who were affirmed (compared with unaffirmed participants) showed increased activity in key regions of the brain's self-processing (medial prefrontal cortex + posterior cingulate cortex) and valuation (ventral striatum + ventral medial prefrontal cortex) systems when reflecting on future-oriented core values (compared with everyday activities). Furthermore, this neural activity went on to predict changes in sedentary behavior consistent with successful affirmation in response to a separate physical activity intervention. These results highlight neural processes associated with successful self-affirmation, and further suggest that key pathways may be amplified in conjunction with prospection.
Emily K Lindsay
Full Text Available Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-minutes of writing about an important personal value versus writing about an unimportant value increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account, using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion compared to watching a peer’s storytelling performance (other-directed compassion. Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.
Lindsay, Emily K; Creswell, J David
Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-min of writing about an important personal value vs. writing about an unimportant value) increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account) or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account), using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion) compared to watching a peer's storytelling performance (other-directed compassion). Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.
Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A
In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.
Full Text Available For context-based recommendation systems, it is necessary to detect affirmative and negative intentions from answers. However, traditional studies can not determine these intentions from indirect speech acts. In order to determine these intentions from indirect speech acts, this paper defines a recommendation tree and proposes an algorithm of deriving intentions of indirect speech acts by the tree. In the proposed method, a recommendation condition (RC is introduced and it is classified into a required RC, a selectable RC, and a not-selectable RC. The recommendation tree is constructed by nodes and edges corresponding to these three conditions. The deriving algorithm determines affirmative and negative intentions of indirect speech acts by tracing the trees. From experimental results, it is verified that the accuracy of the proposed method is about 40 points higher than the traditional method.
Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development.
N. I. Pryakhina
Full Text Available The study aims to disclosure theoretical-methodological aspects of the development needs of the professional self-affirmation novice tutors pre-school educational institutions, as a condition for the successful organization of pedagogical activities. The author attempts to highlight the urgency of the need for professional self-affirmation for beginner teachers of pre-school education, given the contradictions between the call of new socio-economic realities prevailing in our country, and the lack of proper teacher training system in the process of training. Also, the problem of professional self-affirmation of the novice teacher of preschool education in accordance with the basic requirements for the qualification of tutors of preschool educational organizations and the personal qualities of the teacher professional standard. Professional assertiveness plays a big role, as statement of person in the profession and society allows you to open a "unique personality", to carry out the processes self-development and self-improvement necessary to move up the ladder value in the professional community. In this case, the individual self-assertion process goes in the direction of changing the point of view, self-awareness, self-concept through relationships with others. In the article the expediency of studying professional affirmation of teachers, which is due to the necessity of conceptual understanding of personal and professional development of teachers of pre-school education and the need to develop the theoretical foundations of personal and professional development of teachers of pre-school education is not only in a rapidly developing practice of training but also the development of the teacher as a professional directly on his workplace.
The AFFIRM and SENTINEL studies showed that natalizumab was effective both as monotherapy and in combination with interferon beta (IFNbeta)-1a in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Further analyses of AFFIRM and SENTINEL data were conducted to determine the efficacy of natalizumab in prespecified patient subgroups according to baseline characteristics: relapse history 1 year before randomization (1, 2, > or = 3), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (< or = 3.5, > 3.5), number of T2 lesions (< 9, > or = 9), presence of gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions (0, > or = 1), age (< 40, > or = 40) and gender (male, female). A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of natalizumab in patients with highly active disease (i. e., > or = 2 relapses in the year before study entry and > or = 1 Gd+ lesion at study entry). In both AFFIRM and SENTINEL studies natalizumab reduced the annualized relapse rates across all subgroups (except the small subgroups with < 9 baseline T2 lesions) over 2 years. In AFFIRM, natalizumab significantly reduced the risk of sustained disability progression in most subgroups. In SENTINEL, natalizumab significantly reduced the risk of sustained disability progression in the following subgroups: > or = 9 T2 lesions at baseline, > or = 1 Gd+ lesions at baseline, female patients and patients < 40 years of age. Natalizumab reduced the risk of disability progression by 64 % and relapse rate by 81 % in treatment- naive patients with highly active disease and by 58 % and 76 %, respectively, in patients with highly active disease despite IFNbeta-1a treatment. These results indicate that natalizumab is effective in reducing disability progression and relapses in patients with relapsing MS, particularly in patients with highly active disease.
Kinias, Zoe; Sim, Jessica
Two field experiments examined if and how values affirmations can ameliorate stereotype threat-induced gender performance gaps in an international competitive business environment. Based on self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988), we predicted that writing about personal values unrelated to the perceived threat would attenuate the gender performance gap. Study 1 found that an online assignment to write about one's personal values (but not a similar writing assignment including organizational values) closed the gender gap in course grades by 89.0% among 423 Masters of Business Administration students (MBAs) at an international business school. Study 2 replicated this effect among 396 MBAs in a different cohort with random assignment and tested 3 related mediators (self-efficacy, self-doubt, and self-criticism). Personal values reflection (but not reflecting on values including those of the organization or writing about others' values) reduced the gender gap by 66.5%, and there was a significant indirect effect through reduced self-doubt. These findings show that a brief personal values writing exercise can dramatically improve women's performance in competitive environments where they are negatively stereotyped. The results also demonstrate that stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) can occur within a largely non-American population with work experience and that affirming one's core personal values (without organizational values) can ameliorate the threat. (PsycINFO Database Record
de Jong, Elisabeth M.; Jellesma, Francine C.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; de Jong, Peter F.
Previous research showed that a values-affirmation intervention can help reduce the achievement gap between African American and European American students in the US. In the present study, it was examined if these results would generalize to ethnic minority students in a country outside the US, namely the Netherlands, where there is also an achievement gap between native and ethnic minority students. This type of intervention was tested in two separate studies, the first among first-year pre-vocational students (n = 361, 84% ethnic minority), and the second among sixth grade students (n = 290, 96% ethnic minority). Most minority participants had a Turkish-Dutch or Moroccan-Dutch immigrant background. In the second study, a third condition was added to the original paradigm, in which students elaborated on either their affirmation- or a control exercise with the help of a teaching assistant. We also examined whether values affirmation affected the level of problem behavior of negatively stereotyped ethnic minority youth. Contrary to what was expected, multilevel analyses revealed that the intervention had no effect on the school achievement or the problem behavior of the ethnic minority students. Possible explanations for these findings, mainly related to contextual and cultural differences between the Netherlands and the US, are discussed. PMID:27242604
Derks, Belle; van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi
Experiencing social identity threat can lead members of stigmatized groups to protect their self-regard by withdrawing from domains that are associated with higher status groups. Four experiments examined how providing identity affirmation in alternative domains affects performance motivation in status-defining domains among stigmatized group members. Two forms of identity affirmation were distinguished: self-affirmation, which enhances personal identity, and group affirmation, which enhances social identity. The results showed that although self- and group affirmation both induce high performance motivation, they do so in different ways. Whereas self-affirmation induces a focus on the personal self, group affirmation induces a focus on the social self (Study 1). Accordingly, group affirmation elicited high performance motivation among highly identified group members (Studies 1 and 2) by inducing challenge (Study 2) and protected interest in group-serving behaviors that improve collective status (Studies 3 and 4). By contrast, low identifiers were challenged and motivated to perform well only after self-affirmation (Studies 1 and 2) and reported an even stronger inclination to work for themselves at the expense of the group when offered group affirmation (Studies 3 and 4).
Saunders, G. Stephen
Reviewed are the position of the Internal Revenue Service on racial discrimination and federal income tax exemptions for private educational organizations and possible impacts of the Bakke decision on the issue. (Journal availability: School of Law, Martin Luther King, Jr. Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.) (MSE)
... recruitment advertisements. (4) Notification of job openings to minority community organizations and... and on-the-job training programs to create career ladders or otherwise qualify minority, female, Vietnam era veteran, and handicapped employees for advancement....
Sky Lark, Taj'ullah
The instability of the U.S. economy and its competitiveness in the global market has lead to increase request for investment in Higher Education programs. There exists a rising awareness among scholars of how inextricably education is tied to the strength of the economy, the well being of its populace, as well as the importance of a diversified…
Paiva, Angela Randolpho
Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a implantação das políticas de ação afirmativa nas universidades públicas à luz dos principais conceitos que ajudam na compreensão das mudanças ocorridas no acesso ao ensino superior entre 2002 e 2012. Enfatiza a redemocratização, ação do movimento negro e a controvérsia em torno da adoção das “cotas raciais”. Assim, conceitos como cidadania, esfera pública, direitos, reconhecimento, ação coletiva e identidade serão aqueles privilegiados na análise, pois têm grande validade heurística para se entenderem as mudanças ocorridas no acesso ao ensino superior em direção a sua maior diversidade e inclusão social. Mostra como, em um período de dez anos, mais de 70% das universidades públicas enfrentaram desafios para sua transformação em uma instituição que incorpore a ideia do direito social do acesso à educação de forma mais substantiva
Harvard Civil Rights Project, Cambridge, MA.
On June 23, 2003, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of race-conscious admissions policies designed to promote diversity in higher education. The Grutter versus Bollinger decision upheld the University of Michigan Law School race-conscious admissions policy as constitutional. However, in Gratz versus Bollinger, it held…
Jim B. Parsons
Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.
@@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.
Full Text Available Discourses on old age and ageing are framed in narrow and binary ways, either as a decline narrative or through discourses of positive and successful ageing. The decline narrative, on the one hand, is highly centred on the decline of the ageing body as frail, leaky and unbounded, and on how old age is characterised by non-productivity, increasing passivity and dependency. Discourses on successful ageing, on the other hand, rely heavily on neo-liberal imperatives of activity, autonomy and responsibility. In successful ageing, the specificities of ageing bodies are largely overlooked while the capacity of the old person to retain a youthful body, for example, with the aid of sexuopharmaceuticals, is celebrated. This article argues for the need of a theorising of old age that goes beyond the binaries of decline and success. Drawing on the work of feminist corpomaterialists Rosi Braidotti and Elisabeth Grosz, the article proposes affirmative old age as an alternative conceptualisation of old age. As a theoretical project, affirmative old age aims to acknowledge the material specificities of the ageing body and is an attempt to theorise the ageing body in terms of difference but without understanding it as a body marked by decline, lack or negation.
Armitage, Christopher J.
Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…
Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann
Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…
Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Gougain, Marion; Robic, Suzanne; Olsen, Matthew D.; Weiss, Oshri; Noveck, Ira
Conditional reasoning consists in combining a conditional premise with a categorical premise and inferring a conclusion from them. Two well-known conditional arguments are Modus Ponens (MP: "If P then Q; P//"therefore Q), which is logically valid and Affirmation of the Consequent (AC: "If P then Q; Q//"therefore "P"), which is not. The latter is…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Dentek.com , D/B/A Nsequence Center for Advanced Dentistry; Reno, NV; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated...
Barnes, Sandra L
When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.
Carneiro, Nuño S; Menezes, Isabel
In this paper we intend to articulate a multidimensional perspective on citizenship with a psychological understanding of lesbian and gay identities' development in the context of a Southern European country: Portugal. We begin by reviewing some legal statements and institutional regulations around gay and lesbian issues and the lack of opportunities for the affirmation of a non-hegemonic (sexual) identity in Portugal. Next, we describe participation efforts developed by the Portuguese LGBT nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the actual results that such efforts already produced in the political and cultural attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: particularly, the legal approval of domestic same-sex partnership is emphasized as a symbolic achievement of such political struggle. Finally, we explore the implications of communitarian participation for gay and lesbian identities' development, not just in terms of collective empowerment but also in what concerns individual development and well-being.
Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Flores, Lluliana I
This study examined whether Anglo culture orientation modified the association between adolescents' perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity affirmation over time in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 205, Mage = 16.24 years). Results indicated that perceived ethnic discrimination was significantly associated with decreases in ethnic identity affirmation over time for adolescents reporting high Anglo culture orientation, but no relation existed for adolescents reporting low Anglo culture orientation. Findings suggest that a person-environment mismatch (i.e., between adolescents' perceptions of their connection to Anglo culture and the messages they receive from others regarding that connection in terms of perceived ethnic discrimination) may be detrimental to adolescents' development of positive feelings about their ethnicity.
Deutsch, Madeline B
Transgender people have a gender identity different from their birth-assigned sex. Transgender people may seek gender-affirming surgeries to align their body with their identified gender. With increasing visibility of transgender identities, and recognition of the importance of gender-affirming care, has come a policy shift toward mandated coverage or provision of blanket exclusions of these procedures by insurance companies and Medicaid. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health provides guidance to mental health professionals evaluating patients for gender-affirming surgeries, including making a diagnosis and assessing for capacity to consent. However the expansion of covered gender-affirming surgeries to safety-net populations has highlighted the need for an expanded presurgical process which includes a psychosocial assessment and care navigation. The proposed framework expands the preoperative assessment to include these components, and can be used to guide both health systems and insurance providers in the development of transgender medicine programs.
Morgan, JI; Harris, PR
Background and Objectives: Workers were recruited from a UK further education college during a period of organisational downsizing. The study assessed the effects of a brief health psychology intervention on work-related stress in downsize survivors. Design and Methods: Sixty-six employees were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII), or a control. Feelings of anxiety and depression wer...
Cohen, Geoffrey L; Garcia, Julio; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Apfel, Nancy; Brzustoski, Patricia
A 2-year follow-up of a randomized field experiment previously reported in Science is presented. A subtle intervention to lessen minority students' psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped in school was tested in an experiment conducted three times with three independent cohorts (N = 133, 149, and 134). The intervention, a series of brief but structured writing assignments focusing students on a self-affirming value, reduced the racial achievement gap. Over 2 years, the grade point average (GPA) of African Americans was, on average, raised by 0.24 grade points. Low-achieving African Americans were particularly benefited. Their GPA improved, on average, 0.41 points, and their rate of remediation or grade repetition was less (5% versus 18%). Additionally, treated students' self-perceptions showed long-term benefits. Findings suggest that because initial psychological states and performance determine later outcomes by providing a baseline and initial trajectory for a recursive process, apparently small but early alterations in trajectory can have long-term effects. Implications for psychological theory and educational practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Authenticity can best be understood in context, and context implies action (Payne, 1996. For the purpose of this study, leadership in general, and authentic leadership in particular, were explored in terms of the actions of former mayor of New York City, Rudolph Giuliani, who displayed authentic leadership in action during the tragic aftermath of the World Trade Centre attacks. Authentic leadership development tends to be triggered by a negative event (as in the case of 9/11 for Giuliani, for example. Since there is limited knowledge of how a positive event may trigger authentic leadership development, the aim of this study was to explore the potential of Appreciative Inquiry (AI - an affirmative mode of action research - as a positive trigger event for authentic leadership development. The results indicated that this positive approach to change could indeed be implemented for this purpose.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...
Despite males and females being equally represented at the college level in several STEM disciplines (including biology, chemistry and mathematics), females continue to be under-represented in physics. Our research documents and addresses this participation gender gap in the introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. We characterize gender differences in performance, psychological factors (including attitudes and beliefs) and retention that exist in Physics 1 and 2 [L. E. Kost, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009); L. E. Kost-Smith, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 020112 (2010)]. We find that the gender differences in performance can largely be accounted for by measurable differences in the physics and mathematics backgrounds and incoming attitudes and beliefs of males and females. But these background factors do not completely account for the gender gaps. We hypothesize, based on gender differences in responses to survey questions about students' sense of physics identity and confidence levels, that identity threat (the fear of confirming a negative characterization about one's identity) is playing a role in our courses. Working with researchers in psychology, we implemented an intervention where students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the course [A. Miyake, et al., Science, 330, 1234 (2010)]. This ``values affirmation'' activity reduced the male-female performance difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. This brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance.
Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen
Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)
Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.
In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...
Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.
a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....
The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese version of the Lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative counseling self?efficacy scale (LGB?CSIJ) by analyzing of it reliability and validity across a Japanese sample. The data for this study were collected from a sample comprising 56 first?year and 40 second?year graduate students pursuing Master’s degree in clinical psychology. The results indicated that the scale had three?factor construction of the “LGB?related knowledge and assessment,” “...
Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.
The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...
Cohen, Michael J.
Planet Earth is a living organism that preserves and regenerates itself and shares information with humans through sensations, feelings, and actions. After early humans migrated from their tropical origins to colder climates, they developed technologies to impose their tropical memories on their new surroundings and lost touch with their ancient…
Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A
Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.
Various actions for pregeometry are presented and compared. The ``space-field identity'' which equates the n-beins to the derivatives of fundamental scalars is derived from a simple action but seems to be too restrictive to be practical.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...
We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users. Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...
Varzinczak, Ivan José
As historically acknowledged in the Reasoning about Actions and Change community, intuitiveness of a logical domain description cannot be fully automated. Moreover, like any other logical theory, action theories may also evolve, and thus knowledge engineers need revision methods to help in accommodating new incoming information about the behavior of actions in an adequate manner. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in multimodal logic. Its contribution is threefold: ...
Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of dis...
National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.
Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…
, to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...
Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara
Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…
Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart
The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...... to actual action research/interactive research....
Huang, Y. D.
Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of
Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.
We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....
Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we state postulates for action theory contraction and assess the behavior of our operators w.r.t. them. Moreover, we also address the revision counterpart of action theory change, showing that it benefits from our semantics for contraction.
Becker, L.B.; Lauf, E.; Lowrey, W.
This paper examines whether gender, race, and ethnicity are associated with employment in the journalism and mass communication labor market and—if discrepancies in employment exist—what explanations might he offered for them. The data show strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with
Becker, Lee B.; Lauf, Edmund; Lowrey, Wilson
Finds strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with lower levels of employment among journalism and mass communication graduates. Notes these discrepancies in success in the job market are explainable by factors normally associated with hiring, such as type of training, type of institution offering the training, or qualifications…
The 21st century has brought new challenges and opportunities for higher education. In the wake of the transition from elitist to mass education, universities worldwide are under pressure to enhance access and equity, on the one hand, and to maintain high standards of quality and excellence, on the other. Today the notion of equity not only…
Thompson Dorsey, Dana N.; Venzant Chambers, Terah T.
In this article we extend Bell's work on interest convergence by using Harris' work on whiteness as property to articulate a cycle of interest convergence, interest divergence, and imperialistic reclamation, or convergence-divergence-reclamation (C-D-R, pronounced "cedar"). We then apply the C-D-R cycle lens to the evolution of federal…
Aller, Curtis C.; And Others
An experimental and demonstration project was conducted over a five-year period in California to test the concept of lay-off time training to enable workers to qualify for promotion and increase their earnings. The canning industry was found to be a suitable area for this type of training since it had annual lay-offs followed by assured recalls to…
Full Text Available Les dispositions qui sont résumées ici, et dont on donne quelques éléments constitutionnels en annexe, ne sont pas seulement théoriques et de pure forme, elles sont mises en application et font l’objet d’une pratique précise et suivie. Le système des quotas ne se limite pas en effet à des prescriptions législatives et réglementaires à destination des assemblées élues et des services administratifs, il est accompagné de tout un dispositif administratif et financier propre à assurer son effecti...
Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.
Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie
Objectives. The purpose of this persuasion research was to show that self-affirmation (SA) increases intentions in the advocated direction and that these intentions predict actual health behaviour change. That is, these intentions not only serve the function of short-term relief of the threat caused
Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Keita; Shimohira, Masashi; Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuya [Nagoya City University Hospital, Division of Central Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Asano, Miki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Nagoya (Japan); Yamaguchi, Sachiko [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya (Japan)
Lower tube voltage has advantages for CT angiography, such as improved contrast To evaluate the image quality of low-voltage (70 kV) CT for congenital heart disease and the ability of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction to improve image quality. Forty-six children with congenital heart disease (median age: 109 days) were examined using dual-source CT. Scans were performed at 80 kV and 70 kV in 21 and 25 children, respectively. A nonionic iodinated contrast medium (300 mg I/ml) was used for the 80-kV protocol. The contrast medium was diluted to 75% (225 mgI/mL) with saline for the 70-kV protocol. Image noise was measured in the two protocols for each group by extracting the standard deviations of a region of interest placed on the descending aorta. We then determined whether sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction reduced the image noise at 70 kV. There was more noise at 70 kV than at 80 kV (29 ± 12 vs 20 ± 4.8; P < 0.01). Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction with grade 4 strength settings improved the noise (20 ± 5.9; P < 0.01) for the 70-kV group. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction improved the image quality of CT in congenital heart disease. (orig.)
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public Law 88-352 and Public Law 90... FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.601 Public Law 88-352 and Public Law 90-284; affirmatively furthering fair housing; Executive Order 11063. (a) The...
Morris, Brian J; Bailis, Stefan A; Wiswell, Thomas E
The objective of this review was to assess the trend in the US male circumcision rate and the impact that the affirmative 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement might have on neonatal circumcision practice. We searched PubMed for the term circumcision to retrieve relevant articles. This review was prompted by a recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that found a slight increase, from 79% to 81%, in the prevalence of circumcision in males aged 14 to 59 years during the past decade. There were racial and ethnic disparities, with prevalence rising to 91% in white, 76% in black, and 44% in Hispanic males. Because data on neonatal circumcision are equivocal, we undertook a critical analysis of hospital discharge data. After correction for underreporting, we found that the percentage had declined from 83% in the 1960s to 77% by 2010. A risk-benefit analysis of conditions that neonatal circumcision protects against revealed that benefits exceed risks by at least 100 to 1 and that over their lifetime, half of uncircumcised males will require treatment for a medical condition associated with retention of the foreskin. Other analyses show that neonatal male circumcision is cost-effective for disease prevention. The benefits of circumcision begin in the neonatal period by protection against infections that can damage the pediatric kidney. Given the substantial risk of adverse conditions and disease, some argue that failure to circumcise a baby boy may be unethical because it diminishes his right to good health. There is no long-term adverse effect of neonatal circumcision on sexual function or pleasure. The affirmative 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics policy supports parental education about, access to, and insurance and Medicaid coverage for elective infant circumcision. As with vaccination, circumcision of newborn boys should be part of public health policies. Campaigns should prioritize population subgroups with lower circumcision
Sevelius, Jae M; Deutsch, Madeline B; Grant, Robert
Introduction Globally, transgender (“trans”) women are one of the key populations most disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest and most promising biomedical HIV prevention intervention to date. This paper reviews relevant literature to describe the current state of the science and describes the potential role of PrEP among trans women, including a discussion of unique considerations for maximizing the impact of PrEP for this vulnerable population. Methods Available information, including but not limited to existing scientific literature, about trans women and PrEP was reviewed and critiqued based on author expertise, including PrEP clinical trials and rollout. Results To date, PrEP demonstration projects and clinical trials have largely excluded trans women, or have not included them in a meaningful way. Data collection strategies that fail to identify trans women in clinical trials and research further limit the ability to draw conclusions about trans women's unique needs and devise strategies to meet them. Gender-affirming providers and clinic environments are essential components of any sexual health programme that aims to serve trans women, as they will largely avoid settings that may result in stigmatizing encounters and threats to their identities. While there is currently no evidence to suggest drug-drug interactions between PrEP and commonly used feminizing hormone regimens, community concerns about potential interactions may limit interest in and uptake of PrEP among trans women. Conclusions In scaling up PrEP for trans women, it is essential to engage trans communities, utilize trans-inclusive research and marketing strategies and identify and/or train healthcare providers to provide gender-affirming healthcare to trans women, including transition-related care such as hormone provision. PrEP implementation guidelines must consider and address trans women's unique barriers and facilitators to uptake and
Jae M Sevelius
Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, transgender (“trans” women are one of the key populations most disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is the newest and most promising biomedical HIV prevention intervention to date. This paper reviews relevant literature to describe the current state of the science and describes the potential role of PrEP among trans women, including a discussion of unique considerations for maximizing the impact of PrEP for this vulnerable population. Methods: Available information, including but not limited to existing scientific literature, about trans women and PrEP was reviewed and critiqued based on author expertise, including PrEP clinical trials and rollout. Results: To date, PrEP demonstration projects and clinical trials have largely excluded trans women, or have not included them in a meaningful way. Data collection strategies that fail to identify trans women in clinical trials and research further limit the ability to draw conclusions about trans women's unique needs and devise strategies to meet them. Gender-affirming providers and clinic environments are essential components of any sexual health programme that aims to serve trans women, as they will largely avoid settings that may result in stigmatizing encounters and threats to their identities. While there is currently no evidence to suggest drug-drug interactions between PrEP and commonly used feminizing hormone regimens, community concerns about potential interactions may limit interest in and uptake of PrEP among trans women. Conclusions: In scaling up PrEP for trans women, it is essential to engage trans communities, utilize trans-inclusive research and marketing strategies and identify and/or train healthcare providers to provide gender-affirming healthcare to trans women, including transition-related care such as hormone provision. PrEP implementation guidelines must consider and address trans women's unique barriers and facilitators
Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun
Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination.
An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.