WorldWideScience

Sample records for affinity shape powers

  1. Manifolds with integrable affine shape operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Joaquín

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the conditions for the existence of vector fields with the property that theirs covariant derivative, with respect to the affine normal connection, be the affine shape operatorS in hypersurfaces. Some results are obtained from this property and, in particular, for some kind of affine decomposable hypersurfaces we explicitely get the actual vector fields.

  2. Genetic Algorithm-based Affine Parameter Estimation for Shape Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxing Mao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shape recognition is a classically difficult problem because of the affine transformation between two shapes. The current study proposes an affine parameter estimation method for shape recognition based on a genetic algorithm (GA. The contributions of this study are focused on the extraction of affine- invariant features, the individual encoding scheme, and the fitness function construction policy for a GA. First, the affine-invariant characteristics of the centroid distance ratios (CDRs of any two opposite contour points to the barycentre are analysed. Using different intervals along the azimuth angle, the different numbers of CDRs of two candidate shapes are computed as representations of the shapes, respectively. Then, the CDRs are selected based on predesigned affine parameters to construct the fitness function. After that, a GA is used to search for the affine parameters with optimal matching between candidate shapes, which serve as actual descriptions of the affine transformation between the shapes. Finally, the CDRs are resampled based on the estimated parameters to evaluate the similarity of the shapes for classification. The experimental results demonstrate the robust performance of the proposed method in shape recognition with translation, scaling, rotation and distortion.

  3. Affine transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin's Finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael; Campas, Otger; Mallarino, Riccardo; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2009-11-01

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in extraordinary morphological complexity of living organisms, whose description has thus far defied any precise mathematical characterization linked to the underlying developmental genetics. Here we demonstrate that the morphological diversity of the beaks of Darwin's finches, the classical example of adaptive morphological radiation, is quantitatively accounted for through the mathematical group of affine transformations. Specifically, we show that all beak shapes of Ground Finches (genus Geospiza) are related by scaling transformations (a subgroup of the affine group), and the same scheme occurs for all the beak shapes of Tree and Warbler finches. This analysis shows that the beak shapes within each of these groups differ only by their scales, such as length and depth, each of which is knownto be under genetic control.The complete morphological variability within the beaks of Darwin's finches can be explained by extending the scaling transformations to the entire affine group, by including shear transformations. Altogether our results suggest that the mathematical theory of groups can help decode morphological variability, and points to a potentially hierarchical structure of morphological diversity and the underlying developmental processes.

  4. The relationship between shape under similarity transformations and shape under affine transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Peter F.

    2004-10-01

    Recent progress in shape theory, including the development of object/image equations for shape matching and shape space metrics (especially object/image metrics), is now being exploited to develop new algorithms for target recognition. This theory makes use of advanced mathematical techniques from algebraic and differential geometry to construct generalized shape spaces for various projection and sensor models, and then uses that construction to find natural metrics that express the distance (difference) between two configurations of object features, two configurations of image features, or an object and an image pair. Such metrics produce the most robust tests for target identification; at least as far as target geometry is concerned. Moreover, they also provide the basis for efficient hashing schemes to do target identification quickly and provide a rigorous foundation for error analysis in ATR.

  5. Relating the shape of protein binding sites to binding affinity profiles: is there an association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitter István

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various pattern-based methods exist that use in vitro or in silico affinity profiles for classification and functional examination of proteins. Nevertheless, the connection between the protein affinity profiles and the structural characteristics of the binding sites is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between virtual drug screening results (calculated binding free energy values and the geometry of protein binding sites. Molecular Affinity Fingerprints (MAFs were determined for 154 proteins based on their molecular docking energy results for 1,255 FDA-approved drugs. Protein binding site geometries were characterized by 420 PocketPicker descriptors. The basic underlying component structure of MAFs and binding site geometries, respectively, were examined by principal component analysis; association between principal components extracted from these two sets of variables was then investigated by canonical correlation and redundancy analyses. Results PCA analysis of the MAF variables provided 30 factors which explained 71.4% of the total variance of the energy values while 13 factors were obtained from the PocketPicker descriptors which cumulatively explained 94.1% of the total variance. Canonical correlation analysis resulted in 3 statistically significant canonical factor pairs with correlation values of 0.87, 0.84 and 0.77, respectively. Redundancy analysis indicated that PocketPicker descriptor factors explain 6.9% of the variance of the MAF factor set while MAF factors explain 15.9% of the total variance of PocketPicker descriptor factors. Based on the salient structures of the factor pairs, we identified a clear-cut association between the shape and bulkiness of the drug molecules and the protein binding site descriptors. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate complex multivariate associations between affinity profiles and the geometric properties of protein binding sites. We found that

  6. Exploiting affine invariant regions and leaf edge shapes for weed detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon;

    2015-01-01

    In this article, local features extracted from field images are evaluated for weed detection. Several scale and affine invariant detectors from computer vision literature along with high performance descriptors were applied. Field dataset contained a total of 474 plant images of sugar beet...... color descriptor was introduced which used various combinations of color indices and offered a very high precision. Retrieval in the field data was evaluated group-wise. Although, the impact of the sunlight was found to be very low on shape features, but relatively higher precisions were obtained...... for younger plants under a shade (overall more than 80%). The weed detection accuracy was assessed using the Bag-of-Visual-Word scheme with KNN and SVM classifiers. The assessment showed that with an SVM classifier, a fusion of surface color and edge shapes boosted the overall classification accuracy...

  7. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442766

  8. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Resonant pulse-shaping power supply for radar transmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Bell Rodriguez, Miguel Victoria Ramo; Roberg, Michael; Pack, Riley; Garcia Fernandez, Pablo; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José; Popoviç, Zoya; Maksimovic, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    The final radiofrequency power amplifier (PA) of a radar transmitter module is a large factor in system efficiency. Typical radar transmitter signals are frequency-modulated with constant-amplitude pulse envelopes in order to optimize efficiency, resulting in spectral broadening and power radiated outside of the radar frequency band. This paper demonstrates a PA with a dynamic power supply which enables high efficiency while reducing the spectral emissions. The resonant pulse-shaping power su...

  10. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  11. Flow of power-law fluids in self-affine fracture channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiguang; Koplik, Joel

    2008-03-01

    The two-dimensional pressure driven flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in self-affine fracture channels at finite Reynolds number is calculated. The channels have constant mean aperture and two values zeta=0.5 and 0.8 of the Hurst exponent are considered. The calculation is based on the lattice-Boltzmann method, using a different technique to obtain a power-law variation in viscosity, and the behavior of shear-thinning, Newtonian, and shear-thickening liquids is compared. Local aspects of the flow fields, such as maximum velocity and pressure fluctuations, are studied, and the non-Newtonian fluids are compared to the (previously studied) Newtonian case. We find a scaling relation between permeability and mean aperture in the low Reynolds number regime, generalizing an earlier result for Newtonian fluids. As the Reynolds number increases, we observe the same sequence of transitions to nonlinearity found in intergranular porous media. Furthermore, the permeability results may be collapsed into a master curve of friction factor vs Reynolds number, using a scaling similar to that employed for power-law fluids in porous media.

  12. Freeform beam shaping for high-power multimode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2014-03-01

    Widening of using high power multimode lasers in industrial laser material processing is accompanied by special requirements to irradiance profiles in such technologies like metal or plastics welding, cladding, hardening, brazing, annealing, laser pumping and amplification in MOPA lasers. Typical irradiance distribution of high power multimode lasers: free space solid state, fiber-coupled solid state and diodes lasers, fiber lasers, is similar to Gaussian. Laser technologies can be essentially improved when irradiance distribution on a workpiece is uniform (flattop) or inverse-Gauss; when building high-power pulsed lasers it is possible to enhance efficiency of pumping and amplification by applying super-Gauss irradiance distribution with controlled convexity. Therefore, "freeform" beam shaping of multimode laser beams is an important task. A proved solution is refractive field mapping beam shaper like Shaper capable to control resulting irradiance profile - with the same unit it is possible to get various beam profiles and choose optimum one for a particular application. Operational principle of these devices implies transformation of laser irradiance distribution by conserving beam consistency, high transmittance, providing collimated low divergent output beam. Using additional optics makes it possible to create resulting laser spots of necessary size and round, elliptical or linear shape. Operation out of focal plane and, hence, in field of lower wavefront curvature, allows extending depth of field. The refractive beam shapers are implemented as telescopes and collimating systems, which can be connected directly to fiber-coupled lasers or fiber lasers, thus combining functions of beam collimation and irradiance transformation.

  13. 仿射变换对二维蕨类形状控制的研究%Affine Transformation for Two-dimensional Fern Shape Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晔

    2012-01-01

    通过对仿射变换矩阵系数进行调节分析,研究仿射变换矩阵对二维蕨类形状控制的作用,并分析仿射变换矩阵的各个系数对二维蕨类植物生成的形状和弯曲方向的影响,给出了蕨类植物形状控制方法,证明能较好地控制蕨类植物叶片的生长方向和形状,但还不能够控制叶片生成的精确角度和叶片的精确大小.%In this paper, affine transformation matrix of two-dimensional fern shape control is analyzed, and the affine trans- formation matrix coefficients on the shape generated by the two-dimensional ferns are adjusted and the bending directions are given. Better controlling approaches to the direction and shape of fern leaves are put forward in detail.

  14. Fast Estimation of Defect Profiles from the Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal Based on a Multi-Power Affine Projection Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wenhua Han; Xiaohui Shen; Jun Xu; Ping Wang; Guiyun Tian; Zhengyang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection is one of the most important and sensitive nondestructive testing approaches. For online MFL inspection of a long-range railway track or oil pipeline, a fast and effective defect profile estimating method based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm (MAPA) is proposed, where the depth of a sampling point is related with not only the MFL signals before it, but also the ones after it, and all of the sampling points related to one point appear as seri...

  15. Fast estimation of defect profiles from the magnetic flux leakage signal based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenhua; Shen, Xiaohui; Xu, Jun; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guiyun; Wu, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection is one of the most important and sensitive nondestructive testing approaches. For online MFL inspection of a long-range railway track or oil pipeline, a fast and effective defect profile estimating method based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm (MAPA) is proposed, where the depth of a sampling point is related with not only the MFL signals before it, but also the ones after it, and all of the sampling points related to one point appear as serials or multi-power. Defect profile estimation has two steps: regulating a weight vector in an MAPA filter and estimating a defect profile with the MAPA filter. Both simulation and experimental data are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high speed while maintaining the estimated profiles clearly close to the desired ones in a noisy environment, thereby meeting the demand of accurate online inspection. PMID:25192314

  16. The Power of Strong Fourier Sampling: Quantum Algorithms for Affine Groups and Hidden Shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Russell, A; Schulman, L J; Moore, Cristopher; Rockmore, Daniel; Russell, Alexander; Schulman, Leonard J.

    2005-01-01

    Many quantum algorithms, including Shor's celebrated factoring and discrete log algorithms, proceed by reduction to a Hidden Subgroup problem, in which an unknown subgroup H of a group G must be determined from a uniform superposition on a left coset of H. These hidden subgroup problems are typically solved by Fourier sampling. When G is nonabelian, two important variants of Fourier sampling have been identified: the weak standard method, where only representation names are measured, and the strong standard method, where full measurement (i.e., the row and column of the representation, in a suitably chosen basis) occurs. It has remained open whether the strong standard method is indeed stronger. In this article, we settle this question in the affirmative. We show that hidden subgroups H of the q-hedral groups, i.e., semidirect products Z_q \\ltimes Z_p where q | (p-1), and in particular the affine groups A_p, can be information-theoretically reconstructed using the strong standard method. Moreover, if |H| = p/...

  17. Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: Actions on tensor space

    CERN Document Server

    Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar

    2012-01-01

    The affine and degenerate affine Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (BMW) algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic quantum groups and Lie algebras, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine and cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper we explain how the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras are tantalizers (tensor power centralizer algebras) by defining actions of the affine braid group and the degenerate affine braid algebra on tensor space and showing that, in important cases, these actions induce actions of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras. We then exploit the connection to quantum groups and Lie algebras to determine universal parameters for the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras. Finally, we show that the universal parameters are central elements--the higher Casimir elements for orthogonal and symplectic enveloping algebras and quantum groups.

  18. Fast Estimation of Defect Profiles from the Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal Based on a Multi-Power Affine Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Han

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux leakage (MFL inspection is one of the most important and sensitive nondestructive testing approaches. For online MFL inspection of a long-range railway track or oil pipeline, a fast and effective defect profile estimating method based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm (MAPA is proposed, where the depth of a sampling point is related with not only the MFL signals before it, but also the ones after it, and all of the sampling points related to one point appear as serials or multi-power. Defect profile estimation has two steps: regulating a weight vector in an MAPA filter and estimating a defect profile with the MAPA filter. Both simulation and experimental data are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high speed while maintaining the estimated profiles clearly close to the desired ones in a noisy environment, thereby meeting the demand of accurate online inspection.

  19. Electricity prices and power derivatives: An affine jump diffusion approach with seasonal volatility and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation and reforms in the electricity markets over the recent years have led to increasing volatility of electricity prices since prices in the market are now determined by the fundamental rules of supply and demand. The existence of price risk in the market leads to the increasing necessity of hedging using derivatives and the subsequent development of models to price and hedge electricity derivatives. However the non-storable nature of the market implies that ''traditional'' approaches for the pricing and hedging of commodity derivatives based on the theory of storage are not applicable to electricity markets. In this paper we propose a two-factor jump diffusion model with seasonal components in order to capture the systematic pattern in the forward curve and the volatility term structure. Our model is then calibrated for the spot and the financial contracts in the Nord Pool Exchange using Kalman filter techniques. The proposed model has several advantages. First it enables to select the risk neutral measure that best fits the term structure hence capturing the most significant distributional characteristics of both spot and forwards. Second, it explains the seasonal risk premium, and finally it provides a fit for the Volatility Term Structure. The resulting model is very promising, providing a very useful Financial Engineering tool to market participants for Risk Hedging and Derivatives Pricing in the highly volatile Power Markets. (Author)

  20. A low frequency piezoelectric power harvester using a spiral-shaped bimorph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuantai; HU Hongping; YANG Jiashi

    2006-01-01

    We propose a spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph power harvester operating with coupled flexural and extensional vibration modes for applications to low frequency energy sources.A theoretical analysis is performed and the computational results show that the spiral structure has relatively low operating frequency compared to beam power harvesters of the same size.It is found that to optimize the performance of a piezoelectric spiral-shaped harvester careful design is needed.

  1. 100W fully-fiberised Ytterbium doped master oscillator power amplifier incorporating adaptive pulse shaping

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-ul; Chen, Kangkang; Malinowski, Andrew; Norman, Steve; Richardson, David

    2009-01-01

    We report a pulsed, fully-fiberised, Yb-doped MOPA with a maximum average output power of 100W. Adaptive pulse shaping was incorporated to reduce the impact of nonlinearities, delivering 2mJ flat-topped pulses with 20kW peak power.

  2. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2016-05-01

    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  3. Design of measurement equipment for high power laser beam shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Olsen, F. O.; Kristiansen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    To analyse advanced high power beam patterns, a method, which is capable of analysing the intensity distribution in 3D is needed. Further a measuring of scattered light in the same system is preferred. This requires a high signal to noise ratio. Such a system can be realised by a CCD......-chip implemented in a camera system. Most available CCD-based systems do however suffer from a low maximum intensity threshold. Therefore attenuation is needed. This paper describes the construction of such a beam analysing system where beam patterns produced by single mode fiber laser on a diffractic optical...... element can be evaluated using a CCD based camera. The system is tested with various DOE’s for evaluation of efficiency and measurement of scattered light with success. Also tests with capturing beam caustics of focused laser beams from which beam parameters has been fitted and compared with measurements...

  4. Beam shaping design for coupling high power diode laser stack to fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Seyed Hamed; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Sabbaghzadeh, Jamshid; Dorranian, Davoud; Lafooti, Majid; Vatani, Vahid; Rezaei-Nasirabad, Reza; Hemmati, Atefeh; Amidian, Ali Asghar; Alavian, Seyed Ali

    2011-06-20

    A beam shaping technique that rearranges the beam for improving the beam symmetry and power density of a ten-bar high power diode laser stack is simulated considering a stripe mirror plate and a V-Stack mirror in the beam shaping system. In this technique, the beam of a high power diode laser stack is effectively coupled into a standard 550 μm core diameter and a NA=0.22 fiber. By this technique, compactness, higher efficiency, and lower cost production of the diode are possible.

  5. Effect of various shapes and materials on the generated power for piezoelectric energy harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarabjeet; Graak, Pinki; Gupta, Ankita; Chhabra, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Shetty, Arjun

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting systems are used to convert vicinity vibrations into useful electrical energy. Effect of various shapes and materials open the gateway towards the choice of maximum power generation for the micro and nano world. Comsol Multiphysics was used to simulate the four designed shapes named as Pi, E, Rectangular and T in the size range of less than 1mm but greater than 1 micron. Designed shapes worked under the impact of ambient vibrations using few piezoelectric materials for the maximum power generation so that traditional power sources can be replaced with such piezoelectric energy harvester. A layer of piezoelectric material (PZT-5H, AlN, BaTiO3) of thickness 0.5 µm is added to the cantilever and the base material is silicon of thickness 1.5 µm. Simulations were performed using the piezoelectric device module of Comsol Multiphysics. All three materials were studied for the all four cantilever geometries. The generated power was observed maximum as 382.5 µW in case of the barium titanate material with rectangular shape geometry but the displacement is 0.132 µm which is very less whereas E shape cantilever shows the maximum displacement of 0.6078 µm in case of PZT-5H, Hence rectangular shape with barium titanate material is concluded to be good for maximum power generation but the displacement factor cannot be neglected, hence the cantilever with E shape geometry is considered as the best with a generated power of 49.005 µW and a displacement of 0.6078 µm.

  6. U-shape magnetostrictive vibration based power generator for universal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    Vibrational power generator extracts electrical energy from ambient vibration. Author invented novel configuration using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beams of iron-gallium alloy and magnetic material, and features high efficiency, high robustness, and low electrical impedance. In this paper, author proposes U-shape generator for universal use. It consists of the parallel beams and fixed and free end beams forming U-shape frame flexibly modified for variety of mechanical input. Miniature U-shape prototype using Fe-Ga rod 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm3 exhibited average power of 3.7 mW under vibration of 166 Hz and 2.5 G. L-shape type was demonstrated to generate electromotive force by two directional vibrations. In switch type, maximum energy of 0.7 mJ was retrieved by one pushing force. The performances are sufficient to drive wireless module for heath monitoring and remote control.

  7. Scale and shape issues in focused cluster power for count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Dwayne E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the development of statistical methods for disease cluster detection has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Evaluations of statistical power provide important information for the selection of an appropriate statistical method in environmentally-related disease cluster investigations. Published power evaluations have not yet addressed the use of models for focused cluster detection and have not fully investigated the issues of disease cluster scale and shape. As meteorological and other factors can impact the dispersion of environmental toxicants, it follows that environmental exposures and associated diseases can be dispersed in a variety of spatial patterns. This study simulates disease clusters in a variety of shapes and scales around a centrally located single pollution source. We evaluate the power of a range of focused cluster tests and generalized linear models to detect these various cluster shapes and scales for count data. Results In general, the power of hypothesis tests and models to detect focused clusters improved when the test or model included parameters specific to the shape of cluster being examined (i.e. inclusion of a function for direction improved power of models to detect clustering with an angular effect. However, power to detect clusters where the risk peaked and then declined was limited. Conclusion Findings from this investigation show sizeable changes in power according to the scale and shape of the cluster and the test or model applied. These findings demonstrate the importance of selecting a test or model with functions appropriate to detect the spatial pattern of the disease cluster.

  8. Ambivalent Sexism in Close Relationships: (Hostile) Power and (Benevolent) Romance Shape Relationship Ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tiane L.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia

    2010-01-01

    Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and central Chinese (N=290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence t...

  9. Beam Shaping of High-power Laser Diode Arrays by Continuous Surface-relief Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ehbets, Peter; Herzig, Hans-Peter; Dändliker, René; Regnault, P.; Kjelberg, I.

    2007-01-01

    A breadboard for beam shaping of high-power laser diode arrays (LDAs) has been realized. The coherent beams are added with the aid of a continuous surface-relief fan-in element. It results in a nearly symmetric single lobed beam of collimated light with maximum conversion efficiency. The theoretical efficiency is determined to be 96•7%. Experimentally, one third of the total power is now in the central peak.

  10. Efficient pump beam shaping for high-power thin-disk laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rui; Weichelt, Birgit; Liang, Dawei; Morais, Paulo J; Gouveia, Helena; Abdou-Ahmed, Marwan; Voss, Andreas; Graf, Thomas

    2010-09-20

    We report a beam-shaping technique whereby the output power from a high-power laser-diode stack is efficiently coupled, reconfigured, and transmitted to a thin-disk laser by means of a compact optical fiber bundle. By using this technique, the power density is increased by a factor of 2 when compared to direct coupling with a octagonal fused silica rod while the numerical aperture is kept constant. Transmission efficiency of 80% was measured for the beam shaper without antireflection coating. The top-hat distribution is numerically calculated at the thin-disk laser crystal.

  11. Changes in power curve shapes as an indicator of fatigue during dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallor, Fermin; Leon, Teresa; Gaston, Martin; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2010-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise-induced leg fatigue during a dynamic fatiguing task by examining the shapes of power vs. time curves through the combined use of several statistical methods: B-spline smoothing, functional principal components and (supervised and unsupervised) classification. In addition, granulometric size distributions were also computed to allow for comparison of curves coming from different subjects. Twelve physically active men participated in one acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol which consisted of five sets of 10 repetition maximum leg press with 120 s of rest between sets. To obtain a smooth and accurate representation of the data, a basis of 180 B-splines was used. Functional principal component (FPC) analysis was used to find the dominant modes of variation in the curves. A multivariate cluster over the FPC scores and a k-nearest neighbor classification led to three interpretable groups corresponding to different levels of fatigue. Fatigue-induced changes in the shapes of the power curves were evident, in which curves progressively flatten and develop a second power peak. In a practical setting FPC analysis greatly reduces dimensionality and the use of granulometries allows for comparison of the curve shapes without distorting the time scale. In contrast to the present methodology, which considers each curve as a datum, classical statistical approaches using summary parameters of time series may lead to limited information about the impact of dynamic fatiguing protocols on kinematic and kinetic time-course changes in curve shapes. PMID:20170919

  12. Temporal Shaping of High Peak Power Pulse Trains from a Burst-Mode Laser System

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Körner; Jürgen Reiter; Joachim Hein; Kaluza, Malte C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown in the past that pulsed laser systems operating in the so-called “burst mode” are a beneficial approach to generate high peak power laser pulses at high repetition rates suitable for various applications. So far, most high-energy burst-mode laser systems put great effort into generating a homogeneous energy distribution across the burst duration, e.g., by shaping the pump pulse. In this work, we present a new shaping technique, which is able to produce arbitrary energy distr...

  13. Gaussian Affine Feature Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2011-01-01

    A new method is proposed to get image features' geometric information. Using Gaussian as an input signal, a theoretical optimal solution to calculate feature's affine shape is proposed. Based on analytic result of a feature model, the method is different from conventional iterative approaches. From the model, feature's parameters such as position, orientation, background luminance, contrast, area and aspect ratio can be extracted. Tested with synthesized and benchmark data, the method achieve...

  14. Fast planar shape recognition using cascaded affine invariant function%采用级联仿射不变函数的快速平面形状识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史思琦; 石光明; 陈旭阳; 齐飞

    2012-01-01

    现有的基于小波变换的形状识别算法具有很高的计算复杂度,难以满足许多实时应用的要求.文中提出了基于级联仿射不变函数的快速形状识别算法,用于识别仿射变换下的含噪目标.利用目标轮廓的小波变换可以得到一组仿射不变函数,并进一步构造出级联仿射不变函数.为了保证级联仿射不变函数的平移不变性,预先对轮廓的起始点进行了有效配准.从而通过级联仿射不变函数的内积,方便地度量出目标形状的相似度.与现有基于小波的识别算法相比,所提出的算法具有很低的计算复杂度,其所需CPU时间仅为其它算法的1/7.实验结果验证了该算法的有效性和起始点配准的准确性.%Existing shape recognition methods based on wavelet transform are of high computational cost,so they are not suitable for some real-time applications.A cascaded affine invariant function(CAIF)-based fast recognition algorithm was proposed to recognize the noisy shape under affine transform.The CAIF was constructed by combining a set of affine invariant functions,which were derived by the wavelet coefficients of the shape contour.To ensure the shift invariance of CAIF,the starting point of shape contour was pre-aligned effectively.In this way,the shape similarity could be measured conveniently by the inner product of CAIFs.The proposed algorithm was of low computational complexity and spent only one seventh of the CPU time consumed by other wavelet-based recognition algorithms.Experimental results verify the alignment accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Self-Powered Wireless Affinity-Based Biosensor Based on Integration of Paper-Based Microfluidics and Self-Assembled RFID Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingquan; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a wireless, self-powered, affinity-based biosensor based on the integration of paper-based microfluidics with our previously reported method for self-assembling radio-frequency (RF) antennas. At the core of the proposed approach is a silver-enhancement technique that grows portions of a RF antenna in regions where target antigens hybridize with target specific affinity probes. The hybridization regions are defined by a network of nitrocellulose based microfluidic channels which implement a self-powered approach to sample the reagent and control its flow and mixing. The integration substrate for the biosensor has been constructed using polyethylene and the patterning of the antenna on the substrate has been achieved using a low-cost ink-jet printing technique. The substrate has been integrated with passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to demonstrate that the resulting sensor-tag can be used for continuous monitoring in a food supply-chain where direct measurement of analytes is typically considered to be impractical. We validate the proof-of-concept operation of the proposed sensor-tag using IgG as a model analyte and using a 915 MHz Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tagging technology.

  16. Self-Powered Wireless Affinity-Based Biosensor Based on Integration of Paper-Based Microfluidics and Self-Assembled RFID Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingquan; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a wireless, self-powered, affinity-based biosensor based on the integration of paper-based microfluidics with our previously reported method for self-assembling radio-frequency (RF) antennas. At the core of the proposed approach is a silver-enhancement technique that grows portions of a RF antenna in regions where target antigens hybridize with target specific affinity probes. The hybridization regions are defined by a network of nitrocellulose based microfluidic channels which implement a self-powered approach to sample the reagent and control its flow and mixing. The integration substrate for the biosensor has been constructed using polyethylene and the patterning of the antenna on the substrate has been achieved using a low-cost ink-jet printing technique. The substrate has been integrated with passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to demonstrate that the resulting sensor-tag can be used for continuous monitoring in a food supply-chain where direct measurement of analytes is typically considered to be impractical. We validate the proof-of-concept operation of the proposed sensor-tag using IgG as a model analyte and using a 915 MHz Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tagging technology. PMID:27214914

  17. Improving the power efficiency of SOA-based UWB over fiber systems via pulse shape randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, H.; Azou, S.; Hamie, A.; Al Housseini, A.; Alaeddine, A.; Sharaiha, A.

    2016-09-01

    A simple pulse shape randomization scheme is considered in this paper for improving the performance of ultra wide band (UWB) communication systems using On Off Keying (OOK) or pulse position modulation (PPM) formats. The advantage of the proposed scheme, which can be either employed for impulse radio (IR) or for carrier-based systems, is first theoretically studied based on closed-form derivations of power spectral densities. Then, we investigate an application to an IR-UWB over optical fiber system, by utilizing the 4th and 5th orders of Gaussian derivatives. Our approach proves to be effective for 1 Gbps-PPM and 2 Gbps-OOK transmissions, with an advantage in terms of power efficiency for short distances. We also examine the performance for a system employing an in-line Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) with the view to achieve a reach extension, while limiting the cost and system complexity.

  18. Efficiency Enhancement of an Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier Combining Supply Shaping and Dynamic Biasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Sira, Daniel; Jensen, Ole Kiel;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to improve the performance of envelope tracking (ET) power amplifiers (PAs). The method consists of combining the supply modulation that characterizes the envelope tracking architecture with supply shaping and dynamic biasing. The inclusion of dynamic biasing allows...... a dynamic minimization of the current consumption while imposing simultaneously a constant gain condition. In such a way we maximize the efficiency of the ET transmitter maintaining a considerable linearity. Bias and supply voltages are modulated applying specific waveforms obtained as a function...... magnitude (EVM) of 1.2% and an adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -39.4/-43.5 dBc. The presented transmitter architecture allowed an improvement of 12% PAE compared to a classical ET transmitter where the measured PA was biased in class-AB, maintaining the linearity indicators....

  19. Ambivalent Sexism in Close Relationships: (Hostile) Power and (Benevolent) Romance Shape Relationship Ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiane L; Fiske, Susan T; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia

    2010-04-01

    Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and central Chinese (N=290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence toward Men Inventories (ideologies). Multiple regressions analyses conducted on group-specific relationship ideals revealed that benevolent ideologies predicted partner ideals, in both countries, especially for US culture's romance-oriented relationships. Hostile attitudes predicted men's ideals, both American and Chinese, suggesting both societies' dominant-partner advantage.

  20. Design of shape memory alloy actuators for direct power by an automotive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We model Ni–Ti SMA actuators directly powered by a standard automotive battery. ► Feasible permutations for direct power are identified and confirmed experimentally. ► 0.5 mm diameter SMA of 225 mm length or larger is feasible for direct power. ► The feasibility of 0.25 mm SMA is greater, although the actuation force is lower. ► Prototype actuators are developed for long-stroke and short-stroke applications. -- Abstract: Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are increasingly utilized as mechanical actuators due to high power-to-mass ratio, high fatigue life and low cost. The implementation of SMA actuators in an automotive environment is of particular interest due to the potential for lower end-user functional efforts, together with reduced component mass and cost within a limited packaging space. In applications of this kind, the actuators are powered by a standard automotive (six cell lead-acid) battery. Although resistors and electronic devices can be used to avoid overload of either the SMA or battery system, the feasibility of supplying power to the actuators directly from the battery becomes a key objective for reducing system cost and complexity. In this study, the electrical resistivity of a linear Ni–Ti SMA actuator was theoretically calculated and experimentally verified. Based on this developed knowledge, the resistance of various actuator permutations was calculated, and the feasibility of operating the actuators with a standard automotive battery was assessed. To confirm the feasibility of powering SMA actuators directly from the automotive battery, two SMA actuator concepts were developed and experimentally validated.

  1. A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  2. OPTIMIZING THE SHAPE OF ROTOR BLADES FOR MAXIMUM POWER EXTRACTION IN MARINE CURRENT TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Esfahani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the shape of rotor blades in Marine Current Turbines (MCTs are investigated. The evaluation of hydrodynamic loads on blades is performed based on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory. The shape of blades is optimized according to the main parameters in the configuration and operation of these devices. The optimization is conducted based on the ability of the blades to harness the maximum energy during operating. The main parameters investigated are the tip speed ratio and angle of attack. Furthermore, the influence of these parameters on the maximum energy extraction from fluid flow over a hydrofoil is evaluated. It is shown that the effect of the angle of attack on power extraction is greater than that of the tip speed ratio, while both are found to be significant. Additionally, the proper angle of attack is the angle at which the lift to drag ratio is at its maximum value. However, if a proper angle of attack is chosen, the variations in power coefficient would not be effectively changed with small variations in the tip speed ratio.

  3. From endurance to power athletes: The changing shape of successful male professional tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale-Watts, Adam S; Nevill, Alan M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify whether the relative shape and size characteristics of elite male tennis players have changed over time, and in addition whether any anthropometric parameters characterise the more successful players in Grand Slam tournaments. The height and body mass of the players qualifying for the first round in all four Grand Slam tennis tournaments during the period 1982-2011 was obtained, and successful players defined arbitrarily as those reaching round 3 or beyond. Body mass index (BMI) and the reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) were used as our measures of body shape. Multilevel modelling was used to explore the trend over time using non-linear polynomials. The results suggest that the body shape of elite tennis players has changed over time, with a non-linear (cubic polynomial regression model) increase in BMI and a similar non-linear decline in the RPI. BMI, reflecting greater muscle mass rather than greater adiposity, has emerged as an important factor associated with success, identified by a significantly positive (steeper) "successful player"-by-"year" interaction term. The evidence that the RPI of elite tennis players has also decreased over time, together with a significantly negative "successful player"-by-"year" interaction term, suggests that a more linear (ectomorphic) body shape is a less important factor in terms of success. These results suggest that elite male tennis players are becoming more power trained athletes as opposed to endurance athletes, with greater muscle mass being an important factor associated with success in all Grand Slam tournaments.

  4. Beam-shaping technique for improving the beam quality of a high-power laser-diode stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takasaka, Masaomi; Shinoda, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    We report a beam-shaping technique that reconfigures the beams to improve the beam quality and enhance the power density for a ten-array high-power laser-diode stack by using two optical rectangular cubes and two stripe-mirror plates. The reshaped beam has threefold improvement in beam quality, and its power density is effectively enhanced. On the basis of this technique, we focus the beam of the high-power laser-diode stack to effectively end pump a high-power fiber laser.

  5. Sensitivity studies for 3-D rod ejection analyses on axial power shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Guen-Tae; Ryu, Seok-Hee; Um, Kil-Sup; Lee, Jae-Il [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The current safety analysis methodology using the point kinetics model combined with numerous conservative assumptions result in unrealistic prediction of the transient behavior wasting huge margin for safety analyses while the safety regulation criteria for the reactivity initiated accident are going strict. To deal with this, KNF is developing a 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional code coupling system CHASER. The CHASER system couples three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, sub-channel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). A sensitivity study for 3-D rod ejection analysis on axial power shape (APS) is carried out to survey the tendency of safety parameters by power distributions and to build up a realistic safety analysis methodology while maintaining conservatism. The currently developing 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional core transient analysis code system, CHASER was shown to reasonably reflect the conservative assumptions by tuning up kinetic parameters.

  6. Experimental Implementation of Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping on a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ge; Zhu, Hanqi; Elery, Toby; Li, Luwei; Gregg, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional control methodologies of rehabilitation orthoses/exoskeletons aim at replicating normal kinematics and thus fall into the category of kinematic control. This control paradigm depends on pre-defined reference trajectories, which can be difficult to adjust between different locomotor tasks and human subjects. An alternative control category, kinetic control, enforces kinetic goals (e.g., torques or energy) instead of kinematic trajectories, which could provide a flexible learning environment for the user while freeing up therapists to make corrections. We propose that the theory of underactuated potential energy shaping, which falls into the category of kinetic control, could be used to generate virtual body-weight support for stroke gait rehabilitation. After deriving the nonlinear control law and simulating it on a human-like biped model, we implemented this controller on a powered ankle-foot orthosis that was designed specifically for testing torque control strategies. Experimental results with an able-bodied human subject demonstrate the feasibility of the control approach for both positive and negative virtual body-weight augmentation.

  7. The wave and vibratory power transmission in a finite L-shaped Mindlin plate with two simply supported opposite edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Chuan Liu; Feng-Ming Li; Ting-Wei Liang; Wen-Hu Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,wave and vibratory power transmission in a finite L-shaped Mindlin plate with two simply supported opposite edges are investigated using the wave approach.The dynamic responses,active and reactive power flow in the finite plate are calculated by the Mindlin plate theory (MPT) and classic plate theory (CPT).To satisfy the boundary conditions and continuous conditions at the coupled junction of the finite L-shaped plate,the near-field and far-field waves are entirely contained in the wave approach.The in-plane longitudinal and shear waves are also considered.The results indicate that the vibratory power flow based on the MPT is different from that based on the CPT not only at high frequencies but also at low and medium frequencies.The influence of the plate thickness on the vibrational power flow is investigated.From the results it is seen that the shear and rotary inertia correction of the MPT can influence the active and reactive power at the junction of the L-shaped plate not only at high frequencies but also at low and medium frequencies.Furthermore,the effects of structural damping on the active and reactive power flow at the junction are also analyzed.

  8. Polarization-dependent difference of the power spectra from two-dimensional random media with different shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai; LIU JinSong; L(U) JianTao; WANG KeJia

    2009-01-01

    Polarization-dependent difference of the power spectra from a set of two-dimensional (2D) passive random media is investigated by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) fields. The random media have the same random constitution but different shapes. Results show that both two polarized states are morphology dependent,and the variety of the shapes has more influence on the selection of TM polarized modes than that of TE polarized modes. Such polarization-dependent difference of morphology property presents a new modeselecting technique for random lasers.

  9. Protein Complex Purification by Affinity Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Affinity capture has become a powerful technique for consistently purifying endogenous protein complexes, facilitating biochemical and biophysical assays on otherwise inaccessible biological assemblies, and enabling broader interactomic exploration. For this procedure, cells are broken and their contents separated and extracted into a solvent, permitting access to target macromolecular complexes thus released in solution. The complexes are specifically enriched from the extract onto a solid medium coupled with an affinity reagent-usually an antibody-that recognizes the target either directly or through an appended affinity tag, allowing subsequent characterization of the complex. Here, we discuss approaches and considerations for purifying endogenous yeast protein complexes by affinity capture. PMID:27371601

  10. Analysis of Power Laws, Shape Collapses, and Neural Complexity: New Techniques and MATLAB Support via the NCC Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of "neural avalanches" (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods-power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity-have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox.

  11. Analysis of Power Laws, Shape Collapses, and Neural Complexity: New Techniques and MATLAB Support via the NCC Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Najja; Timme, Nicholas M.; Bennett, Nicholas; Ripp, Monica; Lautzenhiser, Edward; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems include interactions that occur across many scales. Two divergent methods for characterizing such interactions have drawn on the physical analysis of critical phenomena and the mathematical study of information. Inferring criticality in neural systems has traditionally rested on fitting power laws to the property distributions of “neural avalanches” (contiguous bursts of activity), but the fractal nature of avalanche shapes has recently emerged as another signature of criticality. On the other hand, neural complexity, an information theoretic measure, has been used to capture the interplay between the functional localization of brain regions and their integration for higher cognitive functions. Unfortunately, treatments of all three methods—power-law fitting, avalanche shape collapse, and neural complexity—have suffered from shortcomings. Empirical data often contain biases that introduce deviations from true power law in the tail and head of the distribution, but deviations in the tail have often been unconsidered; avalanche shape collapse has required manual parameter tuning; and the estimation of neural complexity has relied on small data sets or statistical assumptions for the sake of computational efficiency. In this paper we present technical advancements in the analysis of criticality and complexity in neural systems. We use maximum-likelihood estimation to automatically fit power laws with left and right cutoffs, present the first automated shape collapse algorithm, and describe new techniques to account for large numbers of neural variables and small data sets in the calculation of neural complexity. In order to facilitate future research in criticality and complexity, we have made the software utilized in this analysis freely available online in the MATLAB NCC (Neural Complexity and Criticality) Toolbox. PMID:27445842

  12. Study on welding power source used in intelligent control system for weld pool shape in pulsed GTAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance request of arc welding power source used in intelligent control of weld pool shape in pulsed GTAW, and develops a sample power source. The main circuit of the power source takes the structure of single ended inverter with two switches, and takes IGBTs as power switches. The working frequency of the inverter is set at 20(¨)kHz. The control circuit takes PWM circuit as center, and uses single chip computer to complete the manage functions such as the control of working sequence, setting and changing of the welding parameters, sensing of the welding states and communication with outside computer etc. The dynamic reacting time of the whole power is 1(¨)ms, the range of the output current is 5~250(¨)A, the precision of the output current reaches to 1 A. The power strikes arc by contacting workpiece under 5A, and have convenient interface with system computer. All above shows this power source is one with high performance.

  13. Anomalous excitation-power-dependent photoluminescence of InGaAsN/GaAs T-shaped quantum wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klangtakai, Pawinee; Pimanpang, Samuk [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittraphap Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Sanorpim, Sakuntam [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Karlsson, Fredrik; Holtz, Per Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183, Linkoeping (Sweden); Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The selected InGaAsN/GaAs T-shaped quantum wire (T-QWR) fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy has been investigated by microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) and excitation-power-dependent μ-PL. The optical characteristics of one-dimensional structure were taken at low-temperature (4 K) and room temperature (RT) to clarify the intersection of two familiar quantum wells (QWs) in the [001] and [110] directions, named QW1 and QW2, respectively. For the excitation-power-dependent measurement, the intensity of the excitation source was used in the range of 0.001I{sub 0} to I{sub 0}. The result shows that all of emissions related to QW1 and QWR peaks have a nonsymmetric line shape as evidenced by the tailing on the lower-energy side. All peaks shift to higher-energy side (blueshift) with the increase of the excitation power intensity. The blueshift and the low-energy tailing of PL peaks are attributed to the alloying effect. However, the emission peak related to QWR region shows a larger blueshift rate than that of QW1 on increasing of the excitation power intensity. This is an anomalous characteristic for the low-dimensional structure, affected by the large fluctuation state in the QWR region. This fluctuation state is combined of both edges of QWs (QW1 and QW2). (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A highly shape-adaptive, stretchable design based on conductive liquid for energy harvesting and self-powered biomechanical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Yin, Yajiang; Dai, Keren; Zhang, Guangjie; Lin, Long; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Jie; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Zi, Yunlong; Liao, Qingliang; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of deformable and stretchable electronics calls for a deformable and stretchable power source. We report a scalable approach for energy harvesters and self-powered sensors that can be highly deformable and stretchable. With conductive liquid contained in a polymer cover, a shape-adaptive triboelectric nanogenerator (saTENG) unit can effectively harvest energy in various working modes. The saTENG can maintain its performance under a strain of as large as 300%. The saTENG is so flexible that it can be conformed to any three-dimensional and curvilinear surface. We demonstrate applications of the saTENG as a wearable power source and self-powered sensor to monitor biomechanical motion. A bracelet-like saTENG worn on the wrist can light up more than 80 light-emitting diodes. Owing to the highly scalable manufacturing process, the saTENG can be easily applied for large-area energy harvesting. In addition, the saTENG can be extended to extract energy from mechanical motion using flowing water as the electrode. This approach provides a new prospect for deformable and stretchable power sources, as well as self-powered sensors, and has potential applications in various areas such as robotics, biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology, and entertainment. PMID:27386560

  15. A highly shape-adaptive, stretchable design based on conductive liquid for energy harvesting and self-powered biomechanical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Yin, Yajiang; Dai, Keren; Zhang, Guangjie; Lin, Long; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Jie; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Zi, Yunlong; Liao, Qingliang; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-01

    The rapid growth of deformable and stretchable electronics calls for a deformable and stretchable power source. We report a scalable approach for energy harvesters and self-powered sensors that can be highly deformable and stretchable. With conductive liquid contained in a polymer cover, a shape-adaptive triboelectric nanogenerator (saTENG) unit can effectively harvest energy in various working modes. The saTENG can maintain its performance under a strain of as large as 300%. The saTENG is so flexible that it can be conformed to any three-dimensional and curvilinear surface. We demonstrate applications of the saTENG as a wearable power source and self-powered sensor to monitor biomechanical motion. A bracelet-like saTENG worn on the wrist can light up more than 80 light-emitting diodes. Owing to the highly scalable manufacturing process, the saTENG can be easily applied for large-area energy harvesting. In addition, the saTENG can be extended to extract energy from mechanical motion using flowing water as the electrode. This approach provides a new prospect for deformable and stretchable power sources, as well as self-powered sensors, and has potential applications in various areas such as robotics, biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology, and entertainment. PMID:27386560

  16. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....

  17. Reliability analysis using an exponential power model with bathtub-shaped failure rate function: a Bayes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehla, Romana; Khan, Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Models with bathtub-shaped hazard function have been widely accepted in the field of reliability and medicine and are particularly useful in reliability related decision making and cost analysis. In this paper, the exponential power model capable of assuming increasing as well as bathtub-shape, is studied. This article makes a Bayesian study of the same model and simultaneously shows how posterior simulations based on Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms can be straightforward and routine in R. The study is carried out for complete as well as censored data, under the assumption of weakly-informative priors for the parameters. In addition to this, inference interest focuses on the posterior distribution of non-linear functions of the parameters. Also, the model has been extended to include continuous explanatory variables and R-codes are well illustrated. Two real data sets are considered for illustrative purposes. PMID:27462524

  18. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Temirov, Jamshid [INVITROGEN

    2008-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  19. Restructuring the Power Arena in Denmark: Shaping Markets, Technologies and Environmental Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Strunge, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The ongoing liberalisation of the Danish power sector challenges the traditional engineering regime of regulation and the Danish support policies for renewable energy sources. The chapter highlights the changes using an actor-network approach and the framework of development and policy arenas....

  20. Power Shaping : A New Paradigm for Stabilization of Nonlinear RLC Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, Romeo; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we prove that for a class of RLC circuits with convex energy function and weak electromagnetic coupling it is possible to “add a differentiation” to the port terminals preserving passivity—with a new storage function that is directly related to the circuit power. The result is of inter

  1. Knowledge, Power and Meanings Shaping Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Systemic Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Don; Paewai, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, quality assurance schemes persist despite long-standing dissatisfaction and critique of their impact and outcomes. Adopting a critical systems perspective, the article explores the relationships between the knowledge, power and meanings that stakeholder groups bring to the design and implementation of quality assurance systems.…

  2. Effects of axial power shapes on CHF locations in a single tube and in rod bundle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Zha, Y.; Zhang, Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    Currently, the prediction of rod bundle CHF is dependent on CHF correlations derived from CHF data. A simple correction factor, such as F-factor, is often used to account for the axial power shape differences based on a simple accumulated energy concept, which has totally no consideration on the impact of true local condition on CHF mechanism. Subsequently, as expected, large uncertainty is often associated with the CHF value and CHF location predictions. For the purpose of obtaining different power shapes effects on CHF, CFD calculated parameter values were used to predict the possible CHF occurrence location. The possible CHF location prediction method proposed in this paper is calculated void fraction, heat transfer coefficient (HTC), liquid temperature distribution and detailed local parameters. And the uniform and non-uniform CHF were analyzed. The prediction of possible CHF locations in a 5 x 5 rod bundle may provide useful information for the design of a full-length CHF test, enhance the accuracy of CHF and CHF location prediction, and reduce the costs of the experimentation.

  3. Laser assisted chemically shaped unstable resonator, for high power coherent laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser assisted chemical etching (LACE) is used to etch a continuous graded channel, set inside a wide stripe graded-index and separate confinement heterostructure (GRIN-SCH) for laser diodes, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). After a procedure of growing-etching-regrowing, a two-part waveguide is formed inside such modified structure, that is characterized by a negative change in the lateral effective refractive index (ERI). This effects the cavity to work as an unstable resonator. Procedures on the photo etching process are described, including the GaAs photochemistry and the optical system, with special emphasis on the fabrication of the approximately parabolic channels, as this represents a novel step. We call the cavity fabricated by this method, the shaped unstable resonator (SHUR). (Author)

  4. Shaping and reproduction patterns of power elites in former Yugoslavia I: Vertical mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work consists of two parts. In the first one are presented some general characteristics and are analyzed vertical social mobility of power elite's in Serbia and Croatia. Special attention was paid to intergenerational and intergenerational mobility fluxes. The researches said there was changes in mobility patterns i.e. in structure of power elites at last three decades ago. Participation of manual professions was going down for the benefits of nonmanual ones. There was used log-linear analyze its hierarchical method because finding statistics importance of connection between presented factors of social mobility. Thanks to this method we can see details of complex relations of interdependence of this factors.

  5. Study on the beam shaping of high-power laser diode bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang(黄伟); Xiaodong Zeng(曾晓东); Yuying An(安毓英)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Collins form, the intensity distribution of the resulting beam is derived when Gaussian beamsof a high-power laser diode bar pass through a paraxial optical system. Then flattop beam profiles areobtained by a concave cylindrical lens, and the propagation properties are discussed in detail, such as thepeak-intensity axis inclined at an angle γi. In addition, an expression to calculate beam angular width ispresented.

  6. Femtosecond optical parametric oscillators: a practical approach for power scaling and pulse-shape control

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, M.V.; Shepherd, D. P.; Hanna, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    The synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) has undergone major developments in the past decade. Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear materials, such as periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and the availability of higher pump power have led to SPOPO demonstrations with additional functionality including extended tuning ranges throughout the infrared with greater spectral control and frequency tuning agility. In addition, two demonstrations of extended wavelength performance ...

  7. Catalytically powered dynamic assembly of rod-shaped nanomotors and passive tracer particles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Microscale catalyst particles suspended in fluids can convert the energy of chemical reactions that occur on their surfaces to movement. Collections of particles undergoing powered motion exhibit behavior that mimics living microparticles such as bacteria: swarming, predator–prey interactions, and chemotaxis. These behaviors originate from pairwise interactions of particles that so far have not been measured or understood. In this article, short-range attractive interactions of catalytic nano...

  8. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  9. Debt and market power challenges return: Responses to set-back taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of the energy sector to the recent re-entry of the Ontario government into the commodity side of the electricity business with its announcement of a residential power price freeze and accompanying adjustments to the energy regime in Ontario is discussed. John Brace, the President of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) predicts that the action has created an urgent need for power generators and other players to work closely together to sort out the implications and put new mechanisms in place to allow the system to function properly and to create pressures to bring things back into balance. While popular with residential consumers, the government action sparked significant criticism across the energy industry and has upset traditional allegiances among groups which have supported the establishment of a competitive market, such as the Toronto Board of Trade, Stakeholders Alliance for Competition, (SAC), and the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario. The Toronto Board of Trade reacted by urging the province to (1) abandon the proposal to introduce a price freeze; (2) respect the independent role and mandate of the Ontario Energy Board in regulating the market and determining electricity prices; (3) provide for active and ongoing involvement by the private sector in developing new supply; and (4) include a strong educational and communications component in its conservation program. The SAC questioned the long-term benefits of the government's move and envisaged serious danger to Ontario's ability to develop new generation capacity. It recommended government action on encouraging more electricity supply in Ontario; continued decontrol of Ontario Power Generation (OPG, the former Ontario Hydro) assets; keeping intact the basic open market; and ensuring the continued financial well-being of local distribution companies. The Ontario Energy Association (OEA) also expressed its concern over the serious implications to Ontario

  10. Affine dynamics with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueltekin, Kemal [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schroedinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on the determinants of the Ricci tensor, the torsion tensor, the Riemann tensor, and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to the construction of the affine connection in terms of the curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that the curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor. (orig.)

  11. Transient stability and control of wind turbine generation based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, Rush D. III [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy, Resources and Systems Analysis Center

    2010-07-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a simple wind turbine with UPFC is used as an example. The swing equations for renewable generator are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and nonconservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. This paper presents the analysis and numerical simulation results for a nonlinear control design example that includes the One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) system with a Unified Power Flow Control (UPEC) and applied to a simplified wind turbine generator. The needed power and energy storage/charging responses are also determined. (orig.)

  12. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  13. Indefinite Affine Hyperspheres Admitting a Pointwise Symmetry. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Scharlach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An affine hypersurface M is said to admit a pointwise symmetry, if there exists a subgroup G of Aut(T_pM for all p in M, which preserves (pointwise the affine metric h, the difference tensor K and the affine shape operator S. Here, we consider 3-dimensional indefinite affine hyperspheres, i.e. S = HId (and thus S is trivially preserved. In Part 1 we found the possible symmetry groups G and gave for each G a canonical form of K. We started a classification by showing that hyperspheres admitting a pointwise Z_2 × Z_2 resp. R-symmetry are well-known, they have constant sectional curvature and Pick invariant J < 0 resp. J = 0. Here, we continue with affine hyperspheres admitting a pointwise Z_3- or SO(2-symmetry. They turn out to be warped products of affine spheres (Z_3 or quadrics (SO(2 with a curve.

  14. Affine stochastic mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F. Schrager

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new model for stochastic mortality. The model is based on the literature on affine term structure models. It satisfies three important requirements for application in practice: analytical tractibility, clear interpretation of the factors and compatibility with financial option pricing m

  15. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  16. KO t Bu-Initiated Aryl C–H Iodination: A Powerful Tool for the Synthesis of High Electron Affinity Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qinqin

    2016-03-21

    An efficient iodination reaction of electron-deficient heterocycles is described. The reaction utilizes KOtBu as an initiator and likely proceeds by a radical anion propagation mechanism. This new methodology is particularly effective for functionalization of building blocks for electron transport materials. Its utility is demonstrated with the synthesis of a new perylenediimide-thiazole non-fullerene acceptor capable of delivering a power conversion efficiency of 4.5% in a bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: The center

    CERN Document Server

    Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar

    2011-01-01

    The degenerate affine and affine BMW algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic Lie algebras and quantum groups, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine Hecke algebras, cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper the theory is unified by treating the orthogonal and symplectic cases simultaneously; we make an exact parallel between the degenerate affine and affine cases via a new algebra which takes the role of the affine braid group for the degenerate setting. A main result of this paper is an identification of the centers of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras in terms of rings of symmetric functions which satisfy a "cancellation property" or "wheel condition" (in the degenerate case, a reformulation of a result of Nazarov). Miraculously, these same rings also arise in Schubert calculus, as the cohomology and K-theory of isotropic Grassmanians and symplectic loop Grassmanians. We also establish new inte...

  18. Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are

  19. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  20. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate......-2. Based on the presented data we suggest that affinity maturation of the model antibody proceeds through multiple incremental steps of subtle improvements. We moreover conclude that the best affinity improved candidates are likely to be obtained through optimization of both the antigen...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  1. Affinity driven social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  2. Like father, like son: assessment of the morphological affinities of A.L. 288-1 (A. afarensis, Sts 7 (A. africanus and Omo 119-73-2718 (Australopithecus sp. through a three-dimensional shape analysis of the shoulder joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Arias-Martorell

    Full Text Available The postcranial evidence for the Australopithecus genus indicates that australopiths were able bipeds; however, the morphology of the forelimbs and particularly that of the shoulder girdle suggests that they were partially adapted to an arboreal lifestyle. The nature of such arboreal adaptations is still unclear, as are the kind of arboreal behaviors in which australopiths might have engaged. In this study we analyzed the shape of the shoulder joint (proximal humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula of three australopith specimens: A.L. 288-1 (A. afarensis, Sts 7 (A. africanus and Omo 119-73-2718 (Australopithecus sp. with three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. The morphology of the specimens was compared with that of a wide array of living anthropoid taxa and some additional fossil hominins (the Homo erectus specimen KNM-WT 15000 and the H. neanderthalensis specimen Tabun 1. Our results indicate that A.L. 288-1 shows mosaic traits resembling H. sapiens and Pongo, whereas the Sts 7 shoulder is most similar to the arboreal apes and does not present affinities with H. sapiens. Omo 119-73-2718 exhibits morphological affinities with the more arboreal and partially suspensory New World monkey Lagothrix. The shoulder of the australopith specimens thus shows a combination of primitive and derived traits (humeral globularity, enhancement of internal and external rotation of the joint, related to use of the arm in overhead positions. The genus Homo specimens show overall affinities with H. sapiens at the shoulder, indicating full correspondence of these hominin shoulders with the modern human morphotype.

  3. Like father, like son: assessment of the morphological affinities of A.L. 288-1 (A. afarensis), Sts 7 (A. africanus) and Omo 119-73-2718 (Australopithecus sp.) through a three-dimensional shape analysis of the shoulder joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Martorell, Julia; Potau, Josep Maria; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The postcranial evidence for the Australopithecus genus indicates that australopiths were able bipeds; however, the morphology of the forelimbs and particularly that of the shoulder girdle suggests that they were partially adapted to an arboreal lifestyle. The nature of such arboreal adaptations is still unclear, as are the kind of arboreal behaviors in which australopiths might have engaged. In this study we analyzed the shape of the shoulder joint (proximal humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula) of three australopith specimens: A.L. 288-1 (A. afarensis), Sts 7 (A. africanus) and Omo 119-73-2718 (Australopithecus sp.) with three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. The morphology of the specimens was compared with that of a wide array of living anthropoid taxa and some additional fossil hominins (the Homo erectus specimen KNM-WT 15000 and the H. neanderthalensis specimen Tabun 1). Our results indicate that A.L. 288-1 shows mosaic traits resembling H. sapiens and Pongo, whereas the Sts 7 shoulder is most similar to the arboreal apes and does not present affinities with H. sapiens. Omo 119-73-2718 exhibits morphological affinities with the more arboreal and partially suspensory New World monkey Lagothrix. The shoulder of the australopith specimens thus shows a combination of primitive and derived traits (humeral globularity, enhancement of internal and external rotation of the joint), related to use of the arm in overhead positions. The genus Homo specimens show overall affinities with H. sapiens at the shoulder, indicating full correspondence of these hominin shoulders with the modern human morphotype. PMID:25651542

  4. Like Father, Like Son: Assessment of the Morphological Affinities of A.L. 288–1 (A. afarensis), Sts 7 (A. africanus) and Omo 119–73–2718 (Australopithecus sp.) through a Three-Dimensional Shape Analysis of the Shoulder Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Martorell, Julia; Potau, Josep Maria; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The postcranial evidence for the Australopithecus genus indicates that australopiths were able bipeds; however, the morphology of the forelimbs and particularly that of the shoulder girdle suggests that they were partially adapted to an arboreal lifestyle. The nature of such arboreal adaptations is still unclear, as are the kind of arboreal behaviors in which australopiths might have engaged. In this study we analyzed the shape of the shoulder joint (proximal humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula) of three australopith specimens: A.L. 288–1 (A. afarensis), Sts 7 (A. africanus) and Omo 119–73–2718 (Australopithecus sp.) with three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. The morphology of the specimens was compared with that of a wide array of living anthropoid taxa and some additional fossil hominins (the Homo erectus specimen KNM-WT 15000 and the H. neanderthalensis specimen Tabun 1). Our results indicate that A.L. 288–1 shows mosaic traits resembling H. sapiens and Pongo, whereas the Sts 7 shoulder is most similar to the arboreal apes and does not present affinities with H. sapiens. Omo 119–73–2718 exhibits morphological affinities with the more arboreal and partially suspensory New World monkey Lagothrix. The shoulder of the australopith specimens thus shows a combination of primitive and derived traits (humeral globularity, enhancement of internal and external rotation of the joint), related to use of the arm in overhead positions. The genus Homo specimens show overall affinities with H. sapiens at the shoulder, indicating full correspondence of these hominin shoulders with the modern human morphotype. PMID:25651542

  5. Self-Affinity, Self-Similarity and Disturbance of Soil Seed Banks by Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís S

    2013-07-05

    Soil seed banks were sampled in undisturbed soil and after soil had been disturbed by tillage (tine, harrow or plough). Seeds were sorted by size and shape, and counted. Size-number distributions were fitted by power law equations that allowed the identification of self-similarity and self-affinity. Self-affinity and thus non-random size-number distribution prevailed in undisturbed soil. Self-similarity and thus randomness of size-number distribution prevailed after tillage regardless of the intensity of disturbance imposed by cultivation. The values of fractal dimensions before and after tillage were low, suggesting that short-term, short-range factors govern size-number distribution of soil seed banks.

  6. Affine morphisms at zero level

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.

  7. On the Affine Isoperimetric Inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wuyang Yu; Gangsong Leng

    2011-11-01

    We obtain an isoperimetric inequality which estimate the affine invariant -surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of $_{-p}K$.

  8. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    OpenAIRE

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-pol...

  9. Affine Patches on Positroid Varieties and Affine Pipe Dreams (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Snider, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The objects of interest in this thesis are positroid varieties in the Grassmannian, which are indexed by juggling patterns. In particular, we study affine patches on these positroid varieties. Our main result corresponds these affine patches to Kazhdan-Lusztig varieties in the affine Grassmannian. We develop a new term order and study how these spaces are related to subword complexes and Stanley-Reisner ideals. We define an extension of pipe dreams to the affine case and conclude by showing how our affine pipe dreams are generalizations of Cauchon and Le diagrams.

  10. Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    , the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example......In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if...

  11. Printable Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Route toward Shape-Conformable Power Sources with Aesthetic Versatility for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Young

    2015-08-12

    Forthcoming flexible/wearable electronic devices with shape diversity and mobile usability garner a great deal of attention as an innovative technology to bring unprecedented changes in our daily lives. From the power source point of view, conventional rechargeable batteries (one representative example is a lithium-ion battery) with fixed shapes and sizes have intrinsic limitations in fulfilling design/performance requirements for the flexible/wearable electronics. Here, as a facile and efficient strategy to address this formidable challenge, we demonstrate a new class of printable solid-state batteries (referred to as "PRISS batteries"). Through simple stencil printing process (followed by ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking), solid-state composite electrolyte (SCE) layer and SCE matrix-embedded electrodes are consecutively printed on arbitrary objects of complex geometries, eventually leading to fully integrated, multilayer-structured PRISS batteries with various form factors far beyond those achievable by conventional battery technologies. Tuning rheological properties of SCE paste and electrode slurry toward thixotropic fluid characteristics, along with well-tailored core elements including UV-cured triacrylate polymer and high boiling point electrolyte, is a key-enabling technology for the realization of PRISS batteries. This process/material uniqueness allows us to remove extra processing steps (related to solvent drying and liquid-electrolyte injection) and also conventional microporous separator membranes, thereupon enabling the seamless integration of shape-conformable PRISS batteries (including letters-shaped ones) into complex-shaped objects. Electrochemical behavior of PRISS batteries is elucidated via an in-depth analysis of cell impedance, which provides a theoretical basis to enable sustainable improvement of cell performance. We envision that PRISS batteries hold great promise as a reliable and scalable platform technology to open a new concept of cell

  12. Affinity Purification of Insulin by Peptide-Ligand Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The affinity heptapeptide (HWWWPAS) for insulin, selected from phage display library,was coupled to EAH Sepharose 4B gel and packed to a 1-mL column. The column was used for the affinity purification of insulin from protein mixture and commercial insulin preparation. It was observed that the minor impurity in the commercial insulin was removed by the affinity chromatography. Nearly 40 mg of insulin could be purified with the 1-mL affinity column. The results revealed the high specificity and capacity of the affinity column for insulin purification. Moreover, based on the analysis of the amino acids in the peptide sequence, shorter peptides were designed and synthesized for insulin chromatography. As a result, HWWPS was found to be a good alternative to HWWWPAS, while the other two peptides with three or four amino acids showed weak affinity for insulin. The results indicated that the peptide sequence of HWWWPAS was quite conservative for specific binding of insulin.

  13. The Utility of Affine Variables and Affine Coherent States

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2011-01-01

    Affine coherent states are generated by affine kinematical variables much like canonical coherent states are generated by canonical kinematical variables. Although all classical and quantum formalisms normally entail canonical variables, it is shown that affine variables can serve equally well for many classical and quantum studies. This general purpose analysis provides tools to discuss two major applications: (1) the completely successful quantization of a nonrenormalizable scalar quantum field theory by affine techniques, in complete contrast to canonical techniques which only offer triviality; and (2) a formulation of the kinematical portion of quantum gravity that favors affine kinematical variables over canonical kinematical variables, and which generates a framework in which a favorable analysis of the constrained dynamical issues can take place. All this is possible because of the close connection between the affine and the canonical stories, while the few distinctions can be used to advantage when ap...

  14. Jacobi Structures on Affine Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. GRABOWSKI; D. IGLESIAS; J. C. MARRERO; E. PADR(O)N; P. URBA(N)SKI

    2007-01-01

    We study affine Jacobi structures (brackets) on an affine bundle π: A→M, i.e. Jacobi brackets that close on affine functions. We prove that if the rank of A is non-zero, there is a one-to- one correspondence between affine Jacobi structures on A and Lie algebroid structures on the vector bundle A+=∪p∈M Aff(Ap, R) of affine functionals. In the case rank A = 0, it is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between affins Jacobi structures on A and local Lie algebras on A+. Some examples and applications, also for the linear case, are discussed. For a special type of affine Jacobi structures which are canonically exhibited (strongly-affine or affine-homogeneous Jacobi structures) over a real vector space of finite dimension, we describe the leaves of its characteristic foliation as the orbits of an affine representation. These afline Jacobi structures can be viewed as an analog of the Kostant-Arnold-LiouviUe linear Poisson structure on the dual space of a real finite-dimensional Lie algebra.

  15. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  16. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  17. EFFECT OF MICROWAVE POWER ON SHAPE OF EPR SPECTRA--APPLICATION TO EXAMINATION OF COMPLEX FREE RADICAL SYSTEM IN THERMALLY STERILIZED ACIDUM BORICUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pieprzyca, Małgorzata; Pilawa, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Complex free radical system in thermally sterilized acidum boricum (AB) was studied. Acidum boricum was sterilized at temperatures and times given by pharmaceutical norms: 160 degrees C and 120 min, 170 degrees C and 60 min and 180 degrees C and 30 min. The advanced spectroscopic tests were performed. The EPR spectra of free radicals were measured as the first derivatives with microwaves of 9.3 GHz frequency and magnetic modulation of 100 kHz. The Polish X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań) was used. EPR lines were not observed for the nonheated AB. The broad EPR asymmetric lines were obtained for all the heated AB samples. The influence of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on the shape of EPR spectra of the heated drug samples was tested. The following asymmetry parameters: A1/A2, A1-A2, B1/B2, and B1-B2, were analyzed. The changes of these parameters with microwave power were observed. The strong dependence of shape and its parameters on microwave power proved the complex character of free radical system in thermally sterilized AB. Changes of microwave power during the detection of EPR spectra indicated complex character of free radicals in AB sterilized in hot air under all the tested conditions. Thermolysis, interactions between free radicals and interactions of free radicals with oxygen may be responsible for the complex free radicals system in thermally treated AB. Usefulness of continuous microwave saturation of EPR lines and shape analysis to examine free radicals in thermally sterilized drugs was confirmed.

  18. Realization of Fractal Affine Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition of fractal affine transformation and presents a specific method for its realization and its cor responding mathematical equations which are essential in fractal image construction.

  19. Representations of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Nanhua

    1994-01-01

    Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest

  20. Infinite transitivity on affine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Arzhantsev, Ivan; Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2012-01-01

    In this note we survey recent results on automorphisms of affine algebraic varieties, infinitely transitive group actions and flexibility. We present related constructions and examples, and discuss geometric applications and open problems.

  1. Theoretical explanation of the polarization-converting system achieved by beam shaping and combination technique and its performance under high power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Shang, YaPing; Xu, XiaoJun

    2015-10-01

    The fiber laser has very obvious advantages and broad applications in remote welding, 3D cutting and national defense compared with the traditional solid laser. But influenced by heat effect of gain medium, nonlinear effect, stress birefringence effect and other negative factors, it's very difficult to get high power linearly polarized laser just using a single laser. For these limitations a polarization-converting system is designed using beam shaping and combination technique which is able to transform naturally polarized laser to linearly polarized laser at real time to resolve difficulties of generating high-power linearly polarized laser from fiber lasers in this paper. The principle of the Gaussian beam changing into the hollow beam passing through two axicons and the combination of the Gaussian beam and the hollow beam is discussed. In the experimental verification the energy conversion efficiency reached 93.1% with a remarkable enhancement of the extinction ratio from 3% to 98% benefited from the high conversion efficiency of axicons and the system worked fine under high power conditions. The system also kept excellent far field divergence. The experiment phenomenon also agreed with the simulation quite well. The experiment proves that this polarization-converting system will not affect laser structure which controls easily and needs no feedback and controlling system with stable and reliable properties at the same time. It can absolutely be applied to the polarization-conversion of high power laser.

  2. Insulation performance physics in extremal conditions, initiated in explosive magnetic ultra-high power current shaping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PulsE installations, based on a disc explosive magnetic generator (EMG), having a current openning switch, enabling the transfer of > 10 MJ of magnetic energy into the liner loads at a power level of >10 (sup 13) W, have been worked out. Energy from explosive magnetic installations to energy releasing devices, ponderomotor units (PU) is transferred through a transmission line, the main element of which is electrically strong insulation. Insulator peculiarities of a transmission line are described

  3. A Flexible, Stretchable and Shape-Adaptive Approach for Versatile Energy Conversion and Self-Powered Biomedical Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Po Kang

    2015-05-15

    A flexible triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG) based on wavy-structured Kapton film and a serpentine electrode on stretchable substrates is presented. The as-fabricated FTENG is capable of harvesting ambient mechanical energy via both compressive and stretching modes. Moreover, the FTENG can be a bendable power source to work on curved surfaces; it can also be adaptively attached onto human skin for monitoring gentle body motions. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A new method for measuring the pulse-front distortion of arbitrary shapes in high-power ultrashort laser systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Yan-Lei; Jiang Dong-Bin; Zhu Qi-Hua; Dong Jun; Zen Xiao-Ming; Huang Xiao-Jun; Huang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method that can be used to calculate pulse-front distortion by measuring the spectral interference of two point-diffraction fields in their overlapped district.We demonstrate,for the first time,the measurement of the pulse-front distortion of the pulse from a complex multi-pass amplification system,which exists in almost all high-power laser systems,and obtain the irregular pulse-front distribution.The method presented does not need any reference light or assumption about the pulse-front distribution,and has an accuracy of several femtoseconds.

  5. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bowles; Herbert Gintis

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  6. Shaping and reproduction patterns of power elites in former Yugoslavia II: Channels of vertical mobility: Education and political activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this paper are analyzed effecting of main channels of social mobility for ascent on elite's positions in Serbia and Croatia. Special attention was paid to education and political activity. Survey data says that the patterns of ideological desirable social origin were developed in pattern of ideological desirable developing way of building individual career of members of power elite's across the time. Special importance in that process had high education acquirement. Political activity was necessary follower in the way of advance to the highest social positions. There was used log-linear analyze (hierarchical method because finding statistical importance between presented factors of education and political activity. Thanks to this method we can see details of complex relations of interdependence of this factors.

  7. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D20 Report. Consistency with other EU policies, System and Market integration. A Smart Power Market at the Centre of a Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R.; Grau, T. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Hobbs, B.; Newbery, D. [Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Borggrefe, F. [University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Barquin, J.; Echavarren, F. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Bialek, J.; Dent, C. [Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Con Hirschhausen, C. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kunz, F.; Weigt, H. [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Nabe, C.; Papaefthymiou, G. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Weber, C. [Duisberg-Essen University, Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. In the EU, at least 200 gigawatts (GWs) of new and additional renewable electricity sources may be needed by 2020. The aim of this report is to analyse whether the current electricity market and system design is consistent with such an ambitious target. Using an international comparison, we identify opportunities to improve the power market design currently in place across EU countries so as to support the large scale integration of renewable energy sources.

  8. Study on Beam Shaping of High Power Diode Lasers%大功率半导体激光光源光束整形技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭航宇; 宁永强; 王立军; 顾媛媛; 单肖楠; 刘云; 郝明明; 朱洪波; 尹红贺; 田振华; 秦莉

    2011-01-01

    光束质量是半导体激光器应用的最大瓶颈,但是可以利用光束整形技术加以改善.随着半导体激光合束技术的发展,半导体激光光束质量的提高,由于其在效率方面的优势,大功率半导体激光技术得到迅速发展.采用连续输出60 W,转换效率达到57%的880 nm大功率半导体激光bar条,组成20层的半导体激光叠阵,输出功率达到1183 W,通过快慢轴准直及光束整形提高激光器的光束质量,最终实现1 kw功率输出,电一光转换效率超过45.8%,光束质量达到79.3 mm·mrad×81.2 mm·mrad.从而使半导体激光器可直接应用于熔覆、表面硬化等领域.%The major drawback of high power diode laser systems is their poor beam quality, which can be improved by beam shaping and beam combination. With the high wall-plug efficiency, high power laser diode developed rapidly. Base on bars rated to 60 W and 57% conversion efficiency, vertically stacked arrays (twenty bars) of such configuration are demonstrated with rated to 1183 W. The beam quality of high-power high brightness 880 nm laser diode source is improved with beam shaping. Beam parameter product of 79.3 mm · mrad × 81.2 mm · mrad, electro-optical conversion efficiency of more than 45.8% and continuous output power of 1 kW are demonstrated. This laser can be directly applied to cladding, surface hardening and other fields.

  9. Tracing shadows: How gendered power relations shape the impacts of maternal death on living children in sub Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Bazile, Junior; Knight, Lucia; Molla, Mitike; Maistrellis, Emily; Leaning, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    Driven by the need to better understand the full and intergenerational toll of maternal mortality (MM), a mixed-methods study was conducted in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the impacts of maternal death on families and children. The present analysis identifies gender as a fundamental driver not only of maternal, but also child health, through manifestations of gender inequity in household decision making, labor and caregiving, and social norms dictating the status of women. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members, and in depth qualitative interviews with key-informants and stakeholders, in Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, and South Africa between April 2012 and October 2013. Findings highlight that socially constructed gender roles, which define mothers as caregivers and fathers as wage earners, and which limit women's agency regarding childcare decisions, among other things, create considerable gaps when it comes to meeting child nutrition, education, and health care needs following a maternal death. Additionally, our findings show that maternal deaths have differential effects on boy and girl children, and exacerbate specific risks for girl children, including early marriage, early pregnancy, and school drop-out. To combat both MM, and to mitigate impacts on children, investment in health services interventions should be complemented by broader interventions regarding social protection, as well as aimed at shifting social norms and opportunity structures regarding gendered divisions of labor and power at household, community, and society levels. PMID:25965895

  10. Central safety factor and βN control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape modification, using TRANSP for closed loop simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, J.

    2015-05-01

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of βN and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling βN and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  11. Pointing Out Main Factors from Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Existing Nuclear Plants for Assisting in Shaping Future Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the most significant technical and economical indications which are emerging from design, construction and operation of the first full size nuclear power plants and which may be most helpful in shaping future additions to nuclear capacity, with particular regard to the stituation existing in Italy. The present status of manufacturers' technology and its continuous development in the course of existing projects have shown a positive trend toward reduction of both fuel-cycle and plant-component costs. This is further favoured by the increasing tendency toward bigger plant sizes and by the fact that power forecasting analyses of the electrical network suggest the opportunity of installing units of higher capacity for nuclear than for conventional plants on the basis of predicted changes in energy production expenses due to the addition of such new units. Concerning the design, construction and testing experience of existing types of stations, the paper reviews the main factors to take into account in future planning also in the light of construction and testing schedules. A certain emphasis is given to the problem of containment, because of the rewards on plant location which can be made possible by the development of very safe containers with little or no economic penalty, also taking advantage of the specific Italian situation on certain aspects of this problem. Concerning the operation experience of proven station types, the paper discusses their ability to meet network requirements and their availability, also in connection with the increasing role of nuclear capacity which is being planned in the country. Finally, the paper stresses the importance of the problem of data collection and interpretation from the three power stations now starting operation in Italy in assisting the planning of next installations. Hint is given to longer-range fuel-cycle planning on the basis of the existing framework. (author)

  12. Affine density in wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kutyniok, Gitta

    2007-01-01

    In wavelet analysis, irregular wavelet frames have recently come to the forefront of current research due to questions concerning the robustness and stability of wavelet algorithms. A major difficulty in the study of these systems is the highly sensitive interplay between geometric properties of a sequence of time-scale indices and frame properties of the associated wavelet systems. This volume provides the first thorough and comprehensive treatment of irregular wavelet frames by introducing and employing a new notion of affine density as a highly effective tool for examining the geometry of sequences of time-scale indices. Many of the results are new and published for the first time. Topics include: qualitative and quantitative density conditions for existence of irregular wavelet frames, non-existence of irregular co-affine frames, the Nyquist phenomenon for wavelet systems, and approximation properties of irregular wavelet frames.

  13. Inhomogeneous self-affine carpets

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dimension theory of inhomogeneous self-affine carpets. Through the work of Olsen, Snigireva and Fraser, the dimension theory of inhomogeneous self-similar sets is now relatively well-understood, however, almost no progress has been made concerning more general non-conformal inhomogeneous attractors. If a dimension is countably stable, then the results are immediate and so we focus on the upper and lower box dimensions and compute these explicitly for large classes of inhomo...

  14. Protein isolation using affinity chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, T.

    2012-01-01

    Many product or even waste streams in the food industry contain components that may have potential for e.g. functional foods. These streams are typically large in volume and the components of interest are only present at low concentrations. A robust and highly selective separation process should be developed for efficient isolation of the components. Affinity chromatography is such a selective method. Ligands immobilized to a stationary phase (e.g., a resin or membrane) are used to bind the c...

  15. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  16. Effect of front guide nozzle shape on the flow characteristics in an augmentation channel of a direct drive turbine for wave power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak; PRASAD; Mohammed; Asid; ZULLAH; Mohammed; Rafiuddin; AHMED; Young-Ho; LEE

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in cross flow turbines(also known as Banki turbines) for small and low head applications because of their simple structure as well as low capital and maintenance costs.The present work aims at implementing the direct drive turbine(DDT) of cross flow type for wave power generation.A numerical wave tank was used to simulate the waves and after obtaining the desired wave properties;the augmentation channel plus the front guide nozzle and rear chamber were integrated to the numerical wave tank.The waves in the numerical wave tank were generated by a piston type wave maker which was located at the wave tank inlet.The inlet which was modeled as a plate wall moved sinusoidally with the general function x = asinω t.The augmentation channel consisted of a front nozzle,rear nozzle and an internal fluid region which represented the turbine housing.The front and rear nozzles were geometrically the same.Three different front guide nozzle configurations were studied:a standard guide nozzle which was originally attached to the augmentation channel and two other front guide nozzles of different geometries.The purpose of this study is to observe how the front guide nozzle shape influences the flow downstream,mainly in the augmenta-tion channel,water power and the first stage energy conversion.The analysis was performed using a commercial CFD code ANSYS-CFX.The results of the flow in the augmentation channel for the three front guide nozzles are presented in this paper.

  17. Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids

  18. Spectral affinity in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. Results We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. Conclusion We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to

  19. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  20. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish

    2015-01-01

    This chapter looks at the concept of power in social work by focusing on what this means as a ‘professional’ and theorizes competing discourses of empowerment in social work and its key concepts, drawing in particular on the explanatory powers of critical theorist Michel Foucault (1991). The chapter problematizes the concept of power by explicitly drawing on both users’ and carers’ accounts from the literature to demonstrate different external and internal influences on the root causes of dis...

  1. Rational self-affine tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    An integral self-affine tile is the solution of a set equation $\\mathbf{A} \\mathcal{T} = \\bigcup_{d \\in \\mathcal{D}} (\\mathcal{T} + d)$, where $\\mathbf{A}$ is an $n \\times n$ integer matrix and $\\mathcal{D}$ is a finite subset of $\\mathbb{Z}^n$. In the recent decades, these objects and the induced tilings have been studied systematically. We extend this theory to matrices $\\mathbf{A} \\in \\mathbb{Q}^{n \\times n}$. We define rational self-affine tiles as compact subsets of the open subring $\\mathbb{R}^n\\times \\prod_\\mathfrak{p} K_\\mathfrak{p}$ of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_K$, where the factors of the (finite) product are certain $\\mathfrak{p}$-adic completions of a number field $K$ that is defined in terms of the characteristic polynomial of $\\mathbf{A}$. Employing methods from classical algebraic number theory, Fourier analysis in number fields, and results on zero sets of transfer operators, we establish a general tiling theorem for these tiles. We also associate a second kind of tiles with a rational matr...

  2. Graded electron affinity electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.L.; Gray, H.F.; Jensen, K.L.; Jung, T.M. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    We describe a new electron source using electric field and low electron affinity semiconductor materials to bring charge to potential energy levels near the vacuum level while still in the solid. The basic idea involves moving some of the potential barrier from the surface to the bulk, and distributing the barrier over a thin layer below the surface. In so doing, the emission physics is changed fundamentally from a quantum mechanical tunneling process largely controlled by surface properties to a classical transport process largely controlled by the band structure of a wide bandgap semiconductor. The composition of the thin layer below the surface would be graded such that the conduction band minimum changes from an energy close to the substrate Fermi level to an energy significantly closer to the vacuum level. Electrons from the substrate would be drawn into the graded composition layer with an electric field produced by a pointed emitter structure and extraction gate similar to that used in field emitter arrays. Relative to a conventional field emitter array, the new source is expected to require lower extraction fields and exhibit improved emission uniformity, stability, and noise. The {ital I}{endash}{ital V} characteristics are not Fowler{endash}Nordheim and may include a saturation effect at high current densities that could be engineered to improve reliability and uniformity. The group III nitrides can be grown with a continuous range of composition that provides the range of electron affinity needed to produce the proposed electronic structure. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  3. The affine quantum gravity programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix { g-hat ab(x)} composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that still retain some basic characteristics of gravity, specifically a partial second-class constraint operator structure. Although perturbatively nonrenormalizable, gravity may possibly be understood nonperturbatively from a hard-core perspective that has proved valuable for specialized models. Finally, developing a procedure to pass to the genuine physical Hilbert space involves several interconnected steps that require careful coordination

  4. Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of panthera atrox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Per; Harris, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental...... morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox shows lion affinities, but also deviates from lions in numerous aspects. Mandibular morphology is more similar...... to jaguars and tigers and, as with cranial morphology, the mandible shows a number of traits not present among extant pantherines. Multivariate analyses grouped Panthera atrox separately from other pantherines. Panthera atrox was no lion, and cannot be assigned to any of the extant pantherines...

  5. Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes Using TAP Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, Erica; Moazed, Danesh

    2016-01-01

    This protocol is used for the isolation and analysis of protein complexes using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) tag system. The protocol describes the purification of a protein fused to a TAP tag comprised of two protein A domains and the calmodulin binding peptide separated by a TEV cleavage site. This is a powerful technique for rapid purification of protein complexes and the analysis of their stoichiometric composition, posttranslational modifications, structure, and functional activities. PMID:26096502

  6. Methods for Improving Aptamer Binding Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Hijiri Hasegawa; Nasa Savory; Koichi Abe; Kazunori Ikebukuro

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that bind a wide range of biological targets. Although aptamers can be isolated from pools of random sequence oligonucleotides using affinity-based selection, aptamers with high affinities are not always obtained. Therefore, further refinement of aptamers is required to achieve desired binding affinities. The optimization of primary sequences and stabilization of aptamer conformations are the main approaches to refining the binding properties of a...

  7. Ordinary differential equations in affine geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gigena

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of qualitative analysis is used, as applied to a class of fourth order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, in order to classify, both locally and globally, two classes of hypersurfaces of decomposable type in affine geometry: those with constant unimodular affine mean curvature L , and those with constant Riemannian scalar curvature R. This allows to provide a large number of new examples of hypersurfaces in affine geometry.

  8. Ordinary differential equations in affine geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Gigena

    1996-01-01

    The method of qualitative analysis is used, as applied to a class of fourth order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, in order to classify, both locally and globally, two classes of hypersurfaces of decomposable type in affine geometry: those with constant unimodular affine mean curvature L , and those with constant Riemannian scalar curvature R. This allows to provide a large number of new examples of hypersurfaces in affine geometry.

  9. Affine connections, midpoint formation, and point reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe some differential-geometric structures in combinatorial terms: namely affine connections and their torsion and curvature, and we show that torsion free affine connections may equivalently be presented in terms of some simpler combinatorial structure: midpoint formation, and point refl...... reflection (geodesic symmetry). The method employed is that of synthetic differential geometry, which is briefly explained.......We describe some differential-geometric structures in combinatorial terms: namely affine connections and their torsion and curvature, and we show that torsion free affine connections may equivalently be presented in terms of some simpler combinatorial structure: midpoint formation, and point...

  10. A Novel Vertex Affinity for Community Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We propose a novel vertex affinity measure in this paper. The new vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength and is ideal for such graph analytics applications as community detection. We also developed a framework that combines simple graph searches and resistance circuit formulas to compute the vertex affinity efficiently. We study the properties of the new affinity measure empirically in comparison to those of other popular vertex proximity metrics. Our results show that the existing metrics are ill-suited for community detection due to their lack of fundamental properties that are essential for correctly capturing inter- and intra-cluster vertex proximity.

  11. Several Affinity Tags Commonly Used in Chromatographic Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Affinity tags have become powerful tools from basic biological research to structural and functional proteomics. They were widely used to facilitate the purification and detection of proteins of interest, as well as the separation of protein complexes. Here, we mainly discuss the benefits and drawbacks of several affinity or epitope tags frequently used, including hexahistidine tag, FLAG tag, Strep II tag, streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP tag, calmodulin-binding peptide (CBP, glutathione S-transferase (GST, maltose-binding protein (MBP, S-tag, HA tag, and c-Myc tag. In some cases, a large-size affinity tag, such as GST or MBP, can significantly impact on the structure and biological activity of the fusion partner protein. So it is usually necessary to excise the tag by protease. The most commonly used endopeptidases are enterokinase, factor Xa, thrombin, tobacco etch virus, and human rhinovirus 3C protease. The proteolysis features of these proteases are described in order to provide a general guidance on the proteolytic removal of the affinity tags.

  12. Study of a wave power generator system using an air turbine having improved J-shaped blades; Kairyo J gatayoku kuki turbine wo mochiita haryoku hatsuden sochi no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T.; Omata, K.; Kojima, N. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    An improved J-shaped blade, in which a J-shaped blade is combined with a small-size Savonius blade, has been developed, to further improve efficiency of an air turbine for wave power generator systems. A prototype model of stationary wave power generator has been developed using the improved blade, to confirm its power generation characteristics by tests in a water tank and small-scale ocean tests. The results are compared with the characteristics of the units with conventional blades. The air turbine unit with the improved blade shows an efficiency of 13 to 35%, which is higher by 10 to 20% than that of the turbine with a J-shaped blade and by 20 to 70% than that of the one with a Savonius blade, more noted at low speed of rotation. It is therefore considered that the turbine with the improved blade is suited for sea areas having a relatively low wave height. It is also considered that efficiency can be further enhanced, when one or more guide vanes are provided around the blade. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Wei; Li Yan

    2014-09-01

    The particles energy distribution is derived directly from the () line shape, which is measured by two sets of OMA. The dissociative excitation of molecular is dominating when the local electron temperature is > 10 eV. The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is discussed in SOL, the power loss from molecular dissociation is 6 × 104 kW at SOL.

  14. Affine processes on positive semidefinite matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Cuchiero, Christa; Mayerhofer, Eberhard; Teichmann, Josef

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the mathematical foundation for stochastically continuous affine processes on the cone of positive semidefinite symmetric matrices. These matrix-valued affine processes have arisen from a large and growing range of useful applications in finance, including multi-asset option pricing with stochastic volatility and correlation structures, and fixed-income models with stochastically correlated risk factors and default intensities.

  15. Lectures on extended affine Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the structure theory of extended affine Lie algebras, which provide a common framework for finite-dimensional semisimple, affine and toroidal Lie algebras. The notes are based on a lecture series given during the Fields Institute summer school at the University of Ottawa in June 2009.

  16. Global affine differential geometry of hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Li, An-Min; Zhao, Guosong; Hu, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    This book draws a colorful and widespread picture of global affine hypersurface theory up to the most recent state. Moreover, the recent development revealed that affine differential geometry- as differential geometry in general- has an exciting intersection area with other fields of interest, like partial differential equations, global analysis, convex geometry and Riemann surfaces.

  17. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  18. Free C+ actions on affine threefolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, H.

    2005-01-01

    We study algebraic actions of the additive group C+ on an affine threefold X and prove a smoothness property for the quotient morphism X -< X//C+. Then, following Shulim Kaliman, we give a proof of the conjecture that every free C+ action on affine 3-space C^3 is a translation.

  19. Porosity of Self-affine Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng XI

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,it is proved that any self-affine set satisfying the strong separation condition is uniformly porous.The author constructs a self-affine set which is not porous,although the open set condition holds.Besides,the author also gives a C1 iterated function system such that its invariant set is not porous.

  20. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate...

  1. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...

  2. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  3. Reflectable bases for affine reflection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, Saeid; Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2011-01-01

    The notion of a "root base" together with its geometry plays a crucial role in the theory of finite and affine Lie theory. However, it is known that such a notion does not exist for the recent generalizations of finite and affine root systems such as extended affine root systems and affine reflection systems. As an alternative, we introduce the notion of a "reflectable base", a minimal subset $\\Pi$ of roots such that the non-isotropic part of the root system can be recovered by reflecting roots of $\\Pi$ relative to the hyperplanes determined by $\\Pi$. We give a full characterization of reflectable bases for tame irreducible affine reflection systems of reduced types, excluding types $E_{6,7,8}$. As a byproduct of our results, we show that if the root system under consideration is locally finite then any reflectable base is an integral base.

  4. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...... and drug binding abilities of the low-affinity component. The fatty acids decanoate, laurate, myristate and palmitate were bound with higher affinity to the mixture than to the low-affinity component. Diazepam was bound with nearly the same affinity to the low-affinity component as to the albumin mixture...

  5. Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives. (topical review)

  6. Non-Zenoness of piecewise affine dynamical systems and affine complementarity systems with inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Quang THUAN

    2014-01-01

    In the context of continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems and affine complementarity systems with inputs, we study the existence of Zeno behavior, i.e., infinite number of mode transitions in a finite-length time interval, in this paper. The main result reveals that continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems with piecewise real-analytic inputs do not exhibit Zeno behavior. Applied the achieved result to affine complementarity systems with inputs, we also obtained a similar conclusion. A direct benefit of the main result is that one can apply smooth ordinary differential equations theory in a local manner for the analysis of continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems with inputs.

  7. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different a

  8. Affinity Spaces, Apprenticeships, and Agency: Exploring Blogging Engagements in Family Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tisha Y.

    2014-01-01

    This empirical study examines the virtual exchanges between an African American mother and son's engagement in a blog. Using literacy as social practices as a framework, this study describes how blogging was developed and used to create affinity spaces, encouraged apprenticeship models, and shaped agentic roles within their family. Attention…

  9. Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael J

    2016-09-25

    The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. PMID:27118167

  10. Optimized Affinity Capture of Yeast Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe an affinity isolation protocol. It uses cryomilled yeast cell powder for producing cell extracts and antibody-conjugated paramagnetic beads for affinity capture. Guidelines for determining the optimal extraction solvent composition are provided. Captured proteins are eluted in a denaturing solvent (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer) for gel-based proteomic analyses. Although the procedures can be modified to use other sources of cell extract and other forms of affinity media, to date we have consistently obtained the best results with the method presented. PMID:27371596

  11. Affinization of category O for quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, C A S

    2012-01-01

    Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.

  12. Corner Transfer Matrices and Quantum Affine Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Foda, Omar; Miwa, Tetsuji

    1992-01-01

    Let H be the corner-transfer-matrix Hamiltonian for the six-vertex model in the anti-ferroelectric regime. It acts on the infinite tensor product W = V . V . V ....., where is the 2-dimensional irreducible representation of the quantum affine sl(2). We observe that H is the derivation of quantum affine sl(2), and conjecture that the eigenvectors of H form the level-1 vacuum representation of quantum affine sl(2). We report on checks in support of our conjecture.

  13. Effects of surface shape on the geometry and surface topography of the melt pool in low-power density laser melting

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2011-04-15

    The quantitative correlations between workpiece volume and melt pool geometry, as well as the flow and thermal features of the melt pool are established. Thermocapillary convections in melt pool with a deformable free surface are investigated with respect to surface shape and laser intensity. When the contact angle between the tangent to the top surface and the vertical wall at the hot center is acute, the free surface flattens, compared with that of the initial free surface. Otherwise, the free surface forms a bowl-like shape with a deep crater and a low peripheral rim when the contact angle at the hot center is obtuse. Increasing the workpiece volume at a fixed laser intensity and a negative radial height gradient cause linear decreases in the geometric size and magnitude of flow and temperature of the melt pool. Conversely, linear increases are observed with a positive radial height gradient. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  14. Automorphisms in Birational and Affine Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciliberto, Ciro; Flenner, Hubert; McKernan, James; Prokhorov, Yuri; Zaidenberg, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this volume is on the problem of describing the automorphism groups of affine and projective varieties, a classical subject in algebraic geometry where, in both cases, the automorphism group is often infinite dimensional. The collection covers a wide range of topics and is intended for researchers in the fields of classical algebraic geometry and birational geometry (Cremona groups) as well as affine geometry with an emphasis on algebraic group actions and automorphism groups. It presents original research and surveys and provides a valuable overview of the current state of the art in these topics. Bringing together specialists from projective, birational algebraic geometry and affine and complex algebraic geometry, including Mori theory and algebraic group actions, this book is the result of ensuing talks and discussions from the conference “Groups of Automorphisms in Birational and Affine Geometry” held in October 2012, at the CIRM, Levico Terme, Italy. The talks at the conference high...

  15. Synthesis of a New Series of Bone Affinity Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new series of bone affinity compounds were synthesized by linking chrysophanol with 5-fluorouracil derivatives. Their bone affinity was established by hydroxyapafive (HA)affinity experiment in vitro, and their cytostatic effects were shown by the MTT assay.

  16. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Xian HUANG; Li, SiQi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concent...

  17. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the $su(n)$ Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connec...

  18. Purely affine elementary su(N) fusions

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jorgen; Walton, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    We consider three-point couplings in simple Lie algebras -- singlets in triple tensor products of their integrable highest weight representations. A coupling can be expressed as a linear combination of products of finitely many elementary couplings. This carries over to affine fusion, the fusion of Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories, where the expressions are in terms of elementary fusions. In the case of su(4) it has been observed that there is a purely affine elementary fusion, i.e...

  19. Complete algebraic vector fields on affine surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank; Leuenberger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Let $\\AAutH (X)$ be the subgroup of the group $\\AutH (X)$ of holomorphic automorphisms of a normal affine algebraic surface $X$ generated by elements of flows associated with complete algebraic vector fields. Our main result is a classification of all normal affine algebraic surfaces $X$ quasi-homogeneous under $\\AAutH (X)$ in terms of the dual graphs of the boundaries $\\bX \\setminus X$ of their SNC-completions $\\bX$.

  20. Fan affinity laws from a collision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour of air is incorporated. Our calculations prove the affinity laws and provide numerical estimates of the air delivery, thrust and drag on a rotating fan. (paper)

  1. Exact deformations of quantum groups; applications to the affine case

    CERN Document Server

    Frønsdal, Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper continues our investigation of a class of generalized quantum groups. The ``standard" R-matrix was shown to be the unique solution of a very simple, linear recursion relation and the classical limit was obtained in the case of quantized Kac-Moody algebras of finite type. Here the standard R-matrix for generalized quantum groups is first examined in the case of quantized affine Kac-Moody algebras. The classical limit yields the standard affine r-matrices of Belavin and Drinfeld. Then, turning to the general case, we study the exact deformations of the standard R-matrix and the associated Hopf algebras. They are described as a generalized twist, R_\\epsilon = (F^t)^{-1}RF, where R is the standard R-matrix and F (a power series in the deformation parameter \\epsilon) is the solution of a linear recursion relation of the same type as that which determines R. Specializing again, to the case of quantized, affine Kac-Moody algebras, and taking the classical limit of these esoteric quantum groups, one re-dis...

  2. Supramolecular Affinity Chromatography for Methylation-Targeted Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Graham A E; Starke, Melissa J; Shaurya, Alok; Li, Janessa; Hof, Fraser

    2016-04-01

    Proteome-wide studies of post-translationally methylated species using mass spectrometry are complicated by high sample diversity, competition for ionization among peptides, and mass redundancies. Antibody-based enrichment has powered methylation proteomics until now, but the reliability, pan-specificity, polyclonal nature, and stability of the available pan-specific antibodies are problematic and do not provide a standard, reliable platform for investigators. We have invented an anionic supramolecular host that can form host-guest complexes selectively with methyllysine-containing peptides and used it to create a methylysine-affinity column. The column resolves peptides on the basis of methylation-a feat impossible with a comparable commercial cation-exchange column. A proteolyzed nuclear extract was separated on the methyl-affinity column prior to standard proteomics analysis. This experiment demonstrates that such chemical methyl-affinity columns are capable of enriching and improving the analysis of methyllysine residues from complex protein mixtures. We discuss the importance of this advance in the context of biomolecule-driven enrichment methods. PMID:26973166

  3. The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Waldron, TT; Astrof, N;

    2007-01-01

    Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric proteins that mediate cell-cell, cell-matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. Half of the known integrin alpha subunits contain inserted domains (I domains) that coordinate ligand through a metal ion. Although the importance of conformational changes within...... isolated I domains in regulating ligand binding has been reported, the relationship between metal ion binding affinity and ligand binding affinity has not been elucidated. Metal and ligand binding by several I domain mutants that are stabilized in different conformations are investigated using isothermal...... titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance studies. This work suggests an inverse relationship between metal ion affinity and ligand binding affinity (i.e. constructs with a high affinity for ligand exhibit a low affinity for metal). This trend is discussed in the context of structural studies...

  4. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. PMID:27046434

  5. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  6. Affine modifications and affine hypersurfaces with a very transitive automorphism group

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    1998-01-01

    We study a kind of modification of an affine domain which produces another affine domain. First appeared in passing in the basic paper of O. Zariski (1942), it was further considered by E.D. Davis (1967). The first named author applied its geometric counterpart to construct contractible smooth affine varieties non-isomorphic to Euclidean spaces. Here we provide certain conditions which guarantee preservation of the topology under a modification. As an application, we show that the group of bi...

  7. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, J.H.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers’ relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as ‘conventional’, ‘efficient’, ‘gourmet’ and ‘pure’. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins’ Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to...

  8. Dual-tagging system for the affinity purification of mammalian protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Huang, Ying [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Liu, Yie [National Institute on Aging, Baltimore; Wang, Yisong [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Although affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful tool to study protein-protein interactions, this strategy has encountered numerous difficulties when adapted to mammalian cells. Here we describe a Gateway{reg_sign}-compatible dual-tag affinity purification system that integrates regulatable expression, tetracysteine motifs, and various combinations of affinity tags to facilitate the cloning, detection, and purification of bait proteins and their interacting partners. Utilizing the human telomere binding protein TRF2 as a benchmark, we demonstrate bait protein recoveries upwards of approximately 16% from as little as 1-7 x 10{sup 7} cells and successfully identify known TRF2 interacting proteins, suggesting that our dual-tag affinity purification approach is a capable new tool for expanding the capacity to explore mammalian proteomic networks.

  9. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  10. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339

  11. Disc-shaped LIM for levitation and traction force control powered by the source using the component synchronous with the motor speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morizane Toshimitsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that a novel maglev transport system uses both of the attractive force and thrust force of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM. In our proposal, these two forces will be controlled by two different frequency components. One of the frequency components is synchronous with the motor speed (fm. Another frequency component is drive frequency (fd. Our proposed system enables the independent and simultaneous control of the attractive and thrust force of LIM. Each value of the attractive and the thrust force generated by fm and fd must be identified in order to design that LIM control system. For these purpose, a disc-shaped LIM has been developed as an experimental equipment. The force profiles, especially around zero slip, have been analyzed under experimental conditions.

  12. Spectral shape deformation in inverse spin Hall voltage in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}|Pt bilayers at high microwave power levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustikova, J., E-mail: lustikova@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Shiomi, Y.; Handa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Saitoh, E. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-02-21

    We report on the deformation of microwave absorption spectra and of the inverse spin Hall voltage signals in thin film bilayers of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum at high microwave power levels in a 9.45-GHz TE{sub 011} cavity. As the microwave power increases from 0.15 to 200 mW, the resonance field shifts to higher values, and the initially Lorentzian spectra of the microwave absorption intensity as well as the inverse spin Hall voltage signals become asymmetric. The contributions from opening of the magnetization precession cone and heating of YIG cannot well reproduce the data. Control measurements of inverse spin Hall voltages on thin-film YIG|Pt systems with a range of line widths underscore the role of spin-wave excitations in spectral deformation.

  13. Stepparents' Affinity-Seeking and Affinity-Maintaining Strategies with Stepchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Fine, Mark; Martin, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the strategies that stepparents use to develop and maintain affinity with stepchildren and the effects that these strategies have on the development of stepparent-stepchildren relationships. Thirty-one affinity-seeking strategies are identified. Results show that dyadic activities worked best, but it is important that stepchildren…

  14. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of 125I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of 125I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showed that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations

  15. Shape of optimal active flagella

    CERN Document Server

    Eloy, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells use the active waving motion of flexible flagella to self-propel in viscous fluids. However, the criteria governing the selection of particular flagellar waveforms among all possible shapes has proved elusive so far. To address this question, we derive computationally the optimal shape of an internally-forced periodic planar flagellum deforming as a travelling wave. The optimum is here defined as the shape leading to a given swimming speed with minimum energetic cost. To calculate the energetic cost though, we consider the irreversible internal power expanded by the molecular motors forcing the flagellum, only a portion of which ending up dissipated in the fluid. This optimisation approach allows us to derive a family of shapes depending on a single dimensionless number quantifying the relative importance of elastic to viscous effects: the Sperm number. The computed optimal shapes are found to agree with the waveforms observed on spermatozoon of marine organisms, thus suggesting that the...

  16. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Walton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  17. Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P

    1978-06-01

    The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726

  18. The Eigenvalue Problem for Linear and Affine Iterated Function Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barnsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenvalue problem for a linear function L centers on solving the eigen-equation Lx = rx. This paper generalizes the eigenvalue problem from a single linear function to an iterated function system F consisting of possibly an infinite number of linear or affine functions. The eigen-equation becomes F(X) = rX, where r>0 is real, X is a compact set, and F(X)is the union of f(X), for f in F. The main result is that an irreducible, linear iterated function system F has a unique eigenvalue r equal to the joint spectral radius of the functions in F and a corresponding eigenset S that is centrally symmetric, star-shaped, and full dimensional. Results of Barabanov and of Dranishnikov-Konyagin-Protasov on the joint spectral radius follow as corollaries.

  19. European and international collaboration in affinity proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2012-06-15

    In affinity proteomics, specific protein-binding molecules (a.k.a. binders), principally antibodies, are applied as reagents in proteome analysis. In recent years, advances in binder technologies have created the potential for an unprecedented view on protein expression and distribution patterns in plasma, cells and tissues and increasingly on protein function. Particular strengths of affinity proteomics methods include detecting proteins in their natural environments of cell or tissue, high sensitivity and selectivity for detection of low abundance proteins and exploiting binding actions such as functional interference in living cells. To maximise the use and impact of affinity reagents, it will be essential to create comprehensive, standardised binder collections. With this in mind, the EU FP7 programme AFFINOMICS (http://www.affinomics.org), together with the preceding EU programmes ProteomeBinders and AffinityProteome, aims to extend affinity proteomics research by generating a large-scale resource of validated protein-binding molecules for characterisation of the human proteome. Activity is directed at producing binders to about 1000 protein targets, primarily in signal transduction and cancer, by establishing a high throughput, coordinated production pipeline. An important aspect of AFFINOMICS is the development of highly efficient recombinant selection methods, based on phage, cell and ribosome display, capable of producing high quality binders at greater throughput and lower cost than hitherto. The programme also involves development of innovative and sensitive technologies for specific detection of target proteins and their interactions, and deployment of binders in proteomics studies of clinical relevance. The need for such binder generation programmes is now recognised internationally, with parallel initiatives in the USA for cancer (NCI) and transcription factors (NIH) and within the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO). The papers in this volume of New

  20. The Affine q-Schur algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Green, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce an analogue of the $q$-Schur algebra associated to Coxeter systems of type $\\hat A_{n-1}$. We give two constructions of this algebra. The first construction realizes the algebra as a certain endomorphism algebra arising from an affine Hecke algebra of type $\\hat A_{r-1}$, where $n \\geq r$. This generalizes the original $q$-Schur algebra as defined by Dipper and James, and the new algebra contains the ordinary $q$-Schur algebra and the affine Hecke algebra as subalgebras. Using th...

  1. Affine Projection Algorithm Using Regressive Estimated Error

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shu; Zhi, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    An affine projection algorithm using regressive estimated error (APA-REE) is presented in this paper. By redefining the iterated error of the affine projection algorithm (APA), a new algorithm is obtained, and it improves the adaptive filtering convergence rate. We analyze the iterated error signal and the stability for the APA-REE algorithm. The steady-state weights of the APA-REE algorithm are proved to be unbiased and consist. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a f...

  2. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  3. Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.

  4. Periodic cyclic homology of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Solleveld, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    This is the author's PhD-thesis, which was written in 2006. The version posted here is identical to the printed one. Instead of an abstract, the short list of contents: Preface 5 1 Introduction 9 2 K-theory and cyclic type homology theories 13 3 Affine Hecke algebras 61 4 Reductive p-adic groups 103 5 Parameter deformations in affine Hecke algebras 129 6 Examples and calculations 169 A Crossed products 223 Bibliography 227 Index 237 Samenvatting 245 Curriculum vitae 253

  5. Crossing Chris: Some Markerian Affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2010-01-01

    -pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    Abstract (E: This essay creatively explores a group of artists, writers, and other special individuals whose work or life story can be described as having an intriguing affinity with the protean career of Chris Marker. Avoiding the ‘usual suspects’ (such as Godard or Sebald, it discusses gossip columnist Milt Machlin, record collector Harry Smith, painter Gianfranco Baruchello, writer-filmmaker Edgardo Cozarinsky, and several others. From this constellation, a particular view of Markerian poetics emerges, touching upon the meanings of anonymity, storytelling, history and archiving.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet essai brosse de manière créative le portrait d’un groupe d'artistes, d'écrivains et d'autres personnes particulières dont le travail ou la biographie peuvent être décrits comme montrant une étrange mais certaine connivence avec la carrière protéiforme de Chris Marker. Evitant les lieux communs (comme Godard ou Sebald, cet article trace des références moins attendues :

  6. A CO-rich merger shaping a powerful and hyper-luminous infrared radio galaxy at z=2: the Dragonfly Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Stroe, A; Pentericci, L; Villar-Martin, M; Norris, R P; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; van Moorsel, G A; Lehnert, M D; Carilli, C L; Rottgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Sadler, E M; Ekers, R D; Drouart, G; Feain, I; Colina, L; Stevens, J; Holt, J

    2015-01-01

    In the low-redshift Universe, the most powerful radio sources are often associated with gas-rich galaxy mergers or interactions. We here present evidence for an advanced, gas-rich (`wet') merger associated with a powerful radio galaxy at a redshift of z~2. This radio galaxy, MRC 0152-209, is the most infrared-luminous high-redshift radio galaxy known in the southern hemisphere. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we obtained high-resolution CO(1-0) data of cold molecular gas, which we complement with HST/WFPC2 imaging and WHT long-slit spectroscopy. We find that, while roughly M(H2) ~ 2 x 10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$ of molecular gas coincides with the central host galaxy, another M(H2) ~ 3 x 10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$ is spread across a total extent of ~60 kpc. Most of this widespread CO(1-0) appears to follow prominent tidal features visible in the rest-frame near-UV HST/WFPC2 imaging. Ly$\\alpha$ emission shows an excess over HeII, but a deficiency over L(IR), which is likely the result of photo-ionisation by ...

  7. 直驱永磁风电系统能量成形与最大风能捕获%Energy shaping and maximum wind energy capture in direct-drive permanent-magnet wind power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠强; 庄述燕; 韩延光

    2013-01-01

    针对风速多变及外界干扰情况下风电系统出现的风能利用率低、鲁棒性差及安全可靠性差等问题,提出了一种基于能量成形的直驱永磁风电系统最大风能捕获算法.该算法采用能量成形及端口受控哈密顿(PCH)系统方法,从能量平衡的角度,建立永磁发电机(PMSG) PCH系统的非线性模型,设计了PCH系统反馈控制器.通过基于PCH系统控制器和H∞控制器的叠加反馈,设计出能跟踪最佳转矩且具有扰动抑制的PCH系统H∞控制器.实验结果表明,该控制策略实现了风电系统的变速恒频运行、最大风能利用,验证了理论模型和控制策略的正确性、可行性.%Aiming at the problems of wind power system under variable wind speed and external disturbances, such as low wind energy utilization, poor robustness, low security and reliability, an algorithm is proposed based on energy shaping control method for direct-drive permanent-magnet wind power system to capture maximum wind power. The algorithm adopts energy shaping method and port-controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) system theory;and the PCH nonlinear model of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is established from the energy-balancing point of view. The PCH feedback controller was designed. With the superposition feedback of PCH feedback controller and H∞ controller,a PCH system H∞ controller was designed to track optimal torque and suppress disturbance. The test result shows that this control strategy realizes variable speed constant frequency operation and maximum wind power utilization of wind power system,which verifies the validity and feasibility of theoretical model and control strategy.

  8. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  9. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eSantana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. Neuronal classification has been a difficult problem because it is unclear what a neuronal cell class actually is and what are the best characteristics are to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological or molecular characteristics, when applied to selected datasets, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. We explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. In fact, using a combined anatomical/physiological dataset, our algorithm differentiated parvalbumin from somatostatin interneurons in 49 out of 50 cases. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.

  10. Specification of ROP flux shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Gray, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The CANDU 9 480/SEU core uses 0.9% SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) fuel. The use f SEU fuel enables the reactor to increase the radial power form factor from 0.865, which is typical in current natural uranium CANDU reactors, to 0.97 in the nominal CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The difference is a 12% increase in reactor power. An additional 5% increase can be achieved due to a reduced refuelling ripple. The channel power limits were also increased by 3% for a total reactor power increase of 20%. This report describes the calculation of neutron flux distributions in the CANDU 9 480/SEU core under conditions specified by the C and I engineers. The RFSP code was used to calculate of neutron flux shapes for ROP analysis. Detailed flux values at numerous potential detector sites were calculated for each flux shape. (author). 6 tabs., 70 figs., 4 refs.

  11. High-affinity olfactory receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Ashiq; Saraiva, Luis R.; Ferrero, David M.; Ahuja, Gaurav; Krishna, Venkatesh S.; Liberles, Stephen D.; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Cadaverine and putrescine, two diamines emanating from decaying flesh, are strongly repulsive odors to humans but serve as innate attractive or social cues in other species. Here we show that zebrafish, a vertebrate model system, exhibit powerful and innate avoidance behavior to both diamines, and identify a high-affinity olfactory receptor for cadaverine.

  12. GPU-ASIFT : A Fast Fully Affine-Invariant Feature Extraction Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codreanu, Valeriu; Dong, Feng; Liu, Baoquan; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Williams, David; Yang, Po; Yasar, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method that takes advantage of powerful graphics hardware to obtain fully affine-invariant image feature detection and matching. The chosen approach is the accurate, but also very computationally expensive, ASIFT algorithm. We have created a CUDA version of this algorithm that

  13. Deformable segmentation via sparse shape representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-01-01

    Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies. PMID:21995060

  14. 张力理论观照下探析坎迪达权力的自我形塑%Analysis on the Self-image Shaping of Candida's Power from the Perspective of Tension Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄青青

    2015-01-01

    The comments on The Seven Sisters by the well-known female writer Margaret Drabble in 2002 have never concerned the textual exploration under the double perspectives of the power theory of Michel Foucault and the tension theory in New Criticism .Orien-ted by Michel Foucault 's power theory , this paper attempts to dig into the tension lurking in the text under the framework of the tension theory in New Criticism , in order to demonstrate the heroine 's position in the power circle , as well as the process of deconstructing and reconstructing her power view , showing her determination to shape a brand-new image .%英国知名女作家玛格丽特· 德拉布尔2002年的作品 《七姐妹》 的评论, 从未涉及在米歇尔· 福柯的权力理论和新批评的张力理论双重观照下的文本探索. 文章以米歇尔· 福柯的权力理论为向导, 在新批评的张力理论框架下, 挖掘深藏于文本内部的张力, 以探析女主人公在权力网中的位置以及她权力观的自我解构和建构历程, 展现其渴望形塑全新自我的决心.

  15. Offset removing in the domain of signal shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Rix, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    National audience The recognition of a given shape in a positive signal using the Distribution Function Method (DFM) assumes an affine transform on the abscissa and only a multiplicative coefficient on the ordinates, without any offset. The aim of the paper is to extent DFM when shape equality includes an offset. In fact, this problem is a particular case of signal shape recognition in a sum of two signals whose shapes are known. The first application in mind is the beat to beat extraction...

  16. Analysis of Load Voltage and Output Power for Rainbow Shape Piezoelectric Monomorph Energy Transferring Elements%Rainbow型压电单膜片换能结构负载电压和输出功率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥建; 陈仁文

    2011-01-01

    给出了一种多方向振动能量收集装置的设计结构.为研究Rainbow型压电单膜片换能结构材料、尺寸参数、负载电阻对其输出功率的影响,根据压电材料的机电耦合方程和弹性力学理论,建立了Rainbow型压电单膜片换能结构负载电压及输出功率的理论模型.对所建理论模型进行了数值计算和验证测试,理论计算结果及测试结果具有较好的一致性,对应的最大输出功率误差为5%,说明了本文理论推导的可靠性.同时通过数值模拟发现:金属弹性基片长度、压电薄膜宽度的增加将会引起换能结构输出功率的增加;金属弹性基片宽度和厚度,换能结构初始曲率半径的增大将会使换能结构的输出功率下降;压电薄膜长度和厚度的增加将会使换能结构的输出功率先增加后减小;铍青铜基片换能结构要优于钢基片换能结构.%A design structure is developed in this article to harvest multi-direction vibration energy with piezoelectric monomorph energy transferring elements. According to the basic equations of piezoelectric materials and their mechanical analysis, the load voltage and output power models of the Rainbow shape piezoelectric monomorph energy transferring elements are established, which are then used to study the relationships between their output power and material shape parameters as well as their load resistance. A prototype of the Rainbow shape piezoelectric monomorph energy transferring elements is designed to validate the models. The results show that the calculation results are consistent with the experimental results, with the error of maximum output power being 5%. Moreover, the output power of the piezoelectric film increases as the length of the metal substrate and the width of the piezoelectric film increase, while it decreases as the width and thickness of the metal substrate and the initial curvature radius of the energy transferring elements increase. The

  17. Congophilicity (Congo red affinity) of different beta2-microglobulin conformations characterized by dye affinity capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2000-01-01

    The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red-affinities of......The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red......-affinities of native and abnormally folded beta2-microglobulin. We find that native beta2-microglobulin has an intermediate affinity for Congo red at pH 7.3 and that binding involves electrostatic interactions. The conformational variant of beta2-microglobulin that appears in acetonitrile solutions binds Congo red...... more strongly. Affinity CE using Congo red as a buffer additive is a new, simple, fast, and quantitative micromethod for the characterization of soluble conformational intermediates of amyloidogenic proteins....

  18. Improved native affinity purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2007-08-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432

  19. AFFINITY OF LIGNIN PREPARATIONS TOWARDS GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Košíková

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals may be modulated by other chemicals, including those prepared by organic synthesis. Consid-ering the several drawbacks of synthetic compounds vis-a-vis the human organism, the lignin biomass component was examined for this purpose. The binding affinity of lignin samples prepared by chemical and biological modification of lignin products derived from chemical wood treatment towards for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDA was examined. The protective role of the lignin samples against carcinogenesis was tested on a well-known model carcinogen, N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. The observed ability of a series of lignin preparations to reduce alkylation damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA on hamster cells in vitro could be explained by their affinity to bind N-nitrosoamines. The results indicate that lignin has potential to protect living organisms against damaging effects of different genotoxicants.

  20. Local structure of self-affine sets

    CERN Document Server

    Bandt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a self-similar set with open set condition does not change under magnification. For self-affine sets the situation is completely different. We consider planar self-affine Cantor sets E of the type studied by Bedford, McMullen, Gatzouras and Lalley, for which the projection onto the horizontal axis is an interval. We show that within small square neighborhoods of almost each point x in E, with respect to many product measures on address space, E is well approximated by product sets of an interval and a Cantor set. Even though E is totally disconnected, the limit sets have the product structure with interval fibres, reminiscent to the view of attractors of chaotic differentiable dynamical systems.

  1. Recent Results Regarding Affine Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the quantization of nonrenormalizable scalar fields has found that a suitable non-classical modification of the ground state wave function leads to a result that eliminates term-by-term divergences that arise in a conventional perturbation analysis. After a brief review of both the scalar field story and the affine quantum gravity program, examination of the procedures used in the latter surprisingly shows an analogous formulation which already implies that affine quantum gravity is not plagued by divergences that arise in a standard perturbation study. Additionally, guided by the projection operator method to deal with quantum constraints, trial reproducing kernels are introduced that satisfy the diffeomorphism constraints. Furthermore, it is argued that the trial reproducing kernels for the diffeomorphism constraints may also satisfy the Hamiltonian constraint as well.

  2. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  3. AFFINE TRANSFORMATION IN RANDOM ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勇; 史定华

    2001-01-01

    Random iterated function systems (IFSs) is discussed, which is one of the methods for fractal drawing. A certain figure can be reconstructed by a random IFS. One approach is presented to determine a new random IFS, that the figure reconstructed by the new random IFS is the image of the origin figure reconstructed by old IFS under a given affine transformation. Two particular examples are used to show this approach.

  4. Central safety factor and β N control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape modification, using TRANSP for closed loop simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, J.

    2015-04-24

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of ßN and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling ßN and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc.). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  5. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-20

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concentrations. This sensor features simplicity in sensor design, and possesses high specificity and accuracy in glucose detection. However, lack of glucose diffusion passage, this device is unable to fulfill real-time in-vivo monitoring. As a major improvement to this device, we present in this paper a fully implantable MEMS dielectric affinity glucose biosensor that contains a perforated electrode embedded in a suspended diaphragm. This capacitive-based sensor contains no moving parts, and enables glucose diffusion and real-time monitoring. The experimental results indicate that this sensor can detect glucose solutions at physiological concentrations and possesses good reversibility and reliability. This sensor has a time constant to glucose concentration change at approximately 3 min, which is comparable to commercial systems. The sensor has potential applications in fully implantable CGM that require excellent long-term stability and reliability. PMID:24511215

  6. Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pradip D

    2006-01-01

    The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field. PMID:16792079

  7. Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pradip D

    2006-01-01

    The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field.

  8. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schroedinger's purely affine theory [21], where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  9. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.

    2016-08-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  10. Study on Armor-piercing Power of Steel Target under the Impact of Cube-shaped Fragment%立方形破片对钢靶的穿甲威力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 袁宝慧; 程淑杰; 陈皓

    2011-01-01

    Through six shot ballistics limit law with 14. S mm ballistic gun and LS-DYNA, the ballistic limit speed of 8 g cube-shaped steel fragments and 3 g, 8 g cube-shaped tungsten-alloy fragments, vertically penetrating the Q235 steel target, is studied, and the piercing mechanism and armor-piercing power of three the types of fragmentation near the ballistic limit speed are also analyzed. The results show that the mechanism of three types of fragments is same. In the case of similar impact specific kinetic energy, the fragment density is the main factor affecting armor-piercing power, when the fragment penetrates 5 mm steel target; but the density and quality of fragments decide the fragment armor-piercing power together when penetrating 10 mm steel target.%利用14.5 mm弹道枪通过六射弹弹道极限法,结合LS-DYNA数值计算法研究了8 g立方形钢破片和3 g、8 g立方形钨合金破片垂直侵彻Q235钢靶板的v50弹道极限速度,并分析了三种类型破片在v50弹道极限速度附近的穿甲机理、穿甲威力等.结果表明,三种破片在侵彻靶板时具有相同的穿甲机理,两种类型的钨合金破片具有良好的穿甲效果.在冲击比动能相差不大的情况下,贯穿5mm靶时,破片材料的密度是影响穿甲威力的主要因素;而贯穿10 mm靶时,破片的密度和质量共同决定着破片的穿甲威力.

  11. Design of linear shaped thermoelectric generator and self-integration using shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Seok [Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195-2600 (United States); Itoh, Takashi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Iida, Tsutomu [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-Shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Taya, Minoru, E-mail: tayam@u.washington.edu [Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195-2600 (United States); Kikuchi, Keiko [Department of Materials Processing, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The linear-shaped thermoelectric (TE) module based on higher specific figure-of-merit is proposed by using Cu–AlN electrode. • The specific power density [W/kg] of the linear shaped TE generator is higher than that of the π-shaped TE generator. • New integration method using Fe based shape memory alloy and shrink-fit mechanism is developed for secure fastening. - Abstract: A segmented linear-shaped thermoelectric generator was designed with n-type Mg{sub 2}Si and p-type higher manganese silicide as higher temperature segments and n-type and p-type Bi–Te based compounds as low temperature legs. A new design of a dovetail-shaped AlN–Cu composite as an electrode enabled linear-shaped thermoelectric generator to be securely bonded to the combustion chamber walls by using shrink-fit-joining method. As-assembled linear thermoelectric generator is lighter in generating more power output as compared with conventional π-shaped thermoelectric generator. The linear thermoelectric module generates the output power of 0.513 W under 500 °C temperature difference and the specific power density was measured at 89.3 W/kg, the output power was improved by 7% and the specific power density more than 2 times, as compared with those of the π-shaped thermoelectric module based on the same set of thermoelectric materials and temperature differential.

  12. Object Class Detection and Classification using Multi Scale Gradient and Corner Point based Shape Descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Basura; Karaoglu, Sezer; Saha, Sajib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multi scale gradient and a corner point based shape descriptors. The novel multi scale gradient based shape descriptor is combined with generic Fourier descriptors to extract contour and region based shape information. Shape information based object class detection and classification technique with a random forest classifier has been optimized. Proposed integrated descriptor in this paper is robust to rotation, scale, translation, affine deformations, noisy contour...

  13. Experimental investigation of streamer affinity for dielectric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, D.J.M.; Nijdam, S.; Akkermans, G.; Plompen, I.; Christen, T.; Ebert, U.

    2015-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces using stroboscopic imaging and stereo photography. Affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces was found to depend on a wide set of parameters, including pressure, voltage, dielectric material and di

  14. Quelques remarques sur la notion de modification affine

    OpenAIRE

    Dubouloz, Adrien

    2005-01-01

    in french We construct a global counterpart to the notion of affine modification due to Kaliman and Zaidenberg. This leads to a simple explicit description of the structure of birational affine morphisms between arbitrary quasi-projective varieties.

  15. Fractal Homeomorphism for Bi-affine Iterated Function Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barnsley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The paper concerns fractal homeomorphism between the attractors of two bi-affine iterated function systems. After a general discussion of bi-affine functions, conditions are provided under which a bi-affine iterated function system is contractive, thus guaranteeing an attractor. After a general discussion of fractal homeomorphism, fractal homeomorphisms are constructed for a specific type of bi-affine iterated function system.

  16. The purification of affinity-labelled active-site peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation of the labelled peptide from the protein digest, following the affinity labelling of the active sites of enzymes or antibodies, is described. Single-step affinity chromatography utilises the affinity of the native enzymes or antibody for the ligand used to label the same protein. The labelled peptide is the only one in the digest that displays affinity for the immobilised protein and can be released with eluants that dissociate the protein-ligand complex. (Auth.)

  17. Duals of Affine Grassmann Codes and Their Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, P.; Ghorpade, S. R.; Hoholdt, T.

    2012-01-01

    Affine Grassmann codes are a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes. These codes were introduced in a recent work by Beelen Here, we consider, more generally, affine Grassmann codes of a given level. We explicitly determine the dual of an affine Grassm...

  18. Shape-memory polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behl

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers are an emerging class of active polymers that have dual-shape capability. They can change their shape in a predefined way from shape A to shape B when exposed to an appropriate stimulus. While shape B is given by the initial processing step, shape A is determined by applying a process called programming. We review fundamental aspects of the molecular design of suitable polymer architectures, tailored programming and recovery processes, and the quantification of the shape-memory effect. Shape-memory research was initially founded on the thermally induced dual-shape effect. This concept has been extended to other stimuli by either indirect thermal actuation or direct actuation by addressing stimuli-sensitive groups on the molecular level. Finally, polymers are introduced that can be multifunctional. Besides their dual-shape capability, these active materials are biofunctional or biodegradable. Potential applications for such materials as active medical devices are highlighted.

  19. Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi

    2007-01-01

    By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.

  20. On Metrizability of Invariant Affine Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Erico

    2011-01-01

    The metrizability problem for a symmetric affine connection on a manifold, invariant with respect to a group of diffeomorphisms G, is considered. We say that the connection is G-metrizable, if it is expressible as the Levi-Civita connection of a G-invariant metric field. In this paper we analyze the G-metrizability equations for the rotation group G = SO(3), acting canonically on three- and four-dimensional Euclidean spaces. We show that the property of the connection to be SO(3)-invariant allows us to find complete explicit description of all solutions of the SO(3)-metrizability equations.

  1. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  2. Affine Coherent States in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    A brief summary of the application of coherent states in the examination of quantum dynamics of cosmological models is given. We discuss quantization maps, phase space probability distributions and semiclassical phase spaces. The implementation of coherent states based on the affine group resolves the hardest singularities, renders self-adjoint Hamiltonians without boundary conditions and provides a completely consistent semi-classical description of the involved quantum dynamics. We consider three examples: the closed Friedmann model, the anisotropic Bianchi Type I model and the deep quantum domain of the Bianchi Type IX model.

  3. Connection between the Affine and conformal Affine Toda models and their Hirota's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the Affine Toda models (AT) constitute a gauge fixed version of the Conformal Affine Toda model (CAT). This result enables one to map every solution of the AT models into an infinite number of solutions of the corresponding CAT models, each one associated to a point of the orbit of the conformal group. The Hirota's τ-function are introduced and soliton solutions for the AT and CAT models associated to SL (r+1) and SP (r) are constructed. (author)

  4. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH.

  5. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  6. Ice-active characteristics of soil bacteria selected by ice-affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra L; Kelley, Deborah L; Walker, Virginia K

    2006-10-01

    As an initial screen for microorganisms that produce ice-active macromolecules, ice-affinity was used to select microorganisms from soil consortia originating from three temperate regions. Once selected and subsequently purified to single colonies, these microbes were putatively identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and assayed for various ice-active properties. Ice-affinity selection appeared to select for bacteria with ice-associating activities: inhibition of ice recrystallization; ice nucleation; ice shaping. Although none of these activities were observed in Paenibacillus amyloliticus C8, others such as Chryseobacterium sp. GL8, demonstrated both ice recrystallization inhibition and ice-shaping activities. Pseudomonas borealis DL7 was classified as a type I ice nucleator, Flavobacterium sp. GL7, was identified as a type III ice nucleator and Acinetobacter radioresistens DL5 demonstrated ice recrystallization inhibition. In all, 19 different culturable bacteria were selected from the thousands of microbes in late-summer collected soil samples. Many of the selected microbes have been previously reported in glacial ice cores or polar sea ice, and of five isolates that were further characterized, four showed ice-associating activities. These results indicate the significant potential of ice-affinity selection even with temperate climate soils, suggesting that sampling in more extreme and remote areas is not required for the isolation of ice-active bacteria. PMID:16958762

  7. The Monitoring and Affinity Purification of Proteins Using Dual Tags with Tetracysteine Motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Richard J.; Liu, Yie; Wang, Yisong

    Identification and characterization of protein-protein interaction networks is essential for the elucidation of biochemical mechanisms and cellular function. Affinity purification in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as a very powerful tactic for the identification of specific protein-protein interactions. In this chapter, we describe a comprehensive methodology that uses our recently developed dual-tag affinity purification system for the enrichment and identification of mammalian protein complexes. The protocol covers a series of separate but sequentially related techniques focused on the facile monitoring and purification of a dual-tagged protein of interest and its interacting partners via a system built with tetracysteine motifs and various combinations of affinity tags. Using human telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) as an example, we demonstrate the power of the system in terms of bait protein recovery after dual-tag affinity purification, detection of bait protein subcellular localization and expression, and successful identification of known and potentially novel TRF2 interacting proteins. Although the protocol described here has been optimized for the identification and characterization of TRF2-associated proteins, it is, in principle, applicable to the study of any other mammalian protein complexes that may be of interest to the research community.

  8. The Monitoring and Affinity Purification of Proteins Using Dual-Tags with Tetracysteine Motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL; Wang, Yisong [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Identification and characterization of protein-protein interaction networks is essential for the elucidation of biochemical mechanisms and cellular function. Affinity purification in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as a very powerful tactic for the identification of specific protein-protein interactions. In this chapter we describe a comprehensive methodology that utilizes our recently developed dual-tag affinity purification system for the enrichment and identification of mammalian protein complexes. The protocol covers a series of separate but sequentially related techniques focused on the facile monitoring and purification of a dual-tagged protein of interest and its interacting partners via a system built with tetracysteine motifs and various combinations of affinity tags. Using human telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) as an example, we have demonstrated the power of the system in terms of bait protein recovery after dual-tag affinity purification, detection of bait protein subcellular localization and expression, and successful identification of known and potentially novel TRF2 interacting proteins. Although the protocol described here has been optimized for the identification and characterization of TRF2-associated proteins, it is, in principle, applicable to the study of any other mammalian protein complexes that may be of interest to the research community.

  9. Aptamer Affinity Maturation by Resampling and Microarray Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Andrew B; Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Liang, Shaolin; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Fraser, Lewis A; Shiu, Simon Chi-Chin; Tang, Marco S L; Tanner, Julian A

    2016-07-19

    Aptamers have significant potential as affinity reagents, but better approaches are critically needed to discover higher affinity nucleic acids to widen the scope for their diagnostic, therapeutic, and proteomic application. Here, we report aptamer affinity maturation, a novel aptamer enhancement technique, which combines bioinformatic resampling of aptamer sequence data and microarray selection to navigate the combinatorial chemistry binding landscape. Aptamer affinity maturation is shown to improve aptamer affinity by an order of magnitude in a single round. The novel aptamers exhibited significant adaptation, the complexity of which precludes discovery by other microarray based methods. Honing aptamer sequences using aptamer affinity maturation could help optimize a next generation of nucleic acid affinity reagents. PMID:27346322

  10. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  11. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  12. Aspects of affine Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to properties of the affine Toda field theory, the intention being to highlight a selection of curious properties that should be explicable in terms of the underlying group theory but for which in most cases there are no explanation. The motivation for exploring the ideas contained in this report came principally from the recent work of Zamolodchikov concerning the two dimensional Ising model at critical temperature perturbed by a magnetic field. Hollowood and Mansfield pointed out that since Toda field theory is conformal the perturbation considered by Zamolodchikov might well be best regarded as a perturbation of a Toda field theory. This work made it seem plausible that the theory sought by Zamolodchikov was actually affine E8 Toda field theory. However, this connection required an imaginary value of the coupling constant. Investigations here concerning exact S-matrices use a perturbative approach based on real coupling and the results differ in various ways from those thought to correspond to perturbed conformal field theory. A further motivation is to explore the connection between conformal and perturbed conformal field theories in other contexts using similar ideas. (N.K.)

  13. Exploring Fluorous Affinity by Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Martina; Guzzinati, Roberta; Marchetti, Nicola; Pasti, Luisa; Cavazzini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Terms such as "fluorous affinity" and "fluorophilicity" have been used to describe the unique partition and sorption properties often exhibited by highly fluorinated organic compounds, that is molecules rich in sp(3) carbon-fluorine bonds. In this work, we made use of a highly fluorinated stationary phase and a series of benzene derivatives to study the effect of one single perfluorinated carbon on the chromatographic behavior and adsorption properties of molecules. For this purpose, the adsorption equilibria of α,α,α-trifluorotoluene, toluene, and other alkylbenzenes have been studied by means of nonlinear chromatography in a variety of acetonitrile/water eluents. Our results reveal that one single perfluorinated carbon is already enough to induce a drastic change in the adsorption properties of molecules on the perfluorinated stationary phase. In particular, it has been found that adsorption is monolayer if the perfluoroalkyl carbon is present but that, when this unit is missing, molecules arrange as multilayer stack structures. These findings can contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of fluorous affinity. PMID:26047527

  14. Affine Mirkovi\\'c-Vilonen polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Pierre; Tingley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Each integrable lowest weight representation of a symmetrizable Kac-Moody Lie algebra g has a crystal in the sense of Kashiwara, which describes its combinatorial properties. For a given g, there is a limit crystal, usually denoted by B(-\\infty), which contains all the other crystals. When g is finite dimensional, a convex polytope, called the Mirkovi\\'c-Vilonen polytope, can be associated to each element in B(-\\infty). This polytope sits in the dual space of a Cartan subalgebra of g, and its edges are parallel to the roots of g. In this paper, we generalize this construction to the case where g is a symmetric affine Kac-Moody algebra. The datum of the polytope must however be complemented by partitions attached to the edges parallel to the imaginary root \\delta. We prove that these decorated polytopes are characterized by conditions on their normal fans and on their 2-faces. In addition, we discuss how our polytopes provide an analog of the notion of Lusztig datum for affine Kac-Moody algebras. Our main tool...

  15. Affine conformal vectors in space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Tupper, B. O. J.

    1992-05-01

    All space-times admitting a proper affine conformal vector (ACV) are found. By using a theorem of Hall and da Costa, it is shown that such space-times either (i) admit a covariantly constant vector (timelike, spacelike, or null) and the ACV is the sum of a proper affine vector and a conformal Killing vector or (ii) the space-time is 2+2 decomposable, in which case it is shown that no ACV can exist (unless the space-time decomposes further). Furthermore, it is proved that all space-times admitting an ACV and a null covariantly constant vector (which are necessarily generalized pp-wave space-times) must have Ricci tensor of Segré type {2,(1,1)}. It follows that, among space-times admitting proper ACV, the Einstein static universe is the only perfect fluid space-time, there are no non-null Einstein-Maxwell space-times, and only the pp-wave space-times are representative of null Einstein-Maxwell solutions. Otherwise, the space-times can represent anisotropic fluids and viscous heat-conducting fluids, but only with restricted equations of state in each case.

  16. 发电厂冷却塔弧形布置填料层的特性分析%Characteristic Analysis on Arc-Shaped Packing Layer of Cooling Tower in Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文升; 肖龙跃; 丁晓冬

    2014-01-01

    Packing is the most important part of the heat exchanger in natural draft wet cooling tower,which accounts for 60%-70% of the total heat transfer,so it has a great potential in energy saving.According to the arrangement of packing layer,this paper put forward the idea that used arc-shaped packing layer instead of traditional horizontal packing layer;established a heat and mass transfer model for the arc-shaped packing layer in wet cooling tower with using simulation software Fluent.Then,the impact of packing layer arrangement with different radians on the thermal performance of cooling tower was studied and compared;the relevant parameters'changes of arc-shaped packing layer in wet cooling tower,such as air flow field and outlet water temperature,were calculated and analyzed under different natural crosswind conditions.The research results show that:the arc-shaped packing layer can increase the heat exchange area,improve the air flow field in rain zone,thus increase the heat exchange quantity and pumping power of cooling tower,and reduce the outlet water temperature;this improvement is more significant under natural crosswind conditions.In the case of 0.12 rad packing layer, when the natural wind speed is 6 m/s,the outlet water temperature can be reduced up to 0.36 ℃.%填料是自然通风湿式冷却塔最主要的换热部分,其换热量占冷却塔总换热量的60%~70%,具有很大的节能潜力。针对填料层的布置方式,提出了用弧形填料层替代传统水平布置填料层的构想,并借助Fluent模拟软件,建立了湿式冷却塔弧形填料层的传热传质模型。研究对比了不同弧度的填料层布置对冷却塔热力性能的影响,并计算分析了不同环境侧风下,弧形填料层冷却塔内空气流场、出塔水温等参数的变化。研究结果表明:与传统的水平布置相比,弧形布置填料层增加了一部分换热面积,改善了雨区空气流场,从而增加了冷却塔

  17. Classical models of affinely-rigid bodies with "thickness" in degenerate dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, Vasyl

    2009-01-01

    The special interest is devoted to such situations when the material space of our object with affine degrees of freedom has generally lower dimension than the one of the physical space. In other words when we have the $m$-dimensional affinely-rigid body moving in the $n$-dimensional physical space, $mshape, are obtained.

  18. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  19. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Khatsymovsky, V M

    2015-01-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the 3-simplices which play a role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4,R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w. r. t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4,R) transformations in...

  20. Affine and Projective Tree Metric Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Harel, Matan; Pachter, Lior

    2011-01-01

    The tree metric theorem provides a combinatorial four point condition that characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from pairwise compatible split systems. A similar (but weaker) four point condition characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from circular split systems (Kalmanson metrics). The tree metric theorem was first discovered in the context of phylogenetics and forms the basis of many tree reconstruction algorithms, whereas Kalmanson metrics were first considered by computer scientists, and are notable in that they are a non-trivial class of metrics for which the traveling salesman problem is tractable. We present a unifying framework for these theorems based on combinatorial structures that are used for graph planarity testing. These are (projective) PC-trees, and their affine analogs, PQ-trees. In the projective case, we generalize a number of concepts from clustering theory, including hierarchies, pyramids, ultrametrics and Robinsonian matrices, and the theorems that relate them. As with tree metric...

  1. Effectively nonlocal metric-affine gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Golovnev, Alexey; Sandstad, Marit

    2015-01-01

    In metric-affine theories of gravity such as the C-theories, the spacetime connection is associated to a metric that is nontrivially related to the physical metric. In this article, such theories are rewritten in terms of a single metric and it is shown that they can be recast as effectively nonlocal gravity. With some assumptions, known ghost-free theories with non-singular and cosmologically interesting properties may be recovered. Relations between different formulations are analysed at both perturbative and nonperturbative levels taking carefully into account subtleties with boundary conditions in the presence of integral operators in the action, and equivalences between theories related by nonlocal redefinitions of the fields are verified at the level of equations of motion. This suggests a possible geometrical interpretation of nonlocal gravity as an emergent property of non-Riemannian spacetime structure.

  2. Effectively nonlocal metric-affine gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Alexey; Koivisto, Tomi; Sandstad, Marit

    2016-03-01

    In metric-affine theories of gravity such as the C-theories, the spacetime connection is associated to a metric that is nontrivially related to the physical metric. In this article, such theories are rewritten in terms of a single metric, and it is shown that they can be recast as effectively nonlocal gravity. With some assumptions, known ghost-free theories with nonsingular and cosmologically interesting properties may be recovered. Relations between different formulations are analyzed at both perturbative and nonperturbative levels, taking carefully into account subtleties with boundary conditions in the presence of integral operators in the action, and equivalences between theories related by nonlocal redefinitions of the fields are verified at the level of equations of motion. This suggests a possible geometrical interpretation of nonlocal gravity as an emergent property of non-Riemannian spacetime structure.

  3. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-07-09

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  4. Affine trajectory correction for nonholonomic mobile robots

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, Quang-Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Planning trajectories for nonholonomic systems is difficult and computationally expensive. When facing unexpected events, it may therefore be preferable to deform in some way the initially planned trajectory rather than to re-plan entirely a new one. We suggest here a method based on affine transformations to make such deformations. This method is exact and fast: the deformations and the resulting trajectories can be computed algebraically, in one step, and without any trajectory re-integration. To demonstrate the possibilities offered by this new method, we use it to derive position correction, orientation correction, obstacle avoidance and feedback control algorithms for the general class of planar wheeled robots and for a tridimensional underwater vehicle.

  5. Power Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRADLEY GARDNER

    2008-01-01

    @@ Bill Emmott's new book,Rivals:How the Power Struggle Between China,India and Japan Will Shape Our Next Decade,is an investigation of the problematic relationship between China,India,and Japan,as two of those countries begin to assert themselves on the world stage,and how the situation could result in all-out conflict.

  6. Classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Uhi Rinn, E-mail: uhrisu1@math.snu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, GwanAkRo 1, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we prove classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras (W-superalgebras), which can be constructed in two different ways: via affine classical Hamiltonian reductions and via taking quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-superalgebras. Also, we show that a classical finite W-superalgebra can be obtained by a Zhu algebra of a classical affine W-superalgebra. Using the definition by Hamiltonian reductions, we find free generators of a classical W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent. Moreover, we compute generators of the classical W-algebra associated to spo(2|3) and its principal nilpotent. In the last part of this paper, we introduce a generalization of classical affine W-superalgebras called classical affine fractional W-superalgebras. We show these have Poisson vertex algebra structures and find generators of a fractional W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent.

  7. Statistical removal of background signals from high-throughput 1H NMR line-broadening ligand-affinity screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR ligand-affinity screens are vital to drug discovery, are routinely used to screen fragment-based libraries, and used to verify chemical leads from high-throughput assays and virtual screens. NMR ligand-affinity screens are also a highly informative first step towards identifying functional epitopes of unknown proteins, as well as elucidating the biochemical functions of protein–ligand interaction at their binding interfaces. While simple one-dimensional 1H NMR experiments are capable of indicating binding through a change in ligand line shape, they are plagued by broad, ill-defined background signals from protein 1H resonances. We present an uncomplicated method for subtraction of protein background in high-throughput ligand-based affinity screens, and show that its performance is maximized when phase-scatter correction is applied prior to subtraction

  8. Statistical removal of background signals from high-throughput {sup 1}H NMR line-broadening ligand-affinity screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, Bradley; Sisco, Nicholas J.; Powers, Robert, E-mail: rpowers3@unl.edu [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-09-15

    NMR ligand-affinity screens are vital to drug discovery, are routinely used to screen fragment-based libraries, and used to verify chemical leads from high-throughput assays and virtual screens. NMR ligand-affinity screens are also a highly informative first step towards identifying functional epitopes of unknown proteins, as well as elucidating the biochemical functions of protein–ligand interaction at their binding interfaces. While simple one-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR experiments are capable of indicating binding through a change in ligand line shape, they are plagued by broad, ill-defined background signals from protein {sup 1}H resonances. We present an uncomplicated method for subtraction of protein background in high-throughput ligand-based affinity screens, and show that its performance is maximized when phase-scatter correction is applied prior to subtraction.

  9. Abacus models for parabolic quotients of affine Weyl groups

    CERN Document Server

    Hanusa, Christopher R H

    2011-01-01

    We introduce abacus diagrams that describe minimal length coset representatives in affine Weyl groups of types B, C, and D. These abacus diagrams use a realization of the affine Weyl group of type C due to Eriksson to generalize a construction of James for the symmetric group. We also describe several combinatorial models for these parabolic quotients that generalize classical results in affine type A related to core partitions.

  10. Thoughts for Shaping Great Power Mentality During the Crucial Period of China's Rise%关于中国崛起关键期塑造大国心态的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘儒鹏

    2015-01-01

    During the crucial period of China's rise,Chinese people are mixed with the great power mentality and the victim mentality.On the one hand,they are proud of 5000 years history of China,and on the other hand,they feel inferior because of the hundreds of years of humiliation.All of these are harmful to the rise of China.So it is necessary to shape a healthy mentali-ty through exploring the traditional cultural and the correct guidance of media and join the global governance with a normal state of mind,the sense of responsibility and self-confidence,so as to establish a good mental preparation for the rise of China.%在中国崛起的关键时期,国内民众依然是大国心态与受害者心态的相互交织。一方面是对于中华文明五千年历史的骄傲,另一方面则是对中国百年屈辱史的自卑,这对于崛起中的中国会起到损害作用。因此有必要通过挖掘中国的传统文化,充分发挥媒体的作用,对国民心态进行正确的引导,以平常心、自信心、责任心参与到全球治理中来,为中国的真正崛起做好充分的心理准备。

  11. On invariant measures of finite affine type tilings

    OpenAIRE

    Petite, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider tilings of the hyperbolic 2-space, built with a finite number of polygonal tiles, up to affine transformation. To such a tiling T, we associate a space of tilings: the continuous hull Omega(T) on which the affine group acts. This space Omega(T) inherits a solenoid structure whose leaves correspond to the orbits of the affine group. First we prove the finite harmonic measures of this laminated space correspond to finite invariant measures for the affine group action....

  12. The Hue of Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  13. Modeling of Asteroid Shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kokorev, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider different methods of modeling asteroid shapes, especially lightcurve inversion technique, and scattering laws used for it. We also introduce our program, which constructs lightcurves for a given asteroid shape model. It can be used to comparing shape model with observational data.

  14. Fragment oriented molecular shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Ethan; Camacho, Carlos J; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Molecular shape is an important concept in drug design and virtual screening. Shape similarity typically uses either alignment methods, which dynamically optimize molecular poses with respect to the query molecular shape, or feature vector methods, which are computationally less demanding but less accurate. The computational cost of alignment can be reduced by pre-aligning shapes, as is done with the Volumetric-Aligned Molecular Shapes (VAMS) method. Here, we introduce and evaluate fragment oriented molecular shapes (FOMS), where shapes are aligned based on molecular fragments. FOMS enables the use of shape constraints, a novel method for precisely specifying molecular shape queries that provides the ability to perform partial shape matching and supports search algorithms that function on an interactive time scale. When evaluated using the challenging Maximum Unbiased Validation dataset, shape constraints were able to extract significantly enriched subsets of compounds for the majority of targets, and FOMS matched or exceeded the performance of both VAMS and an optimizing alignment method of shape similarity search. PMID:27085751

  15. The cohomology of the affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties in the affine flag manifold of $GL_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties in the affine flag manifold of GL_2. At first we determine all such varieties up to isomorphy. After this we investigate the representations of the sigma-stabilizer of an element b of the group on the etale cohomology of the affine Deligne-Lusztig variety X_w(b). We describe such representations as inductions from compact subgroups and in terms of noncuspidal representations.

  16. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2015-01-01

    these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...

  17. Interactive Shape Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cani, Marie-Paule; Wyvill, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Providing an intuitive modeling system, which would enable us to communicate about any free-form shape we have in mind at least as quickly as with real-world tools, is one of the main challenges of digital shape design. The user should ideally be able to create, deform, and progressively add details to a shape, without being aware of the underlying mathematical representation nor being tied by any constraint on the geometrical or topological nature of the model. This book presents the field of interactive shape design from this perspective. Since interactively creating a shape builds on the hu

  18. Local Solid Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.

  19. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn;

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  20. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  1. General shape optimization capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  2. Shape Memory as a Process: Optimizing Polymer Design for Shape Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaia, Richard; Koerner, Hilmar; Lee, Kyungmin; Strong, Robert; Smith, Mattew; Wang, Huabin; White, Tim; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2012-02-01

    Shape memory is a process that enables the reversible storage and recovery of mechanical energy through a change in shape. Polymers provide a unique alternative to kinematic designs and other materials (e.g. metallic alloys) for applications requiring large deformation and novel control options. The effect control of storage and relaxation of strain energy associated with chain deformation depends on the nonlinear visco-elasitc behavior and glassy dynamics of the polymer network. Considering the molecular understanding of rubbery elasticity, chain entanglements in concentrated polymer liquids, affine deformation of networks, and glass fragility, heuristic guidelines can be formulated to optimize the molecular design of a polymer for shape memory. These are applied to the development of a polymer system for shape memory processes at high-temperature (200^oC). The low-crosslink density polyimide exhibits very rapid shape recovery, excellent fixity, high creep resistance, and good cyclability. Furthermore, the molecular design affords a very narrow temperature range for programming and triggering shape change that can also be accessed by photo-isomerization of the cross-link nodes.

  3. Striving for Empathy: Affinities, Alliances and Peer Sexuality Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jessica; Copp, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Peer sexuality educators' accounts of their work reveal two approaches to empathy with their students: affinity and alliance. "Affinity-based empathy" rests on the idea that the more commonalities sexuality educators and students share (or perceive they share), the more they will be able to empathise with one another, while…

  4. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  5. Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu [Department of Physics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.

  6. Synthesis of tetracycline analogs and their bone affinities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Cai Huang; Hu Zheng; Ling Ling Weng

    2008-01-01

    Tetracycline analogs were designed and synthesized and their bone affinities were tested on hydroxyapatite. The results showedthat the carbonyl-amide-enol structure in A ring and phenol-ketone structure in BCD ring may be responsible for tetracycline's highbone affinity and either A ring or BCD ring has a planar conformation is essential.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a heavy-chain-

  8. Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0

  9. Frame-independent mechanics:geometry on affine bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, K.; Grabowski, J.; Urbanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Main ideas of the differential geometry on affine bundles are presented. Affine counterparts of Lie algebroid and Poisson structures are introduced and discussed. The developed concepts are applied in a frame-independent formulation of the time-dependent and the Newtonian mechanics.

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic aci...

  11. High affinity retinoic acid receptor antagonists: analogs of AGN 193109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A T; Wang, L; Gillett, S J; Chandraratna, R A

    1999-02-22

    A series of high affinity retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonists were prepared based upon the known antagonist AGN 193109 (2). Introduction of various phenyl groups revealed a preference for substitution at the para-position relative to the meta-site. Antagonists with the highest affinities for the RARs possessed hydrophobic groups, however, the presence of polar functionality was also well tolerated.

  12. Speech Enhancement Using Kernel and Normalized Kernel Affine Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolimera Ravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the speech signal enhancement using Kernel Affine ProjectionAlgorithm (KAPA and Normalized KAPA. The removal of background noise is very important in manyapplications like speech recognition, telephone conversations, hearing aids, forensic, etc. Kernel adaptivefilters shown good performance for removal of noise. If the evaluation of background noise is more slowlythan the speech, i.e., noise signal is more stationary than the speech, we can easily estimate the noiseduring the pauses in speech. Otherwise it is more difficult to estimate the noise which results indegradation of speech. In order to improve the quality and intelligibility of speech, unlike time andfrequency domains, we can process the signal in new domain like Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space(RKHS for high dimensional to yield more powerful nonlinear extensions. For experiments, we have usedthe database of noisy speech corpus (NOIZEUS. From the results, we observed the removal noise in RKHShas great performance in signal to noise ratio values in comparison with conventional adaptive filters.

  13. Non-affinity factors modulating vascular targeting of nano- and microcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerson, Jacob W; Anselmo, Aaron C; Liu, Yaling; Mitragotri, Samir; Eckmann, David M; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2016-04-01

    Particles capable of homing and adhering to specific vascular biomarkers have potential as fundamental tools in drug delivery for mediation of a wide variety of pathologies, including inflammation, thrombosis, and pulmonary disorders. The presentation of affinity ligands on the surface of a particle provides a means of targeting the particle to sites of therapeutic interest, but a host of other factors come into play in determining the targeting capacity of the particle. This review presents a summary of several key considerations in nano- and microparticle design that modulate targeted delivery without directly altering epitope-specific affinity. Namely, we describe the effect of factors in definition of the base carrier (including shape, size, and flexibility) on the capacity of carriers to access, adhere to, and integrate in target biological milieus. Furthermore, we present a summary of fundamental dynamics of carrier behavior in circulation, taking into account interactions with cells in circulation and the role of hemodynamics in mediating the direction of carriers to target sites. Finally, we note non-affinity aspects to uptake and intracellular trafficking of carriers in target cells. In total, recent findings presented here may offer an opportunity to capitalize on mitigating factors in the behavior of ligand-targeted carriers in order to optimize targeting. PMID:26596696

  14. Biogeographic affinity helps explain productivity-richness relationships at regional and local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The unresolved question of what causes the observed positive relationship between large-scale productivity and species richness has long interested ecologists and evolutionists. Here we examine a potential explanation that we call the biogeographic affinity hypothesis, which proposes that the productivity-richness relationship is a function of species' climatic tolerances that in turn are shaped by the earth's climatic history combined with evolutionary niche conservatism. Using botanical data from regions and sites across California, we find support for a key prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that the productivity-species richness relationship differs strongly and predictably among groups of higher taxa on the basis of their biogeographic affinities (i.e., between families or genera primarily associated with north-temperate, semiarid, or desert zones). We also show that a consideration of biogeographic affinity can yield new insights on how productivity-richness patterns at large geographic scales filter down to affect patterns of species richness and composition within local communities. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximum-Entropy Models of Sequenced Immune Repertoires Predict Antigen-Antibody Affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Asti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has developed a number of distinct complex mechanisms to shape and control the antibody repertoire. One of these mechanisms, the affinity maturation process, works in an evolutionary-like fashion: after binding to a foreign molecule, the antibody-producing B-cells exhibit a high-frequency mutation rate in the genome region that codes for the antibody active site. Eventually, cells that produce antibodies with higher affinity for their cognate antigen are selected and clonally expanded. Here, we propose a new statistical approach based on maximum entropy modeling in which a scoring function related to the binding affinity of antibodies against a specific antigen is inferred from a sample of sequences of the immune repertoire of an individual. We use our inference strategy to infer a statistical model on a data set obtained by sequencing a fairly large portion of the immune repertoire of an HIV-1 infected patient. The Pearson correlation coefficient between our scoring function and the IC50 neutralization titer measured on 30 different antibodies of known sequence is as high as 0.77 (p-value 10-6, outperforming other sequence- and structure-based models.

  16. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  17. Detection of protein-protein interactions using tandem affinity purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Ian; Bailey, Dalan

    2014-01-01

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is an invaluable technique for identifying interaction partners for an affinity tagged bait protein. The approach relies on the fusion of dual tags to the bait before separate rounds of affinity purification and precipitation. Frequently two specific elution steps are also performed to increase the specificity of the overall technique. In the method detailed here, the two tags used are protein G and a short streptavidin binding peptide; however, many variations can be employed. In our example the tags are separated by a cleavable tobacco etch virus protease target sequence, allowing for specific elution after the first round of affinity purification. Proteins isolated after the final elution step in this process are concentrated before being identified by mass spectrometry. The use of dual affinity tags and specific elution in this technique dramatically increases both the specificity and stringency of the pull-downs, ensuring a low level of background nonspecific interactions.

  18. IMPLEMENTASI ENKRIPSI DEKRIPSI ALGORITMA AFFINE CIPHER BERBASIS ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasono Wibowo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi yang cukup pesat khususnya dalam bidang komunikasi menjadikan komunikasi sangat mudah namun dalam implementasinya perlu adanya keamanan tentang informasi yang disampaikan. Dalam komunikasi antar orang pasti memiliki pembicaraan informasi yang bersifat privat atau orang lain tidak boleh tahu tentang pembicaraan yang terjadi. Diperlukannya keamanan untuk menjaga kerahasiaan informasi pada saat komunikasi. Masyarakat lebih sering menggunakan komunikasi dengan telepon seluler karena dinilai mudah dibawa dan tidak repot menggunakannya. Kriptografi yang biasa dikenal sebagai ilmu yang mempelajari bagaimana cara menyembunyikan pesan bisa diterapkan dalam aplikasi pada telepon seluler sebagai contoh smartphone android. Dengan mengimplementasikan algoritma affine cipher maka aplikasi yang akan dibuat bisa mengubah isi pesan yang ada dan dapat mengamankan informasi yang ada. Algoritma affine cipher merupakan perkembangan dari algoritma caesar dimana algoritma affine cipher menggunakan dua kunci. Dengan mengimplementasikan algoritma affine cipher ke dalam android maka diharapkan kita bisa menyimpan informasi dari siapapun tanpa terbaca. Kata Kunci : Kriptografi, Affine Cipher, android, Implementasi, Informasi

  19. Shaping the nonlinear near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states.

  20. Chasing polys: Interdisciplinary affinity and its connection to physics identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tyler D.

    This research is based on two motivations that merge by means of the frameworks of interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. First, a goal of education is to develop interdisciplinary abilities in students' thinking and work. But an often ignored factor is students interests and beliefs about being interdisciplinary. Thus, this work develops and uses a framework called interdisciplinary affinity. It encompasses students interests in making connections across disciplines and their beliefs about their abilities to make those connections. The second motivation of this research is to better understand how to engage more students with physics. Physics identity describes how a student sees themselves in relation to physics. By understanding how physics identity is developed, researchers and educators can identify factors that increase interest and engagement in physics classrooms. Therefore, physics identity was used in conjunction with interdisciplinary affinity. Using a mixed methods approach, this research used quantitative data to identify the relationships interdisciplinary affinity has with physics identity and the physics classroom. These connections were explored in more detail using a case study of three students in a high school physics class. Results showed significant and positive relationships between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity, including the individual interest and recognition components of identity. It also identified characteristics of physics classrooms that had a significant, positive relationship with interdisciplinary affinity. The qualitative case study highlighted the importance of student interest to the relationship between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. It also identified interest and mastery orientation as key to understanding the link between interdisciplinary affinity and the physics classroom. These results are a positive sign that by understanding interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity

  1. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  2. Optimal affine-invariant matching: performance characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mauro S.; Haralick, Robert M.; Shapiro, Linda G.

    1992-04-01

    The geometric hashing scheme proposed by Lamdan and Wolfson can be very efficient in a model-based matching system, not only in terms of the computational complexity involved, but also in terms of the simplicity of the method. In a recent paper, we discussed errors that can occur with this method due to quantization, stability, symmetry, and noise problems. These errors make the original geometric hashing technique unsuitable for use on the factory floor. Beginning with an explicit noise model, which the original Lamdan and Wolfson technique lacks, we derived an optimal approach that overcomes these problems. We showed that the results obtained with the new algorithm are clearly better than the results from the original method. This paper addresses the performance characterization of the geometric hashing technique, more specifically the affine-invariant point matching, applied to the problem of recognizing and determining the pose of sheet metal parts. The experiments indicate that with a model having 10 to 14 points, with 2 points of the model undetected and 10 extraneous points detected, and with the model points perturbed by Gaussian noise of standard deviation 3 (0.58 of range), the average amount of computation required to obtain an answer is equivalent to trying 11 of the possible three-point bases. The misdetection rate, measured by the percentage of correct bases matches that fail to verify, is 0.9. The percentage of incorrect bases that successfully produced a match that did verify (false alarm rate) is 13. And, finally, 2 of the experiments failed to find a correct match and verify it. Results for experiments with real images are also presented.

  3. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  4. Electron affinities of atoms, molecules, and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review briefly but comprehensively the theoretical, semiempirical and experimental methods employed to determine electron affinities (EAs) of atoms, molecules and radicals, and summarize the EA data obtained by these methods. The detailed processes underlying the principles of the experimental methods are discussed very briefly. It is, nonetheless, instructive to recapitulate the definition of EA and those of the related quantities, namely, the vertical detachment energy, VDE, and the vertical attachment energy, VAE. The EA of an atom is defined as the difference in total energy between the ground state of the neutral atom (plus the electron at rest at infinity) and its negative ion. The EA of a molecule is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion when both, the neutral molecules and the negative ion, are in their ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states. The VDE is defined as the minimum energy required to eject the electron from the negative ion (in its ground electronic and nuclear state) without changing the internuclear separation; since the vertical transition may leave the neutral molecule in an excited vibrational/rotational state, the VDE, although the same as the EA for atoms is, in general, different (larger than), from the EA for molecules. Similarly, the VAE is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule in its ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion formed by addition of an electron to the neutral molecule without allowing a change in the intermolecular separation of the constituent nuclei; it is a quantity appropriate to those cases where the lowest negative ion state lies above the ground states of the neutral species and is less or equal to EA

  5. The shape of Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Dermott, S. F.

    1991-01-01

    After considering the most important relationships between density, rotation rate, shape, and internal structure on the basis of equilibrium figures, the shape of the Saturn satellite Tethys is established from limb-coordinate data. Attention is given to the shape's significance for Tethys' internal structure. It is alternatively concluded that Tethys is either differentiated, and possesses a small rocky core, or has been interpreted as possessing a mass that is too low by about 15 percent.

  6. An Affine-Invariant Sampler for Exoplanet Fitting and Discovery in Radial Velocity Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Fengji; Hogg, David W; Weare, Jonathan; Schwab, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) proves to be powerful for Bayesian inference and in particular for exoplanet radial velocity fitting because MCMC provides more statistical information and makes better use of data than common approaches like chi-square fitting. However, the non-linear density functions encountered in these problems can make MCMC time-consuming. In this paper, we apply an ensemble sampler respecting affine invariance to orbital parameter extraction from radial velocity data. The autocorrelation time of this sampler is approximately the same for all parameters and far smaller than Metropolis-Hastings, which means it requires many fewer function calls to produce the same number of independent samples. The affine-invariant sampler speeds up MCMC by hundreds of times compared with Metropolis-Hastings in the same computing situation. Besides being fast, the new sampler has only one free parameter, and it does not require tuning for good performance, which is important for automatization. This novel ...

  7. Fractal-Based Exponential Distribution of Urban Density and Self-Affine Fractal Forms of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark's model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark's model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark's model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to ...

  8. The Shape of Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Looking at a few pictures of Eros under the right lighting conditions gives a reasonable idea of the shape of the asteroid, but analysis of NEAR Shoemaker data requires a very accurate digital model of Eros' shape. This 'shape model' helps the NEAR team analyze images and other types of data. For example, comparing the brightness of imaged regions with the orientation of the corresponding parts of the surface, taken from the shape model, allows scientists to determine whether bright areas are due to just surface orientation or also to surface properties. By 'filling

  9. Self-affine Multiplicity Fluctuation of Slow Particles in 16O-AgBr Collisions at 3.7 A GeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Sheng; ZHANG Dong-Hai; LI Hui-Ling; LIU Fu-Hu

    2009-01-01

    We study the slow particles in 16O-AgBr collisions at 3.7A GeV in nuclear emulsion with the method of two-dimensioned factorial moments using the Hurst exponent. Our investigation revea/s the power law behaviour, exhibited in self-affine anedysis, better than that in self-similar analysis. This work shows a clear evidence of self-affine target fragmentation.

  10. The sodium ion affinities of asparagine, glutamine, histidine and arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Ohanessian, Gilles; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2008-01-01

    The sodium ion affinities of the amino acids Asn, Gln, His and Arg have been determined by experimental and computational approaches (for Asn, His and Arg). Na+-bound heterodimers with amino acid and peptide ligands (Pep1, Pep2) were produced by electrospray ionization. From the dissociation kinetics of these Pep1-Na+-Pep2 ions to Pep1-Na+ and Pep2-Na+, determined by collisionally activated dissociation, a ladder of relative affinities was constructed and subsequently converted to absolute affinities by anchoring the relative values to known Na+ affinities. The Na+ affinities of Asn, His and Arg, were calculated at the MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p)//MP2/6-31G(d) level of ab initio theory. The resulting experimental and computed Na+ affinities are in excellent agreement with one another. These results, combined with those of our previous studies, yield the sodium ion affinities of 18 out of the 20 [alpha]-amino acids naturally occurring in peptides and proteins of living systems.

  11. Corrected Integral Shape Averaging Applied to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Detection from the Electrocardiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, S.; Rix, H.; Meste, O.; Heneghan, C.; O'Brien, C.

    2007-12-01

    We present a technique called corrected integral shape averaging (CISA) for quantifying shape and shape differences in a set of signals. CISA can be used to account for signal differences which are purely due to affine time warping (jitter and dilation/compression), and hence provide access to intrinsic shape fluctuations. CISA can also be used to define a distance between shapes which has useful mathematical properties; a mean shape signal for a set of signals can be defined, which minimizes the sum of squared shape distances of the set from the mean. The CISA procedure also allows joint estimation of the affine time parameters. Numerical simulations are presented to support the algorithm for obtaining the CISA mean and parameters. Since CISA provides a well-defined shape distance, it can be used in shape clustering applications based on distance measures such as[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-means. We present an application in which CISA shape clustering is applied to P-waves extracted from the electrocardiogram of subjects suffering from sleep apnea. The resulting shape clustering distinguishes ECG segments recorded during apnea from those recorded during normal breathing with a sensitivity of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and specificity of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.].

  12. Corrected Integral Shape Averaging Applied to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Detection from the Electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heneghan C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique called corrected integral shape averaging (CISA for quantifying shape and shape differences in a set of signals. CISA can be used to account for signal differences which are purely due to affine time warping (jitter and dilation/compression, and hence provide access to intrinsic shape fluctuations. CISA can also be used to define a distance between shapes which has useful mathematical properties; a mean shape signal for a set of signals can be defined, which minimizes the sum of squared shape distances of the set from the mean. The CISA procedure also allows joint estimation of the affine time parameters. Numerical simulations are presented to support the algorithm for obtaining the CISA mean and parameters. Since CISA provides a well-defined shape distance, it can be used in shape clustering applications based on distance measures such as -means. We present an application in which CISA shape clustering is applied to P-waves extracted from the electrocardiogram of subjects suffering from sleep apnea. The resulting shape clustering distinguishes ECG segments recorded during apnea from those recorded during normal breathing with a sensitivity of and specificity of .

  13. Corrected Integral Shape Averaging Applied to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Detection from the Electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O'Brien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique called corrected integral shape averaging (CISA for quantifying shape and shape differences in a set of signals. CISA can be used to account for signal differences which are purely due to affine time warping (jitter and dilation/compression, and hence provide access to intrinsic shape fluctuations. CISA can also be used to define a distance between shapes which has useful mathematical properties; a mean shape signal for a set of signals can be defined, which minimizes the sum of squared shape distances of the set from the mean. The CISA procedure also allows joint estimation of the affine time parameters. Numerical simulations are presented to support the algorithm for obtaining the CISA mean and parameters. Since CISA provides a well-defined shape distance, it can be used in shape clustering applications based on distance measures such as k-means. We present an application in which CISA shape clustering is applied to P-waves extracted from the electrocardiogram of subjects suffering from sleep apnea. The resulting shape clustering distinguishes ECG segments recorded during apnea from those recorded during normal breathing with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 84%.

  14. Quasi-Bézier Curves with Shape Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal form of univariate Quasi-Bézier basis functions with multiple shape parameters and a series of corresponding Quasi-Bézier curves were constructed step-by-step in this paper, using the method of undetermined coefficients. The series of Quasi-Bézier curves had geometric and affine invariability, convex hull property, symmetry, interpolation at the endpoints and tangent edges at the endpoints, and shape adjustability while maintaining the control points. Various existing Quasi-Bézier curves became special cases in the series. The obvious geometric significance of shape parameters made the adjustment of the geometrical shape easier for the designer. The numerical examples indicated that the algorithm was valid and can easily be applied.

  15. Centro-affine hypersurface immersions with parallel cubic form

    OpenAIRE

    HILDEBRAND, Roland

    2012-01-01

    We consider non-degenerate centro-affine hypersurface immersions in R^n whose cubic form is parallel with respect to the Levi-Civita connection of the affine metric. There exists a bijective correspondence between homothetic families of proper affine hyperspheres with center in the origin and with parallel cubic form, and K\\"ochers conic omega-domains, which are the maximal connected sets consisting of invertible elements in a real semi-simple Jordan algebra. Every level surface of the omega ...

  16. Volatility Components, Affine Restrictions and Non-Normal Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Dorian, Christian;

    Recent work by Engle and Lee (1999) shows that allowing for long-run and short-run components greatly enhances a GARCH model's ability fit daily equity return dynamics. Using the risk-neutralization in Duan (1995), we assess the option valuation performance of the Engle-Lee model and compare...... models to four conditionally non-normal versions. As in Hsieh and Ritchken (2005), we find that non-affine models dominate affine models both in terms of fitting return and in terms of option valuation. For the affine models we find strong evidence in favor of the component structure for both returns...

  17. Non-Gatherable Triples for Non-Affine Root Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cherednik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a complete description of minimal non-gatherable triangle triples in the lambda-sequences for the classical root systems, $F_4$ and $E_6$. Such sequences are associated with reduced decompositions (words in affine and non-affine Weyl groups. The existence of the non-gatherable triples is a combinatorial obstacle for using the technique of intertwiners for an explicit description of the irreducible representations of the (double affine Hecke algebras, complementary to their algebraic-geometric theory.

  18. Synthesis and Image Matching On Structural Patterns Using Affine Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses in explaining a Fourier based affine estimator which is applied to the task of Image Synthesis. An affine transformation is an important class of linear 2-D geometric transformations which maps variables into new by applying a linear combination of translation, rotation, scaling and/or shearing operations. Conventional retrieval systems are very effective when knowledge information and query information are in a uniform orientation but fails in recognition when effects such as scaling, orientation exist. But as this technique is based on texture analysis, which is termed the affine estimator, it will even match the images with non-uniform orientation.

  19. Affinity- and topology-dependent bound on current fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We provide a proof of a recently conjectured universal bound on current fluctuations in Markovian processes. This bound establishes a link between the fluctuations of an individual observable current, the cycle affinities driving the system into a non-equilibrium steady state, and the topology of the network. The proof is based on a decomposition of the network into independent cycles with both positive affinity and positive stationary cycle current. This formalism allows for a refinement of the bound for systems in equilibrium or with locally vanishing affinities.

  20. ODE/IM correspondence and modified affine Toda field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsushi; Locke, Christopher

    2014-08-15

    We study the two-dimensional affine Toda field equations for affine Lie algebra g{sup ^} modified by a conformal transformation and the associated linear equations. In the conformal limit, the associated linear problem reduces to a (pseudo-)differential equation. For classical affine Lie algebra g{sup ^}, we obtain a (pseudo-)differential equation corresponding to the Bethe equations for the Langlands dual of the Lie algebra g, which were found by Dorey et al. in study of the ODE/IM correspondence.

  1. Rollercoaster loop shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2005-11-01

    Many modern rollercoasters feature loops. Although textbook loops are often circular, real rollercoaster loops are not. In this paper, we look into the mathematical description of various possible loop shapes, as well as their riding properties. We also discuss how a study of loop shapes can be used in physics education.

  2. Methodological study of affine transformations of gene expression data with proposed robust non-parametric multi-dimensional normalization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hössjer Ola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-level processing and normalization of microarray data are most important steps in microarray analysis, which have profound impact on downstream analysis. Multiple methods have been suggested to date, but it is not clear which is the best. It is therefore important to further study the different normalization methods in detail and the nature of microarray data in general. Results A methodological study of affine models for gene expression data is carried out. Focus is on two-channel comparative studies, but the findings generalize also to single- and multi-channel data. The discussion applies to spotted as well as in-situ synthesized microarray data. Existing normalization methods such as curve-fit ("lowess" normalization, parallel and perpendicular translation normalization, and quantile normalization, but also dye-swap normalization are revisited in the light of the affine model and their strengths and weaknesses are investigated in this context. As a direct result from this study, we propose a robust non-parametric multi-dimensional affine normalization method, which can be applied to any number of microarrays with any number of channels either individually or all at once. A high-quality cDNA microarray data set with spike-in controls is used to demonstrate the power of the affine model and the proposed normalization method. Conclusion We find that an affine model can explain non-linear intensity-dependent systematic effects in observed log-ratios. Affine normalization removes such artifacts for non-differentially expressed genes and assures that symmetry between negative and positive log-ratios is obtained, which is fundamental when identifying differentially expressed genes. In addition, affine normalization makes the empirical distributions in different channels more equal, which is the purpose of quantile normalization, and may also explain why dye-swap normalization works or fails. All methods are made available in

  3. Properties of an affine transport equation and its generalized holonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Vines, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate properties of a transport equation that was recently used to study the observer dependence of angular momentum in general relativity. The associated map between the tangent spaces at two points on a curve is affine, and for this reason, the operation was called "affine transport". The map consists of a homogeneous (linear) part given by the parallel transport map along the curve, plus an inhomogeneous part which is related to the development of a curve in a manifold into an affine tangent space (also described as the rolling of a manifold along a tangent space without slipping or twisting). For closed curves, the affine transport equation defines a "generalized holonomy". We use covariant bitensor calculus to compute the generalized holonomy around geodesic polygon loops, specifically for triangles and "parallelogramoids" with sides formed from geodesic segments. For small loops, we recover the well-known result for the leading-order holonomy of parallel transport ($\\sim$ Riemann $\\times$ area)...

  4. A thermodynamic approach to the affinity optimization of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ernesto

    2009-11-01

    High throughput screening and other techniques commonly used to identify lead candidates for drug development usually yield compounds with binding affinities to their intended targets in the mid-micromolar range. The affinity of these molecules needs to be improved by several orders of magnitude before they become viable drug candidates. Traditionally, this task has been accomplished by establishing structure activity relationships to guide chemical modifications and improve the binding affinity of the compounds. As the binding affinity is a function of two quantities, the binding enthalpy and the binding entropy, it is evident that a more efficient optimization would be accomplished if both quantities were considered and improved simultaneously. Here, an optimization algorithm based upon enthalpic and entropic information generated by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry is presented.

  5. Elective affinities and economic thought: 1870-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that the concept of "elective affinities" can be applied to the relations between economic thought, literature, and philosophy. Emphasis is given to Institutionalist thought, the German historical school, and neoclassical thought.

  6. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  7. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  8. Experimental investigation of streamer affinity for dielectric surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Trienekens, Dirk; Nijdam, Sander; Akkermans, G.; Plompen, I.; Christen, T.; Ebert, Ute

    2015-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces using stroboscopic imaging and stereo photography. Affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces was found to depend on a wide set of parameters, including pressure, voltage, dielectric material and discharge gap geometry. Our results show that higher relative permittivity, higher pressure, lower voltage, an d asymmetrical sample placement increase the chance of the streamer following the dielectric surface.

  9. A Characterization of Hyperbolic Affine Iterated Function Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Ross; Vince, Andrew; Wilson, David C

    2009-01-01

    The two main theorems of this paper provide a characterization of hyperbolic affine iterated function systems defined on Rm. Atsushi Kameyama (Distances on Topological Self-Similar Sets, Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics, Volume 72.1, 2004) asked the following fundamental question: given a topological self-similar set, does there exist an associated system of contraction mappings? Our theorems imply an affirmative answer to Kameyama's question for self-similar sets derived from affine transformations on Rm.

  10. Peculiarities of Matter Motion in Metric-Affine Gravitational Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Babourova, O. V.; Frolov, B. N.; Koroliov, M. Yu.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the Lie derivative method in a metric-affine space-time it is shown that in the metric-affine gravitational theory the energy-momentum conservation law and therefore the equations of the matter motion are the consequence (as in the GR) of the gravitational field equations. The possi- bility of the detection of the space-time non-metric properties is discussed.

  11. Some Inequalities for Lp-mixed Affine Surface Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xian-yang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts of the ith Lp-mixed affine surface area and Lp-polar curvature images are introduced,some new inequalities connecting these new notions with Lp-centroid bodies and p-Blaschke bodies are showed.Moreover,a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality for Lp-mixed affine surface area is established.Our results also imply the similar to the inequalities for Marcus-Lopes,Bergstrom and Ky Fan.

  12. Algebraic volume density property of affine algebraic manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of algebraic volume density property for affine algebraic manifolds and prove some important basic facts about it, in particular that it implies the volume density property. The main results of the paper are producing two big classes of examples of Stein manifolds with volume density property. One class consists of certain affine modifications of $\\C^n$ equipped with a canonical volume form, the other is the class of all Linear Algebraic Groups equipped with the left i...

  13. Quantized gauge-affine gravity in the superfiber bundle approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meziane, A.; Tahiri, M

    2004-01-01

    The quantization of gauge-affine gravity within the superfiber bundle formalism is proposed. By introducing an even pseudotensorial 1-superform over a principal superfibre bundle with superconnection, we obtain the geometrical Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST transformations of the fields occurring in such a theory. Reducing the four-dimensional general affine group double-covering to the Poincare group double-covering we also find the BRST and anti-BRST transformations of the f...

  14. Skein Modules from Skew Howe Duality and Affine Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Queffelec, Hoel

    2013-01-01

    We show that we can release the rigidity of the skew Howe duality process for ${\\mathfrak sl}_n$ knot invariants by rescaling the quantum Weyl group action, and recover skein modules for web-tangles. This skew Howe duality phenomenon can be extended to the affine ${\\mathfrak sl}_m$ case, corresponding to looking at tangles embedded in a solid torus. We investigate the relations between the invariants constructed by evaluation representations (and affinization of them) and usual skein modules,...

  15. Hyperbolically Shaped Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romuald Puzyrewski; Pawel Flaszy(n)ski

    2003-01-01

    Starting from the classical centrifugal compressor, cone shaped in meridional cross section, two modifications are considered on the basis of results from 2D and 3D flow models. The first modification is the change of the meridional cross section to hyperbolically shaped channel. The second modification, proposed on the basis of 2D axisymmetric solution, concerns the shape of blading. On the strength of this solution the blades are formed as 3D shaped blades, coinciding with the recent tendency in 3D designs. Two aims were considered for the change of meridional compressor shape. The first was to remove the separation zone which appears as the flow tums from axial to radial direction. The second aim is to uniformize the flow at exit of impeller. These two goals were considered within the frame of 2D axisymmetric model. Replacing the cone shaped compressor by a hyperbolically shaped one, the separation at the corner was removed. The disc and shroud shape of the compressor was chosen in the way which satisfies the condition of most uniform flow at the compressor exit. The uniformity of exit flow from the rotor can be considered as the factor which influences the performance of the diffuser following the rotor. In the 2D model a family of stream surfaces of S1 type is given in order to find S2 surfaces which may be identified with the midblade surfaces of compressor blading. A computation of 3D type has been performed in order to establish the relations between 2D and 3D models in the calculation of flow parameters. In the presented example the 2D model appears as the inverse model which leads to 3D shape of blading whereas the 3D model has been used for the direct solution. In the presented example the confrontation of two models, 2D and 3D, leads to a better understanding of the application of these models to the design procedure.

  16. Shapes of the Proton

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gerald A.

    2003-01-01

    A model proton wave function, constructed using Poincare invariance, and constrained by recent electromagnetic form factor data, is used to study the shape of the proton. Spin-dependent quark densities are defined as matrix elements of density operators in proton states of definite spin-polarization, and shown to have an infinite variety of non-spherical shapes. For high momentum quarks with spin parallel to that of the proton, the shape resembles that of a peanut, but for quarks with anti-pa...

  17. Quantum Shape Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Dündar, Furkan Semih

    2015-01-01

    Shape dynamics is a theory first proposed by Julian Barbour which states that physics happen uniquely in the reduced configuration space of a theory. So far, studies in the area have focused on gravitational systems. Here we first contemplate on the implications of this idea on quantum mechanics. We summarize the idea of shape dynamics and then give physical configurations of multi qubit systems. It is observed that inclusion of the spacetime curvature introduces a new qubit degree of freedom. This is a novel effect of general relativity on a quantum system. Our aim in the grand picture, is to initiate a research program translating classical shape dynamics to quantum realm.

  18. Shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  19. Affinity Solvents for Intensified Organics Extraction: Development Challenges and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In most organics extraction processes, the commonly used solvents employ solely physical interactions. Therefore, for the recovery and purification of products from complex mixtures, the selectivity and/or capacity of classical solvents towards the desired solutes is usually insufficient, enforcing the need for complex and thus expensive separation schemes. Significant simplification and cost-reduction can be achieved when affinity solvents would be available that are able to recognize the solutes of interest by their molecular structure. The main development challenges to establish such affinity solvents are: Selection and incorporation of molecular recognition and complexation capabilities; Evaluation of extraction capabilities; Efficient recovery and recycling of the affinity solvents; Implementation in industrial extraction equipment. This paper presents how these development challenges are addressed at the University of Twente, going all the way from affinity solvent design and synthesis, via high throughput screening and characterization up to pilot plant evaluation. Essential in the successful development of affinity solvents are structural cooperations with molecular chemists and custom synthesis companies for their design and synthesis. The various aspects are illustrated by several examples where newly developed environmentally benign affinity solvents appeared able to create major breakthroughs. The applications addressed involve oxygenates, sugars, and pharmaceutical ingredients, such as optical isomers and biomolecules.

  20. Joint modeling of cell and nuclear shape variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory R; Buck, Taraz E; Sullivan, Devin P; Rohde, Gustavo K; Murphy, Robert F

    2015-11-01

    Modeling cell shape variation is critical to our understanding of cell biology. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of nonrigid image registration methods for the construction of nonparametric nuclear shape models in which pairwise deformation distances are measured between all shapes and are embedded into a low-dimensional shape space. Using these methods, we explore the relationship between cell shape and nuclear shape. We find that these are frequently dependent on each other and use this as the motivation for the development of combined cell and nuclear shape space models, extending nonparametric cell representations to multiple-component three-dimensional cellular shapes and identifying modes of joint shape variation. We learn a first-order dynamics model to predict cell and nuclear shapes, given shapes at a previous time point. We use this to determine the effects of endogenous protein tags or drugs on the shape dynamics of cell lines and show that tagged C1QBP reduces the correlation between cell and nuclear shape. To reduce the computational cost of learning these models, we demonstrate the ability to reconstruct shape spaces using a fraction of computed pairwise distances. The open-source tools provide a powerful basis for future studies of the molecular basis of cell organization. PMID:26354424

  1. Intensity effects in ultracold photoassociation line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive ultracold atom-atom photoassociation line shapes valid for intense light fields and investigate laser power effects in sodium and rubidium photoassociation to the purely long-range 0g- symmetry state. We consider intensities up to a few hundreds W/cm2, a strongly saturating intensity for typical transitions of experimental interest. For these intensities the 0g- rotational spectrum is still well resolved; however, it is essential to couple the photoassociation resonance to both s- and d-wave ground-state channels. A low-energy d-wave shape resonance can have a profound effect on the line shape. Understanding the line shape is essential for precision spectroscopic analysis and could improve the extraction of ground-state scattering properties such as scattering lengths

  2. Shape memory polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molded flexible polyurethane (PU foams have been synthesized from polypropylene glycol (PPG with different molecular weights (Mw and functionalities (f, and 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI-80 with water as blowing agent. It was found that the glassy state properties of the foam mainly depended on the urethane group content while the rubbery state properties on the crosslink density. That is, PPG of low MW and low f (more urethane groups provided superior glass state modulus, strength, density, shape fixity and glass transition temperature (Tg, while that of high Mw and high f (higher crosslink density showed high rubbery modulus and shape recovery. Consequently shape fixity of low Mw PPG decreased from 85 to 72% while shape recovery increased from 52 to 63% as the content of high Mw PPG increased from 0 to 40%.

  3. Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  4. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  5. Signatures of the self-affinity of fracture and faulting in pre-seismic electromagnetic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Potirakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Of particular interest is the detection of precursors of an impending rupture. Theoretical, numerical studies along with laboratory experiments indicate that precursory signs of an impending failure are the sudden drop of fractal dimension and entropy, along with the anticorrelated, for large system sizes, rising of Hurst exponent and drop of a frequency–size power-law scaling exponent. Based on the widely accepted concept of the self-affine nature of faulting and fracture, we examine whether these precursory signs exist in the fracto-electromagnetic emissions resulting from the activation of a single fault.

  6. Email shape analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sroufe, Paul; Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Dantu, Ram; Cangussu, João

    2010-01-01

    Email has become an integral part of everyday life. Without a second thought we receive bills, bank statements, and sales promotions all to our inbox. Each email has hidden features that can be extracted. In this paper, we present a new mechanism to characterize an email without using content or context called Email Shape Analysis. We explore the applications of the email shape by carrying out a case study; botnet detection and two possible applications: spam filtering, and social-context bas...

  7. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  8. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ozlem; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O(2)) transport and O(2) utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O(2) affinity would favor the release of O(2) to the tissues, increasing Hb O(2) affinity would augment arterial O(2) saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O(2) affinity will augment O(2) transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O(2)) compared with normal Hb O(2) affinity. RBC Hb O(2) affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O(2) affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O(2) (Po(2)). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po(2) at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O(2) by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O(2) hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O(2) saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O(2) hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po(2) was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O(2) hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O(2) affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  9. Surface parametrization and shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechbuehler, Christian; Gerig, Guido; Kuebler, Olaf

    1992-09-01

    Procedures for the parameterization and description of the surface of simply connected 3-D objects are presented. Critical issues for shape-based categorization and comparison of 3-D objects are addressed, which are generality with respect to object complexity, invariance to standard transformations, and descriptive power in terms of object geometry. Starting from segmented volume data, a relational data structure describing the adjacency of local surface elements is generated. The representation is used to parametrize the surface by defining a continuous, one-to-one mapping from the surface of the original object to the surface of a unit sphere. The mapping is constrained by two requirements, minimization of distortions and preservation of area. The former is formulated as the goal function of a nonlinear optimization problem and the latter as its constraints. Practicable starting values are obtained by an initial mapping based on a heat conduction model. In contract to earlier approaches, the novel parameterization method provides a mapping of arbitrarily shaped simply connected objects, i.e., it performs an unfolding of convoluted surface structures. This global parameterization allows the systematical scanning of the object surface by the variation of two parameters. As one possible approach to shape analysis, it enables us to expand the object surface into a series of spherical harmonic functions, extending the concept of elliptical Fourier descriptors for 2-D closed curves. The novel parameterization overcomes the traditional limitations of expressing an object surface in polar coordinates, which restricts such descriptions to star-shaped objects. The numerical coefficients in the Fourier series form an object-centered, surface-oriented descriptor of the object''s form. Rotating the coefficients in parameter space and object space puts the object into a standard position and yields a spherical harmonic descriptor which is invariant to translations, rotations

  10. Pulse Shape Filtering in Wireless Communication-A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S Kang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal for the Third Generation (3G of mobile communications system is to seamlessly integrate a wide variety of communication services. The rapidly increasing popularity of mobile radio services has created a series of technological challenges. One of this is the need for power and spectrally efficient modulation schemes to meet the spectral requirements of mobile communications. Pulse shaping plays a crucial role in spectral shaping in the modern wireless communication to reduce the spectral bandwidth. Pulse shaping is a spectral processing technique by which fractional out of band power is reduced for low cost, reliable , power and spectrally efficient mobile radio communication systems. It is clear that the pulse shaping filter not only reduces inter-symbol interference (ISI, but it also reduces adjacent channel interference. The present paper deals with critical analysis of pulse shaping in wireless communication.

  11. The Dynamics of Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts, connected by one central theme: the dynamics of the "shape of space". The first part of the thesis concerns the construction of a theory of gravity dynamically equivalent to general relativity (GR) in 3+1 form (ADM). What is special about this theory is that it does not possess foliation invariance, as does ADM. It replaces that "symmetry" by another: local conformal invariance. In so doing it more accurately reflects a theory of the "shape of space", giving us reason to call it \\emph{shape dynamics} (SD). In the first part we will try to present some of the highlights of results so far, and indicate what we can and cannot do with shape dynamics. Because this is a young, rapidly moving field, we have necessarily left out some interesting new results which are not yet in print and were developed alongside the writing of the thesis. The second part of the thesis will develop a gauge theory for "shape of space"--theories. To be more precise, if one admits that the physically re...

  12. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Coenzyme-like ligands for affinity isolation of cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Lu, Liushen; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun; Wang, Wu

    2016-05-15

    Two coenzyme-like chemical ligands were designed and synthesized for affinity isolation of cholesterol oxidase (COD). To simulate the structure of natural coenzyme of COD (flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)), on Sepharose beads, 5-aminouracil, cyanuric chloride and 1, 4-butanediamine were composed and then modified. The COD gene from Brevibacterium sp. (DQ345780) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then the sorbents were applied to adsorption analysis with the pure enzyme. Subsequently, the captured enzyme was applied to SDS-PAGE and activity analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax) of the two affinity sorbents (RL-1 and RL-2) were ∼83.5 and 46.3mg/g wet gel; and the desorption constant Kd of the two sorbents were ∼6.02×10(-4) and 1.19×10(-4)μM. The proteins after cell lysis were applied to affinity isolation, and then after one step of affinity binding on the two sorbents, the protein recoveries of RL-1 and RL-2 were 9.2% and 9.7%; the bioactivity recoveries were 92.7% and 91.3%, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the purities of COD isolated with the two affinity sorbents were approximately 95%. PMID:26856529

  14. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological ...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus.......Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...

  15. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  16. ICI Alleviation in OFDM System Utilizing Scale Alpha Pulse Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adibah Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new pulse shaping method namely scale alpha is proposed for mitigating Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI effect in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM system. The suggested pulse shape is designed and simulated using MATLAB software. Results show that the new pulse shape has lower ICI power and better impulse response performance than Franks, raised cosine and double-jump pulses.

  17. ICI Alleviation in OFDM System Utilizing Scale Alpha Pulse Shaping

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Adibah Ibrahim; Razali Ngah; Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new pulse shaping method namely scale alpha is proposed for mitigating Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) effect in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system. The suggested pulse shape is designed and simulated using MATLAB software. Results show that the new pulse shape has lower ICI power and better impulse response performance than Franks, raised cosine and double-jump pulses.

  18. Social Shaping of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Mack, Alexandra

    to consider other media) • Ideas need socialization (ideas are linked to people, we need to be careful about how we support the social innovation context) • Ideas are local (ideas spring out of a local contingency, we need to take care in how we like them to travel)....... - in particular in a large corporation? This workshop explores how innovation is socially shaped in organizations. Based on our experiences with practices around innovation and collaboration, we start from three proposition about the social shaping of innovation: • Ideas don't thrive as text (i.e. we need...

  19. Properties of the Affine Invariant Ensemble Sampler in high dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Huijser, David; Brewer, Brendon J

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical and practical properties of the affine-invariant ensemble sampler Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In high dimensions the affine-invariant ensemble sampler shows unusual and undesirable properties. We demonstrate this with an $n$-dimensional correlated Gaussian toy problem with a known mean and covariance structure, and analyse the burn-in period. The burn-in period seems to be short, however upon closer inspection we discover the mean and the variance of the target distribution do not match the expected, known values. This problem becomes greater as $n$ increases. We therefore conclude that the affine-invariant ensemble sampler should be used with caution in high dimensional problems. We also present some theoretical results explaining this behaviour.

  20. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  1. k-Schur functions and affine Schubert calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Thomas; Morse, Jennifer; Schilling, Anne; Shimozono, Mark; Zabrocki, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the very active field of combinatorics of affine Schubert calculus, explains the current state of the art, and states the current open problems. Affine Schubert calculus lies at the crossroads of combinatorics, geometry, and representation theory. Its modern development is motivated by two seemingly unrelated directions. One is the introduction of k-Schur functions in the study of Macdonald polynomial positivity, a mostly combinatorial branch of symmetric function theory. The other direction is the study of the Schubert bases of the (co)homology of the affine Grassmannian, an algebro-topological formulation of a problem in enumerative geometry. This is the first introductory text on this subject. It contains many examples in Sage, a free open source general purpose mathematical software system, to entice the reader to investigate the open problems. This book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers, who want to become familiar with ...

  2. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study inclu...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 4.2 Affine variety codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 4.3 Some Gr¨obner basis theoretical tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 4.4 A bound on the minimum distance of C(I,L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 4.5 The Feng-Rao bound...... for C(I,L)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4.6 Using weighted degree orderings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 4.7 The order domain conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 4.8 Weight functions and order domains...

  3. Semisupervised Clustering for Networks Based on Fast Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing clustering algorithms for networks are unsupervised, which cannot help improve the clustering quality by utilizing a small number of prior knowledge. We propose a semisupervised clustering algorithm for networks based on fast affinity propagation (SCAN-FAP, which is essentially a kind of similarity metric learning method. Firstly, we define a new constraint similarity measure integrating the structural information and the pairwise constraints, which reflects the effective similarities between nodes in networks. Then, taking the constraint similarities as input, we propose a fast affinity propagation algorithm which keeps the advantages of the original affinity propagation algorithm while increasing the time efficiency by passing only the messages between certain nodes. Finally, by extensive experimental studies, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can take fully advantage of the prior knowledge and improve the clustering quality significantly. Furthermore, our algorithm has a superior performance to some of the state-of-art approaches.

  4. Super-Affine Hierarchies and their Poisson Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1998-01-01

    The link between (super)-affine Lie algebras as Poisson brackets structures and integrable hierarchies provides both a classification and a tool for obtaining superintegrable hierarchies. The lack of a fully systematic procedure for constructing matrix-type Lax operators, which makes the supersymmetric case essentially different from the bosonic counterpart, is overcome via the notion of Poisson embeddings (P.E.), i.e. Poisson mappings relating affine structures to conformal structures (in their simplest version P.E. coincide with the Sugawara construction). A full class of hierarchies can be recovered by using uniquely Lie-algebraic notions. The group-algebraic properties implicit in the super-affine picture allow a systematic derivation of reduced hierarchies by imposing either coset conditions or hamiltonian constraints (or possibly both).

  5. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  6. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  7. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Angeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1,4 did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column.

  8. Ferromagnetic levan composite: an affinity matrix to purify lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Renata; da Paz, Nathalia V N; Maciel, Jackeline C; Araújo, Flávia F B; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Calazans, Glícia M T; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fábio C L; Coelho, Luana C B B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Silva, Maria da Paz C; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2009-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column. PMID:19547713

  9. Affine group representation formalism for four dimensional, Lorentzian, quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ching-Yi, Chou; Soo, Chopin

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian constraint of 4-dimensional General Relativity is recast explicitly in terms of the Chern--Simons functional and the local volume operator. In conjunction with the algebraic quantization program, application of the affine quantization concept due to Klauder facilitates the construction of solutions to all of the the quantum constraints in the Ashtekar variables and their associated Hilbert space. A physical Hilbert space is constructed for Lorentzian signature gravity with nonzero cosmological constant in the form of unitary, irreducible representations of the affine group.

  10. Affine Hecke algebras associated to Kac-Moody groups

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, H

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we give a geometric construction of Cherednik's double affine Hecke algebra. We construct the algebra as the equivariant K-theory of the Lagrangian subvariety of the cotangent variety of the square of the flag variety of G, the variety being given by the union of the conormal bundles to the G-orbits on \\flag\\times\\flag. This is a generalisation of work of Kazhdan and Lusztig to the Kac-Moody case, and is suitable for describing a certain class of modules for this algebra. In a paper in preparation we will do this, in the case G is affine (Cherednik's case).

  11. Affine diffusions and related processes simulation, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of affine diffusions, from Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to Wishart processes and it considers some related diffusions such as Wright-Fisher processes. It focuses on different simulation schemes for these processes, especially second-order schemes for the weak error. It also presents some models, mostly in the field of finance, where these methods are relevant and provides some numerical experiments. The book explains the mathematical background to understand affine diffusions and analyze the accuracy of the schemes.  

  12. Combinatorial topology of three-dimensional self-affine tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bandt, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We develop tools to study the topology and geometry of self-affine fractals in dimension three and higher. We use the self-affine structure and obtain rather detailed information about the connectedness of interior and boundary sets, and on the dimensions and intersections of boundary sets. As an application, we describe in algebraic terms the polyhedral structure of the six fractal three-dimensional twindragons. Only two of them can be homeomorphic to a ball but even these have faces which are not homeomorphic to a disk.

  13. and as Vertex Operator Extensionsof Dual Affine Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcock, P.; Feigin, B. L.; Semikhatov, A. M.; Taormina, A.

    We discover a realisation of the affine Lie superalgebra and of the exceptional affine superalgebra as vertex operator extensions of two algebras with ``dual'' levels (and an auxiliary level-1 algebra). The duality relation between the levels is . We construct the representation of on a sum of tensor products of , , and modules and decompose it into a direct sum over the spectral flow orbit. This decomposition gives rise to character identities, which we also derive. The extension of the construction to is traced to the properties of embeddings into and their relation with the dual pairs. Conversely, we show how the representations are constructed from representations.

  14. SMOOTH AFFINE SURFACES WITH NON-UNIQUE C*-ACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we complete the classification of effective C*-actions on smooth affine surfaces up to conjugation in the full automorphism group and up to inversion of C*. If a smooth affine surface V admits more than one C*-action then it is known to be Gizatullin i.e., it can be completed by a linear chain of smooth rational curves. In our previous paper we gave a sufficient condition, in terms of the Dolgachev- Pinkham-Demazure (or DPD) presentation, for the uniqueness of a C*-action on a G...

  15. Algebraic volume density property of affine algebraic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliman, Shulim

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of algebraic volume density property for affine algebraic manifolds and prove some important basic facts about it, in particular that it implies the volume density property. The main results of the paper are producing two big classes of examples of Stein manifolds with volume density property. One class consists of certain affine modifications of $\\C^n$ equipped with a canonical volume form, the other is the class of all Linear Algebraic Groups equipped with the left invariant volume form.

  16. Extremely high negative electron affinity of diamond via magnesium adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Kane M.; Edmonds, Mark T.; Tadich, Anton; Thomsen, Lars; Stacey, Alastair; Schenk, Alex; Pakes, Chris I.; Ley, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    We report large negative electron affinity (NEA) on diamond (100) using magnesium adsorption on a previously oxygen-terminated surface. The measured NEA is up to $(-2.01\\pm0.05)$ eV, the largest reported negative electron affinity to date. Despite the expected close relationship between the surface chemistry of Mg and Li species on oxygen-terminated diamond, we observe differences in the adsorption properties between the two. Most importantly, a high-temperature annealing step is not required...

  17. Double affine Hecke algebras and 2-dimensional local fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kapranov, M.

    1998-01-01

    We give an interpretation of the double affine Hecke algebra of Cherednik as the (suitably regularized) algebra of double cosets of a group G by a subgroup J, extending the well known interpretations of finite and affine Hecke algebras. In this interpretation, G consists of K-points of a split reductive group where K is a 2-dimensional local field such as Q_p((t)) or F_q((t_1))((t_2)), and J is a certain analog of the Iwahori subgroup.

  18. Kinetic controlled affinity labeling of target enzyme with thioester chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomohiro, Takenori; Nakabayashi, Masahiro; Sugita, Yuka; Morimoto, Shota

    2016-08-01

    High specificity has been an important feature in affinity labeling for target profiling. Especially, to label targets via rapidly progressing reactions with consumption of ligand (probe), high specificity of reaction with common functional groups of target protein should be achieved without reactions with similar groups of non-target proteins. Herein, we demonstrate the kinetic controlled affinity labeling of acyl CoA synthetase using a fatty acid analogue containing a phenylthioester linkage. High specificity was attained by accelerating the labeling rate in the binding pocket. This approach could be useful for profiling a series of target enzymes and transporters in signal transduction pathways. PMID:27298000

  19. Surface plasmon resonance reveals a different pattern of proinsulin autoantibodies concentration and affinity in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldana Trabucchi

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by autoimmune aggression against pancreatic beta cells resulting in absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. The first detectable sign of emerging autoimmunity during the preclinical asymptomatic period is the appearance of diabetes-related autoantibodies. In children at risk for type 1 DM, high-affinity Insulin autoantibodies reactive to proinsulin, are associated with diabetes risk. Autoantibodies are usually measured by radioligand binding assay (RBA that provides quasi-quantitative values reflecting potency (product between concentration and affinity of specific autoantibodies. Aiming to improve the characterization of the specific humoral immune response, we selected surface plasmon resonance (SPR as an alternative method to measure proinsulin autoantibodies (PAA. This novel technology has allowed real time detection of antibodies interaction and kinetic analysis. Herein, we have employed SPR to characterize the PAA present in sera from 28 childhood-onset (mean age 8.31±4.20 and 23 adult-onset diabetic patients (≥65 years old, BMI<30 in terms of concentration and affinity. When evaluating comparatively samples from both groups, childhood-onset diabetic patients presented lower PAA concentrations and higher affinities (median 67.12×10(-9 M and 3.50×10(7 M(-1, respectively than the adults (median 167.4×10(-9 M and 0.84×10(7 M(-1, respectively. These results are consistent with those from the reference method RBA (Standard Deviation score median 9.49 for childhood-onset group and 5.04 for adult-onset group where the binding can be directly related to the intrinsic affinity of the antibody, suggesting that there is a different etiopathogenic pathway between both types of clinical presentation of the disease. This technology has shown to be a useful tool for the characterization of PAAs parameters as an alternative to radioimmunoassay, with high versatility and reproducibility associated to

  20. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  1. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet. PMID:26726334

  2. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  3. Shape Up Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun

    "Shape Up: a School Community Approach to Influencing the Determinants of Childhood Overweight and Obesity, Lessons Learnt" is a report that aims to provide a synthesis of the project overall evaluation documentation, with a view to systematically review and discuss lessons learnt, and to suggest...

  4. Dendritic spine shape analysis using disjunctive normal shape models

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Muhammad Usman; Mesadi, Fitsum; Demir Kanık, Sümerya Ümmühan; Demir Kanik, Sumerya Ummuhan; Argunşah, Ali Özgür; Argunsah, Ali Ozgur; Israely, Inbal; Ünay, Devrim; Unay, Devrim; Taşdizen, Tolga; Tasdizen, Tolga; Çetin, Müjdat; Cetin, Mujdat

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of dendritic spines is an essential task to understand the functional behavior of neurons. Their shape variations are known to be closely linked with neuronal activities. Spine shape analysis in particular, can assist neuroscientists to identify this relationship. A novel shape representation has been proposed recently, called Disjunctive Normal Shape Models (DNSM). DNSM is a parametric shape representation and has proven to be successful in several segmentation problems. In this pap...

  5. A photo-cleavable biotin affinity tag for the facile release of a photo-crosslinked carbohydrate-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Che; Adak, Avijit K; Lin, Ting-Wei; Li, Pei-Jhen; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lai, Chain-Hui; Liang, Chien-Fu; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2016-03-15

    The use of photo-crosslinking glycoprobes represents a powerful strategy for the covalent capture of labile protein complexes and allows detailed characterization of carbohydrate-mediated interactions. The selective release of target proteins from solid support is a key step in functional proteomics. We envisaged that light activation can be exploited for releasing labeled protein in a dual photo-affinity probe-based strategy. To investigate this possibility, we designed a trifunctional, galactose-based, multivalent glycoprobe for affinity labeling of carbohydrate-binding proteins. The resulting covalent protein-probe adduct is attached to a photo-cleavable biotin affinity tag; the biotin moiety enables specific presentation of the conjugate on streptavidin-coated beads, and the photolabile linker allows the release of the labeled proteins. This dual probe promotes both the labeling and the facile cleavage of the target protein complexes from the solid surfaces and the remainder of the cell lysate in a completely unaltered form, thus eliminating many of the common pitfalls associated with traditional affinity-based purification methods.

  6. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  7. Student Engagement and Neoliberalism: Mapping an Elective Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to argue that student engagement, an important area for research about learning and teaching in formal higher education, has an elective affinity with neoliberalism, a hegemonic ideology in many countries of the developed world. The paper first surveys an extensive research literature examining student engagement and…

  8. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. General $L\\sb p$ affine isoperimetric inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Haberl, Christoph; Schuster, Franz E.

    2009-01-01

    Sharp $L\\sb p$ affine isoperimetric inequalities are established for the entire class of $L\\sb p$ projection bodies and the entire class of $L\\sb p$ centroid bodies. These new inequalities strengthen the $L\\sb p$ Petty projection and the $L\\sb p$ Busemann–Petty centroid inequality.

  10. PP-waves with torsion and metric-affine gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Pasic, Vedad; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2005-01-01

    A classical pp-wave is a 4-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime which admits a nonvanishing parallel spinor field; here the connection is assumed to be Levi-Civita. We generalise this definition to metric compatible spacetimes with torsion and describe basic properties of such spacetimes. We use our generalised pp-waves for constructing new explicit vacuum solutions of quadratic metric-affine gravity.

  11. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercia

  12. Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Ching-Yi; Soo, Chopin

    2013-01-01

    Using the affine group formalism, we perform a nonperturbative quantization leading to the construction of elements of a physical Hilbert space for full, Lorentzian quantum gravity coupled to the Standard Model in four spacetime dimensions. This paper constitutes a first step toward understanding the phenomenology of quantum gravitational effects stemming from a consistent treatment of minimal couplings to matter.

  13. Self-Affine Sets with Positive Lebesgue Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajani, Karma; Jiang, Kan; Kempton, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Using techniques introduced by C. G ̈unt ̈urk, we prove that the attractors of a family of overlapping self-affine iterated function systems contain a neighbourhood of zero for all parameters in a certain range. This corresponds to giving conditions under which a single sequence may serve as a ‘simu

  14. An invariant interest point detector under image affine transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林睿; 黄海波; 孙荣川; 孙立宁

    2015-01-01

    For vision-based mobile robot navigation, images of the same scene may undergo a general affine transformation in the case of significant viewpoint changes. So, a novel method for detecting affine invariant interest points is proposed to obtain the invariant local features, which is coined polynomial local orientation tensor (PLOT). The new detector is based on image local orientation tensor that is constructed from the polynomial expansion of image signal. Firstly, the properties of local orientation tensor of PLOT are analyzed, and a suitable tuning parameter of local orientation tensor is chosen so as to extract invariant features. The initial interest points are detected by local maxima search for the smaller eigenvalues of the orientation tensor. Then, an iterative procedure is used to allow the initial interest points to converge to affine invariant interest points and regions. The performances of this detector are evaluated on the repeatability criteria and recall versus 1-precision graphs, and then are compared with other existing approaches. Experimental results for PLOT show strong performance under affine transformation in the real-world conditions.

  15. Canonical bases and affine Hecke algebras of type B

    CERN Document Server

    Varagnolo, Michela

    2009-01-01

    We prove a series of conjectures of Enomoto and Kashiwara on canonical bases and branching rules of affine Hecke algebras of type B. The main ingredient of the proof is a new graded Ext-algebra associated with quiver with involutions that we compute explicitly.

  16. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fault tolerant control method for input-affine nonlinear systems using a nonlinear reconfiguration block (RB). The basic idea of the method is to insert the RB between the plant and the nominal controller such that fault tolerance is achieved without re-designing the nominal...

  17. Higher-order momentum distributions and locally affine LDDMM registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Nielsen, Mads; Darkner, Sune;

    2013-01-01

    description of affine transformations and subsequent compact description of non-translational movement in a globally nonrigid deformation. The resulting representation contains directly interpretable information from both mathematical and modeling perspectives. We develop the mathematical construction...... higher-order momenta lead to natural modeling of articulated movement, and the method promises to be useful for quantifying ventricle expansion and progressing atrophy during Alzheimer's disease....

  18. Toward an Affinity Space Methodology: Considerations for Literacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jayne C.; Curwood, Jen Scott; Magnifico, Alecia Marie

    2012-01-01

    As researchers seek to make sense of young people's online literacy practices and participation, questions of methodology are important to consider. In our work to understand the culture of physical, virtual and blended spheres that adolescents inhabit, we find it necessary to expand Gee's (2004) notion of affinity spaces. In this article, we draw…

  19. Native Elution of Yeast Protein Complexes Obtained by Affinity Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes two options for the native (nondenaturing) elution of protein complexes obtained by affinity capture. The first approach involves the elution of complexes purified through a tag that includes a human rhinovirus 3C protease (PreScission protease) cleavage site sequence between the protein of interest and the tag. Incubation with the protease cleaves immobilized complexes from the affinity medium. The second approach involves the release of protein A-tagged protein complexes using a competitive elution reagent called PEGylOx. The degree of purity of the native assemblies eluted is sample dependent and strongly influenced by the affinity capture. It should be noted that the efficiency of native elution is commonly lower than that of elution by a denaturing agent (e.g., SDS) and the release of the complex will be limited by the activity of the protease or the inhibition constant (Ki) of the competitive release agent. However, an advantage of native release is that some nonspecifically bound materials tend to stay adsorbed to the affinity medium, providing an eluted fraction of higher purity. Finally, keep in mind that the presence of the protease or elution peptide could potentially affect downstream applications; thus, their removal should be considered. PMID:27371597

  20. Properties of an affine transport equation and its holonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Justin; Nichols, David A.

    2016-10-01

    An affine transport equation was used recently to study properties of angular momentum and gravitational-wave memory effects in general relativity. In this paper, we investigate local properties of this transport equation in greater detail. Associated with this transport equation is a map between the tangent spaces at two points on a curve. This map consists of a homogeneous (linear) part given by the parallel transport map along the curve plus an inhomogeneous part, which is related to the development of a curve in a manifold into an affine tangent space. For closed curves, the affine transport equation defines a "generalized holonomy" that takes the form of an affine map on the tangent space. We explore the local properties of this generalized holonomy by using covariant bitensor methods to compute the generalized holonomy around geodesic polygon loops. We focus on triangles and "parallelogramoids" with sides formed from geodesic segments. For small loops, we recover the well-known result for the leading-order linear holonomy (˜ Riemann × area), and we derive the leading-order inhomogeneous part of the generalized holonomy (˜ Riemann × area^{3/2}). Our bitensor methods let us naturally compute higher-order corrections to these leading results. These corrections reveal the form of the finite-size effects that enter into the holonomy for larger loops; they could also provide quantitative errors on the leading-order results for finite loops.

  1. On global asymptotic controllability of planar affine nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yimin; GUO Lei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for globally asymptotic controllability of the general planar affine nonlinear systems with single-input.This result is obtained by introducing a new method in the analysis, which is based on the use of some basic results in planar topology and in the geometric theory of ordinary differential equations.

  2. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  3. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago.

  4. Combinatorial Vector Fields for Piecewise Affine Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a continuation of Habets and van Schuppen (2004) and Habets, Collins and van Schuppen (2006), which address the control problem for piecewise-affine systems on an arbitrary polytope or a family of these. Our work deals with the underlying combinatorics of the underlyi...

  5. Affine Toda Solitons and Systems of Calogero-Moser Type

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, H. W.; Hone, Andrew N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The solitons of affine Toda field theory are related to the spin-generalised Ruijsenaars-Schneider (or relativistic Calogero-Moser) models. This provides the sought after extension of the correspondence between the sine-Gordon solitons and the Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.

  6. Prediction of peptide bonding affinity: kernel methods for nonlinear modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, Charles; Sundling, C Matthew; Krein, Michael; Katt, Bill; Sukumar, Nagamani; Breneman, Curt M; Bennett, Kristin P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents regression models obtained from a process of blind prediction of peptide binding affinity from provided descriptors for several distinct datasets as part of the 2006 Comparative Evaluation of Prediction Algorithms (COEPRA) contest. This paper finds that kernel partial least squares, a nonlinear partial least squares (PLS) algorithm, outperforms PLS, and that the incorporation of transferable atom equivalent features improves predictive capability.

  7. Linear independence measure of logarithms over affine groups

    OpenAIRE

    Huicochea, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Linear forms in logarithms over connected commutative algebraic groups over the algebraic numbers field have been studied widely. However, the theory of linear forms in logarithms over noncommutative algebraic groups have not been developed as the one of the commutative algebraic groups and in this paper we start studying linear forms in logarithms over affine groups.

  8. Demazure modules and vertex models the affine sl(2) case

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Okado, M; Foda, Omar; Misra, Kailash C; Okado, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We characterize, in the case of affine sl(2), the crystal base of the Demazure module E_w(\\La) in terms of extended Young diagrams or paths for any dominant integral weight \\La and Weyl group element w. Its character is evaluated via two expressions, 'bosonic' and 'fermionic'.

  9. Demazure modules and vertex models: the affine sl(2) case

    OpenAIRE

    Foda, Omar; Misra, Kailash C.; Okado, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We characterize, in the case of affine sl(2), the crystal base of the Demazure module E_w(\\La) in terms of extended Young diagrams or paths for any dominant integral weight \\La and Weyl group element w. Its character is evaluated via two expressions, 'bosonic' and 'fermionic'.

  10. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction

  11. Influence of easily ionised elements on the delayed responses of the emission intensities of an analyte in a power modulated U-shaped argon stabilised DC arc plasma with an aerosol supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV KUZMANOVIC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The current of a U-shaped argon stabilised DC arc was square modulated with a 40 Hz repetition frequency between 6 and 3 A. The delayed line intensity responses to the modulation of the arc current were investigated using calcium as a representative analyte. The intensities of both the atomic and ionic lines were monitored at different distances from the arc axis in the presence of various concentrations of the easily ionised element. Temporal evolutions were monitored on a millisecond time scale. It was found that the responses of the line intesity to the arc current change strongly depended on the observed radial position, especially in the vicinity of the arc axis. The obtained results showed a significant influence of even small amounts of the easily ionised element on the excitation and transport of the analyte and indicated a way of possibly improving the analytical capabilities of the excitation source.

  12. Shape of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, María E Gabach

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.

  13. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  14. Shaping the Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention...... is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. METHODS/DESIGN: The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were...... national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. DISCUSSION: Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing...

  15. Antiferroelectric Shape Memory Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Uchino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiferroelectrics (AFE can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26% associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick (2.5 ms. In the Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.6Sn0.41-yTiy]0.98O3 (PNZST system, the shape memory function is observed in the intermediate range between high temperature AFE and low temperature FE, or low Ti-concentration AFE and high Ti-concentration FE in the composition. In the AFE multilayer actuators (MLAs, the crack is initiated in the center of a pair of internal electrodes under cyclic electric field, rather than the edge area of the internal electrodes in normal piezoelectric MLAs. The two-sublattice polarization coupling model is proposed to explain: (1 isotropic volume expansion during the AFE-FE transformation; and (2 piezoelectric anisotropy. We introduce latching relays and mechanical clampers as possible unique applications of shape memory ceramics.

  16. Lp shape deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lin; ZHANG GuoXin; LAI YuKun

    2012-01-01

    Shape deformation is a fundamental tool in geometric modeling.Existing methods consider preserving local details by minimizing some energy functional measuring local distortions in the L2 norm.This strategy distributes distortions quite uniformly to all the vertices and penalizes outliers.However,there is no unique answer for a natural deformation as it depends on the nature of the objects.Inspired by recent sparse signal reconstruction work with non L2 norm,we introduce general Lp norms to shape deformation; the positive parameter p provides the user with a flexible control over the distribution of unavoidable distortions.Compared with the traditional L2 norm,using smaller p,distortions tend to be distributed to a sparse set of vertices,typically in feature regions,thus making most areas less distorted and structures better preserved. On the other hand,using larger p tends to distribute distortions more evenly across the whole model.This flexibility is often desirable as it mimics objects made up with different materials.By specifying varying p over the shape,more flexible control can be achieved.We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with various examples.

  17. AB-Bind: Antibody binding mutational database for computational affinity predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Sarah; Apgar, James R; Bennett, Eric M; Keating, Amy E

    2016-02-01

    Antibodies (Abs) are a crucial component of the immune system and are often used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. The need for high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies in research and medicine is driving the development of computational tools for accelerating antibody design and discovery. We report a diverse set of antibody binding data with accompanying structures that can be used to evaluate methods for modeling antibody interactions. Our Antibody-Bind (AB-Bind) database includes 1101 mutants with experimentally determined changes in binding free energies (ΔΔG) across 32 complexes. Using the AB-Bind data set, we evaluated the performance of protein scoring potentials in their ability to predict changes in binding free energies upon mutagenesis. Numerical correlations between computed and observed ΔΔG values were low (r = 0.16-0.45), but the potentials exhibited predictive power for classifying variants as improved vs weakened binders. Performance was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves; the highest AUC values for 527 mutants with |ΔΔG| > 1.0 kcal/mol were 0.81, 0.87, and 0.88 using STATIUM, FoldX, and Discovery Studio scoring potentials, respectively. Some methods could also enrich for variants with improved binding affinity; FoldX and Discovery Studio were able to correctly rank 42% and 30%, respectively, of the 80 most improved binders (those with ΔΔG < -1.0 kcal/mol) in the top 5% of the database. This modest predictive performance has value but demonstrates the continuing need to develop and improve protein energy functions for affinity prediction. PMID:26473627

  18. Generalized Warburg impedance on realistic self-affine fractals: Comparative study of statistically corrugated and isotropic roughness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Kumar; Rama Kant

    2009-09-01

    We analyse the problem of impedance for a diffusion controlled charge transfer process across an irregular interface. These interfacial irregularities are characterized as two class of random fractals: (i) a statistically isotropic self-affine fractals and (ii) a statistically corrugated self-affine fractals. The information about the realistic fractal surface roughness has been introduced through the bandlimited power-law power spectrum over limited wave numbers. The details of power spectrum of such roughness can be characterized in term of four fractal morphological parameters, viz. fractal dimension (), lower (ℓ), and upper () cut-off length scales of fractality, and the proportionality factor () of power spectrum. Theoretical results are analysed for the impedance of such rough electrode as well as the effect of statistical symmetries of roughness. Impedance response for irregular interface is simplified through expansion over intermediate frequencies. This intermediate frequency expansion with sufficient number of terms offers a good approximation over all frequency regimes. The Nyquist plots of impedance show the strong dependency mainly on three surface morphological parameters i.e. , ℓ and . We can say that our theoretical results also provide an alternative explanation for the exponent in intermediate frequency power-law form.

  19. Towards robust and effective shape modeling: sparse shape composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2012-01-01

    Organ shape plays an important role in various clinical practices, e.g., diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment evaluation. It is usually derived from low level appearance cues in medical images. However, due to diseases and imaging artifacts, low level appearance cues might be weak or misleading. In this situation, shape priors become critical to infer and refine the shape derived by image appearances. Effective modeling of shape priors is challenging because: (1) shape variation is complex and cannot always be modeled by a parametric probability distribution; (2) a shape instance derived from image appearance cues (input shape) may have gross errors; and (3) local details of the input shape are difficult to preserve if they are not statistically significant in the training data. In this paper we propose a novel Sparse Shape Composition model (SSC) to deal with these three challenges in a unified framework. In our method, a sparse set of shapes in the shape repository is selected and composed together to infer/refine an input shape. The a priori information is thus implicitly incorporated on-the-fly. Our model leverages two sparsity observations of the input shape instance: (1) the input shape can be approximately represented by a sparse linear combination of shapes in the shape repository; (2) parts of the input shape may contain gross errors but such errors are sparse. Our model is formulated as a sparse learning problem. Using L1 norm relaxation, it can be solved by an efficient expectation-maximization (EM) type of framework. Our method is extensively validated on two medical applications, 2D lung localization in X-ray images and 3D liver segmentation in low-dose CT scans. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our model exhibits better performance in both studies. PMID:21963296

  20. Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora

    2015-10-01

    We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in the presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

  1. Landscape of atomic nuclear shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    We exhibit a wide variety of the nuclear shape phases over the nuclear chart along with a shell model scheme. Various nuclear shapes are demonstrated within the framework of proton-neutron spin-orbital interactions; ferro-deformed, sub-ferro-deformed, and spherical shapes. The spherical shape is classified into the three magic-number categories in view of a large shell gap mechanism; double-magic nuclei I, double magic nuclei II, and double magic nuclei III. We discuss nuclear shape coexistence in the space Z = 76 to 84 as providing a new way to understanding the dynamical shape phases.

  2. Nonlinear force propagation, anisotropic stiffening and non-affine relaxation in a model cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Head, David; Ikebe, Emi; Nakamasu, Akiko; Kinoshita, Suguru; Peijuan, Zhang; Ando, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Forces are generated heterogeneously in living cells and transmitted through cytoskeletal networks that respond highly non-linearly. Here, we carry out high-bandwidth passive microrheology on vimentin networks reconstituted in vitro, and observe the nonlinear mechanical response due to forces propagating from a local source applied by an optical tweezer. Since the applied force is constant, the gel becomes equilibrated and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be employed to deduce the viscoelasticity of the local environment from the thermal fluctuations of colloidal probes. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate the anisotropic stiffening of the cytoskeletal network behind the applied force, with greater stiffening in the parallel direction. Quantitative agreement with an affine continuum model is obtained, but only for the response at certain frequency ~ 10-1000 Hz which separates the high-frequency power law and low-frequency elastic behavior of the network. We argue that the failure of the model at lower frequencies is due to the presence of non-affinity, and observe that zero-frequency changes in particle separation can be fitted when an independently-measured, empirical nonaffinity factor is applied.

  3. An Affine-invariant Sampler for Exoplanet Fitting and Discovery in Radial Velocity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengji; Goodman, Jonathan; Hogg, David W.; Weare, Jonathan; Schwab, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) proves to be powerful for Bayesian inference and in particular for exoplanet radial velocity fitting because MCMC provides more statistical information and makes better use of data than common approaches like chi-square fitting. However, the nonlinear density functions encountered in these problems can make MCMC time-consuming. In this paper, we apply an ensemble sampler respecting affine invariance to orbital parameter extraction from radial velocity data. This new sampler has only one free parameter, and does not require much tuning for good performance, which is important for automatization. The autocorrelation time of this sampler is approximately the same for all parameters and far smaller than Metropolis-Hastings, which means it requires many fewer function calls to produce the same number of independent samples. The affine-invariant sampler speeds up MCMC by hundreds of times compared with Metropolis-Hastings in the same computing situation. This novel sampler would be ideal for projects involving large data sets such as statistical investigations of planet distribution. The biggest obstacle to ensemble samplers is the existence of multiple local optima; we present a clustering technique to deal with local optima by clustering based on the likelihood of the walkers in the ensemble. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the sampler on real radial velocity data.

  4. 'Shape Dynamics': Foundations Reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-01-01

    `Shape dynamics' is meant here in the sense of a type of conformogeometrical reformulation of GR, some of which have of late been considered as generalizations of or alternatives to GR. This note concerns in particular cases based on the notion of volume-preserving conformal transformations (VPCTs), in the sense of preserving a solitary global volume of the universe degree of freedom. The extent to which various ways of modelling VPCTs make use of group theory at all, in a congruous manner, a...

  5. Optimal Consumption and Portfolio Decision with Convertible Bond in Affine Interest Rate and Heston’s SV Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with an optimal investment-consumption problem with stochastic affine interest rate and stochastic volatility, in which interest rate dynamics are described by the affine interest rate model including the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model and the Vasicek model as special cases, while stock price is driven by Heston’s stochastic volatility (SV model. Assume that the financial market consists of a risk-free asset, a zero-coupon bond (or a convertible bond, and a risky asset. By using stochastic dynamic programming principle and the technique of separation of variables, we get the HJB equation of the corresponding value function and the explicit expressions of the optimal investment-consumption strategies under power utility and logarithmic utility. Finally, we analyze the impact of market parameters on the optimal investment-consumption strategies by giving a numerical example.

  6. Shaping the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few windpower projects of any significant size can be found outside California or Europe. Nevertheless, the next few years will likely change that decade-long trend. Except for a few lonely windtowers - the remnants of what amounted to polite renewable energy demonstration by utilities - one must travel to either California or Europe to see windpower of any significant scale. Now, however, European and Californian exclusively may be giving way to the pressures of environmental compliance and decreasing costs of wind-generated electricity. Relatively unknown companions who are vying for a place in the exclusive club include Iowa, Minnesota and Alberta, Canada. The once isolated towers might soon by joined by more turbines to meet demands on a utility scale. The topics of the article include those involved in the wind power market, the market for future wind power projects in Iowa, current wind power projects in Canada and Minnesota. The article contains a sidebar on Minnesota Windpower, Incorporated

  7. Investigation of self-affine multiplicity fluctuations of proton emission in 84Kr-AgBr interactions at 1.7 A GeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-Hai; LI Hui-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Self-affine multiplicity scaling is investigated in the framework of a two-dimensional factorial mo-ment methodology using the concept of the Hurst exponent (H). Investigation of the experimental data of medium-energy knocked-out target protons in SaKr-AgBr interactions at 1.7 AGeV reveals that the best power law behavior is exhibited for H = 0.4, indicating a self-affine multiplicity fluctuation pattern. Multifractalit yamong the knocked-out target protons is also observed in the data.

  8. A novel affinity purification method to isolate peptide specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Alan E; Lernmark, A; Kofod, Hans;

    1990-01-01

    with the beads and after a wash step the bound antibodies were eluted in 1 M acetic acid. The eluted material was composed predominantly of intact immunoglobulin as evidenced by the presence of heavy and light chain bands in SDS-PAGE. The eluted antibodies were peptide specific in ELISA and bound only to intact......Site-specific, high affinity polyclonal antisera are effectively and successfully produced by immunizing rabbits with synthetic peptides. The use of these antisera in subsequent immune analysis is often limited because of non-specific binding. We describe a new and simple method to effectively...... affinity-purify anti-peptide antibodies. To test our system, rabbits were immunized with model peptides representing sequences of the putative rabbit growth hormone receptor and several HLA-DQ beta-chain molecules. Polystyrene plastic beads were coated with peptides. Immune serum was incubated...

  9. Telonemia, a new protist phylum with affinity to chromist lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Eikrem, W.; Klaveness, D.;

    2006-01-01

    , such as the alveolates and heterokonts. Using the same approach on coastal samples, we have identified a novel group of protist small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences that do not correspond to any phylogenetic group previously identified. Comparison with other sequences obtained from cultures of heterotrophic protists...... showed that the environmental sequences grouped together with Telonema, a genus known since 1913 but of uncertain taxonomic affinity. Phylogenetic analyses using four genes (SSU, Hsp90, alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin), and accounting for gamma- and covarion-distributed substitution rates, revealed...... Telonema as a distinct group of species branching off close to chromist lineages. Consistent with these gene trees, Telonema possesses ultrastructures revealing both the distinctness of the group and the evolutionary affinity to chromist groups. Altogether, the data suggest that Telonema constitutes a new...

  10. Evolution based on chromosome affinity from a network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R. L. S.; Fontoura, J. R. A.; Carneiro, T. K. G.; Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on models to simulate the complex phenomenon of evolution of species. Several studies have been performed with theoretical models based on Darwin's theories to associate them with the actual evolution of species. However, none of the existing models include the affinity between individuals using network properties. In this paper, we present a new model based on the concept of affinity. The model is used to simulate the evolution of species in an ecosystem composed of individuals and their relationships. We propose an evolutive algorithm that incorporates the degree centrality and efficiency network properties to perform the crossover process and to obtain the network topology objective, respectively. Using a real network as a starting point, we simulate its evolution and compare its results with the results of 5788 computer-generated networks.

  11. The affine theory of gravitation and electromagnetism I

    CERN Document Server

    Poplawski, N J

    2006-01-01

    The affine variational principle of Eddington generates the Einstein field equations of general relativity in vacuum with a non-zero cosmological constant. We generalize this principle to include electromagnetism, obtaining the Einstein--Maxwell field equations and the Lorentz equation of motion. We vary the action with respect to the quantities that appear in the definition of the electromagnetic covariant derivative: the affine (nonsymmetric) connection and the electromagnetic potential, while the Lagrangian density is taken to be the square root of the determinant of a linear combination of the symmetrized Ricci tensor and the electromagnetic field tensor. This construction generates a symmetric metric tensor and a connection with torsion that depends only on the torsion vector. The whole formulation is valid only for very weak electromagnetic fields on the order of the magnetic field in interstellar space.

  12. Determination of NO chemical affinities of benzyl nitrite in acetonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LI; Xiaoqing ZHU; Jinpei CHENG

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the study of NO chemical affinities of organic nitrites, for the bio-logical and physiological effects of organic nitrites seem to be due to their ability to release NO. In this paper, NO chemical affinities of ten substituted benzyl nitrites were determined by titration calorimetry combined with a ther-modynamic cycle in acetonitrile solution. The results show that ΔHhet(O-NO)s of benzyl nitrites are substan-tially larger than the corresponding ΔHhomo(O-NO)s, suggesting that these O-nitroso compounds much more easily release NO radicals by the O-NO bond homolytic cleavage. It is believed that the structural and energetic information disclosed in this work should be useful in understanding chemical and biological functions of organic nitrites.

  13. A NOVEL METAL CHELATE AFFINITY ADSORBENT FOR PROTEIN UPTAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjian; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this article,a spherical chitosan gel crosslinked by epichlorohydrin was prepared.It was then loaded with copper ions to produce a metal chelate affinity adsorbent for protein.The uptake of bovine serum albumin(BSA)by the affinity adsorbent was investigated.and the adsorption capacity for BSA as high as 40mg/g-wet beads was observed.The adsorption equilibrium data was well correlated by the Langmuir equation.The adsorption was considerably affected by pH.In additio.The amount of BSA adsorbed onto the beads decreased with the increasing of aqueous phase ionic strength,so adsorbed BAS can be desorbed by adjusting pH orionic strength of the solution.

  14. On purely transmitting defects in affine Toda field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Corrigan, E

    2007-01-01

    Affine Toda field theories with a purely transmitting integrable defect are considered and the model based on a_2 is analysed in detail. After providing a complete characterization of the problem in a classical framework, a suitable quantum transmission matrix, able to describe the interaction between an integrable defect and solitons, is found. Two independent paths are taken to reach the result. One is an investigation of the triangle equations using the S-matrix for the imaginary coupling bulk affine Toda field theories proposed by Hollowood, and the other uses a functional integral approach together with a bootstrap procedure. Evidence to support the results is collected in various ways: for instance, through the calculation of the transmission factors for the lightest breathers. While previous discoveries within the sine-Gordon model motivated this study, there are several new phenomena displayed in the a_2 model including intriguing disparities between the classical and the quantum pictures. For example...

  15. An angular momentum conserving Affine-Particle-In-Cell method

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chenfanfu; Teran, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We present a new technique for transferring momentum and velocity between particles and grid with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) calculations which we call Affine-Particle-In-Cell (APIC). APIC represents particle velocities as locally affine, rather than locally constant as in traditional PIC. We show that this representation allows APIC to conserve linear and angular momentum across transfers while also dramatically reducing numerical diffusion usually associated with PIC. Notably, conservation is achieved with lumped mass, as opposed to the more commonly used Fluid Implicit Particle (FLIP) transfers which require a 'full' mass matrix for exact conservation. Furthermore, unlike FLIP, APIC retains a filtering property of the original PIC and thus does not accumulate velocity modes on particles as FLIP does. In particular, we demonstrate that APIC does not experience velocity instabilities that are characteristic of FLIP in a number of Material Point Method (MPM) hyperelasticity calculations. Lastly, we demonstrate th...

  16. Quantized Affine Lie Algebras and Diagonalization of Braid Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, M D; Gould, Mark D.; Zhang, Yao-Zhong

    1994-01-01

    Let $U_q(\\hat{\\cal G})$ be a quantized affine Lie algebra. It is proven that the universal R-matrix $R$ of $U_q(\\hat{\\cal G})$ satisfies the celebrated conjugation relation $R^\\dagger=TR$ with $T$ the usual twist map. As applications, braid generators are shown to be diagonalizable on arbitrary tensor product modules of integrable irreducible highest weight $U_q(\\hat{\\cal G})$-module and a spectral decomposition formula for the braid generators is obtained which is the generalization of Reshetikhin's and Gould's forms to the present affine case. Casimir invariants are constructed and their eigenvalues computed by means of the spectral decomposition formula. As a by-product, an interesting identity is found.

  17. Theoretical Estimate of Hydride Affinities of Aromatic Carbonyl Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Teng; ZHU Xiao-Qing; CHENG Jin-Pei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Aromatic carbonyl compounds are one type of the most important organic compounds, and the reductions ofthem by hydride agents such as LiAlH4 or NaBH4 are widely used in organic synthesis. The reactivity of carbonyl compounds generally increases in the following order: ketone < aldehyde, and amide < acid < ester < acid halide, which could be related to their hydride affinities (HA). In the previous paper, Robert[1] calculated the absolute HAof a series of small non-aromatic carbonyl compounds. In this paper, we use DFT method at B3LYP/6-311 + + G (2d, 2p)∥B3LYP/6-31 + G* level to estimate hydride affinities of five groups of aromatic carbonyl compounds. The detailed results are listed in Table 1.

  18. Algorithm-Architecture Affinity - Parallelism Changes the Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgren, Rasmus; Šaramentovas, Aleksandras; Ruzgys, Paulius;

    Reducing the time-to-market factor is a challenge for many embedded systems designers. In that respect, hardwaresoftware partitioning is a key issue which has been studied during the last two decades. In this paper we present an extension to recent works dealing with metrics for guiding...... the hardware-software partitioning step. This extension builds upon and complement our own work with metrics in the Design Trotter project, and is combined with the affinity metric approach. We show that the proposed extension improves the original affinity metric in terms of parallelism detection, and thus...... can help system designers to make wiser hardware-software partitioning decisions, which in turn reduces the time-to-market factor....

  19. The Weyl-Cartan Space Problem in Purely Affine Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borzeszkowski, Horst-Heino; Treder, Hans-Jürgen

    1997-04-01

    According to Poincaré, only the ``epistemological sum of geometry and physics is measurable". Of course, there are requirements of measurement to be imposed on geometry because otherwise the theory resting on this geometry cannot be physically interpreted. In particular, the Weyl--Cartan space problem must be solved, i.e., it must be guaranteed that the comparison of distances is compatible with the Levi-Civita transport. In the present paper, we discuss these requirements of measurement and show that in the (purely affine) Einstein-Schrödinger unified field theory the solution of the Weyl-Cartan space problem simultaneously determines the matter via Einstein's equations. Here the affine field $\\Gamma^ikl$ represents Poincaré's sum, and the solution of the space problem means its splitting in a metrical space and in matter fields, where the latter are given by the torsion tensor $\\Gamma^i_{[kl]}$.

  20. Improved Energy-Momentum Currents in Metric-Affine Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Hecht, R D; McCrea, J D; Mielke, E W; Ne'eman, Yuval; Hecht, Ralf; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Ne'eman, Yuval

    1992-01-01

    In Minkowski spacetime it is well-known that the canonical energy-momentum current is involved in the construction of the globally conserved currents of energy-momentum and total angular momentum. For the construction of conserved currents corresponding to (approximate) scale and proper conformal symmetries, however, an improved energy-momentum current is needed. By extending the Minkowskian framework to a genuine metric-affine spacetime, we find that the affine Noether identities and the conformal Killing equations enforce this improvement in a rather natural way. So far, no gravitational dynamics is involved in our construction. The resulting dilation and proper conformal currents are conserved provided the trace of the energy-momentum current satisfies a (mild) scaling relation or even vanishes.

  1. Nonspectrality of Certain Self-Affine Measures on ℝ3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Bao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will determine the nonspectrality of self-affine measure μB,D corresponding to B=diag[p1,p2,p3]  (p1∈(2ℤ+1∖{±1}, p2∈2ℤ∖{0}, and D={0,e1,e2,e3} in the space ℝ3 is supported on T(B,D, where e1,  e2, and e3 are the standard basis of unit column vectors in ℝ3, and there exist at most 4 mutually orthogonal exponential functions in L2(μB,D, where the number 4 is the best. This generalizes the known results on the spectrality of self-affine measures.

  2. Affinity enhancement of antibodies: how low-affinity antibodies produced early in immune responses are followed by high-affinity antibodies later and in memory B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N

    2014-05-01

    The antibodies produced initially in response to most antigens are high molecular weight (MW) immunoglobulins (IgM) with low affinity for the antigen, while the antibodies produced later are lower MW classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) with, on average, orders of magnitude higher affinity for that antigen. These changes, often termed affinity maturation, take place largely in small B-cell clusters (germinal center; GC) in lymphoid tissues in which proliferating antigen-stimulated B cells express the highly mutagenic cytidine deaminase that mediates immunoglobulin class-switching and sequence diversification of the immunoglobulin variable domains of antigen-binding receptors on B cells (BCR). Of the large library of BCR-mutated B cells thus rapidly generated, a small minority with affinity-enhancing mutations are selected to survive and differentiate into long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. BCRs are also endocytic receptors; they internalize and cleave BCR-bound antigen, yielding peptide-MHC complexes that are recognized by follicular helper T cells. Imperfect correlation between BCR affinity for antigen and cognate T-cell engagement may account for the increasing affinity heterogeneity that accompanies the increasing average affinity of antibodies. Conservation of mechanisms underlying mutation and selection of high-affinity antibodies over the ≈200 million years of evolution separating bird and mammal lineages points to the crucial role of antibody affinity enhancement in adaptive immunity.

  3. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Symbolic Dynamics for a Piecewise-Affine System with Hysteresis

    OpenAIRE

    Sella, Lorenzo; Collins, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the computation of symbolic dynamics of a one dimensional return map of a piecewise-affine hybrid system. The system arises as a simple electrical circuit with hysteresis switching, and exhibits chaotic dynamics. Our method allows us to rigorously obtain a qualitative description of the discrete behaviour of the system. We show how the discrete dynamics changes as a parameter is varied, and we compute bounds for the topological entropy to provide a measure of the comp...

  5. Identification and Estimation of Gaussian Affine Term Structure Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.; Jing Cynthia Wu

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops new results for identification and estimation of Gaussian affine term structure models. We establish that three popular canonical representations are unidentified, and demonstrate how unidentified regions can complicate numerical optimization. A separate contribution of the paper is the proposal of minimum-chi-square estimation as an alternative to MLE. We show that, although it is asymptotically equivalent to MLE, it can be much easier to compute. In some cases, MCSE allo...

  6. A pulse radiolysis study on electron affinity of piperonal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jianhua; LIN; Weizhen; WANG; Wenfeng; YAO; Side

    2005-01-01

    The piperonal electron affinity was studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The electron transfer reaction process between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate was observed in the pH 7 phosphoric acid salt buffer. The transient absorption spectra of electron transfer reaction between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate were obtained, and the initial proof of the electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor was provided directly. The one-electron reduction potential of piperonal was determined to be -0.457 V.

  7. PREPARATION OF CHITOSAN COATED METAL AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AanTianwei; XuWeijiang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A new and an inexpensive adsorbent of chitosan coated silica for immobilized metal affinity chromatography(IMAC) was studied.After a double coating,the chitosan coated on silica beads could be up to 53.4mg/g silica beads.When pH>3.8,the metal ligand Cu2+ was chelated on the coated chitosan with a bound capacity of 14.6mg/g chitosan without introducing iminodiacetic acid(IDA).

  8. Communication: Revised electron affinity of SF6 from kinetic data.

    OpenAIRE

    Troe, J.; Miller, T; Viggiano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Previously determined experimental data for thermal attachment of electrons to SF 6 and thermal detachment from SF 6 − over the range 590–670 K are reevaluated by a third-law analysis. Recent high precision calculations of SF 6 − harmonic frequences and anharmonicities (for several of the modes) lead to considerable changes in modeled vibrational partition functions which then have to be accommodated for by a smaller value of the derived adiabatic electron affinity EA of SF 6 . The previously...

  9. Agonist binding to high-affinity dopamine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have characterized the dopamine D/sub 3/ site and its binding requirements. The dopamine D/sub 3/ site in calf caudate crude homogenate has a site density of 214-230 fmoles/mg. protein by both /sup 3/H-apomorphine (/sup 3/H-AOP) and /sup 3/H-dopamine (/sup 3/H-DA) Scatchard analysis of specific binding (SB). Stereospecific subsets of /sup 3/H-APO and /sup 3/H-DA sites were defined by the use of agonist and antagonist enantiomer-pairs as a rigorous test for D/sub 3/ site heterogeneity. IC/sub 50/ values for both /sup 3/H-APO and /sup 3/H-DA SB sites were assessed for 55 agonist ligands and an excellent correlation was obtained. The authors conclude that both /sup 3/H-ligands label the same D/sub 3/ site. The D/sub 3/ site affinities of 105 dopamine-agonist ligands, in particular 2-aminotetralins,, aporphines and flexible dopamine analogues were measured. Low D/sub 3/-site affinities of N-quaternary analogues confirm the need for a lone pair. Subadditivity of substituents' effects in semi-flexible DA analogues confirms their postulate that sidechain conformation is the critical determinant of affinity. They conclude that there are at least two high-affinity ligand conformations of the DA sidechain pharmacophore. These binding requirements are presented as two interface-Geometry tetrahedral models of the double H-bond interface between the D/sub 3/ site and the ideal ligand.

  10. Term premia and interest rate forecasts in affine models

    OpenAIRE

    Duffee, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    I find that the standard class of affine models produces poor forecasts of future changes in Treasury yields. Better forecasts are generated by assuming that yields follow random walks. The failure of these models is driven by one of their key features: the compensation that investors receive for facing risk is a multiple of the variance of the risk. This means that risk compensation cannot vary independently of interest rate volatility. I also describe and empirically estimate a class of mod...

  11. Affinity purification of polysaccharide degrading enzymes with crosslinked substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find economically favourable, affinity based, purification methods for several polysaccharide splitting bulk enzymes. The framework in which this study is done is described in Chapter 1.Chapter 2 describes the adsorption of endo-polygalacturonase (endoPG) from a commercial enzyme preparation (Rapidase) to calcium alginate beads. Approximately 75% of the various polygalacturonase activities from Rapidase can be adsorbed at pH 4.4 by calcium alginate beads as well as...

  12. Affine-Detection Loophole in Quantum Data Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander Yu.

    2002-01-01

    Here is considered a specific detection loophole, that is relevant not only to testing of quantum nonlocality, but also to some other applications of quantum computations and communications. It is described by a simple affine relation between different quantum "data structures" like pure and mixed state, separable and inseparable one. It is shown also, that due to such relations imperfect device for a classical model may mimic measurements of quantum correlations on ideal equipment.

  13. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Angeli; da Paz, Nathalia V. N.; Maciel, Jackeline C.; Flávia F. B. Araújo; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Glícia M. T. Calazans; Ana Paula Valente; Almeida, Fábio C. L.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Carvalho, Luiz B; Silva, Maria da Paz C.; Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia

    2009-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammon...

  14. The relation of morphology and affinity maturation in germinal centers

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Hermann, M

    2002-01-01

    The specific morphology of germinal centers is analyzed in the context of the optimization of the humoral immune response. The relevance of dark and light zones for the affinity maturation process is investigated in the framework of a theoretical model for the germinal center reaction. Especially, it is shown that an intermediate appearance of dark zones in germinal center reactions is advantageous for the process of antibody optimization.

  15. Macro factors and the affine term structure of interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Wu

    2001-01-01

    I formulate an affine term structure model of bond yields from a general equilibrium business-cycle model, with observable macro state variables of the structural economy as the factors. The factor representing monetary policy is strongly mean-reverting, and its influence on the term structure is primarily through changing the slope of the yield curve. The factor representing technology is more persistent, and it affects the term structure by shifting the level of the yield curve. The dynamic...

  16. Affinity chromatography based on a combinatorial strategy for rerythropoietin purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ceron, María C; Marani, Mariela M; Taulés, Marta; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Albericio, Fernando; Cascone, Osvaldo; Camperi, Silvia A

    2011-05-01

    Small peptides containing fewer than 10 amino acids are promising ligand candidates with which to build affinity chromatographic systems for industrial protein purification. The application of combinatorial peptide synthesis strategies greatly facilitates the discovery of suitable ligands for any given protein of interest. Here we sought to identify peptide ligands with affinity for recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), which is used for the treatment of anemia. A combinatorial library containing the octapeptides X-X-X-Phe-X-X-Ala-Gly, where X = Ala, Asp, Glu, Phe, His, Leu, Asn, Pro, Ser, or Thr, was synthesized on HMBA-ChemMatrix resin by the divide-couple-recombine method. For the library screening, rhEPO was coupled to either Texas Red or biotin. Fluorescent beads or beads showing a positive reaction with streptavidin-peroxidase were isolated. After cleavage, peptides were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifty-seven beads showed a positive reaction. Peptides showing more consensuses were synthesized, and their affinity to rhEPO was assessed using a plasma resonance biosensor. Dissociation constant values in the range of 1-18 μM were obtained. The best two peptides were immobilized on Sepharose, and the resultant chromatographic matrixes showed affinity for rhEPO with dissociation constant values between 1.8 and 2.7 μM. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatant was spiked with rhEPO, and the artificial mixture was loaded on Peptide-Sepharose columns. The rhEPO was recovered in the elution fraction with a yield of 90% and a purity of 95% and 97% for P1-Sepharose and P2-Sepharose, respectively. PMID:21495625

  17. The development of an affinity evaluation and prediction system by using protein–protein docking simulations and parameter tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Tsukamoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Koki Tsukamoto1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1,2, Kiyonobu Yokota1, Yuichiro Hourai1, Kazuhiko Fukui11Computational Biology Research Center (CBRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Koto-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, JapanAbstract: A system was developed to evaluate and predict the interaction between protein pairs by using the widely used shape complementarity search method as the algorithm for docking simulations between the proteins. We used this system, which we call the affinity evaluation and prediction (AEP system, to evaluate the interaction between 20 protein pairs. The system first executes a “round robin” shape complementarity search of the target protein group, and evaluates the interaction between the complex structures obtained by the search. These complex structures are selected by using a statistical procedure that we developed called ‘grouping’. At a prevalence of 5.0%, our AEP system predicted protein–protein interactions with a 50.0% recall, 55.6% precision, 95.5% accuracy, and an F-measure of 0.526. By optimizing the grouping process, our AEP system successfully predicted 10 protein pairs (among 20 pairs that were biologically relevant combinations. Our ultimate goal is to construct an affinity database that will provide cell biologists and drug designers with crucial information obtained using our AEP system.Keywords: protein–protein interaction, affinity analysis, protein–protein docking, FFT, massive parallel computing

  18. Similarity of molecular shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A Y; Richards, W G

    1991-10-01

    The similarity of one molecule to another has usually been defined in terms of electron densities or electrostatic potentials or fields. Here it is expressed as a function of the molecular shape. Formulations of similarity (S) reduce to very simple forms, thus rendering the computerised calculation straightforward and fast. 'Elements of similarity' are identified, in the same spirit as 'elements of chirality', except that the former are understood to be variable rather than present-or-absent. Methods are presented which bypass the time-consuming mathematical optimisation of the relative orientation of the molecules. Numerical results are presented and examined, with emphasis on the similarity of isomers. At the extreme, enantiomeric pairs are considered, where it is the dissimilarity (D = 1 - S) that is of consequence. We argue that chiral molecules can be graded by dissimilarity, and show that D is the shape-analog of the 'chirality coefficient', with the simple form of the former opening up numerical access to the latter. PMID:1770379

  19. Affitins for protein purification by affinity magnetic fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Dos Santos, Raquel; Ottengy, Stella; Viecinski, Aline Canani; Béhar, Ghislaine; Mouratou, Barbara; Pecorari, Frédéric; Roque, A Cecília A

    2016-07-29

    Currently most economical and technological bottlenecks in protein production are placed in the downstream processes. With the aim of increasing the efficiency and reducing the associated costs, various affinity ligands have been developed. Affitins are small, yet robust and easy to produce, proteins derived from the archaeal extremophilic "7kDa DNA-binding" protein family. By means of combinatorial protein engineering and ribosome display selection techniques, Affitins have shown to bind a diversity of targets. In this work, two previously developed Affitins (anti-lysozyme and anti-IgG) were immobilized onto magnetic particles to assess their potential for protein purification by magnetic fishing. The optimal lysozyme and human IgG binding conditions yielded 58mg lysozyme/g support and 165mgIgG/g support, respectively. The recovery of proteins was possible in high yield (≥95%) and with high purity, namely ≥95% and 81%, when recovering lysozyme from Escherichia coli supernatant and IgG from human plasma, respectively. Static binding studies indicated affinity constants of 5.0×10(4)M(-1) and 9.3×10(5)M(-1) for the anti-lysozyme and anti-IgG magnetic supports. This work demonstrated that Affitins, which can be virtually evolved for any protein of interest, can be coupled onto magnetic particles creating novel affinity adsorbents for purification by magnetic fishing. PMID:27342136

  20. Con A affinity glycoproteomics of normal human liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN QiangLing; LU HaoJie; LIU YinKun; LU WenJing; CHENG Gang; ZHOU HaiJun; ZHOU XinWen; WEI LiMing; DAI Zhi; GUO Kun

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish the novel high throughput, high efficiency and Iow cost technological platform for the research of N-glycoproteomics, to resolve the significance of characteristic expression profile of glycoprotein and to find the proteins with biological functional importance, the glycoproteins with high-mannose core and the two antennary types were purified and enriched by the Con A affinity chromatography. Con A affinity protein expression profiles of normal human liver tissue were generated by using SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by fast fluorescence staining based on multiplexed proteomics (MP) technology. 301 visible protein spots on the gel were detected and 85 of glycoproteins were further successfully identified via peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS/MS) and annotated to IPI databases. Identified glycoproteins definitely take part in the regulation of cell cycle and metabolic processes. The glycosylation sites were predicted with NetNGlyc 1.0 and NetOGlyc 3.1 software, meanwhile they were classified according to the geneontology methods. The construction of Con A affinity glycoprotein database of normal human liver tissue would contribute to the subsequent research.

  1. Con A affinity glycoproteomics of normal human liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish the novel high throughput, high efficiency and low cost technological platform for the research of N-glycoproteomics, to resolve the significance of characteristic expression profile of glycoprotein and to find the proteins with biological functional importance, the glycoproteins with high-mannose core and the two antennary types were purified and enriched by the Con A affinity chromatography. Con A affinity protein expression profiles of normal human liver tissue were gener- ated by using SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by fast fluorescence stain- ing based on multiplexed proteomics (MP) technology. 301 visible protein spots on the gel were de- tected and 85 of glycoproteins were further successfully identified via peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF- MS/MS) and annotated to IPI databases. Identified glycoproteins definitely take part in the regulation of cell cycle and metabolic processes. The glycosylation sites were predicted with NetNGlyc 1.0 and NetOGlyc 3.1 software, meanwhile they were classified according to the geneontology methods. The construction of Con A affinity glycoprotein database of normal human liver tissue would contribute to the subsequent research.

  2. Structure of Greyhound hemoglobin: origin of high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Veer S; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Harris, David R; Couto, C Guillermo; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of Greyhound hemoglobin (GrHb) determined to 1.9 Å resolution. GrHb was found to crystallize with an α₁β₁ dimer in the asymmetric unit and belongs to the R2 state. Oxygen-affinity measurements combined with the fact that GrHb crystallizes in the R2 state despite the high-salt conditions used for crystallization strongly indicate that GrHb can serve as a model high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) for higher mammals, especially humans. Structural analysis of GrHb and its comparison with the R2-state of human Hb revealed several regions that can potentially contribute to the high oxygen affinity of GrHb and serve to rationalize the additional stability of the R2-state of GrHb. A previously well studied hydrophobic cluster of bar-headed goose Hb near α119 was also incorporated in the comparison between GrHb and human Hb. Finally, a structural comparison with generic dog Hb and maned wolf Hb was conducted, revealing that in contrast to GrHb these structures belong to the R state of Hb and raising the intriguing possibility of an additional allosteric factor co-purifying with GrHb that can modulate its quaternary structure. PMID:21543841

  3. Synthesis and NMDA receptor affinity of fluorinated dioxadrol analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ashutosh; Schepmann, Dirk; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-06-01

    A series of dioxadrol analogues with fluorine substituents in position 4 of the piperidine ring has been synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. The key step in the synthesis was the fluorination of diastereomeric piperidones 6a and 6c as well as diastereomeric alcohols 9a and 9c with DAST. The reaction of the alcohols 9a and 9c took place with inversion of configuration. After removal of the Cbz-protective group, the NMDA receptor affinities of the resulting secondary amines 8a, 8c, 12b, and 12d were investigated in receptor binding studies. It was shown that the like-configuration of the ring junction was crucial for high NMDA receptor affinity. An axially oriented fluorine atom in position 4 led to 2-(2,2-diphenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-4-fluoropiperidine (12d, WMS-2517) with a K(i)-value of 27nM. The NMDA receptor affinity of 8c (WMS-2513) with an additional fluorine atom in equatorial 4-position was slightly reduced (K(i)=81 nM). Both fluorinated dioxadrol derivatives 8c and 12d showed high selectivity against sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors as well as the polyamine binding site of NR2B receptors.

  4. Nanoparticle Surface Affinity as a Predictor of Trophic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitner, Nicholas K; Marinakos, Stella M; Guo, Charles; O'Brien, Niall; Wiesner, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Nanoscale materials, whether natural, engineered, or incidental, are increasingly acknowledged as important components in large, environmental systems with potential implications for environmental impact and human health. Mathematical models are a useful tool for handling the rapidly increasing complexity and diversity of these materials and their exposure routes. Presented here is a mathematical model of trophic transfer driven by nanomaterial surface affinity for environmental and biological surfaces, developed in tandem with an experimental functional assay for determining these surface affinities. We found that nanoparticle surface affinity is a strong predictor of uptake through predation in a simple food web consisting of the algae Chlorella vulgaris and daphnid Daphnia magna. The mass of nanoparticles internalized by D. magna through consuming nanomaterial-contaminated algae varied linearly with surface-attachment efficiency. Internalized quantities of gold nanoparticles in D. magna ranged from 8.3 to 23.6 ng/mg for nanoparticle preparations with surface-attachment efficiencies ranging from 0.07 to 1. This model, coupled with the functional-assay approach, may provide a useful screening tool for existing materials as well as a predictive model for their development. PMID:27249534

  5. Relative Binding Affinities of Monolignols to Horseradish Peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Petridis, Loukas; Cheng, Xiaolin; Smith, Jeremy C

    2016-08-11

    Monolignol binding to the peroxidase active site is the first step in lignin polymerization in plant cell walls. Using molecular dynamics, docking, and free energy perturbation calculations, we investigate the binding of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase C. Our results suggest that p-coumaryl alcohol has the strongest binding affinity followed by sinapyl and coniferyl alcohol. Stacking interactions between the monolignol aromatic rings and nearby phenylalanine residues play an important role in determining the calculated relative binding affinities. p-Coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols bind in a pose productive for reaction in which a direct H-bond is formed between the phenolic -OH group and a water molecule (W2) that may facilitate proton transfer during oxidation. In contrast, in the case of sinapyl alcohol there is no such direct interaction, the phenolic -OH group instead interacting with Pro139. Since proton and electron transfer is the rate-limiting step in monolignol oxidation by peroxidase, the binding pose (and thus the formation of near attack conformation) appears to play a more important role than the overall binding affinity in determining the oxidation rate. PMID:27447548

  6. A Quick and Affine Invariance Matching Method for Oblique Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAO Xiongwu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a quick, affine invariance matching method for oblique images. It calculated the initial affine matrix by making full use of the two estimated camera axis orientation parameters of an oblique image, then recovered the oblique image to a rectified image by doing the inverse affine transform, and left over by the SIFT method. We used the nearest neighbor distance ratio(NNDR, normalized cross correlation(NCC measure constraints and consistency check to get the coarse matches, then used RANSAC method to calculate the fundamental matrix and the homography matrix. And we got the matches that they were interior points when calculating the homography matrix, then calculated the average value of the matches' principal direction differences. During the matching process, we got the initial matching features by the nearest neighbor(NN matching strategy, then used the epipolar constrains, homography constrains, NCC measure constrains and consistency check of the initial matches' principal direction differences with the calculated average value of the interior matches' principal direction differences to eliminate false matches. Experiments conducted on three pairs of typical oblique images demonstrate that our method takes about the same time as SIFT to match a pair of oblique images with a plenty of corresponding points distributed evenly and an extremely low mismatching rate.

  7. SIFT Feature Matching Algorithm with Local Shape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Lichuan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform is one of the most effective local feature of scale, rotation and illumination invariant, which is widely used in the field of image matching. While there will be a lot mismatches when an image has many similar regions. In this study, an improved SIFT feature matching algorithm with local shape context is put forward. The feature vectors are computed by dominant orientation assignment to each feature point based on elliptical neighboring region and with local shape context and then the feature vectors are matched by using Euclidean distance and the X2 distance. The experiment indicates that the improved algorithm can reduce mismatch probability and acquire good performance on affine invariance, improves matching results greatly.

  8. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  9. A Poisson-based adaptive affinity propagation clustering for SAGE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, DongMing; Zhu, QingXin; Yang, Fan

    2010-02-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool to obtain gene expression profiles. Clustering analysis is a valuable technique for analyzing SAGE data. In this paper, we propose an adaptive clustering method for SAGE data analysis, namely, PoissonAPS. The method incorporates a novel clustering algorithm, Affinity Propagation (AP). While AP algorithm has demonstrated good performance on many different data sets, it also faces several limitations. PoissonAPS overcomes the limitations of AP using the clustering validation measure as a cost function of merging and splitting, and as a result, it can automatically cluster SAGE data without user-specified parameters. We evaluated PoissonAPS and compared its performance with other methods on several real life SAGE datasets. The experimental results show that PoissonAPS can produce meaningful and interpretable clusters for SAGE data.

  10. CEval: All-in-one software for data processing and statistical evaluations in affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubský, Pavel; Ördögová, Magda; Malý, Michal; Riesová, Martina

    2016-05-01

    We introduce CEval software (downloadable for free at echmet.natur.cuni.cz) that was developed for quicker and easier electrophoregram evaluation and further data processing in (affinity) capillary electrophoresis. This software allows for automatic peak detection and evaluation of common peak parameters, such as its migration time, area, width etc. Additionally, the software includes a nonlinear regression engine that performs peak fitting with the Haarhoff-van der Linde (HVL) function, including automated initial guess of the HVL function parameters. HVL is a fundamental peak-shape function in electrophoresis, based on which the correct effective mobility of the analyte represented by the peak is evaluated. Effective mobilities of an analyte at various concentrations of a selector can be further stored and plotted in an affinity CE mode. Consequently, the mobility of the free analyte, μA, mobility of the analyte-selector complex, μAS, and the apparent complexation constant, K('), are first guessed automatically from the linearized data plots and subsequently estimated by the means of nonlinear regression. An option that allows two complexation dependencies to be fitted at once is especially convenient for enantioseparations. Statistical processing of these data is also included, which allowed us to: i) express the 95% confidence intervals for the μA, μAS and K(') least-squares estimates, ii) do hypothesis testing on the estimated parameters for the first time. We demonstrate the benefits of the CEval software by inspecting complexation of tryptophan methyl ester with two cyclodextrins, neutral heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-CD and charged heptakis(6-O-sulfo)-β-CD.

  11. Robust adaptive control for a class of uncertain non-affine nonlinear systems using affine-type neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shitie; Gao, Xianwen

    2016-08-01

    A robust adaptive control is proposed for a class of single-input single-output non-affine nonlinear systems. In order to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, a novel affine-type neural network is used, and then to compensate the approximation error and external disturbance a robust control term is employed. By Lyapunov stability analysis for the closed-loop system, it is proved that tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero. Moreover, an observer is designed to estimate the system states because all the states may not be available for measurements. Furthermore, the adaptation laws of neural networks and the robust controller are given out based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  12. Consumer affinity for foreign countries: construct development, buying behavior consequences and animosity contrasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nes, Erik B.; Yelkur, Rama; Silkoset, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose is to extend affinity theory in construct domain, scale development, model testing and by discerning affinity and animosity. Design/methodology/approach: We carry out exploratory and empirical research in order to explore the domain and to test the factor structure and the hypotheses through confirmatory analysis. Findings: We find (1) four target country affinity dimensions, (2) consumer affinity impacts micro country image, buying intentions and actual product own...

  13. Analytical theory for shape stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进之

    2000-01-01

    The shape stiffness of mill m is defined as the crosswise rigidity of the unit width of steel plate, that is, m = k/b. By differentiating the steel plate crown equation in the vector model of steel plate shape, a new concise equation for the shape stiffness, kc = m + q, is obtained. Furthermore, by combining the calculation equation for steel plate crown derived from Castigliano’s theorem, an analytical calculation equation for the shape rigidity of rolled steel plate is derived. The correctness and practicability of the theory for the shape stiffness are demonstrated by comparing the results from the numerical calculation with the practical data of a rolling mill.

  14. Analytical theory for shape stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The shape stiffness of mill m is defined as the crosswise rigidity of the unit width of steel plate, that is, m=k/b. By differentiating the steel plate crown equation in the vector model of steel plate shape, a new concise equation for the shape stiffness, kc=m+q, is obtained. Furthermore, by combining the calculation equation for steel plate crown derived from Castigliano's theorem, an analytical calculation equation for the shape rigidity of rolled steel plate is derived. The correctness and practicability of the theory for the shape stiffness are demonstrated by comparing the results from the numerical calculation with the practical data of a rolling mill.

  15. Landscape of atomic nuclear shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    We exhibit a wide variety of the nuclear shape phases over the nuclear chart along with a shell model scheme. Various nuclear shapes are demonstrated within the framework of proton-neutron spin-orbital interactions; ferro-deformed, sub-ferro-deformed, and spherical shapes. The spherical shape is classified into the three magic-number categories in view of a large shell gap mechanism; double-magic nuclei I, double magic nuclei II, and double magic nuclei III. We discuss nuclear shape coexisten...

  16. Boosted Higgs Shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaffer, Matthias; Takeuchi, Michihisa; Weiler, Andreas; Wymant, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The inclusive Higgs production rate through gluon fusion has been measured to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM). We show that even if the inclusive Higgs production rate is very SM-like, a precise determination of the boosted Higgs transverse momentum shape offers the opportunity to see effects of natural new physics. These measurements are generically motivated by effective field theory arguments and specifically in extensions of the SM with a natural weak scale, like composite Higgs models and natural supersymmetry. We show in detail how a measurement at high transverse momentum of $H\\to 2\\ell+\\mathbf{p}\\!\\!/_T$ via $H\\to \\tau\\tau$ and $H\\to WW^*$ could be performed and demonstrate that it offers a compelling alternative to the $t\\bar t H$ channel. We discuss the sensitivity to new physics in the most challenging scenario of an exactly SM-like inclusive Higgs cross-section.

  17. A Shape Dynamics Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Mercati, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Shape Dynamics (SD) is a new theory of gravity that is based on fewer and more fundamental first principles than General Relativity (GR). The most important feature of SD is the replacement of GR's relativity of simultaneity with a more tractable gauge symmetry, namely invariance under spatial conformal transformations. This Tutorial contains both a quick introduction for readers curious about SD and a detailed walk-through of the historical and conceptual motivations for the theory, its logical development from first principles and an in-depth description of its present status. The Tutorial is sufficiently self-contained for an undergrad student with some basic background in General Relativity and Lagrangian/Hamiltonian mechanics. It is intended both as a reference text for students approaching the subject, and as a review article for researchers interested in the theory. This is a first version of the Tutorial, which will be periodically expanded and updated with the latest results.

  18. Boosted Higgs shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaffer, Matthias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Spannowsky, Michael [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Takeuchi, Michihisa [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics and Cosmology Group; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Wymant, Chris [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    2014-05-15

    The inclusive Higgs production rate through gluon fusion has been measured to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM). We show that even if the inclusive Higgs production rate is very SM-like, a precise determination of the boosted Higgs transverse momentum shape offers the opportunity to see effects of natural new physics. These measurements are generically motivated by effective field theory arguments and specifically in extensions of the SM with a natural weak scale, like composite Higgs models and natural supersymmetry. We show in detail how a measurement at high transverse momentum of H→2l+p{sub T} via H→ττ and H→WW{sup *} could be performed and demonstrate that it offers a compelling alternative to the t anti tH channel. We discuss the sensitivity to new physics in the most challenging scenario of an exactly SM-like inclusive Higgs cross-section.

  19. Boosted Higgs shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaffer, Matthias [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Spannowsky, Michael [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Takeuchi, Michihisa [King' s College London, Theoretical Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Weiler, Andreas [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); CERN, Theory Division, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Wymant, Chris [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, 9 Chemin de Bellevue, 74940, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Imperial College London, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The inclusive Higgs production rate through gluon fusion has been measured to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM). We show that even if the inclusive Higgs production rate is very SM-like, a precise determination of the boosted Higgs transverse momentum shape offers the opportunity to see effects of natural new physics. These measurements are generically motivated by effective field theory arguments and specifically in extensions of the SM with a natural weak scale, like composite Higgs models and natural supersymmetry. We show in detail how a measurement at high transverse momentum of H → 2l + p{sub T} via H → ττ and H → WW* could be performed and demonstrate that it offers a compelling alternative to the t anti tH channel. We discuss the sensitivity to newphysics in the most challenging scenario of an exactly SM-like inclusive Higgs cross section. (orig.)

  20. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R;

    2015-01-01

    Selective 2' Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse...

  1. Koszul duality of affine Kac-Moody algebras and cyclotomic rational DAHA

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Peng; Vasserot, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We give a proof of the parabolic/singular Koszul duality for the category O of affine Kac-Moody algebras. The main new tool is a relation between moment graphs and finite codimensional affine Schubert varieties. We apply this duality to q-Schur algebras and to cyclotomic rational double affine Hecke algebras.

  2. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section 212.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  3. Identifying high-affinity aptamer ligands with defined cross-reactivity using high-throughput guided systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Agata; Brenneman, Randall; Hoinka, Jan; Sant, David; Cardone, Marco; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Przytycka, Teresa M; Berezhnoy, Alexey

    2015-07-13

    Oligonucleotide aptamers represent a novel platform for creating ligands with desired specificity, and they offer many potentially significant advantages over monoclonal antibodies in terms of feasibility, cost, and clinical applicability. However, the isolation of high-affinity aptamer ligands from random oligonucleotide pools has been challenging. Although high-throughput sequencing (HTS) promises to significantly facilitate systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) analysis, the enormous datasets generated in the process pose new challenges for identifying those rare, high-affinity aptamers present in a given pool. We show that emulsion PCR preserves library diversity, preventing the loss of rare high-affinity aptamers that are difficult to amplify. We also demonstrate the importance of using reference targets to eliminate binding candidates with reduced specificity. Using a combination of bioinformatics and functional analyses, we show that the rate of amplification is more predictive than prevalence with respect to binding affinity and that the mutational landscape within a cluster of related aptamers can guide the identification of high-affinity aptamer ligands. Finally, we demonstrate the power of this selection process for identifying cross-species aptamers that can bind human receptors and cross-react with their murine orthologs.

  4. IMF shape constraints from stellar populations and dynamics from CALIFA

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubenova, M; van de Ven, G; Falcón-Barroso, J; Galbany, L; Gallazzi, A; García-Benito, R; Delgado, R González; Husemann, B; La Barbera, F; Marino, R A; Mast, D; Mendez-Abreu, J; Peletier, R F P; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Sánchez, S F; Trager, S C; Bosch, R C E van den; Vazdekis, A; Walcher, C J; Zhu, L; Zibetti, S; Ziegler, B; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we describe how we use stellar dynamics information to constrain the shape of the stellar IMF in a sample of 27 early-type galaxies from the CALIFA survey. We obtain dynamical and stellar mass-to-light ratios, $\\Upsilon_\\mathrm{dyn}$ and $\\Upsilon_{\\ast}$, over a homogenous aperture of 0.5~$R_{e}$. We use the constraint $\\Upsilon_\\mathrm{dyn} \\ge \\Upsilon_{\\ast}$ to test two IMF shapes within the framework of the extended MILES stellar population models. We rule out a single power law IMF shape for 75% of the galaxies in our sample. Conversely, we find that a double power law IMF shape with a varying high-mass end slope is compatible (within 1$\\sigma$) with 95% of the galaxies. We also show that dynamical and stellar IMF mismatch factors give consistent results for the systematic variation of the IMF in these galaxies.

  5. Shape integral method for magnetospheric shapes. [boundary layer calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the shape of any magnetopause to arbitrarily high precision. The method uses an integral equation which is evaluated for a trial shape. The resulting values of the integral equation as a function of auxiliary variables indicate how close one is to the desired solution. A variational method can then be used to improve the trial shape. Some potential applications are briefly mentioned.

  6. Surface shape memory in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Many crosslinked polymers exhibit a shape memory effect wherein a permanent shape can be prescribed during crosslinking and arbitrary temporary shapes may be set through network chain immobilization. Researchers have extensively investigated such shape memory polymers in bulk form (bars, films, foams), revealing a multitude of approaches. Applications abound for such materials and a significant fraction of the studies in this area concern application-specific characterization. Recently, we have turned our attention to surface shape memory in polymers as a means to miniaturization of the effect, largely motivated to study the interaction of biological cells with shape memory polymers. In this presentation, attention will be given to several approaches we have taken to prepare and study surface shape memory phenomenon. First, a reversible embossing study involving a glassy, crosslinked shape memory material will be presented. Here, the permanent shape was flat while the temporary state consisted of embossed parallel groves. Further the fixing mechanism was vitrification, with Tg adjusted to accommodate experiments with cells. We observed that the orientation and spreading of adherent cells could be triggered to change by the topographical switch from grooved to flat. Second, a functionally graded shape memory polymer will be presented, the grading being a variation in glass transition temperature in one direction along the length of films. Characterization of the shape fixing and recovery of such films utilized an indentation technique that, along with polarizing microscopy, allowed visualization of stress distribution in proximity to the indentations. Finally, very recent research concerning shape memory induced wrinkle formation on polymer surfaces will be presented. A transformation from smooth to wrinkled surfaces at physiological temperatures has been observed to have a dramatic effect on the behavior of adherent cells. A look to the future in research and

  7. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  8. Two-loop enhancement factor for $1/Q$ corrections to event shapes in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the two-loop enhancement factors for our earlier one-loop calculations of leading ($1/Q$) power corrections to the mean values of some event shape variables in deep inelastic lepton scattering. The enhancement is found to be equal to the universal ''Milan factor'' for those shape variables considered, provided the one-loop calculation is performed in a particular way. As a result, the phenomenology of power corrections to DIS event shapes remains largely unaffected. (author)

  9. Inter-carrier Interference Mitigation in OFDM System Using a New Pulse Shaping Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Adibah Ibrahim; Razali Ngah; Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a new pulse shaping method namely scale alpha for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The proposed pulse shape is designed and simulated using Matlab software. Results and discussions are made to analyze the performance of the new pulse shape, particularly regarding two parameters that are inter-carrier interference (ICI) power reduction, and eye diagrams. It is shown that the new pulse is better in ICI power reduction performance than Franks...

  10. Thermaly Active Structures for Shape Morphing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas L'Hostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For shape morphing application, thermal activation coupling to a bimetallic strip effect can be a substitute for classical actuators, piezoelectrical or shape memory alloys. The controlled behaviour of composite material (CBCM is a thermaly activated composite material. The thermal activation is made thanks to carbon yarns which are connected to a power supply. If the anisotropy of the structure is well organized, the desired deformation is reached when the temperature within the composite is rising. To obtain a CBCM morphing composite structure, it is necessary to design a specific structure. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to adapt the CBCM principle in order to transform any kind of classical composite structure to an active structure. The first part of this work consists in presenting the experimental results for two examples of composite beams. The second part is about the active structure FEM modeling and the development of adapted tools for this particular design.

  11. On Optimal Shapes in Materials and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2000-01-01

    In the micromechanics design of materials, as well as in the design of structural connections, the boundary shape plays an important role. The objective may be the stiffest design, the strongest design or just a design of uniform energy density along the shape. In an energy formulation it is proven...... that these three objectives have the same solution, at least within the limits of geometrical constraints, including the parametrization. Without involving stress/strain fields, the proof holds for 3D-problems, for power-law nonlinear elasticity and for anisotropic elasticity. To clarify the importance...... of parametrization, the problem of material/hole design for maximum bulk modulus is analysed. A simple optimality criterion is derived and with a simple superelliptic parametrization, agreement with Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are found. More general examples including nonequal principal strains, nonlinear elasticity...

  12. Fluid Flow in a Porous Tree-Shaped Network

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Tree-shaped flow networks connect one point to an infinity of points and are everywhere in Nature. These networks often own minimal flow resistance and vessel sizes obey to scaling power-laws. In this paper presents a model for fluid flow through a tree-shaped network with porous tubes. Hagen–Poiseuille flow is assumed for tubes and Darcy flow for the porous wall.

  13. Surface affinity role in graphoepitaxy of lamellar block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau, G.; Quemere, P.; Argoud, M.; Hazart, J.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Sarrazin, A.; Posseme, N.; Tiron, R.; Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Navarro, C.

    2016-03-01

    Overcoming the optical limitations of 193nm immersion lithography can be achieved using Directed Self Assembly (DSA) of block-copolymers (BCPs) as a low-cost and versatile complementary technique. The goal of this paper is to investigate the potential of DSA to address line and space (L/S) high resolution patterning by performing the density multiplication of lines with the graphoepitaxy approach. As surface affinity is a key parameter in self-assembly, three variations, or "flavors", of DSA template affinity are investigated regarding several success criteria such as morphology control or defectivity. More precisely, both the methodology to register DSA defects and the impact of process parameters on defectivity are detailed. Using the 300mm pilot line available in LETI and Arkema's advanced materials, we investigate process optimization of DSA line/space patterning of a 38nm period lamellar PS-b-PMMA BCP (L38). For this study, our integration scheme, depicted in figure 2-1, is based on BCP self-assembly inside organic hard mask guiding patterns obtained using 193i nm lithography. Defect analysis coupled with the fine tuning of process parameters (annealing, brush material) provided the optimum conditions for the L38 self-assembly. Using such conditions, DSA using the three affinity flavors is investigated by means of SEM top-view and cross-section review. Lithographic performances of one selected flavor are then evaluated with the comparison of Process Windows (PWs) function of either commensurability, morphology or LWR. This work is a first step in finding the best process for an industrial graphoepitaxy approach.

  14. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin CHEN; Ya-nan LIN

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)C1 by some ideals, where L(A)C1 is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)C1 generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)C1 generated by simple A-modules.

  15. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)1C by some ideals, where L(A)1C is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)1C generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)1C generated by simple A-modules.

  16. Corner detectors for affine invariant salient regions: is color important?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebe, Nicu; Gevers, Theo; Van De Weijer, Joost; Dijkstra, Sietse

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a lot of research has been done on the matching of images and their structures. Although the approaches are very different, most methods use some kind of point selection from which descriptors or a hierarchy are derived. We focus here on the methods that are related to the detection of points and regions that can be detected in an affine invariant way. Most of the previous research concentrated on intensity based methods. However, we show in this work that color information can make...

  17. Understanding proton affinity of tyrosine sidechain in hydrophobic confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T G Abi; T Karmakar; S Taraphder

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine is an important amino acid residue that plays a key role in several biochemical transformations such as, abstraction/donation of proton from/by its sidechain. We present here a density functional study on the proton affinity of tyrosine sidechain suspended inside the core of a single walled carbon nanotube that mimics the environment of protein structural pores and molecular channels. Tyrosine is found to exhibit a lower reactivity on confinement and unlike several other polar amino acid sidechains, its reactivity does not respond to hydrogen bonding with neighbouring hydroxyl groups.

  18. Affinity and Hostility in Divided Communities: a Mathematical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We propose, develop, and analyze a mathematical model of intergroup attitudes in a community that is divided between two distinct social groups (which may be distinguished by religion, ethnicity, or some other socially distinguishing factor). The model is based on very simple premises that are both intuitive and justified by sociological research. We investigate the behavior of the model in various special cases, for various model configurations. We discuss the stability of the model, and the continuous or discontinuous dependence of model behavior on various parameters. Finally, we discuss possible implications for strategies to improve intergroup affinity, and to defuse tension and prevent deterioration of intergroup relationships.

  19. Nine switch-affine neurons suffice for Turing universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelmann, H T.; Margenstern, M

    1999-06-01

    In a previous work Pollack showed that a particular type of heterogeneous processor network is Turing universal. Siegelmann and Sontag (1991) showed the universality of homogeneous networks of first-order neurons having piecewise-linear activation functions. Their result was generalized by Kilian and Siegelmann (1996) to include various sigmoidal activation functions. Here we focus on a type of high-order neurons called switch-affine neurons, with piecewise-linear activation functions, and prove that nine such neurons suffice for simulating universal Turing machines. PMID:12662670

  20. Algebraic (Volume) Density Property for Affine Homogeneous Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Let $X$ be a connected affine homogenous space of a linear algebraic group $G$ over $\\C$. (1) If $X$ is different from a line or a torus we show that the space of all algebraic vector fields on $X$ coincides with the Lie algebra generated by complete algebraic vector fields on $X$. (2) Suppose that $X$ has a $G$-invariant volume form $\\omega$. We prove that the space of all divergence-free (with respect to $\\omega$) algebraic vector fields on $X$ coincides with the Lie algebra generated by di...

  1. Feedback control design for discrete-time piecewise affine systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; XIE Li-hua

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of state feedback and dynamic output feedback stabilizing controllers for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. The main objective is to derive design methods that will incorporate the partition information of the PWA systems so as to reduce the design conservatism embedded in existing design methods. We first introduce a transformation that converts the feedback control design problem into a bilinear matrix inequality (BMI) problem. Then, two iterative algorithms are proposed to compute the feedback controllers characterized by the BMI. Several simulation examples are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed design.

  2. Jumps and twists in affine Toda field theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Doikou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of point-like “jump” defects is investigated in the context of affine Toda field theories. The Hamiltonian formulation is employed for the analysis of the problem. The issue is also addressed when integrable boundary conditions ruled by the classical twisted Yangian are present. In both periodic and boundary cases explicit expressions of conserved quantities as well as the relevant Lax pairs and sewing conditions are extracted. It is also observed that in the case of the twisted Yangian the bulk behavior is not affected by the presence of the boundaries.

  3. Jumps and twists in affine Toda field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: A.Doikou@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Heriot–Watt University, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Engineering & Informatics, University of Patras, GR-Patras 26500 (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    The concept of point-like “jump” defects is investigated in the context of affine Toda field theories. The Hamiltonian formulation is employed for the analysis of the problem. The issue is also addressed when integrable boundary conditions ruled by the classical twisted Yangian are present. In both periodic and boundary cases explicit expressions of conserved quantities as well as the relevant Lax pairs and sewing conditions are extracted. It is also observed that in the case of the twisted Yangian the bulk behavior is not affected by the presence of the boundaries.

  4. Rotating Black Holes in Metric-Affine Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baekler, P; Baekler, Peter; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of metric-affine gravity (MAG, metric and an independent linear connection constitute spacetime), we find, for a specific gravitational Lagrangian and by using {\\it prolongation} techniques, a stationary axially symmetric exact solution of the vacuum field equations. This black hole solution embodies a Kerr-deSitter metric and the post-Riemannian structures of torsion and nonmetricity. The solution is characterized by mass, angular momentum, and shear charge, the latter of which is a measure for violating Lorentz invariance.

  5. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  6. Peculiarities of Thermodynamic Simulation with the Method of Bound Affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2004-01-01

    Thermodynamic simulation of chemical and metallurgical systems is the only method to predict their equilibrium composition and is the most important application of chemical thermodynamics. The conventional strategy of simulation is always to find the most probable composition of the system, corresponding to thermodynamic equilibrium. Traditional simulation methods do not account for interactions within the chemical system. The Method of Bound Affinity (MBA) is based on the theory that explicitly takes into account interactions between subsystems of a complex chemical system and leads sometimes to essential differences in simulation results. This article discusses peculiarities of MBA application, exemplified by results for a complex system with a set of subsystems.

  7. Two measured completely different electron affinities for atomic Eu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the electron affinity (EA) of atomic Eu was measured to be 0.116?eV. This value is in outstanding agreement with the theoretically calculated values using the Regge pole and MCDF-RCI methods. Previously, the EA of Eu was measured to be 1.053 eV. In an attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the two measured values, we have adopted the complex angular momentum (CAM) method and investigated in the electron energy range 0.11 eV methane to methanol without CO2 emission. These new results call for immediate experimental and theoretical verification.

  8. Shape recognition of profiled fibers using triangle-area representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triangle-area representation (TAR) is a multiscale method for shape depiction. In this paper, we proposed an ameliorative TAR method for high shape discrimination power, and implemented it for convexity and concavity detection and characterization for cross-section shape analysis of profiled fibers. Positive and negative TAR outputs were processed by an average filter and then accumulated to obtain two separate histograms. From the histograms, the number and positions of the convex or concave corners on a fiber contour can be determined, and the range and extent of each convexity or concavity can be calculated for more quantitative shape analysis. These parameters provide basic shape information for fiber classification and inspection, and are also helpful for detecting and separating adherent boundaries in the image. (paper)

  9. CFD simulation of mixing in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binxin

    2010-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that characterizes mechanical draft tube mixing in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters was developed. Simulation of flow patterns were carried out with a propeller rotating from 400 to 750rpm, assuming liquid manure to be Newtonian (water) and non-Newtonian fluids depending on the total solids (TS) concentration. Power number and flow number of the propeller in water mixing were validated against lab specifications and experimental data from a field test. The rotational direction and placement of the propeller were examined to identify the primary pumping mode and the optimum position of the propeller fixed inside the tube. Quantitative comparisons of two mixing methods and two digester shapes indicated that mechanical draft tube mixing is more efficient than external pumped recirculation, and that the egg shape provides for more efficient mixing than the cylindrical shape. Furthermore, scale-up rules for mixing in egg-shaped digesters were investigated. PMID:19913870

  10. Shaped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; An, Changhua

    2011-03-01

    Advance in the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles made of gold and silver is reviewed in this article. This review starts with a new angle by analyzing the relationship between the geometrical symmetry of a nanoparticle shape and its internal crystalline structures. According to the relationship, the nanoparticles with well-defined shapes are classified into three categories: nanoparticles with single crystallinity, nanoparticles with angular twins, and nanoparticles with parallel twins. Discussion and analysis on the classical methods for the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles in each category are also included and personal perspectives on the future research directions in the synthesis of shaped metal nanoparticles are briefly summarized. This review is expected to provide a guideline in designing the strategy for the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles and analyzing the corresponding growth mechanism.

  11. Combined Shape and Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman

    Shape and topology optimization seeks to compute the optimal shape and topology of a structure such that one or more properties, for example stiffness, balance or volume, are improved. The goal of the thesis is to develop a method for shape and topology optimization which uses the Deformable...... Simplicial Complex (DSC) method. Consequently, we present a novel method which combines current shape and topology optimization methods. This method represents the surface of the structure explicitly and discretizes the structure into non-overlapping elements, i.e. a simplicial complex. An explicit surface...... representation usually limits the optimization to minor shape changes. However, the DSC method uses a single explicit representation and still allows for large shape and topology changes. It does so by constantly applying a set of mesh operations during deformations of the structure. Using an explicit instead...

  12. Constructal blade shape in nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Bai Chao; Wang Liqiu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Blade configuration of nanofluids has been proven to perform much better than dispersed configuration for some heat conduction systems. The analytical analysis and numerical calculation are made for the cylinder--shaped and regular-rectangular-prism--shaped building blocks of the blade-configured heat conduction systems (using nanofluids as the heat conduction media) to find the optimal cross-sectional shape for the nanoparticle blade under the same composing materials, composition r...

  13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚晓峰; 刘伟军; 王天然; 胡芳友; 李艳丽

    2004-01-01

    Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) technology is a new type of rapid prototyping technology, which combines the conventional rapid prototyping technology with the laser cladding technology, and studies the rapid manufacture technology of metal components and moulds with comparatively complex shape or complex component. The laser engineered net shaping system is made up of by five modules. The hardware composition and operating principle of the modules are introduced in detail.

  14. Combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin for enhancing cell affinity of poly(lactide-co-glycolide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Hu, Xixue; Yang, Fei; Bei, Jianzhong; Wang, Shenguo

    2007-10-01

    Surface characteristics greatly influence attachment and growth of cells on biomaterials. Although polylactone-type biodegradable polymers have been widely used as scaffold materials for tissue engineering, lack of cell recognition sites, poor hydrophilicity and low surface energy lead to a bad cell affinity of the polymers, which limit the usage of polymers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. In the present study, surface of poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was modified by a method of combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin. Modification effect of the method was compared with other methods of oxygen plasma treatment, cationized gelatin or gelatin coating and combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of gelatin. The change of surface property was compared by contact angles, surface energy, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement. The optimum oxygen pretreatment time determined by surface energy was 10 min when the power was 50 W and the oxygen pressure was 20 Pa. Analysis of the stability of gelatin and cationized gelatin anchored on PLGA by XPS, ATR-FTIR, contact angles and surface energy measurement indicated the cationized gelatin was more stable than gelatin. The result using mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts as model cells to evaluate cell affinity in vitro showed the cationized gelatin-anchored PLGA (OCG-PLGA) was more favorable for cell attachment and growth than oxygen plasma treated PLGA (O-PLGA) and gelatin-anchored PLGA (OG-PLGA). Moreover cell affinity of OCG-PLGA could match that of collagen-anchored PLGA (AC-PLGA). So the surface modification method combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin provides a universally effective way to enhance cell affinity of polylactone-type biodegradable polymers. PMID:17618682

  15. Shape resonances in molecular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shape resonance is a quasibound state in which a particle is temporarily trapped by a potential barrier (i.e., the shape of the potential), through which it may eventually tunnel and escape. This simple mechanism plays a prominent role in a variety of excitation processes in molecules, ranging from vibrational excitation by slow electrons to ionization of deep core levels by x-rays. Moreover, their localized nature makes shape resonances a unifying link between otherwise dissimilar circumstances. One example is the close connection between shape resonances in electron-molecule scattering and in molecular photoionization. Another is the frequent persistence of free-molecule shape resonant behavior upon adsorption on a surface or condensation into a molecular solid. The main focus of this article is a discussion of the basic properties of shape resonances in molecular fields, illustrated by the more transparent examples studied over the last ten years. Other aspects to be discussed are vibrational effects of shape resonances, connections between shape resonances in different physical settings, and examples of shape resonant behavior in more complex cases, which form current challenges in this field

  16. Shape resonances in molecular fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmer, Joseph L.

    1984-01-01

    A shape resonance is a quasibound state in which a particle is temporarily trapped by a potential barrier (i.e., the shape of the potential), through which it may eventually tunnel and escape. This simple mechanism plays a prominent role in a variety of excitation processes in molecules, ranging from vibrational excitation by slow electrons to ionization of deep core levels by x-rays. Moreover, their localized nature makes shape resonances a unifying link between otherwise dissimilar circumstances. One example is the close connection between shape resonances in electron-molecule scattering and in molecular photoionization. Another is the frequent persistence of free-molecule shape resonant behavior upon adsorption on a surface or condensation into a molecular solid. The main focus of this article is a discussion of the basic properties of shape resonances in molecular fields, illustrated by the more transparent examples studied over the last ten years. Other aspects to be discussed are vibrational effects of shape resonances, connections between shape resonances in different physical settings, and examples of shape resonant behavior in more complex cases, which form current challenges in this field.

  17. Women in Shape Modeling Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the latest research from the growing field of mathematical shape analysis, this volume is comprised of the collaborations of participants of the Women in Shape Modeling (WiSh) workshop, held at UCLA's Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics in July 2013. Topics include: Simultaneous spectral and spatial analysis of shape Dimensionality reduction and visualization of data in tree-spaces, such as classes of anatomical trees like airways and blood vessels Geometric shape segmentation, exploring shape segmentation from a Gestalt perspective, using information from the Blum medial axis of edge fragments in an image Representing and editing self-similar details on 3D shapes, studying shape deformation and editing techniques Several chapters in the book directly address the problem of continuous measures of context-dependent nearness and right shape models. Medical and biological applications have been a major source of motivation in shape research, and key topics are examined here in detail. All...

  18. Solution to the phylogenetic enigma of Tetraplatia, a worm-shaped cnidarian

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Allen G.; Bentlage, Bastian; Matsumoto, George I; Steven H D Haddock; Osborn, Karen J.; Schierwater, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Tetraplatia is a genus containing two species of pelagic cnidarians of curious morphology. Their vermiform shape and four swimming flaps are difficult to relate to the features of other cnidarians, thus obscuring their phylogenetic affinities. Since their discovery in the mid-1800s, a number of prominent cnidarian workers have weighed in on this conundrum, some arguing that they are aberrant hydrozoans and others concluding that they are unusual scyphozoans. Current taxonomic practice conform...

  19. Smelling shapes: crossmodal correspondences between odors and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Vaux, Grant; Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Crossmodal correspondences between odors and visual stimuli-particularly colors-are well-established in the literature, but there is a paucity of research involving visual shape correspondences. Crossmodal associations between 20 odors (a selection of those commonly found in wine) and visual shape stimuli ("kiki"/"bouba" forms-Köhler W. 1929. Gestalt psychology. New York: Liveright.) were investigated in a sample of 25 participants (mean age of 21 years). The odors were rated along a form scale anchored by 2 shapes, as well as several descriptive adjective scales. Two of the odors were found to be significantly associated with an angular shape (lemon and pepper) and two others with a rounded shape (raspberry and vanilla). Principal component analysis indicated that the hedonic value and intensity of odors are important in this crossmodal association, with more unpleasant and intense smells associated with more angular forms. These results are discussed in terms of their practical applications, such as in the use of bottle, logo, or label shape by marketers of perfume and wine to convey the prominent notes through congruent odor-shape pairing. In conclusion, these results support the existence of widespread crossmodal associations (or correspondences) between odors and visual shape stimuli. PMID:23118203

  20. Study on Removal of Bilirubin with Magnetic Affinity Separation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤宝; 王淑兰; 徐辉; 张国亮

    2003-01-01

    An affinity adsorbent, Cibacron Blue 3GA immobilized magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres was used for bilirubin removal taking the advantage of easy separation of magnetic sorbent from the biosystem.Fe3 O4 superparamagnetic particles was synthesized with hydrothermal reaction of ferrous chloride (FeC12) and ferric chloride (FeCl3). Such magnetic particles are then encapsulated in biocompatible PVA to form magnetic polymer microspheres sized from 2 to 15 nm with hydroxyl groups on its surface. Cibacron Blue 3GA, a dye-ligand, was covalently coupled with the polyvinyl alcohol through the nucleophilic reaction between the chloride of its triazine ring and the hydroxyl groups of PVA molecules under alkaline condition. The affinity adsorbent carried 21.1μmol Cibacron Blue 3GA per gram magnetic polymer microspheres was used to remove unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin from the solution which was composed of bilirubin or bilirubin and protein. After the adsorption, the adsorbent loaded with bilirubin was removed easily in the magnetic field.