Hierarchical Affinity Propagation
Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J
2012-01-01
Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...
Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation
Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael
2013-01-01
In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339
Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation
Zhang, Xiangliang
2014-07-09
Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.
Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation
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Roberto eSantana
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. Neuronal classification has been a difficult problem because it is unclear what a neuronal cell class actually is and what are the best characteristics are to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological or molecular characteristics, when applied to selected datasets, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. We explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. In fact, using a combined anatomical/physiological dataset, our algorithm differentiated parvalbumin from somatostatin interneurons in 49 out of 50 cases. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.
Semisupervised Clustering for Networks Based on Fast Affinity Propagation
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Mu Zhu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Most of the existing clustering algorithms for networks are unsupervised, which cannot help improve the clustering quality by utilizing a small number of prior knowledge. We propose a semisupervised clustering algorithm for networks based on fast affinity propagation (SCAN-FAP, which is essentially a kind of similarity metric learning method. Firstly, we define a new constraint similarity measure integrating the structural information and the pairwise constraints, which reflects the effective similarities between nodes in networks. Then, taking the constraint similarities as input, we propose a fast affinity propagation algorithm which keeps the advantages of the original affinity propagation algorithm while increasing the time efficiency by passing only the messages between certain nodes. Finally, by extensive experimental studies, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can take fully advantage of the prior knowledge and improve the clustering quality significantly. Furthermore, our algorithm has a superior performance to some of the state-of-art approaches.
An Affinity Propagation-Based DNA Motif Discovery Algorithm.
Sun, Chunxiao; Huo, Hongwei; Yu, Qiang; Guo, Haitao; Sun, Zhigang
2015-01-01
The planted (l, d) motif search (PMS) is one of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics, which plays an important role in locating transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in DNA sequences. Nowadays, identifying weak motifs and reducing the effect of local optimum are still important but challenging tasks for motif discovery. To solve the tasks, we propose a new algorithm, APMotif, which first applies the Affinity Propagation (AP) clustering in DNA sequences to produce informative and good candidate motifs and then employs Expectation Maximization (EM) refinement to obtain the optimal motifs from the candidate motifs. Experimental results both on simulated data sets and real biological data sets show that APMotif usually outperforms four other widely used algorithms in terms of high prediction accuracy.
An Affinity Propagation-Based DNA Motif Discovery Algorithm
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Chunxiao Sun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The planted (l,d motif search (PMS is one of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics, which plays an important role in locating transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in DNA sequences. Nowadays, identifying weak motifs and reducing the effect of local optimum are still important but challenging tasks for motif discovery. To solve the tasks, we propose a new algorithm, APMotif, which first applies the Affinity Propagation (AP clustering in DNA sequences to produce informative and good candidate motifs and then employs Expectation Maximization (EM refinement to obtain the optimal motifs from the candidate motifs. Experimental results both on simulated data sets and real biological data sets show that APMotif usually outperforms four other widely used algorithms in terms of high prediction accuracy.
Distributed Clustering in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks Using Soft-Constraint Affinity Propagation
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J.Z. Zhang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Absence of network infrastructure and heterogeneous spectrum availability in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs necessitate the self-organization of cognitive radio users (CRs for efficient spectrum coordination. The cluster-based structure is known to be effective in both guaranteeing system performance and reducing communication overhead in variable network environment. In this paper, we propose a distributed clustering algorithm based on soft-constraint affinity propagation message passing model (DCSCAP. Without dependence on predefined common control channel (CCC, DCSCAP relies on the distributed message passing among CRs through their available channels, making the algorithm applicable for large scale networks. Different from original soft-constraint affinity propagation algorithm, the maximal iterations of message passing is controlled to a relatively small number to accommodate to the dynamic environment of CRAHNs. Based on the accumulated evidence for clustering from the message passing process, clusters are formed with the objective of grouping the CRs with similar spectrum availability into smaller number of clusters while guaranteeing at least one CCC in each cluster. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the preference of DCSCAP compared with existing algorithms in both efficiency and robustness of the clusters.
An Efficient Clustering Technique for Message Passing between Data Points using Affinity Propagation
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D. NAPOLEON,
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A wide range of clustering algorithms is available in literature and still an open area for researcher’s k-means algorithm is one of the basic and most simple partitioning clustering technique is given by Macqueen in 1967. A new clustering algorithm used in this paper is affinity propagation. The number of cluster k has been supplied by the user and the Affinity propagation found clusters with much lower error than other methods, and it did so in less than one-hundredth the amount of time between data point. In this paper we make analysis on cluster algorithm k-means, efficient k-means, and affinity propagation with colon dataset. And the result of affinity ropagation shows much lower error when compare with other algorithm and the average accuracy is good.
Local and global approaches of affinity propagation clustering for large scale data
Xia, Dingyin; Zhang, Xuqing; Zhuang, Yueting
2009-01-01
Recently a new clustering algorithm called 'affinity propagation' (AP) has been proposed, which efficiently clustered sparsely related data by passing messages between data points. However, we want to cluster large scale data where the similarities are not sparse in many cases. This paper presents two variants of AP for grouping large scale data with a dense similarity matrix. The local approach is partition affinity propagation (PAP) and the global method is landmark affinity propagation (LAP). PAP passes messages in the subsets of data first and then merges them as the number of initial step of iterations; it can effectively reduce the number of iterations of clustering. LAP passes messages between the landmark data points first and then clusters non-landmark data points; it is a large global approximation method to speed up clustering. Experiments are conducted on many datasets, such as random data points, manifold subspaces, images of faces and Chinese calligraphy, and the results demonstrate that the two...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
廖洪一; 王欣
2015-01-01
The multi-dimensional characteristics and high noise characteristics of the financial data set make it hard to analyze the time series.This paper puts forward an algorithm based on the principal component analysis and the Eros affinity propagation clustering.First it uses the principal component analysis method to extract the main eigenvalues of the multivariate financial time series data;then uses the Eros affinity propagation clustering to analyze the extracted eigenvalues.This kind of clustering algo-rithm can make the individual data as an attribute of the original data, through iterate competition to achieve optimal, do not need to find the number of clusters.The research results show that, this integrated method greatly reduces the dimension of the time se-ries, and has a highly correct classification rate.It proves that this algorithm is very effective.%金融数据集的多维特性和高噪声特性使得对金融时间序列数据的分析难上加难，本文提出一种基于主成分分析和Eros的近邻传播的聚类算法。首先利用主成分分析方法对多变量的金融时间序列数据进行降维处理，提取出主要特征值；然后使用基于Eros的近邻传播算法聚类对提取出的特征值进行分析。该聚类方法可以把数据集中的个体当作是原始数据的一个属性，通过迭代竞争达到最优，不需要事先确定聚类数目。研究结果表明，这种集成算法大大降低了时间序列数据的维度，有很高的分类正确率，表明该聚类方法用于金融时间序列数据处理是有效可行的。
Propagation of signals in spaces with affine connections and metrics as models of space-time
Manoff, Sawa
2003-01-01
The propagation of signals in space-time is considered on the basis of the notion of null (isotropic) vector field in spaces with affine connections and metrics as models of space or of space-time. The Doppler effect is generalized for these types of spaces. The notions of aberration, standard (longitudinal) Doppler effect, and transversal Doppler effect are considered. On their grounds, the Hubble effect appears as Doppler effect with explicit forms of the centrifugal (centripetal) and Corio...
Dolgounitcheva, O; Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Zakrzewski, V G; Richard, Ryan M; Marom, Noa; Sherrill, C David; Ortiz, J V
2016-02-01
Comparison of ab initio electron-propagator predictions of vertical ionization potentials and electron affinities of organic, acceptor molecules with benchmark calculations based on the basis set-extrapolated, coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple substitution method has enabled identification of self-energy approximations with mean, unsigned errors between 0.1 and 0.2 eV. Among the self-energy approximations that neglect off-diagonal elements in the canonical, Hartree-Fock orbital basis, the P3 method for electron affinities, and the P3+ method for ionization potentials provide the best combination of accuracy and computational efficiency. For approximations that consider the full self-energy matrix, the NR2 methods offer the best performance. The P3+ and NR2 methods successfully identify the correct symmetry label of the lowest cationic state in two cases, naphthalenedione and benzoquinone, where some other methods fail. PMID:26730459
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Franz Silvio
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification and naming is a key step in the analysis, understanding and adequate management of living organisms. However, where to set limits between groups can be puzzling especially in clonal organisms. Within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, experts have first identified several groups according to their pattern at repetitive sequences, especially at the CRISPR locus (spoligotyping, and to their epidemiological relevance. Most groups such as "Beijing" found good support when tested with other loci. However, other groups such as T family and T1 subfamily (belonging to the "Euro-American" lineage correspond to non-monophyletic groups and still need to be refined. Here, we propose to use a method called Affinity Propagation that has been successfully used in image categorization to identify relevant patterns at the CRISPR locus in MTC. Results To adequately infer the relative divergence time between strains, we used a distance method inspired by the recent evolutionary model by Reyes et al. We first confirm that this method performs better than the Jaccard index commonly used to compare spoligotype patterns. Second, we document the support of each spoligotype family among the previous classification using affinity propagation on the international spoligotyping database SpolDB4. This allowed us to propose a consensus assignation for all SpolDB4 spoligotypes. Third, we propose new signatures to subclassify the T family. Conclusion Altogether, this study shows how the new clustering algorithm Affinity Propagation can help building or refining clonal organims classifications. It also describes well-supported families and subfamilies among M. tuberculosis complex, especially inside the modern "Euro-American" lineage.
A multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to find community structures based on affinity propagation
Shang, Ronghua; Luo, Shuang; Zhang, Weitong; Stolkin, Rustam; Jiao, Licheng
2016-07-01
Community detection plays an important role in reflecting and understanding the topological structure of complex networks, and can be used to help mine the potential information in networks. This paper presents a Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Affinity Propagation (APMOEA) which improves the accuracy of community detection. Firstly, APMOEA takes the method of affinity propagation (AP) to initially divide the network. To accelerate its convergence, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm selects nondominated solutions from the preliminary partitioning results as its initial population. Secondly, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm finds solutions approximating the true Pareto optimal front through constantly selecting nondominated solutions from the population after crossover and mutation in iterations, which overcomes the tendency of data clustering methods to fall into local optima. Finally, APMOEA uses an elitist strategy, called "external archive", to prevent degeneration during the process of searching using the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. According to this strategy, the preliminary partitioning results obtained by AP will be archived and participate in the final selection of Pareto-optimal solutions. Experiments on benchmark test data, including both computer-generated networks and eight real-world networks, show that the proposed algorithm achieves more accurate results and has faster convergence speed compared with seven other state-of-art algorithms.
An Affinity Propagation Clustering Algorithm for Mixed Numeric and Categorical Datasets
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Kang Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Clustering has been widely used in different fields of science, technology, social science, and so forth. In real world, numeric as well as categorical features are usually used to describe the data objects. Accordingly, many clustering methods can process datasets that are either numeric or categorical. Recently, algorithms that can handle the mixed data clustering problems have been developed. Affinity propagation (AP algorithm is an exemplar-based clustering method which has demonstrated good performance on a wide variety of datasets. However, it has limitations on processing mixed datasets. In this paper, we propose a novel similarity measure for mixed type datasets and an adaptive AP clustering algorithm is proposed to cluster the mixed datasets. Several real world datasets are studied to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Comparisons with other clustering algorithms demonstrate that the proposed method works well not only on mixed datasets but also on pure numeric and categorical datasets.
A Poisson-based adaptive affinity propagation clustering for SAGE data.
Tang, DongMing; Zhu, QingXin; Yang, Fan
2010-02-01
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool to obtain gene expression profiles. Clustering analysis is a valuable technique for analyzing SAGE data. In this paper, we propose an adaptive clustering method for SAGE data analysis, namely, PoissonAPS. The method incorporates a novel clustering algorithm, Affinity Propagation (AP). While AP algorithm has demonstrated good performance on many different data sets, it also faces several limitations. PoissonAPS overcomes the limitations of AP using the clustering validation measure as a cost function of merging and splitting, and as a result, it can automatically cluster SAGE data without user-specified parameters. We evaluated PoissonAPS and compared its performance with other methods on several real life SAGE datasets. The experimental results show that PoissonAPS can produce meaningful and interpretable clusters for SAGE data.
Mizuno, Daisuke; Head, David; Ikebe, Emi; Nakamasu, Akiko; Kinoshita, Suguru; Peijuan, Zhang; Ando, Shoji
2013-03-01
Forces are generated heterogeneously in living cells and transmitted through cytoskeletal networks that respond highly non-linearly. Here, we carry out high-bandwidth passive microrheology on vimentin networks reconstituted in vitro, and observe the nonlinear mechanical response due to forces propagating from a local source applied by an optical tweezer. Since the applied force is constant, the gel becomes equilibrated and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be employed to deduce the viscoelasticity of the local environment from the thermal fluctuations of colloidal probes. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate the anisotropic stiffening of the cytoskeletal network behind the applied force, with greater stiffening in the parallel direction. Quantitative agreement with an affine continuum model is obtained, but only for the response at certain frequency ~ 10-1000 Hz which separates the high-frequency power law and low-frequency elastic behavior of the network. We argue that the failure of the model at lower frequencies is due to the presence of non-affinity, and observe that zero-frequency changes in particle separation can be fitted when an independently-measured, empirical nonaffinity factor is applied.
Ultrasound propagation measurements and applications
Lynnworth, L. C.; Papadakis, E. P.; Fowler, K. A.
1977-01-01
This paper reviews three systems designed for accurately measuring the propagation of ultrasonic pulses. The three systems are presented in order of velocity-measuring precision: + or - 100 ns, + or - 1 ns, + or - 0.2 ns. Also included is a brief discussion of phase and group velocities, with reference to dispersive, highly attenuating materials. Measurement of attenuation by pulse-echo buffer rod techniques is described briefly. These techniques and instruments have been used to measure sound velocity and attenuation in a variety of materials and shapes, over a wide temperature range.
An extended affinity propagation clustering method based on different data density types.
Zhao, XiuLi; Xu, WeiXiang
2015-01-01
Affinity propagation (AP) algorithm, as a novel clustering method, does not require the users to specify the initial cluster centers in advance, which regards all data points as potential exemplars (cluster centers) equally and groups the clusters totally by the similar degree among the data points. But in many cases there exist some different intensive areas within the same data set, which means that the data set does not distribute homogeneously. In such situation the AP algorithm cannot group the data points into ideal clusters. In this paper, we proposed an extended AP clustering algorithm to deal with such a problem. There are two steps in our method: firstly the data set is partitioned into several data density types according to the nearest distances of each data point; and then the AP clustering method is, respectively, used to group the data points into clusters in each data density type. Two experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of our algorithm: one utilizes an artificial data set and the other uses a real seismic data set. The experiment results show that groups are obtained more accurately by our algorithm than OPTICS and AP clustering algorithm itself.
A general method of community detection by identifying community centers with affinity propagation
Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu
2016-04-01
Detection of community structures is beneficial to analyzing the structures and properties of networks. It is of theoretical interest and practical significance in modern science. So far, a large number of algorithms have been proposed to detect community structures in complex networks, but most of them are suitable for a specific network structure. In this paper, a novel method (called CDMIC) is proposed to detect the communities in un-weighted, weighted, un-directed, directed and signed networks by constructing a dissimilarity distance matrix of network and identifying community centers with maximizing modularity. For a given network, we first estimate the distance between all pairs of nodes for constructing the dissimilarity distance matrix of the network. Then, this distance matrix is input to the affinity propagation (AP) algorithm to extract a candidate center set of community. Thirdly, we rank these centers in descending order according to the sum of their availability and responsibility. Finally, we determine the community structure by selecting the center subset from the candidate center set in an incremental manner to make the modularity maximization. On three real-world networks and some synthetic networks, experimental results show that our CDMIC method has higher performance in terms of classification accuracy and normalized mutual information (NMI), and ability to tolerate the resolution limitation.
K-AP: Generating specified K clusters by efficient Affinity Propagation
Zhang, Xiangliang
2010-12-01
The Affinity Propagation (AP) clustering algorithm proposed by Frey and Dueck (2007) provides an understandable, nearly optimal summary of a data set. However, it suffers two major shortcomings: i) the number of clusters is vague with the user-defined parameter called self-confidence, and ii) the quadratic computational complexity. When aiming at a given number of clusters due to prior knowledge, AP has to be launched many times until an appropriate setting of self-confidence is found. The re-launched AP increases the computational cost by one order of magnitude. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, called K-AP, to exploit the immediate results of K clusters by introducing a constraint in the process of message passing. Through theoretical analysis and experimental validation, K-AP was shown to be able to directly generate K clusters as user defined, with a negligible increase of computational cost compared to AP. In the meanwhile, K-AP preserves the clustering quality as AP in terms of the distortion. K-AP is more effective than k-medoids w.r.t. the distortion minimization and higher clustering purity. © 2010 IEEE.
Detection-Guided Fast Affine Projection Channel Estimator for Speech Applications
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Yan Wu Jennifer
2007-04-01
Full Text Available In various adaptive estimation applications, such as acoustic echo cancellation within teleconferencing systems, the input signal is a highly correlated speech. This, in general, leads to extremely slow convergence of the NLMS adaptive FIR estimator. As a result, for such applications, the affine projection algorithm (APA or the low-complexity version, the fast affine projection (FAP algorithm, is commonly employed instead of the NLMS algorithm. In such applications, the signal propagation channel may have a relatively low-dimensional impulse response structure, that is, the number m of active or significant taps within the (discrete-time modelled channel impulse response is much less than the overall tap length n of the channel impulse response. For such cases, we investigate the inclusion of an active-parameter detection-guided concept within the fast affine projection FIR channel estimator. Simulation results indicate that the proposed detection-guided fast affine projection channel estimator has improved convergence speed and has lead to better steady-state performance than the standard fast affine projection channel estimator, especially in the important case of highly correlated speech input signals.
Fundamentals and application of ordered molecular assemblies to affinity biosensing.
Matharu, Zimple; Bandodkar, Amay Jairaj; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar
2012-02-01
Organization of biomolecules in two/three dimensional assemblies has recently aroused much interest in nanobiotechnology. In this context, the development of techniques for controlling spatial arrangement and orientation of the desired molecules to generate highly-ordered nanostructures in the form of a mono/multi layer is considered highly significant. The studies of monolayer films to date have focused on three distinct methods of preparation: (i) the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, involving the transfer of a monolayer assembled at the gas-liquid interface; (ii) self-assembly at the liquid-solid interface, based on spontaneous adsorption of desired molecules from a solution directly onto a solid surface; and (iii) Layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly at a liquid-solid interface, based on inter-layer electrostatic attractions for fabrication of multilayers. A variety of monolayers have been utilized to fabricate biomolecular electronic devices including biosensors. The composition of a monolayer based matrix has been found to influence the activity(ies) of biomolecule(s). We present comprehensive and critical analysis of ordered molecular assemblies formed by LB and self-assembly with potential applications to affinity biosensing. This critical review on fundamentals and application of ordered molecular assemblies to affinity biosensing is likely to benefit researchers working in this as well as related fields of research (401 references). PMID:22105315
Caso, Giuseppe; de Nardis, Luca; di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella
2015-01-01
The weighted k-nearest neighbors (WkNN) algorithm is by far the most popular choice in the design of fingerprinting indoor positioning systems based on WiFi received signal strength (RSS). WkNN estimates the position of a target device by selecting k reference points (RPs) based on the similarity of their fingerprints with the measured RSS values. The position of the target device is then obtained as a weighted sum of the positions of the k RPs. Two-step WkNN positioning algorithms were recently proposed, in which RPs are divided into clusters using the affinity propagation clustering algorithm, and one representative for each cluster is selected. Only cluster representatives are then considered during the position estimation, leading to a significant computational complexity reduction compared to traditional, flat WkNN. Flat and two-step WkNN share the issue of properly selecting the similarity metric so as to guarantee good positioning accuracy: in two-step WkNN, in particular, the metric impacts three different steps in the position estimation, that is cluster formation, cluster selection and RP selection and weighting. So far, however, the only similarity metric considered in the literature was the one proposed in the original formulation of the affinity propagation algorithm. This paper fills this gap by comparing different metrics and, based on this comparison, proposes a novel mixed approach in which different metrics are adopted in the different steps of the position estimation procedure. The analysis is supported by an extensive experimental campaign carried out in a multi-floor 3D indoor positioning testbed. The impact of similarity metrics and their combinations on the structure and size of the resulting clusters, 3D positioning accuracy and computational complexity are investigated. Results show that the adoption of metrics different from the one proposed in the original affinity propagation algorithm and, in particular, the combination of different
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Afaz Uddin Ahmed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An artificial neural network (ANN and affinity propagation (AP algorithm based user categorization technique is presented. The proposed algorithm is designed for closed access femtocell network. ANN is used for user classification process and AP algorithm is used to optimize the ANN training process. AP selects the best possible training samples for faster ANN training cycle. The users are distinguished by using the difference of received signal strength in a multielement femtocell device. A previously developed directive microstrip antenna is used to configure the femtocell device. Simulation results show that, for a particular house pattern, the categorization technique without AP algorithm takes 5 indoor users and 10 outdoor users to attain an error-free operation. While integrating AP algorithm with ANN, the system takes 60% less training samples reducing the training time up to 50%. This procedure makes the femtocell more effective for closed access operation.
APPLICATION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN-BINDING PROTEINS A, G, L IN THE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY
Sviatenko, О.; Gorbatiuk, O.; Vasylchenko, О.
2014-01-01
Proteins A, G and L are native or recombinant proteins of microbial origin that bind to mammalian immunoglobulins. Preferably recombinant variants of proteins A, G, L are used in biotechnology for affinity sorbents production. Сomparative characteristics of proteins A, G, L and affinity sorbents on the basis of them, advantages and disadvantages of these proteins application as ligands in the affinity chromatography are done. Analysis of proteins A, G, L properties is presented. Binding speci...
Affine diffusions and related processes simulation, theory and applications
Alfonsi, Aurélien
2015-01-01
This book gives an overview of affine diffusions, from Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to Wishart processes and it considers some related diffusions such as Wright-Fisher processes. It focuses on different simulation schemes for these processes, especially second-order schemes for the weak error. It also presents some models, mostly in the field of finance, where these methods are relevant and provides some numerical experiments. The book explains the mathematical background to understand affine diffusions and analyze the accuracy of the schemes.
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Jiang eZhang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available AbstractClustering analysis methods have been widely applied to identifying the functional brain networks of a multitask paradigm. However, the previously used clustering analysis techniques are computationally expensive and thus impractical for clinical applications. In this study a novel method, called SOM-SAPC that combines self-organizing mapping (SOM and supervised affinity propagation clustering (SAPC, is proposed and implemented to identify the motor execution (ME and motor imagery (MI networks. In SOM-SAPC, SOM was first performed to process fMRI data and SAPC is further utilized for clustering the patterns of functional networks. As a result, SOM-SAPC is able to significantly reduce the computational cost for brain network analysis. Simulation and clinical tests involving ME and MI were conducted based on SOM-SAPC, and the analysis results indicated that functional brain networks were clearly identified with different response patterns and reduced computational cost. In particular, three activation clusters were clearly revealed, which include parts of the visual, ME and MI functional networks. These findings validated that SOM-SAPC is an effective and robust method to analyze the fMRI data with multitasks.
S\\lawianowski, J J; Martens, A; Go\\lubowska, B; zko, E E Ro\\
2010-01-01
In the present paper we investigate the mechanics of systems of affinely-rigid bodies, i.e., bodies rigid in the sense of affine geometry. Certain physical applications are possible in modelling of molecular crystals, granular media, and other physical objects. Particularly interesting are dynamical models invariant under the group underlying geometry of degrees of freedom. In contrary to the single body case there exist nontrivial potentials invariant under this group (left and right acting). The concept of relative (mutual) deformation tensors of pairs of affine bodies is discussed. Scalar invariants built of such tensors are constructed. There is an essential novelty in comparison to deformation scalars of single affine bodies, i.e., there exist affinely-invariant scalars of mutual deformations. Hence, the hierarchy of interaction models according to their invariance group, from Euclidean to affine ones, can be considered.
Exact deformations of quantum groups; applications to the affine case
Frønsdal, Christian
1996-01-01
This paper continues our investigation of a class of generalized quantum groups. The ``standard" R-matrix was shown to be the unique solution of a very simple, linear recursion relation and the classical limit was obtained in the case of quantized Kac-Moody algebras of finite type. Here the standard R-matrix for generalized quantum groups is first examined in the case of quantized affine Kac-Moody algebras. The classical limit yields the standard affine r-matrices of Belavin and Drinfeld. Then, turning to the general case, we study the exact deformations of the standard R-matrix and the associated Hopf algebras. They are described as a generalized twist, R_\\epsilon = (F^t)^{-1}RF, where R is the standard R-matrix and F (a power series in the deformation parameter \\epsilon) is the solution of a linear recursion relation of the same type as that which determines R. Specializing again, to the case of quantized, affine Kac-Moody algebras, and taking the classical limit of these esoteric quantum groups, one re-dis...
Application of Wave Propagation to Pyroshock Analysis
Gherlone, M.; D. Lomario; M. Mattone; R.Ruotolo
2004-01-01
Pyroshocks are high frequency transients due to pyrotechnic devices used in aerospace engineering in order to deploy solar arrays and antennae, separate subsystems from the spacecraft or separate the spacecraft itself from the base stage booster; their prediction is usually complex and very time consuming.The aim of this article is to investigate on the application of the analysis of transmission of waves in elastic media in order to predict the dynamic response to pyroshocks. The work is com...
Ontology-based Change Propagation in Shareable Health Information Applications
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Anny Kartika Sari
2015-02-01
Full Text Available One of the most important challenges to be ad-dressed when establishing an integrated smart health environ-ment is the availability of shareable health data and knowledge which standardize the interoperability of components within the environment. Health ontologies are commonly utilized to enable interoperability between applications in such environment. However, the dynamic nature of health knowledge causes the need for frequent changes in health ontologies which then must be propagated to the relevant applications. A change propagation method that can efficiently streamline the change management from an ontology to all the applications which reference to it is proposed. A component called a mapper is used to manage the mapping between application terms and ontology concepts. The mapper is aimed to maintain the applications’ access to the most up-to-date ontology concepts and to improve the semantic mapping between the application terms and the ontology concepts. Some rules are developed for the change propagation process. The evaluation of the method shows that the mapper can improve the mapping list in terms of: (i correctness, by proposing a new mapping entry to substitute an existing one which is not valid anymore because ontology concept is deleted or changed;(ii currency maintenance, by recommending a better mapping between an application term and a new ontology concept based on the similarity value between the term and the new concept.
Adaptive two-regime method: application to front propagation
Robinson, Martin; Erban, Radek
2013-01-01
The Adaptive Two-Regime Method (ATRM) is developed for hybrid (multiscale) stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion problems. It efficiently couples detailed Brownian dynamics simulations with coarser lattice-based models. The ATRM is a generalization of the previously developed Two-Regime Method [Flegg et al, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2012] to multiscale problems which require a dynamic selection of regions where detailed Brownian dynamics simulation is used. Typical applications include a front propagation or spatio-temporal oscillations. In this paper, the ATRM is used for an in-depth study of front propagation in a stochastic reaction-diffusion system which has its mean-field model given in terms of the Fisher equation [Fisher, Annals of Eugenics, 1937]. It exhibits a travelling reaction front which is sensitive to stochastic fluctuations at the leading edge of the wavefront. Previous studies into stochastic effects on the Fisher wave propagation speed have focused on lattice-based models...
Applications of Error Propagation Analyses to Geochemical Calculation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐伟彪; 饶纪龙
1991-01-01
Two examples are given for comparing applications and limitations of four methods which can be used to deal with error propagation in geochemical calculations.The examples indicate that the Monte Carlo method can also be employed to evaluate the effect of covariance.A special function of the method for covariance matrix shown here can reveal the correlations of middle variables relative to the independent primary variables.
hwloc: a Generic Framework for Managing Hardware Affinities in HPC Applications
Broquedis, François; Clet-Ortega, Jérôme; Moreaud, Stéphanie; Furmento, Nathalie; Goglin, Brice; Mercier, Guillaume; Thibault, Samuel; Namyst, Raymond
2010-01-01
The increasing numbers of cores, shared caches and memory nodes within machines introduces a complex hardware topology. High-performance computing applications now have to carefully adapt their placement and behavior according to the underlying hierarchy of hardware resources and their software affinities. We introduce the Hardware Locality (hwloc) software which gathers hardware information about processors, caches, memory nodes and more, and exposes it to applications and runtime systems in...
Acoustic Propagation Modeling for Marine Hydro-Kinetic Applications
Johnson, C. N.; Johnson, E.
2014-12-01
The combination of riverine, tidal, and wave energy have the potential to supply over one third of the United States' annual electricity demand. However, in order to deploy and test prototypes, and commercial installations, marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices must meet strict regulatory guidelines that determine the maximum amount of noise that can be generated and sets particular thresholds for determining disturbance and injury caused by noise. An accurate model for predicting the propagation of a MHK source in a real-life hydro-acoustic environment has been established. This model will help promote the growth and viability of marine, water, and hydrokinetic energy by confidently assuring federal regulations are meet and harmful impacts to marine fish and wildlife are minimal. Paracousti, a finite difference solution to the acoustic equations, was originally developed for sound propagation in atmospheric environments and has been successfully validated for a number of different geophysical activities. The three-dimensional numerical implementation is advantageous over other acoustic propagation techniques for a MHK application where the domains of interest have complex 3D interactions from the seabed, banks, and other shallow water effects. A number of different cases for hydro-acoustic environments have been validated by both analytical and numerical results from canonical and benchmark problems. This includes a variety of hydrodynamic and physical environments that may be present in a potential MHK application including shallow and deep water, sloping, and canyon type bottoms, with varying sound speed and density profiles. With the model successfully validated for hydro-acoustic environments more complex and realistic MHK sources from turbines and/or arrays can be modeled.
Applicability of Parametrized Form of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
According to extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation with an effective gluon propagator, a parametrized fully dressed confining quark propagator is suggested in this paper. The parametrized quark propagator describes a confined quark propagation in hadron, and is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The vector and scalar self-energy functions [1 - Af(p2)] and [Bf(p2) - mf], dynamically running effective mass of quark Mf(p2) and the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as local quark vacuum condensates are predicted by use of the parametrized quark propagator. The results are compatible with other theoretical calculations.
Applicability of deterministic propagation models for mobile operators
Mantel, O.C.; Oostveen, J.C.; Popova, M.P.
2007-01-01
Deterministic propagation models based on ray tracing or ray launching are widely studied in the scientific literature, because of their high accuracy. Also many commercial propagation modelling tools include ray-based models. In spite of this, they are hardly used in commercial operations by cellul
Advances and applications of binding affinity prediction methods in drug discovery.
Parenti, Marco Daniele; Rastelli, Giulio
2012-01-01
Nowadays, the improvement of R&D productivity is the primary commitment in pharmaceutical research, both in big pharma and smaller biotech companies. To reduce costs, to speed up the discovery process and to increase the chance of success, advanced methods of rational drug design are very helpful, as demonstrated by several successful applications. Among these, computational methods able to predict the binding affinity of small molecules to specific biological targets are of special interest because they can accelerate the discovery of new hit compounds. Here we provide an overview of the most widely used methods in the field of binding affinity prediction, as well as of our own work in developing BEAR, an innovative methodology specifically devised to overtake some limitations in existing approaches. The BEAR method was successfully validated against different biological targets, and proved its efficacy in retrieving active compounds from virtual screening campaigns. The results obtained so far indicate that BEAR may become a leading tool in the drug discovery pipeline. We primarily discuss advantages and drawbacks of each technique and show relevant examples and applications in drug discovery.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
文翰; 肖南峰
2014-01-01
为处理高维稀疏的大规模文档数据,提出一种基于强类别特征近邻传播( SCFAP)的半监督文本聚类算法。聚类过程中,利用少量带类别标签的监督数据,提取具有强类别区分能力的特征项以构建更有效的样本间相似性测度。并在每轮迭代完成后将类别确定性程度最高的未标记样本转移到已标注集,使算法执行效率提高。实验结果表明,这种改进对于近邻传播算法的性能和准确度的提升有较大帮助,在Reuter-21578和20Newsgroups两个相异数据集上,SCFAP算法表现较好的适用性。综合考察聚类微平均Fμ指标和类簇纯度Pt指标,该算法在少量监督信息辅助下能快速获得较好的聚类结果。%A semi-supervised text clustering based on strong classification features affinity propagation ( SCFAP) is proposed to handle spare document data with large scale and high dimensions. In the clustering process, strong classification features are extracted to construct a reasonable similarity measure by using a small amount of labeled samples. Moreover, in order to improve the execution efficiency of the algorithm, the unlabeled documents with maximum category certainty are transferred from unlabeled collection to labeled collection in each round of iteration. The experimental results show that the improvement is greatly helpful to upgrade the performance and accuracy of the classical affinity propagation algorithm. The SCFAP algorithm shows better applicability on Reuter-21578 and 20 Newsgroups. The micro average Fμindex and the clustering purity index are synthetically observed, the semi-supervised text clustering algorithm based on SCFAP can get better clustering results rapidly.
Application of a finite difference technique to thermal wave propagation
Baumeister, K. J.
1975-01-01
A finite difference formulation is presented for thermal wave propagation resulting from periodic heat sources. The numerical technique can handle complex problems that might result from variable thermal diffusivity, such as heat flow in the earth with ice and snow layers. In the numerical analysis, the continuous temperature field is represented by a series of grid points at which the temperature is separated into real and imaginary terms. Next, computer routines previously developed for acoustic wave propagation are utilized in the solution for the temperatures. The calculation procedure is illustrated for the case of thermal wave propagation in a uniform property semi-infinite medium.
Propagation of Bessel beam for ground-to-space applications
Ituen, Iniabasi; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris
2015-01-01
We model the propagation of Gaussian and Bessel beams from ground through 22km altitude of atmospheric turbulence. We observe the Bessel beam has better performance based on RMS intensity error and the captured beam power
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李修亮; 苏宏业; 褚健
2009-01-01
Presented is a multiple model soft sensing method based on Affinity Propagation (AP), Gaussian process (GP) and Bayesian committee machine (BCM). AP clustering arithmetic is used to cluster training samples according to their operating points. Then, the sub-models are estimated by Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). Finally, in order to get a global probabilistic prediction, Bayesian committee machine is used to combine the outputs of the sub-estimators. The proposed method has been applied to predict the light naphtha end point in hydrocracker fractionators. Practical applications indicate that it is useful for the online prediction of quality monitoring in chemi-cal processes.
Atanackovic, Teodor M; Stankovic, Bogoljub; Zorica, Du?an
2014-01-01
The books Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Vibrations and Diffusion Processes and Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Wave Propagation, Impact and Variational Principles contain various applications of fractional calculus to the fields of classical mechanics. Namely, the books study problems in fields such as viscoelasticity of fractional order, lateral vibrations of a rod of fractional order type, lateral vibrations of a rod positioned on fractional order viscoelastic foundations, diffusion-wave phenomena, heat conduction, wave propagation, forced oscillati
Microwave propagation and remote sensing atmospheric influences with models and applications
Karmakar, Pranab Kumar
2011-01-01
Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the probl
Applications of on-line weak affinity interactions in free solution capillary electrophoresis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heegaard, Niels H H; Nissen, Mogens H; Chen, David D Y
2002-01-01
The impressive selectivity offered by capillary electrophoresis can in some cases be further increased when ligands or additives that engage in weak affinity interactions with one or more of the separated analytes are added to the electrophoresis buffer. This on-line affinity capillary electropho......The impressive selectivity offered by capillary electrophoresis can in some cases be further increased when ligands or additives that engage in weak affinity interactions with one or more of the separated analytes are added to the electrophoresis buffer. This on-line affinity capillary...
An algorithm for determination of geodetic path for application in long-range acoustic propagation
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; Sivakholundu, K.M.; Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.
A computer program has been developed for the construction of geodetic path between two points on the spheroidal surface for application in long range acoustic propagation in the ocean. Geodetic equations have integrated numerically upto...
Imaging by forward propagating the data: Theory and application
Zuberi, Akbar
2013-02-27
The forward (modelled) wavefield for conventional reverse time migration (RTM) is computed by extrapolating the wavefield from an estimated source wavelet. In the typical case of a smooth subsurface velocity, this wavefield lacks the components, including surface reflections, necessary to image multiples in the observed data. We, instead, introduce the concept of forward propagating the recorded data, including direct arrivals, as part of RTM. We analyse the influence of the main components of the data on the imaging process, which include direct arrivals, primaries and surface-related multiples. In our RTM methodology, this implies correlating the forward extrapolated recorded data wavefield with its reversely extrapolated version prior to applying the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition. The interaction of the data components with each other in the cross-correlation process will image primaries and multiples, as well as introduce cross-talk artefact terms. However, some of these artefacts are present in conventional RTM implementation and they tend to be relatively weak. In fact, for the surface seismic experiment, forward propagating the direct arrivals is almost equivalent to forward propagating a source and it tends to contribute the majority of the data imaging energy. In addition, primaries and multiples recorded in the data become multiples of one higher order. Forward propagating the recorded data to recreate the source will relieve us from the requirement of estimating the source function. It will also include near-surface information necessary to improve the image in areas with near-surface complexity. Data from a simple synthetic layered model, as well as the Marmousi model, are used to demonstrate some of these features. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites
Nayfeh, AH
1995-01-01
Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method has been developed for measuring the binding affinity of phage displayed peptides and a target protein using magnetic particles. The specific interaction between the phage displayed peptides and the target protein was subject to a force generated by the magnetic particle. The binding affinity was obtained by analyzing the force-bond lifetime
Orsetti, Silvia; Andrade, Estela María; Molina, Fernando V
2009-08-15
The binding of proton and metal cations to humic substances has been analyzed with a regularized fitting procedure (using the CONTIN software package) to extract conditional affinity distributions, valid at a given ionic strength, from binding (titration) curves. The procedure was previously tested with simulated titration curves using a simple bi-Gaussian model, the NICA-Donnan model, and the Stockholm humic model. Application to literature data for proton binding shows that in several cases the affinity distribution found is bimodal (carboxylic and phenolic sites) as usually assumed; however in other cases, specially for fulvic acids, a trimodal distribution is clearly discerned, with a smaller peak between the two noted above attributed to the presence of vicinal carboxylic groups. The analysis of metal binding curves has been performed in a few cases where the available data could be reliably processed, separating the proton affinity distribution and obtaining the conditional affinity spectra. For Cd(II) and Pb(II) a bimodal distribution is found, attributed in principle to mono- and bidentate binding, based on spectroscopic data. In the case of Cu(II), a more complex affinity distribution is found showing 3-4 peaks; this is consistent with spectroscopic studies, where different binding modes, up to tetradentate, have been observed. PMID:19477457
Project Integration Architecture: Inter-Application Propagation of Information
Jones, William Henry
2005-01-01
A principal goal of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is to facilitate the meaningful inter-application transfer of application-value-added information. Such exchanging applications may be largely unrelated to each other except through their applicability to an overall project; however, the PIA effort recognizes as fundamental the need to make such applications cooperate despite wide disparaties either in the fidelity of the analyses carried out, or even the disciplines of the analysis. This paper discusses the approach and techniques applied and anticipated by the PIA project in treating this need.
Preparation of Chitosan-coated Nylon Membranes and their Application as Affinity Membranes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei SHI; Feng Bao ZHANG; Guo Liang ZHANG
2005-01-01
Chitosan-coated nylon membranes which possess a large number of reactive groups of-CH2OH and -NH2 were prepared by coupling chitosan onto the nylon membrane. Then polylysine as ligand was also immobilized onto the composite membranes by 1, l′-carbonyldiimidazole activation to prepare affinity membranes for bilirubin adsorption. The results showed that these membranes exhibited high binding affinity capacities for bilirubin and the adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model well.
Bioanalytical applications of affinity-based nanotube membranes for sensing and separations
Caicedo, Hector Mario
2008-11-01
Nanotechnology has played an important role in the development of research and technology during the last two decades. The contribution of nanotechnology in different fields, along with the versatility of the constructed nanoscale materials, have made nanotechnology one of the most suitable tools to develop particular nanostructures to realize a desired function and application. A nanostructure is simply an entity at the nanometer scale with one, two or three dimensional features. Since nanotechnology covers a broad range of nanoscale materials, to simplify nanotechnology, it can be classified into two categories based on how the nanostructures are prepared: top-down and bottom-up. In the top-down methods, the nanostructures are constructed by chiseling larger bulk materials into entities of smaller size. Conversely, in the bottom-up case, small units are grown or assembled into their desired size and shape. The nanoporous materials specifically have attracted a lot of attention because they can be used for the synthesis of a variety of functional nanostructures of great usefulness in technology. These porous nanostructures usually combine many of the advantages of the top-down and bottom-up methodologies such as flexibility, size controllability, and cost. The research presented in this work utilizes nanoporous membranes to develop porous nanostructured platforms with potential applications in sensing and separations. In particular, this work is centered in fundamental studies for bioanalytical applications of affinity-based nanotube membranes for sensing and separations. A bottom-up methodology like the template synthesis was used to produce silica nanotubes inside of the pores of alumina membrane. The functionalization of the inside walls of these silica nanotube membranes allowed control of the functional behavior and properties of the nanostructured membrane during membrane-based separations and sensing. The general scheme of the work presented here, is
Brief review on PE method application to propagation channel modeling in sea environment
Sirkova, Irina
2012-03-01
This work provides an introduction to one of the most widely used advanced methods for wave propagation modeling, the Parabolic Equation (PE) method, with emphasis on its application to tropospheric radio propagation in coastal and maritime regions. The assumptions of the derivation, the advantages and drawbacks of the PE, the numerical methods for solving it, and the boundary and initial conditions for its application to the tropospheric propagation problem are briefly discussed. More details are given for the split-step Fourier-transform (SSF) solution of the PE. The environmental input to the PE, the methods for tropospheric refractivity profiling, their accuracy, limitations, and the average refractivity modeling are also summarized. The reported results illustrate the application of finite element (FE) based and SSF-based solutions of the PE for one of the most difficult to treat propagation mechanisms, yet of great significance for the performance of radars and communications links working in coastal and maritime zones — the tropospheric ducting mechanism. Recent achievements, some unresolved issues and ongoing developments related to further improvements of the PE method application to the propagation channel modeling in sea environment are highlighted.
A Multi-Model Approach for Uncertainty Propagation and Model Calibration in CFD Applications
Wang, Jian-xun; Xiao, Heng
2015-01-01
Proper quantification and propagation of uncertainties in computational simulations are of critical importance. This issue is especially challenging for CFD applications. A particular obstacle for uncertainty quantifications in CFD problems is the large model discrepancies associated with the CFD models used for uncertainty propagation. Neglecting or improperly representing the model discrepancies leads to inaccurate and distorted uncertainty distribution for the Quantities of Interest. High-fidelity models, being accurate yet expensive, can accommodate only a small ensemble of simulations and thus lead to large interpolation errors and/or sampling errors; low-fidelity models can propagate a large ensemble, but can introduce large modeling errors. In this work, we propose a multi-model strategy to account for the influences of model discrepancies in uncertainty propagation and to reduce their impact on the predictions. Specifically, we take advantage of CFD models of multiple fidelities to estimate the model ...
Architecture of high-affinity unnatural-base DNA aptamers toward pharmaceutical applications
Ken-ichiro Matsunaga; Michiko Kimoto; Charlotte Hanson; Michael Sanford; Young, Howard A.; Ichiro Hirao
2015-01-01
We present a remodeling method for high-affinity unnatural-base DNA aptamers to augment their thermal stability and nuclease resistance, for use as drug candidates targeting specific proteins. Introducing a unique mini-hairpin DNA provides robust stability to unnatural-base DNA aptamers generated by SELEX using genetic alphabet expansion, without reducing their high affinity. By this method, >80% of the remodeled DNA aptamer targeting interferon-γ (K D of 33 pM) survived in human serum at 37 ...
Application of monolithic affinity HPLC column for rapid determination of malt glycoproteins
Benkovská, D. (Dagmar); Flodrová, D. (Dana); Bobálová, J. (Janette)
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to optimize separation and enrichment of barley malt glycoproteins on a monolithic ConA affinity HPLC column. ConA-bound proteins were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS after chymotryptic digestion. Our proteomic analysis allowed successful determination of several putative malt glycoproteins.
Soliton Propagation in nonlinear optical fibers : theory and application
Goy, David A.
1987-01-01
A survey of research in nonlinear optical fibers is given. Important background concepts are introduced and explained. Present and future applications of nonlinear optical fibers arc reviewed. A mathematical model of a nonlinear optical fiber is developed using a coupled-mode theory approach, and methods of solving nonlinear partial differential equations arc discussed. A detailed history of research in the field is given, and recommendations for future research are made.
Abrupt fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on affinity propagation clustering%基于相似性传播聚类的航空发动机突发故障诊断
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李丽敏; 王仲生; 姜洪开
2014-01-01
针对航空发动机突发故障，构建了一种基于相似性传播聚类的突发故障诊断方法。首先利用突发故障历史监测数据建立突发故障数据库，通过相似性传播聚类找到数据库中所有突发故障数据的中心，当诊断新采集数据的突发故障类型时，通过相似性传播聚类找到当前新采集数据的中心，经过与突发故障数据库中的数据中心进行匹配判断该新采集数据所对应的突发故障类型。将该突发故障诊断方法应用到发动机转子实验台的突发故障诊断中，仿真和实验结果表明该方法的可行性，并通过与其他方法比较，表明该方法具有诊断时间短和误差小的优点。%Aiming at aero-engine faults,an abrupt fault diagnosis method based on affinity propagation clustering was proposed.Abrupt fault historical monitoring data were used to establish faults database.Through affinity propagation clustering,all the exemplars of abrupt faults in the database were found and the affinity propagation clustering was applied once again to find the exemplar of the new collected data.The fault type was then identified by matching the center with the centers obtained from the faults database.The method was used in the aero-engine abrupt fault diagnosis.The simulation and experiment results show that the method is feasible to diagnose abrupt fault,and compared with other methods,it needs shorter time consuming and produces lower error.
Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;
With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth are...
Application of Ni(II-assisted peptide bond hydrolysis to non-enzymatic affinity tag removal.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edyta Kopera
Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a non-enzymatic method for hydrolytic peptide bond cleavage, applied to the removal of an affinity tag from a recombinant fusion protein, SPI2-SRHWAP-His(6. This method is based on a highly specific Ni(II reaction with (S/TXHZ peptide sequences. It can be applied for the protein attached to an affinity column or to the unbound protein in solution. We studied the effect of pH, temperature and Ni(II concentration on the efficacy of cleavage and developed an analytical protocol, which provides active protein with a 90% yield and ∼100% purity. The method works well in the presence of non-ionic detergents, DTT and GuHCl, therefore providing a viable alternative for currently used techniques.
Ramviyas Parasuraman; Keith Kershaw; Manuel Ferre
2013-01-01
Understanding the radio signal transmission characteristics in the environment where the telerobotic application is sought is a key part of achieving a reliable wireless communication link between a telerobot and a control station. In this paper, wireless communication requirements and a case study of a typical telerobotic application in an underground facility at CERN are presented. Then, the theoretical and experimental characteristics of radio propagation are investigated with respect to t...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋亚虎
2015-01-01
To solve the problem caused by fluctuation of received signal strength indicator and large computing capacity in on‐line measurement ,an indoor localization algorithm based on singularity detection and affinity propagation clustering was proposed . Taking advantage of Hampel filter and KDE ,a method of singularity detection was proposed ,then affinity propagation clustering algorithm was used to cluster received signal strength indicator .Rough and meticulous localization method was used to locate the consumer .The algorithm proposed can improve localization accuracy and reduce computing capacity Comparing with the tradi‐tional method .%为克服基于无线局域网指纹定位算法中接收信号值波动和在线检测时计算量大的问题，提出一种基于奇异值检测和A P聚类的无线局域网指纹定位算法。分析 H am pel滤波器和核概率密度估计在接收信号强度值中奇异值检测的不足，结合Hampel滤波器和核概率密度估计两种方法在奇异值检测中的优势，给出一种奇异值检测算法；利用 AP聚类算法，对离线训练系统中的信号强度测量值进行聚类；通过AP聚类粗检测和基于加权 k近邻算法的细检测评估得到用户位置，完成定位。对比传统方法，该定位算法能够提高定位的准确性，降低算法的计算复杂度。
Dong, Y S; Liang, F; Yu, X Y; Guo, L A; Chang, J H
2001-01-01
The reverse phase suspension and embedment technique were adopted to prepare magnetic dextran microsphere (MDMS). The dispersion medium was mixture of some organic solvents. Span-80 was used as stabilizer. The aqueous dextran with magnetic fluid was suspended in dispersion medium with epichlorohydrin as cross-linking reagent. The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature and then heated at 70 degrees C for 4 hours, MDMS was thus obtained. MDMS was activated by epichlorohydrin on which 6-aminohexanoic acid, glycine or ethylene diamine was bonded as spacers. Then it was coupled with p-aminobenzamide, L-arginine methyl ester or guanidohexanoic acid and five magnetic affinity adsorbents were prepared. The MDMS was polydisperse particles with the size of 50-300 meshes and the content of Fe3O4 was about 6.2 per cent in the MDMS. Influence of some parameters such as viscosity and density of organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phase, the quantity of surfactant and stirring speed on preparing MDMS was studied. Magnetic affinity adsorbents were used to purify crude urokinase in a bath mode and the effect of coupling reagents and ligands on results of purification was discussed. The bioactivity recovery was 40.0 to 60.7 per cent, the purification-fold was between 14.9 and 32.8, and the adsorptive capacity varies from 89 mg to 121 mg per milliliter of adsorbent. PMID:12541840
Sooter, Letha J.; McMasters, Sun; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.
2007-09-01
Nucleic acid aptamers can exhibit high binding affinities for a wide variety of targets and have received much attention as molecular recognition elements for enhanced biosensor performance. These aptamers recognize target molecules through a combination of conformational dependent non-covalent interactions in aqueous media which can be investigated using capillary electrophoresis-based methods. In this paper we report on the results of our studies of the relative binding affinity of Campylobacter jejuni aptamers using a capillary electrophoretic immunoassay. Our results show preferential binding to C. jejuni over other common food pathogen bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis can also be used to develop new aptamer recognition elements using an in vitro selection process known as systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Recently, this process has been adapted to use capillary electrophoresis in an attempt to shorten the overall selection process. This smart selection of nucleic acid aptamers from a large diversity of a combinatorial DNA library is under optimization for the development of aptamers which bind to Army-relevant targets. This paper will include a discussion of the establishment of CE-SELEX methods for the future development of smart aptamer probes.
Radio Wave Propagation in Curved Rectangular Tunnels at 5.8 GHz for Metro Applications
Masson, E.; COCHERIL, Y; COMBEAU, P; AVENEAU, S; BERBINEAU, M; VAUZELLE, R; FAYT, E
2011-01-01
The need for wireless communication systems is increasing in the transport domain. These systems have to be operational in every type of environment and particularly tunnels for metro applications. These ones can have rectangular, circular or arch-shaped cross section. Furthermore, they can be straight or curved. This paper presents a new method to model the radio wave propagation in straight tunnels with an arch-shaped cross section and in curved tunnels with a rectangular cross section. The...
Markov propagation of allosteric effects in biomolecular systems: application to GroEL–GroES
Chennubhotla, Chakra; Bahar, Ivet
2006-01-01
We introduce a novel approach for elucidating the potential pathways of allosteric communication in biomolecular systems. The methodology, based on Markov propagation of ‘information' across the structure, permits us to partition the network of interactions into soft clusters distinguished by their coherent stochastics. Probabilistic participation of residues in these clusters defines the communication patterns inherent to the network architecture. Application to bacterial chaperonin complex ...
Impedance Matching for Discrete, Periodic Media and Application to Two-Scale Wave Propagation Models
Thirunavukkarasu, Senganal
This dissertation introduces the idea of an equivalent continuous medium (ECM) that has the same impedance as that of an unbounded discrete periodic medium. Contrary to existing knowledge, we constructively show that it is indeed possible to achieve perfect matching for periodic and discrete media. We present analytical results relating the propagation characteristics of periodic media and the corresponding ECM, leading to the development of numerical methods for wave propagation in these media. In this dissertation, we present the main idea of ECM and apply it, with mixed results, to seemingly different problems requiring effective numerical methods for modeling wave propagation in unbounded media. An immediate application of ECM is in developing absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) for wave propagation in unbounded discrete media. Using the idea of ECM, and building on class of continuous ABCs called perfectly matched discrete layers (PMDL), we propose a new class of discrete ABCs called discrete PMDL and develop frequency domain formulations that are shown to be superior to continuous ABCs. Another application that is explored in this dissertation is the design of interface conditions for concurrent coupling of two-scale wave propagation models, e.g. Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) coupling. We propose a domain-decomposition (DD) approach and develop accurate interface conditions that are critical for the concurrent coupling of the two-scale models. It turns out that time-domain discrete ABCs are key to the the accuracy of these interface conditions. Since discrete PMDL is well-posed and accurate for the model problem, we build on it to propose an efficient and accurate interface condition for two-scale wave propagation models. Although many open problems remain with respect to implementation, we believe that the proposed DD based approach is a good first step towards achieving efficient coupling of two-scale wave propagation models. Time-domain discrete PMDL can
Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao
2015-10-01
Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.
Development and Applications of Benchmark Examples for Static Delamination Propagation Predictions
Krueger, Ronald
2013-01-01
The development and application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasistatic delamination propagation capabilities was demonstrated for ANSYS (TradeMark) and Abaqus/Standard (TradeMark). The examples selected were based on finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimens. First, quasi-static benchmark results were created based on an approach developed previously. Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in ANSYS (TradeMark) and Abaqus/Standard (TradeMark). Input control parameters were varied to study the effect on the computed delamination propagation. Overall, the benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the appropriate input parameters for the VCCT implementations in ANSYS® and Abaqus/Standard®. However, further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required. Additionally studies should include the assessment of the propagation capabilities in more complex specimens and on a structural level.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶枫; 钟会玲
2015-01-01
A method based on improved affinity propagation clustering of data warehouse is proposed by analyzing physicians’ antibiotic prescribing practices in this article. Loading pivottable by the data warehouse, we can select a representative physicians’ antibiotic prescription data and find the internal factors of antibiotic prescribing behavior of physicians through improved affinity propagation. The data is from the antibiotic prescription of information system of a first-class hospital in Zhejiang province in 2012, which is studied through cross-sectional. Firstly, we build the data warehouse, then cluster and reduce the dimensionality of data set by improved affinity propagation clustering to get the training set and test set. Finally, the results show that different departments, months and types of antibiotics have significant impacts on the data of antibiotic prescriptions. There are significant differences of cephalosporin and penicillin with seasonal changes in this hospital which can be used as evaluation index of the doctor’s prescription.%通过有效分析某医院抗生素处方行为，提出了一种基于数据仓库改进的近邻传播聚类方法，利用数据仓库透视出所需数据，而利用改进的近邻传播聚类方法在数据仓库的基础上聚类出具有代表性医生的抗生素处方数据，找到抗生素处方行为的影响因素以及规范医生处方行为的评价指标.采用2012年浙江省某三甲医院信息系统中的抗生素处方数据，对数据进行横断面研究，首先对提取的数据建立数据仓库，之后利用改进的近邻传播聚类算法对数据降维和分类，得到医生的抗生素处方行为的训练集和测试集，最后利用 SAS9.1软件的多因素方差分析和配对非参数检验，分析抗生素处方行为的影响因素以及评价指标.结果表明，不同科室、不同月份、不同抗生素种类对抗生素处方数据有显著影
Efficient techniques for wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications
Mehra, Ravish
Sound propagation techniques model the effect of the environment on sound waves and predict their behavior from point of emission at the source to the final point of arrival at the listener. Sound is a pressure wave produced by mechanical vibration of a surface that propagates through a medium such as air or water, and the problem of sound propagation can be formulated mathematically as a second-order partial differential equation called the wave equation. Accurate techniques based on solving the wave equation, also called the wave-based techniques, are too expensive computationally and memory-wise. Therefore, these techniques face many challenges in terms of their applicability in interactive applications including sound propagation in large environments, time-varying source and listener directivity, and high simulation cost for mid-frequencies. In this dissertation, we propose a set of efficient wave-based sound propagation techniques that solve these three challenges and enable the use of wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications. Firstly, we propose a novel equivalent source technique for interactive wave-based sound propagation in large scenes spanning hundreds of meters. It is based on the equivalent source theory used for solving radiation and scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics. Instead of using a volumetric or surface-based approach, this technique takes an object-centric approach to sound propagation. The proposed equivalent source technique generates realistic acoustic effects and takes orders of magnitude less runtime memory compared to prior wave-based techniques. Secondly, we present an efficient framework for handling time-varying source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation. The source directivity is represented as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic sources. This spherical harmonic-based representation of source directivity can support analytical, data
Dalluge, J J; Sander, L C
1998-12-15
An approach has been developed to the on-line extraction and identification of clinical disease-state marker proteins in human serum. Fabrication of capillaries with integral packed beds for the online determination of human cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a diagnostic marker for myocardial infarction, at clinically relevant levels (2 nmol/L) in serum is demonstrated. The technique, termed precolumn affinity capillary electrophoresis (PA-CE), utilizes a short (approximately 5 mm) packed bed of porous silica containing covalently immobilized monoclonal anti-cTnI antibodies directly integrated within a separation capillary for the selective retention of cTnI from a complex matrix. Following a rinsing step to eliminate nonspecifically bound serum proteins and other impurities from the column, desorption of the antigen into the separation region of the PA-CE capillary for subsequent measurement of femto-molar amounts of cTnI by CE is effected by the injection of an appropriate elution buffer. Advantages of this approach over previously reported affinity preconcentration techniques, related applications for PA-CE technology, and its potential for use in the development of a certified reference material for cTnI in serum are discussed. PMID:9868922
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivone Garros-Rosa
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Successive aqueous (10 ºC, 25 ºC and 80 ºC and alkaline (1M NaOH; 25 ºC extractions of milled Parkinsonia aculeata endosperms gave rise to four galactomannan fractions. These extractions furnished viscous galactomannans with Man:Gal ratios ranging from 3.1:1; 3.7:1; 4.9:1 and 6.1:1 (P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively. Fraction P1 was used for structural studies by using methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and 13C-NMR. It showed a linear backbone of beta(1->4 linked D-mannose units, to which single alpha(1->6-linked D-galactose are attached. This galactomannan has Mw 775700 g/mol and intrinsic viscosity of 558 mL/g. The four fractions and the crude endosperm were treated with epichlorydrin and used as matrix for affinity chromatography. All columns tested showed ability to bind lectin samples. The efficiency is related to the degree and pattern of substitution of galactosyl units on the D-mannan backbone.
Propagation of Nonlinear Waves in Waveguides and Application to Nondestructive Stress Measurement
Nucera, Claudio
Propagation of nonlinear waves in waveguides is a field that has received an ever increasing interest in the last few decades. Nonlinear guided waves are excellent candidates for interrogating long waveguide like structures because they combine high sensitivity to structural conditions, typical of nonlinear parameters, with large inspection ranges, characteristic of wave propagation in bounded media. The primary topic of this dissertation is the analysis of ultrasonic waves, including ultrasonic guided waves, propagating in their nonlinear regime and their application to structural health monitoring problems, particularly the measurement of thermal stress in Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). Following an overview of basic physical principles generating nonlinearities in ultrasonic wave propagation, the case of higher-harmonic generation in multi-mode and dispersive guided waves is examined in more detail. A numerical framework is developed in order to predict favorable higher-order generation conditions (i.e. specific guided modes and frequencies) for waveguides of arbitrary cross-sections. This model is applied to various benchmark cases of complex structures. The nonlinear wave propagation model is then applied to the case of a constrained railroad track (CWR) subjected to thermal variations. This study is a direct response to the key need within the railroad transportation community to develop a technique able to measure thermal stresses in CWR, or determine the rail temperature corresponding to a null thermal stress (Neutral Temperature -- NT). The numerical simulation phase concludes with a numerical study performed using ABAQUS commercial finite element package. These analyses were crucial in predicting the evolution of the nonlinear parameter beta with thermal stress level acting in the rail. A novel physical model, based on interatomic potential, was developed to explain the origin of nonlinear wave propagation under constrained thermal expansion. In fact
Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano, E-mail: dsierras@eafit.edu.co, E-mail: langel@eafit.edu.co [Grupo de Optica Aplicada, Universidad EAFIT, 1 Medellin (Colombia)
2011-01-01
Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.
Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation
Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Ángel-Toro, Luciano
2011-01-01
Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB® software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.
Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.
Truong, Thanh Chung; Lee, Jung Ryul
2016-09-01
In recent years, the technology of using laser ultrasonic propagation imaging for damage visualization of composite structures were applied to real-world applications. Among many choices of sensor for the Ultrasonic Propagation Imager, the laser interferometry has several advantages: it is non-invasive, and portable, and with extraordinarily long-range measurement. However, the critical issue with interferometry sensing is its low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), where the background noise can mask the damage-induced waves and making it impossible to identify the damages, especially in composite structures. In this paper, we propose a hardware-based SNR enhancement technique using multiple Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDVs). The out-of-plane mode of ultrasonic signals are measured by multiple LDVs at a common sensing point and then averaged in real time. We showed that the SNR enhancement in experiments was consistent with the theoretical prediction, and also the test results showed a clear improvement for damage visualization of structures using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Imaging and Ultrasonic Wavenumber Imaging algorithms.
Hann, Mark; Rodriguez Dapena, Patricia; Moretti, Davide
2014-08-01
Software Failure Propagation Prevention (SFPP) project aims to establish the conditions and identify the methods, techniques and tools to be used to ensure prevention of failure propagation between software products and components of different criticality category, both on-board and in the ground segment, under an ESA R&D contract [2]. This paper describes the development of the "Guidelines And Recommendations For Prevention Of Software Failure Propagation" [6] and the application of these guidelines in two proof of concept pilots. These pilots demonstrate the application of the techniques and methods described in the guidelines to two existing space software applications, one for ground segment and one for flight segment. This paper follows on from [1], which described the analysis of software failure propagation, the review of current practices inside and outside the European Space domain.
Feller, David
2016-01-01
Benchmark quality adiabatic electron affinities for a collection of atoms and small molecules were obtained with the Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite coupled cluster theory method. Prior applications of this method demonstrated its ability to accurately predict atomization energies/heats of formation for more than 170 molecules. In the current work, the 1-particle expansion involved very large correlation consistent basis sets, ranging up to aug-cc-pV9Z (aug-cc-pV10Z for H and H2), with the goal of minimizing the residual basis set truncation error that must otherwise be approximated with extrapolation formulas. The n-particle expansion begins with coupled cluster calculations through iterative single and double excitations plus a quasiperturbative treatment of "connected" triple excitations (CCSD(T)) pushed to the complete basis set limit followed by CCSDT, CCSDTQ, or CCSDTQ5 corrections. Due to the small size of the systems examined here, it was possible in many cases to extend the n-particle expansion to the full configuration interaction wave function limit. Additional, smaller corrections associated with core/valence correlation, scalar relativity, anharmonic zero point vibrational energies, and non-adiabatic effects were also included. The overall root mean square (RMS) deviation was 0.005 eV (0.12 kcal/mol). This level of agreement was comparable to what was found with molecular heats of formation. A 95% confidence level corresponds to roughly twice the RMS value or 0.01 eV. While the atomic electron affinities are known experimentally to high accuracy, the molecular values are less certain. This contributes to the difficulty of gauging the accuracy of the theoretical results. A limited number of electron affinities were determined with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method. After extending the VnZ-F12 orbital basis sets with additional diffuse functions, the F12b method was found to accurately reproduce the best F/F(-) value obtained with standard
Feller, David
2016-01-01
Benchmark quality adiabatic electron affinities for a collection of atoms and small molecules were obtained with the Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite coupled cluster theory method. Prior applications of this method demonstrated its ability to accurately predict atomization energies/heats of formation for more than 170 molecules. In the current work, the 1-particle expansion involved very large correlation consistent basis sets, ranging up to aug-cc-pV9Z (aug-cc-pV10Z for H and H2), with the goal of minimizing the residual basis set truncation error that must otherwise be approximated with extrapolation formulas. The n-particle expansion begins with coupled cluster calculations through iterative single and double excitations plus a quasiperturbative treatment of "connected" triple excitations (CCSD(T)) pushed to the complete basis set limit followed by CCSDT, CCSDTQ, or CCSDTQ5 corrections. Due to the small size of the systems examined here, it was possible in many cases to extend the n-particle expansion to the full configuration interaction wave function limit. Additional, smaller corrections associated with core/valence correlation, scalar relativity, anharmonic zero point vibrational energies, and non-adiabatic effects were also included. The overall root mean square (RMS) deviation was 0.005 eV (0.12 kcal/mol). This level of agreement was comparable to what was found with molecular heats of formation. A 95% confidence level corresponds to roughly twice the RMS value or 0.01 eV. While the atomic electron affinities are known experimentally to high accuracy, the molecular values are less certain. This contributes to the difficulty of gauging the accuracy of the theoretical results. A limited number of electron affinities were determined with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method. After extending the VnZ-F12 orbital basis sets with additional diffuse functions, the F12b method was found to accurately reproduce the best F/F- value obtained with standard
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin P De Souza
Full Text Available Filamentous fungi occupy critical environmental niches and have numerous beneficial industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. As regulators of essentially all biological processes protein kinases have been intensively studied but how they regulate the often unique biology of filamentous fungi is not completely understood. Significant understanding of filamentous fungal biology has come from the study of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans using a combination of molecular genetics, biochemistry, cell biology and genomic approaches. Here we describe dual localization-affinity purification (DLAP tags enabling endogenous N or C-terminal protein tagging for localization and biochemical studies in A. nidulans. To establish DLAP tag utility we endogenously tagged 17 protein kinases for analysis by live cell imaging and affinity purification. Proteomic analysis of purifications by mass spectrometry confirmed association of the CotA and NimXCdk1 kinases with known binding partners and verified a predicted interaction of the SldABub1/R1 spindle assembly checkpoint kinase with SldBBub3. We demonstrate that the single TOR kinase of A. nidulans locates to vacuoles and vesicles, suggesting that the function of endomembranes as major TOR cellular hubs is conserved in filamentous fungi. Comparative analysis revealed 7 kinases with mitotic specific locations including An-Cdc7 which unexpectedly located to mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs, the first such localization described for this family of DNA replication kinases. We show that the SepH septation kinase locates to SPBs specifically in the basal region of apical cells in a biphasic manner during mitosis and again during septation. This results in gradients of SepH between G1 SPBs which shift along hyphae as each septum forms. We propose that SepH regulates the septation initiation network (SIN specifically at SPBs in the basal region of G1 cells and that
Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation
Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael
2013-01-01
In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neu...
Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation
Roberto eSantana; Laura eMcGarry; Concha eBielza; Pedro eLarrañaga; Rafael eYuste
2013-01-01
In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. Neuronal classification has been a difficult problem because it is unclear what a neuronal cell class actually is and what are the best characteristics are to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological or molecular characteristics, when applied to selected datasets, have provided quantitative and unbi...
Affine Data-Flow Graphs for the Synthesis of Hard Real-Time Applications
Bouakaz, Adnan; Talpin, Jean-Pierre; Vitek, Jan
2012-01-01
Data-flow models ease the task of constructing feasible schedules of computations and communications of high-assurance embedded applications. One key and open issue is how to schedule data-flow graphs so as to minimize the buffering of data and reduce end-to-end latency. Most of the proposed techniques in that respect are based on either static or data-driven scheduling. This paper looks at the problem in a different way by considering priority-driven preemptive scheduling theory of periodic ...
Manfreda, G.; Bajas, H.; Perez, J.C.
2016-01-01
To improve the technology of the new generation of accelerator magnets, prototypes are being manufactured and tested in several laboratories. In parallel, many numerical analyses are being carried out to predict the magnets behaviour and interpret the experimental results. This paper focuses on the quench propagation velocity, which is a crucial parameter as regards the energy dissipation along the magnet conductor. The THELMA code, originally developed for cable-in-conduit conductors for fusion magnets, has been used to study such quench propagation. To this purpose, new code modules have been added to describe the Rutherford cable geometry, the material non-linear thermal properties and to describe the thermal conduction problem in transient regime. THELMA can describe the Rutherford cable at the strand level, modelling both the electrical and thermal contact resistances between strands and enabling the analysis of the effects of local hot spots and quench heaters. This paper describes the model application...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)
2010-12-15
To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mullor, R. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Alicante (Spain); Sanchez, A., E-mail: aisanche@eio.upv.e [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 (Spain); Martorell, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Martinez-Alzamora, N. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 (Spain)
2011-06-15
Safety related systems performance optimization is classically based on quantifying the effects that testing and maintenance activities have on reliability and cost (R+C). However, R+C quantification is often incomplete in the sense that important uncertainties may not be considered. An important number of studies have been published in the last decade in the field of R+C based optimization considering uncertainties. They have demonstrated that inclusion of uncertainties in the optimization brings the decision maker insights concerning how uncertain the R+C results are and how this uncertainty does matter as it can result in differences in the outcome of the decision making process. Several methods of uncertainty propagation based on the theory of tolerance regions have been proposed in the literature depending on the particular characteristics of the variables in the output and their relations. In this context, the objective of this paper focuses on the application of non-parametric and parametric methods to analyze uncertainty propagation, which will be implemented on a multi-objective optimization problem where reliability and cost act as decision criteria and maintenance intervals act as decision variables. Finally, a comparison of results of these applications and the conclusions obtained are presented.
D.F. Schrager
2006-01-01
We propose a new model for stochastic mortality. The model is based on the literature on affine term structure models. It satisfies three important requirements for application in practice: analytical tractibility, clear interpretation of the factors and compatibility with financial option pricing m
The Utility of Affine Variables and Affine Coherent States
Klauder, John R
2011-01-01
Affine coherent states are generated by affine kinematical variables much like canonical coherent states are generated by canonical kinematical variables. Although all classical and quantum formalisms normally entail canonical variables, it is shown that affine variables can serve equally well for many classical and quantum studies. This general purpose analysis provides tools to discuss two major applications: (1) the completely successful quantization of a nonrenormalizable scalar quantum field theory by affine techniques, in complete contrast to canonical techniques which only offer triviality; and (2) a formulation of the kinematical portion of quantum gravity that favors affine kinematical variables over canonical kinematical variables, and which generates a framework in which a favorable analysis of the constrained dynamical issues can take place. All this is possible because of the close connection between the affine and the canonical stories, while the few distinctions can be used to advantage when ap...
Jacobi Structures on Affine Bundles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J. GRABOWSKI; D. IGLESIAS; J. C. MARRERO; E. PADR(O)N; P. URBA(N)SKI
2007-01-01
We study affine Jacobi structures (brackets) on an affine bundle π: A→M, i.e. Jacobi brackets that close on affine functions. We prove that if the rank of A is non-zero, there is a one-to- one correspondence between affine Jacobi structures on A and Lie algebroid structures on the vector bundle A+=∪p∈M Aff(Ap, R) of affine functionals. In the case rank A = 0, it is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between affins Jacobi structures on A and local Lie algebras on A+. Some examples and applications, also for the linear case, are discussed. For a special type of affine Jacobi structures which are canonically exhibited (strongly-affine or affine-homogeneous Jacobi structures) over a real vector space of finite dimension, we describe the leaves of its characteristic foliation as the orbits of an affine representation. These afline Jacobi structures can be viewed as an analog of the Kostant-Arnold-LiouviUe linear Poisson structure on the dual space of a real finite-dimensional Lie algebra.
Allison, S. W.; Gillies, G. T.
2010-08-01
We have investigated the utility of 0.6% agarose gels as surrogate materials for brain tissues in optical propagation studies for possible diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Centimeter-scale layers of the gel exhibited a Beer's law attenuation factor, δ, of ≈0.2 mm-1 for incident illumination via a pulsed LED (100 Hz) at 405 nm. This result was different by only about a factor of 3 from the effective penetration depth at similar wavelengths through in vitro samples of the gray (cortical) matter of human brain, as measured by others. Then, films of the thermographic phosphors La2O2S:Eu, Mg4FGeO6:Mn, YAG:Cr and variants of the latter were formed on aluminum substrates and the fluorescence of these samples was stimulated and observed through layers of the gel up to 4 cm thick. In all cases, the fluorescence was easily excited and distinguishable above the background. The results demonstrate that this gel might serve as an inexpensive and robust test bed for exploratory studies of neurological modalities involving propagation of optical signals within brain tissues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Kaufmann
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The accuracy of ranging measurements depends critically on the knowledge of time delays undergone by signals when retransmitted by a remote transponder and due to propagation effects. A new method determines these delays for every single pulsed signal transmission. It utilizes four ground-based reference stations, synchronized in time and installed at well-known geodesic coordinates and a repeater in space, carried by a satellite, balloon, aircraft, and so forth. Signal transmitted by one of the reference bases is retransmitted by the transponder, received back by the four bases, producing four ranging measurements which are processed to determine uniquely the time delays undergone in every retransmission process. A minimization function is derived comparing repeater’s positions referred to at least two groups of three reference bases, providing the signal transit time at the repeater and propagation delays, providing the correct repeater position. The method is applicable to the transponder platform positioning and navigation, time synchronization of remote clocks, and location of targets. The algorithm has been demonstrated by simulations adopting a practical example with the transponder carried by an aircraft moving over bases on the ground.
Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, J. N.; Olsen, G.H.; Shafer, C. C.
2010-01-01
In captive-rearing programs, small sample sizes can limit the quality of information on performance of propagation methods. Bayesian updating can be used to increase information on method performance over time. We demonstrate an application to incubator testing at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. A new type of incubator was purchased for use in the whooping crane (Grus americana) propagation program, which produces birds for release. We tested the new incubator for reliability, using sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) eggs as surrogates. We determined that the new incubator should result in hatching rates no more than 5% lower than the available incubators, with 95% confidence, before it would be used to incubate whooping crane eggs. In 2007, 5 healthy chicks hatched from 12 eggs in the new incubator, and 2 hatched from 5 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of method, where a veterinarian determined whether eggs produced chicks that, at hatching, had no apparent health problems that would impede future release. We used the 2007 estimates as priors in the 2008 analysis. In 2008, 7 normal chicks hatched from 15 eggs in the new incubator, and 11 hatched from 15 in an available incubator, for a median posterior difference of 19%, with 95% credible interval (-8%, 44%). The increased sample size has increased our understanding of incubator performance. While additional data will be collected, at this time the new incubator does not appear adequate for use with whooping crane eggs.
Kaufmann, P; Pamboukian, S V D; de Morais, R Vilhena
2012-01-01
The changes in phase, time and frequency suffered by signals when retransmitted by a remote and inaccessible transponder and the propagation delays are major constraints to obtain accurate ranging measurements in various related applications. We present a new method and system to determine these delays for every single pulsed signal transmission. The process utilizes four ground-based reference stations, synchronized in time and installed at well known geodesic coordinates. The repeater station is located within the fields of view common to the four reference bases, such as in a platform transported by a satellite, balloon, aircraft, etc. Signal transmitted by one of the reference bases is retransmitted by the transponder, received back by the four bases, producing four ranging measurements which are processed to determine uniquely the time delays undergone in every retransmission process. The repeater's positions with respect to each group of three out of four reference bases are given by a system of equatio...
Ancora, Daniele; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis
2015-07-01
One of the major challenges within Optical Imaging, photon propagation through clear layers embedded between scattering tissues, can be now efficiently modelled in real-time thanks to the Monte Carlo approach based on GPU. Because of its nature, the photon propagation problem can be very easily parallelized and ran on low cost hardware, avoiding the need for expensive Super Computers. A comparison between Diffusion and MC photon propagation theory is presented in this work with application to neuroimaging, investigating low scattering regions in a mouse-like phantom. Regions such as the Cerebral Spinal Fluid, are currently not taken into account in the classical computational models because of the impossibility to accurately simulate light propagation using fast Diffusive Equation approaches, leading to inaccuracies during the reconstruction process. The goal of the study presented here, is to reduce and further improve the computation accuracy of the reconstructed solution in a highly realistic scenario in the case of neuroimaging in preclinical mouse models.
Parallel Reservoir Simulations with Sparse Grid Techniques and Applications to Wormhole Propagation
Wu, Yuanqing
2015-09-08
In this work, two topics of reservoir simulations are discussed. The first topic is the two-phase compositional flow simulation in hydrocarbon reservoir. The major obstacle that impedes the applicability of the simulation code is the long run time of the simulation procedure, and thus speeding up the simulation code is necessary. Two means are demonstrated to address the problem: parallelism in physical space and the application of sparse grids in parameter space. The parallel code can gain satisfactory scalability, and the sparse grids can remove the bottleneck of flash calculations. Instead of carrying out the flash calculation in each time step of the simulation, a sparse grid approximation of all possible results of the flash calculation is generated before the simulation. Then the constructed surrogate model is evaluated to approximate the flash calculation results during the simulation. The second topic is the wormhole propagation simulation in carbonate reservoir. In this work, different from the traditional simulation technique relying on the Darcy framework, we propose a new framework called Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer framework to simulate wormhole propagation. Furthermore, to process the large quantity of cells in the simulation grid and shorten the long simulation time of the traditional serial code, standard domain-based parallelism is employed, using the Hypre multigrid library. In addition to that, a new technique called “experimenting field approach” to set coefficients in the model equations is introduced. In the 2D dissolution experiments, different configurations of wormholes and a series of properties simulated by both frameworks are compared. We conclude that the numerical results of the DBF framework are more like wormholes and more stable than the Darcy framework, which is a demonstration of the advantages of the DBF framework. The scalability of the parallel code is also evaluated, and good scalability can be achieved. Finally, a mixed
Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.
2015-05-01
approach. Two additional kinds of parameters, the higher-order nonlocal parameters and the nonlocal gradient length coefficients are introduced to account for the size-dependent characteristics of nonlocal gradient materials at nanoscale. To illustrate its application values, the theory is applied for wave propagation in a nonlocal strain gradient system and the new dispersion relations derived are presented through examples for wave propagating in Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko nanobeams. The numerical results based on the new nonlocal strain gradient theory reveal some new findings with respect to lattice dynamics and wave propagation experiment that could not be matched by both the classical nonlocal stress model and the contemporary strain gradient theory. Thus, this higher-order nonlocal strain gradient model provides an explanation to some observations in the classical and nonlocal stress theories as well as the strain gradient theory in these aspects.
Shetty, Dinesh; Khedkar, Jayshree K; Park, Kyeng Min; Kim, Kimoon
2015-12-01
The design of synthetic, monovalent host-guest molecular recognition pairs is still challenging and of particular interest to inquire into the limits of the affinity that can be achieved with designed systems. In this regard, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]), an important member of the host family cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n], n = 5-8, 10, 14), has attracted much attention because of its ability to form ultra-stable complexes with multiple guests. The strong hydrophobic effect between the host cavity and guests, ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions of guests with CB portals helps in cooperative and multiple noncovalent interactions that are essential for realizing such strong complexations. These highly selective, strong yet dynamic interactions can be exploited in many applications including affinity chromatography, biomolecule immobilization, protein isolation, biological catalysis, and sensor technologies. In this review, we summarize the progress in the development of high affinity guests for CB[7], factors affecting the stability of complexes, theoretical insights, and the utility of these high affinity pairs in different challenging applications. PMID:26434388
Infinite transitivity on affine varieties
Arzhantsev, Ivan; Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL
2012-01-01
In this note we survey recent results on automorphisms of affine algebraic varieties, infinitely transitive group actions and flexibility. We present related constructions and examples, and discuss geometric applications and open problems.
Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes
2010-01-01
In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a
Odhner, Johanan
Femtosecond laser filamentation in gaseous media is a new source of broadband, ultrashort radiation that has the potential for application to many fields of research. In this dissertation filamentation is studied with a view to understanding the underlying physics governing the formation and propagation dynamics of filamentation, as well as to developing a method for vibrational spectroscopy based on the filament-induced impulsive vibrational excitation of molecules in the filamentation region. In pursuit of a better understanding of the underlying physical processes driving filamentation, the development of a new method for characterizing high intensity ultrashort laser pulses is presented, wherein two laser beams generate a transient grating in a noble gas, causing the pulse undergoing filamentation to diffract from the grating. Measuring the spectrum as a function of time delay between the filament and probe beams generates a spectrogram that can be inverted to recover the spectral and temporal phase and amplitude of the filamentary pulse. This technique enables measurement of the filamentary pulse in its native environment, offering a window into the pulse dynamics as a function of propagation distance. The intrinsic pulse shortening observed during filamentation leads to the impulsive excitation of molecular vibrations, which can be used to understand the dynamics of filamentation as well. Combined measurements of the longitudinally-resolved filament Raman spectrum, power spectrum, and fluorescence intensity confirm the propagation dynamics inferred from pulse measurements and show that filamentation provides a viable route to impulsive vibrational spectroscopy at remote distances from the laser source. The technique is applied to thermometry in air and in flames, and an analytical expression is derived to describe the short-time dynamics of the rovibrational wave-packet dispersion experienced by diatomic molecules in the wave of the filament. It is found that
Pai, Akshay; Sporring, Jon; Darkner, Sune; Dam, Erik B; Lillholm, Martin; Jørgensen, Dan; Oh, Joonmi; Chen, Gennan; Suhy, Joyce; Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads
2016-01-01
Obtaining regional volume changes from a deformation field is more precise when using simplex counting (SC) compared with Jacobian integration (JI) due to the numerics involved in the latter. Although SC has been proposed before, numerical properties underpinning the method and a thorough evaluation of the method against JI is missing in the literature. The contributions of this paper are: (a) we propose surface propagation (SP)-a simplification to SC that significantly reduces its computational complexity; (b) we will derive the orders of approximation of SP which can also be extended to SC. In the experiments, we will begin by empirically showing that SP is indeed nearly identical to SC, and that both methods are more stable than JI in presence of moderate to large deformation noise. Since SC and SP are identical, we consider SP as a representative of both the methods for a practical evaluation against JI. In a real application on Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative data, we show the following: (a) SP produces whole brain and medial temporal lobe atrophy numbers that are significantly better than JI at separating between normal controls and Alzheimer's disease patients; (b) SP produces disease group atrophy differences comparable to or better than those obtained using FreeSurfer, demonstrating the validity of the obtained clinical results. Finally, in a reproducibility study, we show that the voxel-wise application of SP yields significantly lower variance when compared to JI. PMID:27014717
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michelle Cummins
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Ricin is a potent glycoprotein toxin that is structurally composed of two subunits joined via a disulfide bond: a ~30 kDa subunit A (RTA and a ~32 kDa subunit B (RTB. There are fears of ricin being used as a weapon for warfare and terrorism and, as such, there is an increasing need for the development of immunodiagnostic reagents targeted towards this toxin. This article describes the production and characterization of a panel of six ricin-specific monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs, previously selected based upon their ability to inhibit ricin-mediated killing of cultured cells. Subsequent epitope binding analysis using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR array biosensor (ProteOn XPR36 indicated three distinct, non-competitive binding epitopes (“bins”. The association (ka and dissociation (kd rate constants and binding affinities (KD of each of the mAbs to ricin were also determined by SPR using Biacore T100 instrument. Affinities (KD ranged from 0.1 nM to 9 nM. We present the coding sequences of the variable domains of the six mAbs, the expression, kinetic and cytotoxicity assays for two recombinant Fab (rFab fragments and demonstrate a rFab affinity improvement by chain-shuffling. Together, these antibodies and constituent rFabs represent a panel of reagents for high-affinity recognition of ricin with potential national security biosensor applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin R
2011-01-01
matrices for further characterization is affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction between an analyte in solution and a solid adsorbent. Titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography has proven to be a versatile tool in enrichment of various compounds such as phosphorylated...... biomolecules due to its unique ion and ligand exchange properties and high stability towards pH and temperature. Recently, titanium dioxide chromatography was introduced in proteomics as a highly specific method for enriching phosphorylated peptides - a method, which has been widely adapted by the field...
Sheppard, Colin J R; Kou, Shan S; Lin, Jiao
2014-12-01
Highly convergent beam modes in two dimensions are considered based on rigorous solutions of the scalar wave (Helmholtz) equation, using the complex source point formalism. The modes are applicable to planar waveguide or surface plasmonic structures and nearly concentric microcavity resonator modes in two dimensions. A novel solution is that of a vortex beam, where the direction of propagation is in the plane of the vortex. The modes also can be used as a basis for the cross section of propagationally invariant beams in three dimensions and bow-tie-shaped optical fiber modes. PMID:25606756
Application of radiation induced mutations in the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The NOBEL PEACE PRIZE, 2005, award to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a recognition to the contributions of nuclear technique applications, in a tough face off with plant genetic engineering, in sustainable food production, improvement of nutrition balance, and food security. Nuclear technology is effective in generating genetic variability, selection of useful mutants and multiplication in large numbers. A wide range of mutants of various vegetatively propagated crops have been isolated (www.iaea.org). In vitro plant regeneration is very much genotypic dependent, type of explants; culture medium, plant growth regulators etc. Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal system for the selection and multiplication of mutants and also would save time to dissociate chimeras. The role of molecular tools has become very crucial in understanding the molecular basis of differentiation and genetic variability; gene identification, isolation, and transfer. The new gene discovery with reverse and forward genetics will open the way for developing functional genomic plant breeding. There is no opposition from the consumers to consume food products derived from mutants, unlike strong opposition to the consumption of genetically modified (GM) food. Moreover, bio-safety regulations are not applied to mutants, however, strictly adhere to GM food. Tomorrow's agriculture will be under tremendous pressure for feeding the world's population in the face of climatic changes, salt and drought stresses, and biotic stresses; and mutagenesis would be the answer
Light propagation in the field of a moving axisymmetric body: theory and application to Juno
Hees, A; Poncin-Lafitte, C Le
2014-01-01
Given the extreme accuracy of modern space science, a precise relativistic modeling of observations is required. We use the Time Transfer Functions formalism to study light propagation in the field of moving axisymmetric bodies, which extends the field of application of previous works. We first derive a space-time metric adapted to describe the geometry of an ensemble of moving bodies. Then, we show that the expression of the Time Transfer Functions in the field of a uniformly moving body can be easily derived from its well-known expression in a stationary field by using a change of variables. We also give a general expression of the Time Transfer Function in the case where the motion of the body is arbitrary. This result is given in the form of an integral easily computable numerically. We also provide the derivatives of the Time Transfer Function in this case, which are mandatory to compute Doppler and astrometric observables. We particularize our results in the case of moving axisymmetric bodies. Finally, ...
Williams, Michael; Schwartz, Steven
2015-03-01
The previous version of our cardiac thin filament (CTF) model consisted of the troponin complex (cTn), two coiled-coil dimers of tropomyosin (Tm), and 29 actin units. We now present the newest revision of the model to include explicit solvation. The model was developed to continue our study of genetic mutations in the CTF proteins which are linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. Binding of calcium to the cTnC subunit causes subtle conformational changes to propagate through the cTnC to the cTnI subunit which then detaches from actin. Conformational changes propagate through to the cTnT subunit, which allows Tm to move into the open position along actin, leading to muscle contraction. Calcium disassociation allows for the reverse to occur, which results in muscle relaxation. The inclusion of explicit TIP3 water solvation allows for the model to get better individual local solvent to protein interactions; which are important when observing the N-lobe calcium binding pocket of the cTnC. We are able to compare in silica and in vitro experimental results to better understand the physiological effects from mutants, such as the R92L/W and F110V/I of the cTnT, on the calcium binding affinity compared to the wild type.
Tripathy, Rohit; Bilionis, Ilias; Gonzalez, Marcial
2016-09-01
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the
Power Series Expansion of Propagator for Path Integral and Its Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper we obtain a propagator of path integral for a harmonic oscillator and a driven harmonic oscillator by using the power series expansion. It is shown that our result for the harmonic oscillator is more exact than the previous one obtained with other approximation methods. By using the same method, we obtain a propagator of path integral for the driven harmonic oscillator, which does not have any exact expansion. The more exact propagators may improve the path integral results for these systems.
Landsman, Zinoviy
2008-10-01
We present an explicit closed form solution of the problem of minimizing the root of a quadratic functional subject to a system of affine constraints. The result generalizes Z. Landsman, Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under an affine equality constraint, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2007, to appear, see http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03770427>, articles in press, where the optimization problem was solved under only one linear constraint. This is of interest for solving significant problems pertaining to financial economics as well as some classes of feasibility and optimization problems which frequently occur in tomography and other fields. The results are illustrated in the problem of optimal portfolio selection and the particular case when the expected return of finance portfolio is certain is discussed.
Ricklin, Daniel
2005-01-01
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology evolved into a key technology for the characterization of biomolecular interactions, and is integrated in many stages of the drug discovery process. Despite recent developments in the area of instrument sensitivity and data processing, working with small molecules and low affinity interactions still remains a major challenge. The aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate and develop different methods for the accurate and reliable de...
Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mascarenas, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chong, See Yenn [Engineering Institute-Korea; Lee, J.R. [Engineering Institute-Korea; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-29
The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to
A numerical solution algorithm and its application to studies of pulsed light fields propagation
Banakh, V. A.; Gerasimova, L. O.; Smalikho, I. N.; Falits, A. V.
2016-08-01
A new method for studies of pulsed laser beams propagation in a turbulent atmosphere was proposed. The algorithm of numerical simulation is based on the solution of wave parabolic equation for complex spectral amplitude of wave field using method of splitting into physical factors. Examples of the use of the algorithm in the case the propagation pulsed Laguerre-Gaussian beams of femtosecond duration in the turbulence atmosphere has been shown.
Propagation of nonlinear waves in waveguides and application to nondestructive stress measurement
Nucera, Claudio
2012-01-01
Propagation of nonlinear waves in waveguides is a field that has received an ever increasing interest in the last few decades. Nonlinear guided waves are excellent candidates for interrogating long waveguide like structures because they combine high sensitivity to structural conditions, typical of nonlinear parameters, with large inspection ranges, characteristic of wave propagation in bounded media. The primary topic of this dissertation is the analysis of ultrasonic waves, including ultraso...
Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Wang, Q.
2015-12-01
An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.
Masson, E.; COCHERIL, Y; COMBEAU, P; AVENEAU, L; BERBINEAU, M; VAUZELLE, R; FAYT, E
2011-01-01
8 pages International audience Nowadays, the need for wireless communication systems is increasing in transport domain. These systems have to be operational in every type of environment and particularly tunnels for metro applications. These ones can have rectangular, circular or arch-shaped cross section. Furthermore, they can be straight or curved. This article presents a new method to model the radio wave propagation in straight tunnels with an arch-shaped cross section and in curved ...
Krueger, Ronald
2012-01-01
The application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasi-static delamination propagation capabilities is demonstrated for ANSYS. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The examples selected are based on two-dimensional finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB), End-Notched Flexure (ENF), Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) and Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimens. First, the quasi-static benchmark examples were recreated for each specimen using the current implementation of VCCT in ANSYS . Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in the finite element software. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for three-dimensional solid models is required.
Application of a modular multi-Gaussian beam model to wave propagation in anisotropic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A modular multi-Gaussian beam model is used to study the effect of material anisotropy on ultrasonic beam propagation. It is shown that the characteristics of the beam as it propagates are, controlled by two properties of the slowness surface. The slopes of the slowness surface affect the beam direction (beam skewing) and the curvatures of the slowness surface affect the overall beam profile. It is shown that the slowness curvature pulls or pushes the overall beam profile without changing the amplitude and this behavior is different from the effect of interface curvature, An austenite stainless steel is considered. The least squares method are used to extract the local properties of the slowness parameters. Some simulation results are given to illustrate the effects these parameters on ultrasonic beam propagation.
Wang, Zhuo; Dunkerton, Timothy J.; Montgomery, Michael T.
2012-01-01
A wave-tracking algorithm is developed for northwestward-propagating waves that, on occasion, play a role in tropical cyclogenesis over the western oceans. To obtain the Lagrangian flow structure, the frame of reference is translated obliquely at the same propagation speed with the precursor disturbance. Trajectory analysis suggests that streamlines in the obliquely translated frame of reference can be used to approximate flow trajectories. The algorithm was applied to Super Typhoon Nakri (2008), Tropical Cyclone Erika (2009), and a few other examples. Diagnoses of meteorological analyses and satellite-derived moisture and precipitation fields show that the marsupial framework for tropical cyclogenesis in tropical easterly waves is relevant also for northwestward-propagating disturbances as are commonly observed in the tropical western Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the western North Pacific. Finally, it is suggested that analysis of the global model data and satellite observations in the marsupial framework can provide useful guidance on early tropical cyclone advisories.
Lodewijks, Kristof; Van Roy, Willem; Borghs, Gustaaf; Lagae, Liesbet; Van Dorpe, Pol
2012-01-01
Localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances are known to show very pronounced interactions if they are simultaneously excited in the same nanostructure. Here we study the fano interference that occurs between localized (LSPR) and propagating (SPP) modes by means of phase sensitive spectroscopic ellipsometry. The sample structures consist of periodic gratings of gold nanodisks on top of a continuous gold layer and a thin dielectric spacer, in which the structural dimensions were tuned in such a way that the dipolar LSPR mode and the propagating SPP modes are excited in the same spectral region. We observe pronounced anti-crossing and strongly asymmetric line shapes when both modes move to each others vicinity, accompagnied of largely increased phase differences between the respective plasmon resonances. Moreover we show that the anti-crossing can be exploited to increase the refractive index sensitivity of the localized modes dramatically, which result in largely increased values for the Figure-Of-Mer...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BO Chun-Miao; GONG Bo-Lin; HU Wen-Zhi
2008-01-01
Three hydrophilic immobilized metal affinity chromatographic packings for HPLC have been synthesized by chemical modification of 3.0 μm monodisperse non-porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate)(PGMMEDMA)beads.The retention behavior of proteins on the metal ion chelated columns loaded with copper(Ⅱ),nickel(Ⅱ)and zin(Ⅱ)ion was studied.The effect of pH on the protein retention Was investigated on both the naked and metal ion chelated columns in the range from 4.0 to 9.0.Four proteins were quickly separated in 3.0 min with linear gradient elution at a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min by using the synthesized Ni2+ -IDA(iminodiacetic acid)packings.The separation time was shorter than other immobilized metal affinity chromatography reported in the literature.Purification of lysozyme from egg white and trypsin on the commercially available trypsin was performed on the naked-IDA and Cu2+ -IDA columns,respectively.The purities of the purified trypsin and lysozyme were more than 92%and 95%,respectively.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG XiaoHui; ZHAO XinFeng; YANG Rong; WANG ShiXiang; WEI YinMao; ZHENG JianBin
2008-01-01
β2-Adrenoceptor (β2-AR) was purified from the rabbit lung tissue by sepharose-salbutamol affinity chromatographic column. To prepare the β2-AR stationary phase, β2-AR was evenly immobilized on the surface of macro-pore silica with a mild chemical coupling method through covalent bond. The reten-tion properties of β2-AR stationary phase were characterized by four ligands, salbutamol sulfate, noradrenaline bitartrate, adrenaline hydrochloride and propranolol hydrochloride, to establish the β2-AR affinity chromatography. Then, the method was used to screen the active compounds from the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. The results showed that β2-AR on the surface of the sta-tionary phase could keep its original bioactivity and selectivity. Amygdalin retained in the chroma-tographic column was proved to be the active compound of the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. Compared with the existing chromatographic screening approaches, this method showed a good stability and high selectivity. The active compounds which could interact with β2-AR in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be screened efficiently by this method, providing a new way to screen the active compounds in complicated samples such as TCM.
Liang, Tzu-Wen; Hsieh, Tung-Yen; Wang, San-Lang
2014-06-01
A thermostable chitinase was purified by chitin affinity from the culture supernatant of Bacillus cereus TKU028 with shrimp head powder (SHP) as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. TKU028 chitinase was purified using a one-step affinity adsorbent system, and the molecular mass of TKU028 chitinase (approximately 40 kDa) was then determined using SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was stable for 60 min at temperatures below 60 °C and stable over a broad pH range of 4-9 for 60 min. In addition, the temporal changes of a bacterial community in mangrove river sediment of the Tamsui River with added SHP were also analysed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate the effects of B. cereus TKU028 on the degradation of SHP. The 6-week incubation sample of SHP and B. cereus TKU028-amended mangrove river sediment displayed the highest amount of biomass, reducing sugar and total sugar, and some variance of bacterial community composition existed in the soils. PMID:24342954
Sjoberg, Daniel
2008-01-01
This paper presents an overview of how circuit models can be used for analysing wave propagation in stratified structures. Relatively complex structures can be analysed using models which are accessible to undergraduate students. Homogeneous slabs are modelled as transmission lines, and thin sheets between the slabs are modelled as lumped…
Potsika, Vassiliki T; Grivas, Konstantinos N; Protopappas, Vasilios C; Vavva, Maria G; Raum, Kay; Rohrbach, Daniel; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I
2014-07-01
Quantitative ultrasound has recently drawn significant interest in the monitoring of the bone healing process. Several research groups have studied ultrasound propagation in healing bones numerically, assuming callus to be a homogeneous and isotropic medium, thus neglecting the multiple scattering phenomena that occur due to the porous nature of callus. In this study, we model ultrasound wave propagation in healing long bones using an iterative effective medium approximation (IEMA), which has been shown to be significantly accurate for highly concentrated elastic mixtures. First, the effectiveness of IEMA in bone characterization is examined: (a) by comparing the theoretical phase velocities with experimental measurements in cancellous bone mimicking phantoms, and (b) by simulating wave propagation in complex healing bone geometries by using IEMA. The original material properties of cortical bone and callus were derived using serial scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) images from previous animal studies. Guided wave analysis is performed for different healing stages and the results clearly indicate that IEMA predictions could provide supplementary information for bone assessment during the healing process. This methodology could potentially be applied in numerical studies dealing with wave propagation in composite media such as healing or osteoporotic bones in order to reduce the simulation time and simplify the study of complicated geometries with a significant porous nature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mixed Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB)-full-wave approach for the calculation of the 2D mode structure in tokamak plasmas is further developed based on our previous work [A. Cardinali and F. Zonca, Phys. Plasmas 10, 4199 (2003) and Z. X. Lu et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 042104 (2012)]. A new scheme for theoretical analysis and numerical implementation of the mixed WKB-full-wave approach is formulated, based on scale separation and asymptotic analysis. Besides its capability to efficiently investigate the initial value problem for 2D mode structures and linear stability, in this work, the mixed WKB-full-wave approach is extended to the investigation of radio frequency wave propagation and absorption, e.g., lower hybrid waves. As a novel method, its comparison with other approaches, e.g., WKB and beam tracing methods, is discussed. Its application to lower hybrid wave propagation in concentric circular tokamak plasmas using typical FTU discharge parameters is also demonstrated.
Su, Neil Qiang; Xu, Xin
2016-05-10
Recently, we have developed an integration approach for the calculations of ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of molecular systems at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) (Su, N. Q.; Xu, X. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 4677, 2015), where the full MP2 energy gradient with respect to the orbital occupation numbers was derived but only at integer occupations. The theory is completed here to cover the fractional occupation systems, such that Slater's transition state concept can be used to have accurate predictions of IPs and EAs. Antisymmetrized Goldstone diagrams have been employed for interpretations and better understanding of the derived equations, where two additional rules were introduced in the present work specifically for hole or particle lines with fractional occupation numbers.
Su, Neil Qiang; Xu, Xin
2016-05-10
Recently, we have developed an integration approach for the calculations of ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of molecular systems at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) (Su, N. Q.; Xu, X. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 4677, 2015), where the full MP2 energy gradient with respect to the orbital occupation numbers was derived but only at integer occupations. The theory is completed here to cover the fractional occupation systems, such that Slater's transition state concept can be used to have accurate predictions of IPs and EAs. Antisymmetrized Goldstone diagrams have been employed for interpretations and better understanding of the derived equations, where two additional rules were introduced in the present work specifically for hole or particle lines with fractional occupation numbers. PMID:27010405
Wave propagation in one-dimension: Methods and applications to complex and fractal structures
Akkermans, Eric; Levy, Eli
2012-01-01
This chapter is a pedagogical review of methods and results for studying wave propagation in one-dimensional complex structures. We describe and compare the tight-binding, scattering matrix, transfer matrix and Riccati formalisms. We present examples for transport through finite-sized layered dielectric systems with periodic, quasi-periodic, fractal, disordered, and random structure, illustrating how can spatial structure affect the spectrum of modes as well as the local mode intensity.
Krueger, Ronald
2011-01-01
The development of benchmark examples for static delamination propagation and cyclic delamination onset and growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of an End-Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation, onset and growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, based on the static results, benchmark examples for cyclic delamination growth were created. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Fourth, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the automated analysis and compared to the benchmark examples. Again, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.
PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH ORDER LONGITUDINAL MODES IN STEEL STRANDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zenghua Liu; Su Liu; Bin Wu; Yinong Zhang; Cunfu He
2008-01-01
Propagation characteristics of high order longitudinal modes of ultrasonic guided waves in seven-wire steel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. According to these analysis results, proper longitudinal modes are selected for defect detection in steel strands.Dispersion curves for helical and central wires in a 17.80 mm nominal diameter seven-wire steel strand are numerically obtained firstly, and propagation characteristics of high-order longitudinal modes, such as wave structures, attenuation and dispersion, are analyzed. In experiments, the signals of ultrasonic guided wave at different high frequencies are excited and received at one end of a steel strand by using the same single piezoelectric transducer. The identification of longitudinal modes in the received signals is achieved based on short time Fourier transform. Furthermore,appropriate L(0, 5) mode at 2.54 MHz is chosen for detecting an artificial defect in a helical wire of the steel strand. Results show that high order longitudinal modes in a high frequency range with low dispersion and attenuation whose energy propagates mainly in the center of the wires can be used for defect detection in long range steel strands.
Tang, Xinfeng; Su, Xianli; Uher, Ctirad; Tang's Group Team; Uher's Group Team
2015-03-01
Here we report compound thermoelectric materials (Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, Cu2Se,Cu2SnSe3, half-Heusler alloys, lead chalcogenides, skutterudites, and magnesium silicides) with thermoelectric properties comparable with materials prepared by the traditional routes of synthesis can be synthesized at a minimal cost and on the time scale of seconds using the self-propagating high temperature synthesis method. Moreover, we found that the criterion often quoted in the literature as the necessary precondition for combustion synthesis, Tad >= 1800 K, is not universal and certainly not applicable to thermoelectric compound semiconductors. Instead, we offer new empirically-based criterion, Tad /Tm , L >1, i.e., the adiabatic temperature must be high enough to melt the lower melting point component, which covers all materials synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis, including the high temperature refractory compounds for which the Tad >= 1800 K criterion was originally developed. Our work opens a new avenue for ultra-fast, low cost, mass production fabrication of efficient thermoelectric materials and the new criterion greatly broadens the scope of materials that can be successfully synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis. We wish to acknowledge support from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 program) under Project 2013CB632502.
Kotasidis, F. A.; Matthews, J. C.; Reader, A. J.; Angelis, G. I.; Zaidi, H.
2014-10-01
Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [15O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jérôme Lucas
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this this paper we quickly derive the Kramers-Kronig relations from simple causality considerations and propose a simple way to implement them using the Fast Fourier Transform. This work focuses on how to make these relations a usable tool even when their conditions of validity are not strictly respected. In this respect we emphasize on their application to the constant low level loss approximation at microwave frequencies. The method presented is demonstrated on various typical cases of fancy propagation: high velocity, negative phase velocity and evanescent waves.
Application of back-propagation neural networks to identification of seismic arrival types
Dai, Heng; MacBeth, Colin
1997-01-01
A back-propagation neural network (BPNN) approach is developed to identify P- and S-arrivals from three-component recordings of local earthquake data. The BPNN is trained by selecting trace segments of P- and S-waves and noise bursts converted into an attribute space based on the degree of polarization (DOP). After training, the network can automatically identify the type of arrival on earthquake recordings. Compared with manual analysis, a BPNN trained with nine groups of DOP segments can co...
Application of finite difference techniques to noise propagation in jet engine ducts
Baumeister, K. J.
1973-01-01
A finite difference formulation is presented for wave propagation in a rectangular two-dimensional duct without steady flow. The difference technique, which should be useful in the study of acoustically treated inlet and exhausts ducts used in turbofan engines, can readily handle acoustical flow field complications such as axial variations in wall impedance and cross section area. In the numerical analysis, the continuous acoustic field is lumped into a series of grid points in which the pressure and velocity at each grid point are separated into real and imaginary terms. An example calculation is also presented for the sound attenuation in a two-dimensional straight soft-walled suppressor.
Amra, Claude; Zerrad, Myriam; Guenneau, Sébastien; Soriano, Gabriel; Gralak, Boris; Bellieud, Michel; Veynante, Denis; Rolland, Nathalie
2015-01-01
A new analogy between optical propagation and heat diffusion in heterogeneous anisotropic media has been proposed recently [S. Guenneau, C. Amra, and D. Veynante, Optics Express Vol. 20, 8207-8218 (2012)]. A detailed derivation of this unconventional correspondence is presented and developed. In time harmonic regime, all thermal parameters are related to optical ones in artificial metallic media, thus making possible to use numerical codes developed for optics. Then the optical admittance formalism is extended to heat conduction in multilayered structures. The concepts of planar micro-cavities, diffraction gratings, and planar transformation optics for heat conduction are addressed. Results and limitations of the analogy are emphasized.
A Novel Vertex Affinity for Community Detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-10-05
We propose a novel vertex affinity measure in this paper. The new vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength and is ideal for such graph analytics applications as community detection. We also developed a framework that combines simple graph searches and resistance circuit formulas to compute the vertex affinity efficiently. We study the properties of the new affinity measure empirically in comparison to those of other popular vertex proximity metrics. Our results show that the existing metrics are ill-suited for community detection due to their lack of fundamental properties that are essential for correctly capturing inter- and intra-cluster vertex proximity.
Affine processes on positive semidefinite matrices
Cuchiero, Christa; Mayerhofer, Eberhard; Teichmann, Josef
2009-01-01
This paper provides the mathematical foundation for stochastically continuous affine processes on the cone of positive semidefinite symmetric matrices. These matrix-valued affine processes have arisen from a large and growing range of useful applications in finance, including multi-asset option pricing with stochastic volatility and correlation structures, and fixed-income models with stochastically correlated risk factors and default intensities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)
Acoustic wave propagation in austenitic stainless steel AISI 304L: Application examples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahmene, F., E-mail: fethidahmen@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Roberval Unite Mixte 6066 CNRS, UTC, BP20592, 60205 Compiegne (France)] [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Technologies des Polymeres et Composites and Ingenierie Mecanique, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP. 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex (France); Laksimi, A. [Laboratoire Roberval Unite Mixte 6066 CNRS, UTC, BP20592, 60205 Compiegne (France); Hariri, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Technologies des Polymeres et Composites and Ingenierie Mecanique, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP. 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex (France); Herve, C.; Jaubert, L.; Cherfaoui, M. [Pole EPI, Equipements sous Pression et Ingenierie d' Instrumentation, CETIM, 52, Avenue Felix-Lauat, BP80067, 60304 Senlis (France); Mouftiez, A. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Technologies des Polymeres et Composites and Ingenierie Mecanique, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP. 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex (France)
2012-04-15
Prior to the detection and monitoring by acoustic emission of defects in steel, this paper deals with the use of waveguide that avoids direct contact between the sensor and monitoring structure when working at high temperature. The study of the waveguide effect on elastic wave transmission shows that waveguide deforms the waveform but it does not affect its frequency. Waveguide length does not affect signal magnitude. An experimental example of compact tensile specimen monitoring by acoustic emission is given. The monitoring of the damage at low and high temperature '450 Degree-Sign C' by acoustic emission enables us to identify crack propagation stages and their acoustic signature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper deals with the use of waveguide that avoids direct contact between the sensor and monitoring structure when working at high temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The objective is the development of nondestructive testing by acoustic emission (AE) of pressure equipment (PE) operating at high temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of AE in this work has underlined high temperature mechanical behavior in terms of damage and crack propagation.
Parakkal, Santosh; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Di, Xiao
2012-02-01
The Beilis-Tappert (1979) parabolic equation method is attractive for irregular terrain because it treats surface variations in terms of a simple multiplicative factor ("phase screen"). However, implementing the exact sloping-surface impedance condition is problematic if one wants the computational efficiency of a Fourier parabolic equation algorithm. This article investigates an approximate flat-ground impedance condition that allows the Beilis-Tappert phase screen method to be used with a Fourier algorithm without any added complications. The exact sloping-surface impedance condition is derived and applied to propagation predictions over hills with maximum slopes from 5° to 22°. The predictions with the exact impedance condition are compared to predictions using the approximate flat-ground impedance condition. It is found that for slopes less than 15°-20°, the flat-ground impedance condition is sufficiently accurate. For slopes greater than approximately 20°, the limiting factor on numerical accuracy is not the flat-ground impedance approximation, but rather the narrow-angle approximation required by the Beilis-Tappert method. Thus, within the 20° limitation and using the flat-ground impedance condition with a Fourier parabolic equation, sound propagation over irregular terrain can be computed simply, efficiently, and accurately.
The effect of barriers on wave propagation phenomena: With application for aircraft noise shielding
Mgana, C. V. M.; Chang, I. D.
1982-01-01
The frequency spectrum was divided into high and low frequency regimes and two separate methods were developed and applied to account for physical factors associated with flight conditions. For long wave propagation, the acoustic filed due to a point source near a solid obstacle was treated in terms of an inner region which where the fluid motion is essentially incompressible, and an outer region which is a linear acoustic field generated by hydrodynamic disturbances in the inner region. This method was applied to a case of a finite slotted plate modelled to represent a wing extended flap for both stationary and moving media. Ray acoustics, the Kirchhoff integral formulation, and the stationary phase approximation were combined to study short wave length propagation in many limiting cases as well as in the case of a semi-infinite plate in a uniform flow velocity with a point source above the plate and embedded in a different flow velocity to simulate an engine exhaust jet stream surrounding the source.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Three-component seismic exploration through P-wave source and three-component geophone is an effective technique used in complicated reservoir exploration. In three-component seismic exploration data processing,one of the difficulties is static correction of converted wave. This paper analyzes propagation characteristics of non-converted and converted refracted waves,and discovers a favor-able condition for the formation of converted refracted wave,i.e. the velocity of overlaying medium S wave is much lower than that of underlying medium S wave. In addition,the paper proposes the static correction method of converted wave based on PPS converted refracted wave,and processes the real three-component seismic data with better results of static correction of converted wave.
Long Range Sound Propagation over Sea: Application to Wind Turbine Noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boue, Matieu
2007-12-13
The classical theory of spherical wave propagation is not valid at large distances from a sound source due to the influence of wind and temperature gradients that refract, i.e., bend the sound waves. This will in the downwind direction lead to a cylindrical type of wave spreading for large distances (> 1 km). Cylindrical spreading will give a smaller damping with distance as compared to spherical spreading (3 dB/distance doubling instead of 6 dB). But over areas with soft ground, i.e., grass land, the effect of ground reflections will increase the damping so that, if the effect of atmospheric damping is removed, a behavior close to a free field spherical spreading often is observed. This is the standard assumption used in most national recommendations for predicting outdoor sound propagation, e.g., noise from wind turbines. Over areas with hard surfaces, e.g., desserts or the sea, the effect of ground damping is small and therefore cylindrical propagation could be expected in the downwind direction. This observation backed by a limited number of measurements is the background for the Swedish recommendation, which suggests that cylindrical wave spreading should be assumed for distances larger than 200 m for sea based wind turbines. The purpose of this work was to develop measurement procedures for long range sound transmission and to apply this to investigate the occurrence of cylindrical wave spreading in the Baltic Sea. This work has been successfully finished and is described in this report. Another ambition was to develop models for long range sound transmission based on the parabolic equation. Here the work is not finished but must be continued in another project. Long term measurements were performed in the Kalmar strait, Sweden, located between the mainland and Oeland, during 2005 and 2006. Two different directive sound sources placed on a lighthouse in the middle of the strait produced low frequency tones at 80, 200 and 400 Hz. At the reception point on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hong, Jinglan; Shaked, Shanna; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.;
2010-01-01
determine a range and a best estimate of a) the squared geometric standard deviation on the ratio of the two scenario scores, "A/B", and b) the degree of confidence in the prediction that the impact of scenario A is lower than B (i.e., the probability that A/B75%). For the aluminum panel, the electricity...... method to analyze the uncertainty propagation of a single scenario, in which case the squared geometric standard deviation of the final output is determined as a function of the model sensitivity to each input parameter and the squared geometric standard deviation of each parameter. We then extend...... and aluminum primary production, as well as the light oil consumption, are the dominant contributors to the uncertainty. The developed approach for scenario comparisons, differentiating between common and independent parameters, leads to results similar to those of a Monte Carlo analysis; for all tested cases...
Application of the PE method to up-slope sound propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Arranz, Marta Galindo
1995-01-01
The wide-angle PE method is applied to the prediction of sound propagation in a range-dependent environment. The finite-difference model treats the sloping ground by a staircase approximation. The method allows impedance and slope angle variations to be taken into account. The implementation...... of sloping interfaces in one-way PE models introduces a fundamental problem of energy conservation. This is generated at the lower boundary condition. The ground is assumed to be a locally reacting surface where the ground impedance is defined as the ratio of pressure to the normal component of particle...... velocity at the surface. The staircase PE method approximates the normal at the slope surface with the vertical component at the stair-step surface. A numerical correction can be included. Using a scale model facility [K. B. Rasmussen, 3617–3620 (1994)], a series of measurements is carried out. The results...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis presents a comprehensive study of sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for reactor performance parameters (e.g. the k-effective) to the base nuclear data from which they are computed. The analysis starts at the fundamental step, the Evaluated Nuclear Data File and the uncertainties inherently associated with the data they contain, available in the form of variance/covariance matrices. We show that when a methodical and consistent computation of sensitivity is performed, conventional deterministic formalisms can be sufficient to propagate nuclear data uncertainties with the level of accuracy obtained by the most advanced tools, such as state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes. By applying our developed methodology to three exercises proposed by the OECD (Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment Benchmarks), we provide insights of the underlying physical phenomena associated with the used formalisms. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant
2010-01-01
We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....
ZnO Films on {001}-Cut -Propagating GaAs Substrates for Surface Acoustic Wave Device Applications
Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Hickernell, Frederick S.; Higgins, Robert J.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei
1995-01-01
A potential application for piezoelectric films on GaAs substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the layered structure is critical for the optimum and accurate design of such devices. The acoustic properties of ZnO films sputtered on {001}-cut -propagating GaAs substrates are investigated in this article, including SAW Velocity effective piezoelectric coupling constant, propagation loss. diffraction, velocity surface, and reflectivity of shorted and open metallic gratings. The measurements of these essential SAW properties for the frequency range between 180 and 360 MHz have been performed using a knife-edge laser probe for film thicknesses over the range of 1.6-4 micron and with films or different grain sizes. The high quality of dc triode sputtered films was observed as evidenced by high K(exp 2) and low attenuation. The measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metalized ZnO on SiO2, or Si3N4 on {001}-cut GaAs samples are reported using two different techniques: 1) knife-edge laser probe, 2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. It was found that near the propagation direction, the focusing SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a nonfocusing one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the direction. Furthermore, to some extent the diffraction of the substrate can be controlled with the film thickness. The reflectivity of shorted and open gratings are also analyzed and measured. Zero reflectivity is observed for a shorted grating. There is good agreement between the measured data and theoretical values.
Hickernell, Frederick S.; Higgins, Robert J.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei; Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.
1995-01-01
A potential application for piezoelectric films substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the layered structure is critical for the optimum and accurate design of such devices. The acoustic properties of ZnO films sputtered on /001/-cut group of (110) zone axes-propagating GaAs substrates are investigated in this article, including SAW velocity, effective piezoelectric coupling constant, propagation loss, diffraction, velocity surface, and reflectivity of shorted and open metallic gratings. The measurements of these essential SAW properties for the frequency range between 180 and 360 MHz have been performed using a knife-edge laser probe for film thicknesses over the range of 1.6-4 micron and with films of different grain sizes. The high quality of dc triode sputtered films was observed as evidenced by high K(sup 2) and low attenuation. The measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metalized ZnO on SiO2 or Si3N4 on /001/-cut GaAs samples are reported using two different techniques: (1) knife-edge laser probe, (2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. It was found that near the group of (110) zone axes propagation direction, the focusing SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a nonfocusing one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the (100) direction. Furthermore, to some extent the diffraction of the substrate can be controlled with the film thickness. The reflectivity of shorted and open gratings are also analyzed and measured. Zero reflectivity is observed for a shorted grating. There is good agreement between the measured data and theoretical values.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantin, A [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Johnson, R S [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: r.s.johnson@newcastle.ac.uk
2008-03-31
We present a theory of very long waves propagating on the surface of water. The waves evolve slowly, both on the scale {epsilon} (weak nonlinearity), and on the scale, {sigma}, of the depth variation. In our model, dispersion does not affect the evolution of the wave even over the large distances that tsunamis may travel. We allow a distribution of vorticity, in addition to variable depth. Our solution is not valid for depth = O({epsilon}{sup 4/5}); the equations here are expressed in terms of the single parameter {epsilon}{sup 2/5}{sigma} and matched to the solution in deep water. For a slow depth variation of the background state (consistent with our model), we prove that a constant-vorticity solution exists, from deep water to shoreline, and that regions of isolated vorticity can also exist, for appropriate bottom profiles. We describe how the wave properties are modified by the presence of vorticity. Some graphical examples of our various solutions are presented.
Application of back-propagation neural networks to identification of seismic arrival types
Dai, Hengchang; MacBeth, Colin
1997-05-01
A back-propagation neural network (BPNN) approach is developed to identify P- and S-arrivals from three-component recordings of local earthquake data. The BPNN is trained by selecting trace segments of P- and S-waves and noise bursts converted into an attribute space based on the degree of polarization (DOP). After training, the network can automatically identify the type of arrival on earthquake recordings. Compared with manual analysis, a BPNN trained with nine groups of DOP segments can correctly identify 82.3% of the P-arrivals and 62.6% of the S-arrivals from one seismic station, and when trained with five groups from a training dataset selected from another seismic station, it can correctly identify 76.6% of the P-arrivals and 60.5% of S-arrivals. This approach is adaptive and needs only the onset time of arrivals as input, although its performance cannot be improved by simply adding more training datasets due to the complexity of DOP patterns. Our experience suggests that other information or another network may be necessary to improve its performance.
Marica, Aurora
2014-01-01
This work describes the propagation properties of the so-called symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (SIPG) approximations of the 1-d wave equation. This is done by means of linear approximations on uniform meshes. First, a careful Fourier analysis is constructed, highlighting the coexistence of two Fourier spectral branches or spectral diagrams (physical and spurious) related to the two components of the numerical solution (averages and jumps). Efficient filtering mechanisms are also developed by means of techniques previously proved to be appropriate for classical schemes like finite differences or P1-classical finite elements. In particular, the work presents a proof that the uniform observability property is recovered uniformly by considering initial data with null jumps and averages given by a bi-grid filtering algorithm. Finally, the book explains how these results can be extended to other more sophisticated conforming and non-conforming finite element methods, in particular to quad...
Chubar, Oleg; Chu, Yong S.; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Yan, Hanfei
2011-09-01
Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, such as NSLS-II and MAX-IV, will offer excellent opportunities for further development of experimental techniques exploiting X-ray coherence. However, even in these new SR sources, the radiation produced by relativistic electrons (in undulators, wigglers and bending magnets) will remain only partially coherent in the X-ray spectral range. "Extraction" of "coherent portion" of the radiation flux and its transport to sample without loss of coherence must be performed by dedicated SR beamlines, optimized for particular types of experiments. Detailed quantitative prediction of partially coherent X-ray beam properties at propagation through optical elements, which is required for the optimization of such beamlines, can only be obtained from accurate and efficient physical-optics based numerical simulations. Examples of such simulations, made for NSLS-II beamlines, using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) computer code, are presented. Special attention is paid to the numerical analysis of the basic properties of partially coherent undulator radiation beam and its distinctions from the Gaussian beam. Performance characteristics of importance for particular beamlines, such as radiation spot size and flux at sample vs size of secondary source aperture for high-resolution microscopy beamlines, are predicted by the simulations.
Huberts, W; Donders, W P; Delhaas, T; van de Vosse, F N
2014-12-01
Patient-specific modeling requires model personalization, which can be achieved in an efficient manner by parameter fixing and parameter prioritization. An efficient variance-based method is using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE), but it has not been applied in the context of model personalization, nor has it ever been compared with standard variance-based methods for models with many parameters. In this work, we apply the gPCE method to a previously reported pulse wave propagation model and compare the conclusions for model personalization with that of a reference analysis performed with Saltelli's efficient Monte Carlo method. We furthermore differentiate two approaches for obtaining the expansion coefficients: one based on spectral projection (gPCE-P) and one based on least squares regression (gPCE-R). It was found that in general the gPCE yields similar conclusions as the reference analysis but at much lower cost, as long as the polynomial metamodel does not contain unnecessary high order terms. Furthermore, the gPCE-R approach generally yielded better results than gPCE-P. The weak performance of the gPCE-P can be attributed to the assessment of the expansion coefficients using the Smolyak algorithm, which might be hampered by the high number of model parameters and/or by possible non-smoothness in the output space. PMID:25377937
Affine modifications and affine hypersurfaces with a very transitive automorphism group
Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL
1998-01-01
We study a kind of modification of an affine domain which produces another affine domain. First appeared in passing in the basic paper of O. Zariski (1942), it was further considered by E.D. Davis (1967). The first named author applied its geometric counterpart to construct contractible smooth affine varieties non-isomorphic to Euclidean spaces. Here we provide certain conditions which guarantee preservation of the topology under a modification. As an application, we show that the group of bi...
Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.
2013-12-01
The success of implementation and execution of numerous subsurface energy technologies such shale gas extraction, geothermal energy, underground coal gasification rely on detailed characterization of the geology and the subsurface properties. For example, spatial variability of subsurface permeability controls multi-phase flow, and hence impacts the prediction of reservoir performance. Subsurface properties can vary significantly over several length scales making detailed subsurface characterization unfeasible if not forbidden. Therefore, in common practices, only sparse measurements of data are available to image or characterize the entire reservoir. For example pressure, P, permeability, k, and production rate, Q, measurements are only available at the monitoring and operational wells. Elsewhere, the spatial distribution of k is determined by various deterministic or stochastic interpolation techniques and P and Q are calculated from the governing forward mass balance equation assuming k is given at all locations. Several uncertainty drivers, such as PSUADE, are then used to propagate and quantify the uncertainty (UQ) of quantities (variable) of interest using forward solvers. Unfortunately, forward-solver techniques and other interpolation schemes are rarely constrained by the inverse problem itself: given P and Q at observation points determine the spatially variable map of k. The approach presented here, motivated by fluid imaging for subsurface characterization and monitoring, was developed by progressively solving increasingly complex realistic problems. The essence of this novel approach is that the forward and inverse partial differential equations are the interpolator themselves for P, k and Q rather than extraneous and sometimes ad hoc schemes. Three cases with different sparsity of data are investigated. In the simplest case, a sufficient number of passive pressure data (pre-production pressure gradients) are given. Here, only the inverse hyperbolic
Gosset, M.; Roca, R.
2012-04-01
The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gages (or radar) network are generally scarce and generally degrading. The new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere will contribute to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to chose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites. Several sensitivity studies have been carried out in the Oueme Basin in Benin, West Africa, one the instrumented basin that will be used for MT products direct and hydrological validation.
Lollino, Piernicola; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; Pastor, Manuel
2016-04-01
An intense reactivation of a large earthflow (about 6 million m3 of soil debris) took place in Montaguto (Southern Apennines, Italy) between 2005 and 2006 as a consequence of the retrogression of a sliding process in the source area at the top of the slope. The earthflow run-out was approximately 2-2.5 km long, with the landslide mass thickness approximately ranging between 5 m and 30 m. Relevant damages were produced at the toe of the slope, since important infrastructures hereby located were covered by large volumes of landslide detritum. In the transition area, that is just downslope the source area, the landslide soil mass was channelized and transformed into a viscous soil flowing down through a natural depression channel, with an average displacement rate estimated to range between 3 and 7 m/day. In this work an application of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method has been carried out in order to simulate both the main features of the earthflow propagation, that is the direction and the thickness of the flowing mass, as well as to investigate some factors of the soil mechanical behavior that might have controlled the earthflow mobility. In particular, two different assumptions concerning the soil rheology, i.e. Bingham visco-plasticity and frictional-consolidating soil, the first complying more with the assumption of a flow-like behavior and the latter with a soil-like behavior of the landslide mass, have been made for comparison purposes. Based on the experiences gained from previous authors concerning the in-situ features of similar earthflow soil masses, these landslides are thought to behave more as a viscous fluid during the very first stages of propagation due to phase transition processes and, later on, to recover a soil-like behavior, therefore characterized by sliding mechanism, due to soil consolidation processes. Field evidences of consolidation processes have indeed been observed in situ in recent years based on pore water pressure monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gueltekin, Kemal [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-03-15
In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schroedinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on the determinants of the Ricci tensor, the torsion tensor, the Riemann tensor, and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to the construction of the affine connection in terms of the curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that the curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Pobudkiewicz
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In 1998 and 1999 flurprimidol spray applications to seed-propagated geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum L.H.Bailey cultivars were made to evaluate efficacy and identify optimum concentration of flurprimidol. Growth retardant was applied as a single spray at O, 7,5, 15 and 22,5 mg L-1, when plants were 9-13 cm in height. The response of plants to flurprimidol application varied depending on geranium cultivar. At the time of flowering the plants sprayed with flurprimidol at concentrations of 7,5, 15 and 22,5 mg L-1 were significantly shorter than the untreated ones. The plant diameter, floret diameter, floret peduncle length and inflorescence diameter of geranium treated with flurprimidol were significantly smaller than those of the control plants. Flurprimidol hastened flowering of geranium cultivars 'Suzan Improved', 'Pinto Salmon' and 'Ringo 2000 Violet' by 5-8 days in 1999 but had no significant effect on days to flowering in 1998. The chemical name used: a-(1-methylethyl-a-[4-(trifluoromethyloxy-phenyl]-5-pyrimidine-methanol (flurprimidol.
Implementing turbulence transport in the CRONOS framework and application to the propagation of CMEs
Wiengarten, Tobias; Kleimann, Jens; Kissmann, Ralf
2015-01-01
We present the implementation of turbulence transport equations in addition to the Reynolds-averaged MHD equations within the Cronos framework. The model is validated by comparisons with earlier findings before it is extended to be applicable to regions in the solar wind that are not highly super-Alfv\\'enic. We find that the respective additional terms result in absolute normalized cross-helicity to decline more slowly, while a proper implementation of the mixing terms can even lead to increased cross-helicities in the inner heliosphere. The model extension allows to place the inner boundary of the simulations closer to the Sun, where we choose its location at 0.1 AU for future application to the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model. Here, we concentrate on effects on the turbulence evolution for transient events by injecting a coronal mass ejection (CME). We find that the steep gradients and shocks associated with these structures result in enhanced turbulence levels and reduced cross-helicity. Our results can now be use...
Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.
Taussig, Michael J
2016-09-25
The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. PMID:27118167
Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: Actions on tensor space
Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar
2012-01-01
The affine and degenerate affine Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (BMW) algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic quantum groups and Lie algebras, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine and cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper we explain how the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras are tantalizers (tensor power centralizer algebras) by defining actions of the affine braid group and the degenerate affine braid algebra on tensor space and showing that, in important cases, these actions induce actions of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras. We then exploit the connection to quantum groups and Lie algebras to determine universal parameters for the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras. Finally, we show that the universal parameters are central elements--the higher Casimir elements for orthogonal and symplectic enveloping algebras and quantum groups.
Casadei, F.; Ruzzene, M.
2011-04-01
This work illustrates the possibility to extend the field of application of the Multi-Scale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) to structural mechanics problems that involve localized geometrical discontinuities like cracks or notches. The main idea is to construct finite elements with an arbitrary number of edge nodes that describe the actual geometry of the damage with shape functions that are defined as local solutions of the differential operator of the specific problem according to the MsFEM approach. The small scale information are then brought to the large scale model through the coupling of the global system matrices that are assembled using classical finite element procedures. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated through selected numerical examples that constitute classical problems of great interest to the structural health monitoring community.
Cherepanov, Genady P
2015-03-28
By way of introduction, the general invariant integral (GI) based on the energy conservation law is presented, with mention of cosmic, gravitational, mass, elastic, thermal and electromagnetic energy of matter application to demonstrate the approach, including Coulomb's Law generalized for moving electric charges, Newton's Law generalized for coupled gravitational/cosmic field, the new Archimedes' Law accounting for gravitational and surface energy, and others. Then using this approach the temperature track behind a moving crack is found, and the coupling of elastic and thermal energies is set up in fracturing. For porous materials saturated with a fluid or gas, the notion of binary continuum is used to introduce the corresponding GIs. As applied to the horizontal drilling and fracturing of boreholes, the field of pressure and flow rate as well as the fluid output from both a horizontal borehole and a fracture are derived in the fluid extraction regime. The theory of fracking in shale gas reservoirs is suggested for three basic regimes of the drill mud permeation, with calculating the shape and volume of the local region of the multiply fractured rock in terms of the pressures of rock, drill mud and shale gas. PMID:25713454
Cherepanov, Genady P
2015-03-28
By way of introduction, the general invariant integral (GI) based on the energy conservation law is presented, with mention of cosmic, gravitational, mass, elastic, thermal and electromagnetic energy of matter application to demonstrate the approach, including Coulomb's Law generalized for moving electric charges, Newton's Law generalized for coupled gravitational/cosmic field, the new Archimedes' Law accounting for gravitational and surface energy, and others. Then using this approach the temperature track behind a moving crack is found, and the coupling of elastic and thermal energies is set up in fracturing. For porous materials saturated with a fluid or gas, the notion of binary continuum is used to introduce the corresponding GIs. As applied to the horizontal drilling and fracturing of boreholes, the field of pressure and flow rate as well as the fluid output from both a horizontal borehole and a fracture are derived in the fluid extraction regime. The theory of fracking in shale gas reservoirs is suggested for three basic regimes of the drill mud permeation, with calculating the shape and volume of the local region of the multiply fractured rock in terms of the pressures of rock, drill mud and shale gas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, Joshua Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2008-09-01
A new class of accelerating structures employing a uniformly twisted waveguide is investigated. Twisted waveguides of various cross-sectional geometries are considered and analyzed. It is shown that such a twisted waveguide can support waves that travel at a speed slower than the speed of light c. The slow-wave properties of twisted structures are of interest because these slow-wave electromagnetic fields can be used in applications such as electron traveling wave tubes and linear particle accelerators. Since there is no exact closed form solution for the electromagnetic fields within a twisted waveguide or cavity, several previously proposed approximate methods are examined, and more effcient approaches are developed. It is found that the existing perturbation theory methods yield adequate results for slowly twisted structures; however, our efforts here are geared toward analyzing rapidly twisted structures using modifed finite difference methods specially suited for twisted structures. Although the method can handle general twisted structures, three particular cross sections are selected as representative cases for careful analysis. First, a slowly twisted rectangular cavity is analyzed as a reference case. This is because its shape is simple and perturbation theory already gives a good approximate solution for such slow twists rates. Secondly, a symmetrically notched circular cross section is investigated, since its longitudinal cross section is comparable to the well known disk-loaded cavity (used in many practical accelerator designs, including SLAC). Finally, a "dumbbell" shaped cross section is analyzed because of its similarity to the well-known TESLA-type accelerating cavity, which is of great importance because of its wide acceptance as a superconducting cavity. To validate the results of the developed theory and our extensive simulations, the newly developed numerical models are compared to commercial codes. Also, several prototypes are developed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, Joshua Lee [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2008-12-01
A new class of accelerating structures employing a uniformly twisted waveguide is investigated. Twisted waveguides of various cross-sectional geometries are considered and analyzed. It is shown that such a twisted waveguide can support waves that travel at a speed slower than the speed of light c. The slow-wave properties of twisted structures are of interest because these slow-wave electromagnetic fields can be used in applications such as electron traveling wave tubes and linear particle accelerators. Since there is no exact closed form solution for the electromagnetic fields within a twisted waveguide or cavity, several previously proposed approximate methods are examined, and more effcient approaches are developed. It is found that the existing perturbation theory methods yield adequate results for slowly twisted structures; however, our efforts here are geared toward analyzing rapidly twisted structures using modifed finite difference methods specially suited for twisted structures. Although the method can handle general twisted structures, three particular cross sections are selected as representative cases for careful analysis. First, a slowly twisted rectangular cavity is analyzed as a reference case. This is because its shape is simple and perturbation theory already gives a good approximate solution for such slow twists rates. Secondly, a symmetrically notched circular cross section is investigated, since its longitudinal cross section is comparable to the well known disk-loaded cavity (used in many practical accelerator designs, including SLAC). Finally, a "dumbbell" shaped cross section is analyzed because of its similarity to the well-known TESLA-type accelerating cavity, which is of great importance because of its wide acceptance as a superconducting cavity. To validate the results of the developed theory and our extensive simulations, the newly developed numerical models are compared to commercial codes. Also, several prototypes are developed
Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.
1987-05-01
Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.
Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R
2009-03-01
We develop a 3-D finite element model of a focused surface acoustic wave (F-SAW) device based on LiNbO(3) to analyze the wave generation and propagation characteristics for devices operating at MHz frequencies with varying applied input voltages. We compare the F-SAW device to a conventional SAW device with similar substrate dimensions and transducer finger periodicity. SAW devices with concentrically shaped focused interdigital transducer fingers (F-IDTs) are found to excite waves with high intensity and high beam-width compression ratio, confined to a small localized area. F-SAW devices are more sensitive to amplitude variations at regions close to the focal point than conventional SAW devices having uniform IDT configuration. We compute F-SAW induced streaming forces and velocity fields by applying a successive approximation technique to the Navier-Stokes equation (Nyborg's theory). The maximum streaming force obtained at the focal point varies as the square of the applied input voltage. Computed streaming velocities at the focal point in F-SAW devices are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional SAW devices. Simulated frequency response indicates higher insertion losses in F-SAW devices than in conventional devices, reflecting their greater utility as actuators than as sensors. Our simulation findings suggest that F-SAW devices can be utilized effectively for actuation in microfluidic applications involving diffusion limited transport processes. PMID:19411221
Castellanos, L M
2003-01-01
A theoretical description in terms of the coherence propagation is given for self-focussing. The concept of coherence length is defined in terms of free, self-focussing propagation giving results in accordance with well known experimental criteria for the laser. Extension of the method is given for an Atom Laser showing good results in agreement with recents numerical results of Trippenbach et. al.: J. Phys. B:At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 33, 47-54 (2000).
Hilimire, Thomas A; Bennett, Ryan P; Stewart, Ryan A; Garcia-Miranda, Pablo; Blume, Alex; Becker, Jordan; Sherer, Nathan; Helms, Eric D; Butcher, Samuel E; Smith, Harold C; Miller, Benjamin L
2016-01-15
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type 1 uses a -1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (-1 PRF) event to translate its enzymes from the same transcript used to encode the virus' structural proteins. The frequency of this event is highly regulated, and significant deviation from the normal 5-10% frequency has been demonstrated to decrease viral infectivity. Frameshifting is primarily regulated by the Frameshift Stimulatory Signal RNA (FSS-RNA), a thermodynamically stable, highly conserved stem loop that has been proposed as a therapeutic target. We describe the design, synthesis, and testing of a series of N-methyl peptides able to bind the HIV-1 FSS RNA stem loop with low nanomolar affinity and high selectivity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data indicates increased affinity is a reflection of a substantially enhanced on rate. Compounds readily penetrate cell membranes and inhibit HIV infectivity in a pseudotyped virus assay. Viral infectivity inhibition correlates with compound-dependent changes in the ratios of Gag and Gag-Pol in virus particles. As the first compounds with both single digit nanomolar affinities for the FSS RNA and an ability to inhibit HIV in cells, these studies support the use of N-methylation for enhancing the affinity, selectivity, and bioactivity of RNA-binding peptides. PMID:26496521
ROZZA, Gianluigi; Huynh, D.B. Phuong; Patera, Anthony T.
2008-01-01
In this paper we consider (hierarchical, Lagrange) reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation for linear functional outputs of affinely parametrized elliptic coercive partial differential equations. The essential ingredients are (primal-dual) Galerkin projection onto a low- dimensional space associated with a smooth ``parametric manifold'' --- dimension reduction; efficient and effective greedy sampling methods for identification of optimal and numerically stabl...
Aptamer Affinity Maturation by Resampling and Microarray Selection.
Kinghorn, Andrew B; Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Liang, Shaolin; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Fraser, Lewis A; Shiu, Simon Chi-Chin; Tang, Marco S L; Tanner, Julian A
2016-07-19
Aptamers have significant potential as affinity reagents, but better approaches are critically needed to discover higher affinity nucleic acids to widen the scope for their diagnostic, therapeutic, and proteomic application. Here, we report aptamer affinity maturation, a novel aptamer enhancement technique, which combines bioinformatic resampling of aptamer sequence data and microarray selection to navigate the combinatorial chemistry binding landscape. Aptamer affinity maturation is shown to improve aptamer affinity by an order of magnitude in a single round. The novel aptamers exhibited significant adaptation, the complexity of which precludes discovery by other microarray based methods. Honing aptamer sequences using aptamer affinity maturation could help optimize a next generation of nucleic acid affinity reagents. PMID:27346322
Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: The center
Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar
2011-01-01
The degenerate affine and affine BMW algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic Lie algebras and quantum groups, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine Hecke algebras, cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper the theory is unified by treating the orthogonal and symplectic cases simultaneously; we make an exact parallel between the degenerate affine and affine cases via a new algebra which takes the role of the affine braid group for the degenerate setting. A main result of this paper is an identification of the centers of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras in terms of rings of symmetric functions which satisfy a "cancellation property" or "wheel condition" (in the degenerate case, a reformulation of a result of Nazarov). Miraculously, these same rings also arise in Schubert calculus, as the cohomology and K-theory of isotropic Grassmanians and symplectic loop Grassmanians. We also establish new inte...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Yang; Theodore A Endreny; David J Nowak
2016-01-01
Flood wave propagation modeling is of critical importance to advancing water re-sources management and protecting human life and property. In this study, we investigated how the advection-diffusion routing model performed in flood wave propagation on a 16 km long down-stream section of the Big Piney River, MO. Model performance was based on gaging station data at the upstream and downstream cross sections. We demonstrated with advection-diffusion theory that for small differences in watershed drainage area between the two river cross sections, inflow along the reach mainly contributes to the downstream hydrograph’s rising limb and not to the falling limb. The downstream hydrograph’s falling limb is primarily determined by the propagated flood wave originating at the upstream cross section. This research suggests the parameter for the advection-diffusion routing model can be calibrated by fitting the hydrograph falling limb. Application of the advection diffusion model to the flood wave of January 29, 2013 supports our theoretical finding that the propagated flood wave determines the downstream cross section falling limb, and the model has good performance in our test examples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjødt, Mette Louise
linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate......-2. Based on the presented data we suggest that affinity maturation of the model antibody proceeds through multiple incremental steps of subtle improvements. We moreover conclude that the best affinity improved candidates are likely to be obtained through optimization of both the antigen...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...
Gaussian Affine Feature Detector
Xu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Xiaochun
2011-01-01
A new method is proposed to get image features' geometric information. Using Gaussian as an input signal, a theoretical optimal solution to calculate feature's affine shape is proposed. Based on analytic result of a feature model, the method is different from conventional iterative approaches. From the model, feature's parameters such as position, orientation, background luminance, contrast, area and aspect ratio can be extracted. Tested with synthesized and benchmark data, the method achieve...
Affinity driven social networks
Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.
2007-04-01
In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.
Craig, K. H.; Levy, M. F.
1989-09-01
The parabolic equation approach to clear-air propagation modeling overcomes many of the difficulties associated with ray and mode theory methods. A parabolic equation model was implemented on a PC based system using a transputer to carry out the computationally intensive numerical integrations. The model was used from VHF to millimetric frequencies and applied to evaporation duct and elevated duct problems. The latter are important for surface-to-air propagation and were difficult to solve because of the complicated structure of the layers. A case study of an elevated duct caused by anticyclonic subsidence shows the importance of up-to-date meteorological data from a wide geographical area. A full-wave calculation of the wideband properties of the propagation channel illustrates the possibilities opened up by the new model. The frequency selective effects can be large, and are sensitive to the small-scale structure of the ducting layers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with the neutrons propagation by reflection on the vacuum-matter interfaces of a lacunar medium, to control the direct irradiation risk. The more efficient method to simulate this propagation is the use of reflection coefficients (albedo). The first part of the work deals with the generation of albedo for various materials. The Monte Carlo method has been chosen and a new estimator has been developed and validated in the Monte Carlo transport code TRIPOLI4. This estimator is based on the neutrons transport simulation in the matter, to calculate in each collision point the double differential reflexions probability. The second part deals with the implementing of an interpolation module of the generated albedo in a library. These differential albedo of neutrons allow the study of the neutrons propagation by multi-reflections and the accurate calculation of the equivalent dose rate generated by the neutrons reflections. (A.L.B.)
Rudraraju, Siva Shankar; Garikipati, Krishna; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.
2013-01-01
The phenomenon of crack propagation is among the predominant modes of failure in many natural and engineering structures, often leading to severe loss of structural integrity and catastrophic failure. Thus, the ability to understand and a priori simulate the evolution of this failure mode has been one of the cornerstones of applied mechanics and structural engineering and is broadly referred to as "fracture mechanics." The work reported herein focuses on extending this understanding, in the context of through-thickness crack propagation in cohesive materials, through the development of a continuum-level multiscale numerical framework, which represents cracks as displacement discontinuities across a surface of zero measure. This report presents the relevant theory, mathematical framework, numerical modeling, and experimental investigations of through-thickness crack propagation in fiber-reinforced composites using the Variational Multiscale Cohesive Method (VMCM) developed by the authors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cross-hole method is used to measure wave propagation velocity and define elastic characteristics of a soil. Fourier spectrum of wave propagated into any medium depends on the characteristics of the medium too. So, spectral analysis can be used to study soil behavior and soil improvement. Several experiments conducted to control soil injection by spectral analysis show a spectral shift to high frequency in well injected medium. Both models written, the first one SEOD, by Girardi - SNCF and the second one DOSCH, by Crepel - COYNE et BELLIER use wave propagation into a Kelvin-Voigt visco-elastic medium. They show the same shift to high frequencies due to an increase of elastic constants and Quality factor. Such a method can be applied to heated clay survey almost without any change
David, P
2013-01-01
Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear
Affine morphisms at zero level
Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash
2010-01-01
Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.
On the Affine Isoperimetric Inequalities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wuyang Yu; Gangsong Leng
2011-11-01
We obtain an isoperimetric inequality which estimate the affine invariant -surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of $_{-p}K$.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study several fixed step and adaptive Runge-Kutta methods suitable for transporting track parameters through an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Moreover, we present a new adaptive Runge-Kutta-Nystroem method which estimates the local error of the extrapolation without introducing extra stages to the original Runge-Kutta-Nystroem method. Furthermore, these methods are compared for propagation accuracy and computing cost efficiency in the simultaneous track and error propagation (STEP) algorithm of the common ATLAS tracking software. The tests show the new adaptive Runge-Kutta-Nystroem method to be the most computing cost efficient.
Ferrarese, Giorgio
2011-01-01
Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics
Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng
2014-01-01
Phosphorylation of cellular components catalyzed by kinases plays important roles in cell signaling and proliferation. Quantitative assessment of perturbation in global kinome may provide crucial knowledge for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of environmental toxicants. Here, we utilized an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) affinity probe coupled with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to assess quantitatively the arsenite-induced alteration o...
Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles
Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.
2016-01-01
We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-pol...
Han, Bingnan; Stevens, Jan F; Maier, Claudia S
2007-05-01
An isotopically coded affinity probe was developed and evaluated for the characterization and quantification of proteins adducted by 2-alkenals derived from lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes. Lipid-derived 2-alkenals, such as acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), have the ability to react with cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues in proteins, thus causing protein damage and loss of protein function. Such modifications of proteins are difficult to characterize in biological samples by mass spectrometry due to the complexity of protein extracts and the low abundance of adducted proteins. The novel aldehyde-reactive, hydrazide-functionalized, isotope-coded affinity tag (HICAT) described in this study was found effective for the selective isolation, detection, and quantification of Michael-type adducts of 2-alkenals with proteins using a combination of affinity isolation, nanoLC, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). The chemical and mass spectrometric properties of the new probe are demonstrated on a model protein treated with HNE. The efficacy of HICAT for the analysis of complex samples was tested using preparations of mitochondrial proteins that were modified in vitro with HNE. The potential of the HICAT strategy for the identification, characterization, and quantification of in vivo oxylipid-protein conjugates is demonstrated on cardiac mitochondrial protein preparations, in which, for example, the ADP/ATP translocase 1 was found adducted to the 2-alkenals, acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, at Cys-256.
Affine Patches on Positroid Varieties and Affine Pipe Dreams (Thesis)
Snider, Michelle
2010-01-01
The objects of interest in this thesis are positroid varieties in the Grassmannian, which are indexed by juggling patterns. In particular, we study affine patches on these positroid varieties. Our main result corresponds these affine patches to Kazhdan-Lusztig varieties in the affine Grassmannian. We develop a new term order and study how these spaces are related to subword complexes and Stanley-Reisner ideals. We define an extension of pipe dreams to the affine case and conclude by showing how our affine pipe dreams are generalizations of Cauchon and Le diagrams.
Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob
2011-01-01
, the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example......In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plasma jets are often observed in the polar regions of Young Stellar Objects (YSO). For a better understanding of the whole processes at the origin of their formation and evolution, this research thesis aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a plasma jet generation by a power laser, and at investigating its characteristics. After a detailed description of Young Stellar Objects jets and an overview of theoretical models, the author describes some experiments performed with gas guns, pulsed machines and power lasers. He describes means of generation of a jet by laser interaction via strong shock propagation. He reports experimental work, describing the target, laser operating conditions and the determination of jet parameters: speed, temperature, density. Then, he introduces results obtained for plasma jet propagation in vacuum, describes their evolution with respect to initial conditions (target type, laser operating conditions), and identifies optimal conditions for generating a jet similar to that in astrophysical conditions. He considers their propagation in ambient medium like for YSO jets in interstellar medium. Two distinct cases are investigated: collision of two successive shocks in a gaseous medium, and propagation of a plasma jet in a gas jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macias-Diaz, J.E. [Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Ags. 20100 (Mexico) and Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: jemacias@correo.uaa.mx; Puri, A. [Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)]. E-mail: apuri@uno.edu
2007-07-02
In the present Letter, we simulate the propagation of binary signals in semi-infinite, mechanical chains of coupled oscillators harmonically driven at the end, by making use of the recently discovered process of nonlinear supratransmission. Our numerical results-which are based on a brand-new computational technique with energy-invariant properties-show an efficient and reliable transmission of information.
Krueger, Ronald
2012-01-01
The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented. The example is based on a finite element model of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen for 50% mode II. The benchmarking is demonstrated for Abaqus/Standard, however, the example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, a quasi-static benchmark example was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement as well as delamination length versus applied load/displacement relationships from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall, the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.
On constructing purely affine theories with matter
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L
2016-01-01
We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schroedinger's purely affine theory [21], where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.
On constructing purely affine theories with matter
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.
2016-08-01
We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.
Pal, Sujay
2015-01-01
In this thesis, we theoretically predict the normal characteristics of Very Low Frequency (3~30 kHz) radio wave propagation through Earth-ionosphere waveguide corresponding to normal behavior of the D-region ionosphere. We took the VLF narrow band data from the receivers of Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) to validate our models. Detection of sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) are common to all the measurements. We apply our theoretical models to infer the D-region characteristics and to reproduce the observed VLF signal behavior corresponding to such SIDs. We develop a code based on ray theory to simulate the diurnal behavior of VLF signals over short propagation paths (2000~3000 km). The diurnal variation from this code are comparable to the variation obtained from a more general Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code which is based on mode theory approach. We simulate the observational results obtained during the Total Solar Eclipse of July 22, 2009 in India. We also report and simulate a h...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Yoshida
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The signals from VLF/LF transmitters are known to propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, so that the subionospheric propagation characteristics are very sensitive to the condition of the lower ionosphere. We know that there appear the terminator times just around the sunrise and sunset in the diurnal variation of subionospheric VLF/LF signal (amplitude and phase. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around an earthquake, which enables us to infer the change in the ionosphere during the earthquake. In this paper we try to understand the physical mechanism on the generation of those terminator times for relatively short propagation path (less than 2000 km by means of wave-hop method. It is found that the lowering of the ionosphere boundary during an earthquake decreases the path length of the sky wave and this alters the interference condition of this wave with the ground wave, which lead to an appearance of terminator times as the destructive interference between the ground and sky waves. Finally, we suggest a possible use of terminator time shifts to investigate the lower ionospheric plasma changes during the earthquakes.
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-11-01
This paper deals with the problem of wave propagation in a compressible viscous fluid confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline in the presence of a shear mean flow. On the assumption of isentropic and axisymmetric wave propagation, the convected acoustic equations are mathematically deduced from the conservations of continuity and momentum, leading to a set of coupled second-order differential equations with respect of the acoustic pressure and velocity components in radial and axial directions. A solution based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to transform the differential equations to an infinite set of homogeneous algebraic equations, thus the wave number can be calculated due to the existence condition of a non-trivial solution. After the discussion of the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of the wave mode is theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, wave attenuation of the first four wave modes due to fluid viscosity is numerically studied in the presence of the laminar and turbulent flow profiles. Meanwhile, the measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on the difference of downstream and upstream wave propagations is parametrically addressed.
Kulak, M. M.; Khina, B. B.
2014-03-01
An experimental setup has been developed and a study has been made of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in a Ti-C-Ni-Mo system under the conditions of action of ultrasonic vibrations. The influence of the amplitude of ultrasonic vibrations on the combustion rate and temperature and on the phase composition and structure of the derived composite material based on titanium carbide with a metal binder has been determined. The heat-transfer coefficient on the surface of a sample for vibrations at ultrasound frequency has been evaluated. Consideration has been given to possible mechanisms of influence of ultrasonic vibrations on the process of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. It has been shown that the reduction in the synthesis temperature is due to the cooling of the sample because of the forced convection of the surrounding gas, whereas the change in the structure of the synthesized material is related to the change in the conditions of high-temperature heterogeneous interaction in the wave of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.
Affinity Purification of Insulin by Peptide-Ligand Affinity Chromatography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The affinity heptapeptide (HWWWPAS) for insulin, selected from phage display library,was coupled to EAH Sepharose 4B gel and packed to a 1-mL column. The column was used for the affinity purification of insulin from protein mixture and commercial insulin preparation. It was observed that the minor impurity in the commercial insulin was removed by the affinity chromatography. Nearly 40 mg of insulin could be purified with the 1-mL affinity column. The results revealed the high specificity and capacity of the affinity column for insulin purification. Moreover, based on the analysis of the amino acids in the peptide sequence, shorter peptides were designed and synthesized for insulin chromatography. As a result, HWWPS was found to be a good alternative to HWWWPAS, while the other two peptides with three or four amino acids showed weak affinity for insulin. The results indicated that the peptide sequence of HWWWPAS was quite conservative for specific binding of insulin.
Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles
Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.
2016-06-01
We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.
Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles
Urichuk, Andrew
2016-01-01
We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI, Zhi-Ming; LIU, Jia-Ming; CHEN, Xiao-Hua; YANG, Min-Lan; CHEN, Xin-Hua; SHI, Xiu-Mei
2007-01-01
A Triton X-100-4.0G-D (4.0G-D refers to a 4.0-generation dendrimer) was brought forward as a new phosphorescence labeling reagent. Two types of specific affinity adsorption (AA) reactions (direct method and sandwich method) were carried out between the labeling product of Triton X-100-4.0G-D-Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the product of AA reaction preserved the good characteristics of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of 4.0G-D and △Ip of the product was proportional to the content of ALP. According to the fact stated above, a new method for the determination of trace ALP by affinity adsorption solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) was established on the basis of WGA labeled with the Triton X-100-4.0G-D. The detection limits were 0.20 ag·spot-1 (corresponding concentration: 5.0 × 10-16 g·mL-1, namely 5.0× 10-18 mol·L-1) for a direct method and 0.14 ag·spot-1 (corresponding concentration: 3.5× 10-16 g·mL-1,namely 3.5 × 10-18 mol·L-1) for a sandwich method, respectively. For their high sensitivity, good repeatability and high accuracy, the direct method and sandwich method have been successfully applied to determine the content of ALP in human serum, and the results were coincided with the clinical detection results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method by the Zhangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Meanwhile, the mechanism for the determination of trace ALP by AA-SS-RTP was discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakeshwar Singh Rana
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Fruit gathering from Ficus roxburghii Wall., a multipurpose tree,hinders its regeneration through seed. The present study was undertaken to propagate this species using branch cuttings treated with different hormones in two different seasons: rainy-July and spring-March. In both seasons (rainy and spring, large sized (1.25-2.5 cm diameter cuttings resulted in statistically higher growth of all the studied parameters than that of small sized (< 1.25 cm diameter cuttings, except the number of shoots in both the seasonsand number of lateral roots in rainy season. The effect of hormonal treatments(Indole-acetic acid, Indole-butyric acid and Naphthyl-acetic acidwas also significant on all the studied parameters in both the study seasons except in the case of number of shoots in rainy season where the influence was not-significant. The interaction large size x IBA 100 ppm resulted in significantly better growth of the studied parameters in both seasons except for the number of lateral roots, number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves in rainy season. This study implies that species is amenable to cloning with different hormonal treatments. In general, it was observed that growth and development of cuttings was better in spring than the rainy season.Therefore, for the successful propagation of Ficus roxburghii, largesized cuttings are to be treated with IBA 100 ppm and be planted in spring.
Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats
2009-02-01
Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are
Gluon propagator in diffractive scattering
Ducati, M B G
2006-01-01
In this work, we perform a comparison of the employ of distinct gluon propagators with the experimental data in diffractive processes, $pp$ elastic scattering and light meson photo-production. The gluon propagators are calculated through non-perturbative methods, being justified their use in this class of events, due to the smallness of the momentum transfer. Our results are not able to select the best choice for the modified gluon propagator among the analyzed ones, showing that the application of this procedure in this class of high energy processes, although giving a reasonable fit to the experimental data, should be taken with same caution.
Improved native affinity purification of RNA.
Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S
2007-08-01
RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432
Stancanelli, L. M.; Peres, D. J.; Cavallaro, L.; Cancelliere, A.; Foti, E.
2014-12-01
During the last decades an increase of debris flow catastrophic events has been recorded along the Italian territory, mainly due to the increment of settlements and human activities in mountain areas. Considering the large extent of debris flow prone areas, non structural protection strategies should be preferably implemented because of economic constrains associated with structural mitigation measures. In such a framework hazard assessment methodologies play a key role representing useful tools for the development of emergency management policies. The aim of the present study is to apply an integrated debris flow hazard assessment methodology, where rainfall probabilistic analysis and physically-based landslide triggering and propagation models are combined. In particular, the probabilistic rainfall analysis provides the forcing scenarios of different return periods, which are then used as input to a model based on combination of the USGS TRIGRS and the FLO-2D codes. The TRIGRS model (Baum et al., 2008; 2010), developed for analyzing shallow landslide triggering is based on an analytical solution of linearized forms of the Richards' infiltration equation and an infinite-slope stability calculation to estimate the timing and locations of slope failures, while the FLO-2D (O'Brien 1986) is a two-dimensional finite difference model that simulates debris flow propagation following a mono-phase approach, based on empirical quadratic rheological relation developed by O'Brien and Julien (1985). Various aspects of the combination of the models are analyzed, giving a particular focus on the possible variations of triggered amounts compatible with a given return period. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the Messina Province in Italy, which has been recently struck by severe events, as the one of the 1st October 2009 which hit the Giampilieri Village causing 37 fatalities. Results are analyzed to assess the potential hazard that may affect the densely
Zhao, X. H.; Feng, X. S.
2014-01-01
The Shock Propagation Model (SPM) based on an analytic solution of blast waves has been proposed to predict shock arrival times at Earth. Here to reduce the limitations of the SPM theoretical model in real applications and optimize its input parameters, a new version (called SPM2) is presented in order to enhance prediction performance. First, an empirical relationship is established to adjust the initial shock speed, which, as computed from the Type II burst drift rate, often contains observational uncertainties. Second, an additional acceleration/deceleration relation is added to the model to eliminate inherent prediction bias. Third, the propagation direction is derived in order to mitigate the isotropy limitation of blast wave theory in real predictions. Finally, an equivalent shock strength index at the Earth's location to judge whether or not an interplanetary shock will encounter the Earth is implemented in SPM2. The prediction results of SPM2 for 551 solar disturbance events of Solar Cycle 23 demonstrate that the success rate of SPM2 for both shock (W-shock) and nonshock (W/O-shock) events at Earth is ˜ 60%. The prediction error for the W-shock events is less than 12 h (root-mean-square) and 10 h (mean-absolute). Comparisons between the predicted results of SPM2 and those of Shock Time of Arrival (STOA), Interplanetary Shock Propagation (ISPM), and Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2) based on similar data samples reveal that the SPM2 model offers generally equivalent prediction accuracy and reliability compared to the existing Fearless Forecast models (STOA, ISPM, and HAFv.2).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)
2015-01-01
Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.
Pachebat, Marc
2016-01-01
The paper deals with the generic problem of two waveguides coupled by perforations, which can be perforated tube mufflers without or with partitions, possibly with absorbing materials. Other examples are ducts with branched resonators of honeycomb cavities , which can be coupled or not, and splitter silencers. Assuming low frequencies, only one mode is considered in each guide. The propagation in the two waveguides can be very different, thanks e.g. to the presence of constrictions. The model is a discrete, periodic one, based upon 4th-order impedance matrices and their diagonalization. All the calculation is analytical, thanks to the partition of the matrices in 2nd-order matrices, and allows the treatment of a very wide types of problems. Several aspects are investigated: the local or non-local character of the reaction of one guide to the other; the definition of a coupling coefficient; the effect of finite size when a lattice with n cells in inserted into an infinite guide; the relationship between the In...
Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2006-01-01
Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....
Realization of Fractal Affine Transformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper gives the definition of fractal affine transformation and presents a specific method for its realization and its cor responding mathematical equations which are essential in fractal image construction.
Representations of affine Hecke algebras
Xi, Nanhua
1994-01-01
Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest
Dai, Hengchang; MacBeth, Colin
1997-07-01
An automatic approach is developed to pick P and S arrivals from single component (1-C) recordings of local earthquake data. In this approach a back propagation neural network (BPNN) accepts a normalized segment (window of 40 samples) of absolute amplitudes from the 1-C recordings as its input pattern, calculating two output values between 0 and 1. The outputs (0,1) or (1,0) correspond to the presence of an arrival or background noise within a moving window. The two outputs form a time series. The P and S arrivals are then retrieved from this series by using a threshold and a local maximum rule. The BPNN is trained by only 10 pairs of P arrivals and background noise segments from the vertical component (V-C) recordings. It can also successfully pick seismic arrivals from the horizontal components (E-W and N-S). Its performance is different for each of the three components due to strong effects of ray path and source position on the seismic waveforms. For the data from two stations of TDP3 seismic network, the success rates are 93%, 89%, and 83% for P arrivals and 75%, 91%, and 87% for S arrivals from the V-C, E-W, and N-S recordings, respectively. The accuracy of the onset times picked from each individual 1-C recording is similar. Adding a constraint on the error to be 10 ms (one sample increment), 66%, 59% and 63% of the P arrivals and 53%, 61%, and 58% of the S arrivals are picked from the V-C, E-W and N-S recordings respectively. Its performance is lower than a similar three-component picking approach but higher than other 1-C picking methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Saloman
2013-09-01
Full Text Available E-commerce is the technology of conducting commercial transactions via electronic media. The Internet has provided this media to the extent that commerce is being increasingly made through it. However, another side of commerce, which included the (heavy lifting of physical goods are still traversing the distribution channels and employing the traditional transportation infrastructure with varying efficiency and cost. This paper examines the employment and adoption of this technology within the Middle East businesses, and what are the barriers that hinder this adoption. The famous Technology Acceptance Model, TAM is implemented with some variations to identify the difficulties associated with implementing e-business models through a survey of key stakeholders in this industry, namely procurement professional and logistics managers. One hundred forty five participants filled the survey questionnaire aimed at measuring their responses to perceived usefulness (PU, perceived ease of use (PEOU, attitudes towards usage (ATU and behavioral intention to use (BIU the e-business system The results shows that the main factors holding the propagation of e-commerce in these countries, and in spite of growing interests and belief in implementing e-commerce, are related to the inertia of the legacy operating systems, the lack of compatible infrastructure, the security of information, and the level of business ethics. A conceptual mathematical probability model is developed to estimate a new TAM as an MTAM where the acceptance is computed as an average probability of six interaction factors. Several conclusions were arrived at including the need for the development and installation of a legal framework for safeguarding against abuse and illegal schemes of defrauding consumers.
Chaotic ray propagation in corrugated layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bottiglieri
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the effects of a corrugated wall on the behaviour of propagating rays. Different types of corrugation are considered, using different distributions of the corrugation heights: white Gaussian, power law, self-affine perturbation. In phase space, a prevalent chaotic behaviour of rays, and the presence of a lot of caustics, are observed. These results entail that the KAM theorem is not fulfilled.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, Yong Woo; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2010-12-15
For the detection of the impact location in a pipeline system, the correlation method has been the conventional method. For the application of the correlation method, the diameter of a duct should be small so that the acoustic wave inside the duct can propagate with nondispersive characteristics, in the form of, for example, a plane wave. This correlation method calculates the cross-correlation between acoustic waves measured at two acceleration sensors attached to a buried duct. It also gives information about the arrival time delay of an acoustic wave between two sensors. These arrival time delays are used for the estimation of the impact location. However, when the diameter of the duct is large, the acoustic waves inside the duct propagate with dispersive characteristics owing to the reflection of the acoustic wave off of the wall of the duct. This dispersive characteristic is related to the acoustic modes inside a duct. Therefore, the correlation method does not work correctly for the detection of the impact location. This paper proposes new methods of accurately measuring the arrival time delay between two sensors attached to duct line system. This method is based on the time-frequency analyses of the short time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). These methods can discriminate direct waves (non-dispersive waves) and reflective waves (dispersive waves) from the measured wave signals through the time-frequency analysis. The direct wave or the reflective wave is used to estimate the arrival time delay. This delay is used for the identification of the impact location. This systematic method can predict the impact location due to the impact forces of construction equipment with more accuracy than the correlation method
A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor.
Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao
2013-06-20
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concentrations. This sensor features simplicity in sensor design, and possesses high specificity and accuracy in glucose detection. However, lack of glucose diffusion passage, this device is unable to fulfill real-time in-vivo monitoring. As a major improvement to this device, we present in this paper a fully implantable MEMS dielectric affinity glucose biosensor that contains a perforated electrode embedded in a suspended diaphragm. This capacitive-based sensor contains no moving parts, and enables glucose diffusion and real-time monitoring. The experimental results indicate that this sensor can detect glucose solutions at physiological concentrations and possesses good reversibility and reliability. This sensor has a time constant to glucose concentration change at approximately 3 min, which is comparable to commercial systems. The sensor has potential applications in fully implantable CGM that require excellent long-term stability and reliability. PMID:24511215
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franca, Demartonne R. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Cheng-Kuei Jen; Yuu Ono [National Research Council (NRC), Quebec (Canada). Industrial Materials Institute
2005-07-01
Ultrasonic techniques are attractive for process monitoring and control because they are non-intrusive, robust and inexpensive. Two common concerns limiting the high temperature performance of conventional ultrasonic systems for flow measurement are related to transducers and couplants. A suitable approach to overcoming this drawback is to insert a thermal isolating buffer rod with good ultrasonic performance (e.g., high signal-to-noise ratio). This requirement is important because, a priori, the noises generated in the buffer rod may bury the desired signals, so that no meaningful information is extracted. Besides protecting the ultrasonic transducers from overheating in applications such as high temperature flow measurements, buffer rods are also a solution for the couplant between the probe and tested sample, since their probing end can be directly wetted by fluids. Here, we propose clad buffer rods driven by shear transducers as the main building block of contra propagating ultrasonic flowmeters for high temperature application. It is demonstrated that the superior signal-to-noise ratio exhibit by clad buffer rods compared to the reported non-clad counterparts improve precision in transit-time measurement, leading to more accurate flow speed determination. In addition, it is shown that clad buffer rods generate specific ultrasonic signals for temperature calibration of flowmeters, allowing temperature variation while still measuring accurately the flow speed. These results are of interest for the oil and gas industries. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aihara, S.; Tsuchida, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S.; Yoshinari, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-12-31
A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.
Radio frequency propagation made easy
Faruque, Saleh
2015-01-01
This book introduces Radio Frequency Propagation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.
Affine Coherent States in Quantum Cosmology
Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw
2015-01-01
A brief summary of the application of coherent states in the examination of quantum dynamics of cosmological models is given. We discuss quantization maps, phase space probability distributions and semiclassical phase spaces. The implementation of coherent states based on the affine group resolves the hardest singularities, renders self-adjoint Hamiltonians without boundary conditions and provides a completely consistent semi-classical description of the involved quantum dynamics. We consider three examples: the closed Friedmann model, the anisotropic Bianchi Type I model and the deep quantum domain of the Bianchi Type IX model.
Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces
Käferböck, Florian
2013-06-01
Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Bishop, West M.; Willis, Ben E.; Horton, C. Todd
2015-04-01
Accurate predictions of nuisance algae responses to algicide exposures are needed to guide management decisions. Copper sorption and responses of Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Speziale and Dyck were measured in the laboratory and two areas in Lay Lake (AL, USA) to treatments of Captain® XTR (SePRO Corporation; chelated copper algicide) and a sequential treatment of GreenClean® Liquid (BioSafe Systems, LLC; peroxygen algicide) combined with Hydrothol® 191 (United Phosphorus, Inc.; endothall algicide) followed by Captain XTR. Measured filament viability in laboratory exposures predicted Captain XTR alone could control L. wollei in Lay Lake, with 2 mg Cu/g algae EC75. This produced a targeted field treatment of 9.7 kg Cu/ha which was divided into three applications of 0.3 mg Cu/L as Captain XTR in the treatment areas. Laboratory and field experiments indicated treatments of Captain XTR alone and the combination treatment resulted in comparable copper sorption and responses of L. wollei. Copper adsorbed greater to L. wollei in laboratory experiments than in the treated areas of Lay Lake with comparable exposures (2 mg Cu/g L. wollei). However, responses and infused copper were similar and correlated in laboratory experiments and treated areas of Lay Lake indicating infused copper is critical for governing toxicity. Laboratory exposures as mg Cu/g algae accurately predicted the necessary algicide exposure required to attain the critical burden of infused copper and elicit desired responses of L. wollei in treated areas of Lay Lake.
Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer
2014-10-01
Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.
Modification of tropospheric propagation conditions
Jeske, H.
1990-10-01
The propagation mechanisms of ultra-short radio waves and microwaves are governed by the composition of the troposphere and their space-time structure of the refractive index field. Useful effects are obtained by chaff clouds concerning communication channels, masking of targets or meteorological research. A wide field of posiibilities seems to be within the scope of weather modification experiments. But due to the huge variability of cloud and rain parameters only minor propagation changes are to be expected. A successful application of remotely determining atmospheric temperature profiles is the modulation of the atmospheric refractive index field by sound waves and tracking the acoustic wave fronts by a Doppler radar (Radio Acoustic Sounding System). Oil and alga slicks on water surfaces may change the reflection/scattering and emission properties for radar waves. They also suppress evaporation which may influence the development of tropical storms but just so evaporation duct propagation of microwaves.
在仿射等价类中找具有好的密码学性质的布尔函数%Find Better Boolean Functions in the Affine Equivalence Class
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈卫红; 李娜
2005-01-01
The Boolean functions in an affine equivalence class are of the same algebraicdegree and nonlinearity, but may satisfy different order of correlation immunity and propa-gation criterion. A method is presented in this paper to find Boolean functions with higherorder correlation immunity or satisfying higher order propagation criterion in an affine equiv-alence class. 8 AES s-box functions are not better Boolean functions in their affine equiva-lence class.
Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves
Pan, Weiyan
2014-01-01
This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).
Affinity Solvents for Intensified Organics Extraction: Development Challenges and Prospects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In most organics extraction processes, the commonly used solvents employ solely physical interactions. Therefore, for the recovery and purification of products from complex mixtures, the selectivity and/or capacity of classical solvents towards the desired solutes is usually insufficient, enforcing the need for complex and thus expensive separation schemes. Significant simplification and cost-reduction can be achieved when affinity solvents would be available that are able to recognize the solutes of interest by their molecular structure. The main development challenges to establish such affinity solvents are: Selection and incorporation of molecular recognition and complexation capabilities; Evaluation of extraction capabilities; Efficient recovery and recycling of the affinity solvents; Implementation in industrial extraction equipment. This paper presents how these development challenges are addressed at the University of Twente, going all the way from affinity solvent design and synthesis, via high throughput screening and characterization up to pilot plant evaluation. Essential in the successful development of affinity solvents are structural cooperations with molecular chemists and custom synthesis companies for their design and synthesis. The various aspects are illustrated by several examples where newly developed environmentally benign affinity solvents appeared able to create major breakthroughs. The applications addressed involve oxygenates, sugars, and pharmaceutical ingredients, such as optical isomers and biomolecules.
Casse, C.; Gosset, M.; Peugeot, C.; Boone, A.; Pedinotti, V.
2013-12-01
The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gauge (or radar) network are generally scarce and often degrading. Member of the GPM constellation, the new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere contributes to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to choose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites in West Africa. The CNRM model Surfex-ISBA/TRIP has been set up to simulate the hydrological behavior of the Niger River. This modeling set up is being used to study the predictability of Niger Floods events in the city of Niamey and the performances of satellite rainfall products as forcing for such predictions. One of the interesting feature of the Niger outflow in Niamey is its double peak : a first peak attributed to 'local' rainfall falling in small to medium size basins situated in the region of Niamey, and a second peak linked to the rainfall falling in the upper par of the river, and slowly propagating through the river towards Niamey. The performances of rainfall products are found to differ between the wetter/upper part of the basin, and the local/sahelian areas. Both academic tests with artificially biased or 'perturbed' rainfield and actual
Affine density in wavelet analysis
Kutyniok, Gitta
2007-01-01
In wavelet analysis, irregular wavelet frames have recently come to the forefront of current research due to questions concerning the robustness and stability of wavelet algorithms. A major difficulty in the study of these systems is the highly sensitive interplay between geometric properties of a sequence of time-scale indices and frame properties of the associated wavelet systems. This volume provides the first thorough and comprehensive treatment of irregular wavelet frames by introducing and employing a new notion of affine density as a highly effective tool for examining the geometry of sequences of time-scale indices. Many of the results are new and published for the first time. Topics include: qualitative and quantitative density conditions for existence of irregular wavelet frames, non-existence of irregular co-affine frames, the Nyquist phenomenon for wavelet systems, and approximation properties of irregular wavelet frames.
Inhomogeneous self-affine carpets
Fraser, Jonathan M.
2013-01-01
We investigate the dimension theory of inhomogeneous self-affine carpets. Through the work of Olsen, Snigireva and Fraser, the dimension theory of inhomogeneous self-similar sets is now relatively well-understood, however, almost no progress has been made concerning more general non-conformal inhomogeneous attractors. If a dimension is countably stable, then the results are immediate and so we focus on the upper and lower box dimensions and compute these explicitly for large classes of inhomo...
Protein isolation using affinity chromatography
Besselink, T.
2012-01-01
Many product or even waste streams in the food industry contain components that may have potential for e.g. functional foods. These streams are typically large in volume and the components of interest are only present at low concentrations. A robust and highly selective separation process should be developed for efficient isolation of the components. Affinity chromatography is such a selective method. Ligands immobilized to a stationary phase (e.g., a resin or membrane) are used to bind the c...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rasolofosaon P.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Les roches présentent souvent un comportement élastique nettement non linéaire, entraînant des conséquences importantes sur la propagation des ondes. Cette non-linéarité élastique est surtout causée par les microdéfauts mécaniques ubiquistes (microfissures, joints de grains, macles, etc. dont la rigidité varie sous l'effet de la contrainte. Ce sujet fait l'objet d'études de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous nous proposons de présenter très sommairement les bases théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux permettant d'avoir un ordre de grandeur des effets caractéristiques observés dans les roches afin de pouvoir proposer une approche critique des possibilités d'applications en géophysique. Deux disciplines se sont développées en parallèle à partir du même principe physique et avec des formalismes très proches : - L'acousto-élasticité étudie l'effet des précontraintes statiques sur les vitesses de propagation des ondes élastiques. On dispose d'un formalisme mécanique élaboré permettant de relier quantitativement variation de contrainte et variation de vitesse élastique (par exemple pour ce qui concerne l'anisotropie acoustique induite par un état de contrainte et d'une méthode expérimentale de mesure des coefficients de non-linéarité. - L'acoustique non linéaire s'intéresse aux conséquences de la variation des modules élastiques au passage d'une onde qui ne peut plus être considérée comme une petite perturbation, mais qui induit localement des modifications mesurables du milieu de propagation ; modifications entraînant l'apparition de phénomènes inconnus en acoustique linéaire tels que la génération d'harmoniques et l'interaction onde-onde. Les applications à la sismique pétrolière semblent fort lointaines puisque, avec les méthodes classiques de surface ou de puits, il y a peu d'espoir de réussir à faire propager jusqu'aux couches profondes des ondes dont l'amplitude dépasserait le seuil de
Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?
Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.
2011-01-01
Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids
Spectral affinity in protein networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teng Shang-Hua
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. Results We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. Conclusion We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to
Manifolds with integrable affine shape operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel A. Joaquín
2005-05-01
Full Text Available This work establishes the conditions for the existence of vector fields with the property that theirs covariant derivative, with respect to the affine normal connection, be the affine shape operatorS in hypersurfaces. Some results are obtained from this property and, in particular, for some kind of affine decomposable hypersurfaces we explicitely get the actual vector fields.
莲藕顶芽繁殖育苗技术应用效果研究%Application Effects of Apical Bud Propagation Technology of Lotus Root
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
常发杰; 张锋; 王开昌
2013-01-01
为提升保障莲藕供给能力，节本增效，开展莲藕顶芽繁殖和整藕繁殖对产量和效益影响的对比试验。试验结果表明，自莲藕顶芽下1 cm处切下，经杀菌消毒后，移至育苗床，3周后移栽大田，通过施用有机肥和精细田间管理，其效益明显高于整身种藕常规栽培，可大幅降低种子成本，且主藕顶芽繁殖比子藕顶芽繁殖产量更高，具有较大的推广价值。% In the paper, we studied the effects of the apical bud propagation and conventional lotus root propagation on yield and benefit of lotus root production. We cut the apical buds of lotus root 1 cm under the buds, and moved the buds to the seedling bed after sterilization and disinfection, and then transplanted the seedlings to field three weeks later. The results showed that, the yield and benefit of the apical bud propagation were obviously higher than those of the conventional lotus root propagation by applying organic fertilizers and strengthening field management, and the apical bud propagation method sharply reduced the seed cost of farmers. In addition, the propagation technology using apical buds of mother lotus root possessed higher yield than that of lateral lotus root, and the propagation technology was more worthy of wide promotion.
Towards "Propagation = Logic + Control"
Brand, Sebastian; Yap, Roland H. C.
2006-01-01
Constraint propagation algorithms implement logical inference. For efficiency, it is essential to control whether and in what order basic inference steps are taken. We provide a high-level framework that clearly differentiates between information needed for controlling propagation versus that needed for the logical semantics of complex constraints composed from primitive ones. We argue for the appropriateness of our controlled propagation framework by showing that it c...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hajek
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The propagation of ultra wide band (UWB signals through walls is analyzed. For this propagation studies, it is necessary to consider not only propagation at a single frequency but in the whole band. The UWB radar output signal is formed by both transmitter and antenna. The effects of antenna receiving and transmitting responses for various antenna types (such as small and aperture antennas are studied in the frequency as well as time domain. Moreover, UWB radar output signals can be substantially affected due to electromagnetic wave propagation through walls and multipath effects.
The semiclassical propagator in fermionic Fock space
Engl, Thomas; Urbina, Juan Diego; Richter, Klaus
2014-01-01
We present a rigorous derivation of a semiclassical propagator for anticommuting (fermionic) degrees of freedom, starting from an exact representation in terms of Grassmann variables. As a key feature of our approach the anticommuting variables are integrated out exactly, and an exact path integral representation of the fermionic propagator in terms of commuting variables is constructed. Since our approach is not based on auxiliary (Hubbard-Stratonovich) fields, it surpasses the calculation of fermionic determinants yielding a standard form $\\int {\\cal D}[\\psi,\\psi^{*}] {\\rm e}^{i R[\\psi,\\psi^{*}]}$ with real actions for the propagator. These two features allow us to provide a rigorous definition of the classical limit of interacting fermionic fields and therefore to achieve the long-standing goal of a theoretically sound construction of a semiclassical van Vleck-Gutzwiller propagator in fermionic Fock space. As an application, we use our propagator to investigate how the different universality classes (ortho...
Affine group representation formalism for four dimensional, Lorentzian, quantum gravity
Ching-Yi, Chou; Soo, Chopin
2012-01-01
The Hamiltonian constraint of 4-dimensional General Relativity is recast explicitly in terms of the Chern--Simons functional and the local volume operator. In conjunction with the algebraic quantization program, application of the affine quantization concept due to Klauder facilitates the construction of solutions to all of the the quantum constraints in the Ashtekar variables and their associated Hilbert space. A physical Hilbert space is constructed for Lorentzian signature gravity with nonzero cosmological constant in the form of unitary, irreducible representations of the affine group.
Combinatorial topology of three-dimensional self-affine tiles
Bandt, Christoph
2010-01-01
We develop tools to study the topology and geometry of self-affine fractals in dimension three and higher. We use the self-affine structure and obtain rather detailed information about the connectedness of interior and boundary sets, and on the dimensions and intersections of boundary sets. As an application, we describe in algebraic terms the polyhedral structure of the six fractal three-dimensional twindragons. Only two of them can be homeomorphic to a ball but even these have faces which are not homeomorphic to a disk.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鲍如梦; 赵爽佳; 薛敏; 杨洪鸣; 唐金宝
2015-01-01
目的：构建、表达ZZ亲和肽与碱性磷酸酶（ AP）融合蛋白，并研究其生物学活性。方法：将ZZ亲和肽基因与AP基因重组，构建原核表达载体pEZZ-AP并利用大肠杆菌表达，金属离子亲和层析纯化目的蛋白，Western blot鉴定ZZ-AP生物学活性并初步应用于免疫细胞化学。结果：所构建重组质粒pEZZ-AP 经E.coli DH5α表达，SDS-PAGE结果显示目的蛋白相对分子量为62 kD，与理论值相近。 Western blot结果表明ZZ-AP融合蛋白既具有兔IgG抗体结合活性，又具有碱性磷酸酶活性，在细胞免疫组化应用中与AP标记的羊抗兔二抗显色模式与效果相似。结论：ZZ-AP融合蛋白构建成功，该融合蛋白具有兔IgG 抗体结合活性和碱性磷酸酶活性，细胞免疫组化应用结果表明该融合蛋白在免疫分析中具有潜在的应用价值。%Objective:To construct and express the fusion protein between ZZ affinity peptide and alkaline phosphatase and examine its biological activities.Methods:The alkaline phosphatase gene was cloned into pEZZ 18 vector containing ZZ peptide gene resulted in the pEZZ-AP recombinant vector.Then the vector was transformed and expressed in E.coli DH5α.And HisTrap affinity chromatography was employed to separate and purify the target protein.After analyzed by Western blot , ZZ-AP fusion protein was applied to immunocytochemistry as an alterative second antibody.Results:The result of SDS-PAGE showed that the fusion protein with a relative molecular weight was consistent with the theoretical values (62 kD).The fusion protein has rabbit IgG-binding ability and en-zymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase ,those were validated in Western blot;and it produced a good signal that was comparable in its staining pattern to that generated with goat anti-rabbit IgG-AP in immunocytochemistry.Conclusion: The ZZ-AP fusion protein was constructed successfully ,it has rabbit IgG-binding ability and enzymatic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cash, R.J.
1995-09-27
To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition.
Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-10-05
Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.
Steiner, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
An integral self-affine tile is the solution of a set equation $\\mathbf{A} \\mathcal{T} = \\bigcup_{d \\in \\mathcal{D}} (\\mathcal{T} + d)$, where $\\mathbf{A}$ is an $n \\times n$ integer matrix and $\\mathcal{D}$ is a finite subset of $\\mathbb{Z}^n$. In the recent decades, these objects and the induced tilings have been studied systematically. We extend this theory to matrices $\\mathbf{A} \\in \\mathbb{Q}^{n \\times n}$. We define rational self-affine tiles as compact subsets of the open subring $\\mathbb{R}^n\\times \\prod_\\mathfrak{p} K_\\mathfrak{p}$ of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_K$, where the factors of the (finite) product are certain $\\mathfrak{p}$-adic completions of a number field $K$ that is defined in terms of the characteristic polynomial of $\\mathbf{A}$. Employing methods from classical algebraic number theory, Fourier analysis in number fields, and results on zero sets of transfer operators, we establish a general tiling theorem for these tiles. We also associate a second kind of tiles with a rational matr...
Graded electron affinity electron source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaw, J.L.; Gray, H.F.; Jensen, K.L.; Jung, T.M. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
1996-05-01
We describe a new electron source using electric field and low electron affinity semiconductor materials to bring charge to potential energy levels near the vacuum level while still in the solid. The basic idea involves moving some of the potential barrier from the surface to the bulk, and distributing the barrier over a thin layer below the surface. In so doing, the emission physics is changed fundamentally from a quantum mechanical tunneling process largely controlled by surface properties to a classical transport process largely controlled by the band structure of a wide bandgap semiconductor. The composition of the thin layer below the surface would be graded such that the conduction band minimum changes from an energy close to the substrate Fermi level to an energy significantly closer to the vacuum level. Electrons from the substrate would be drawn into the graded composition layer with an electric field produced by a pointed emitter structure and extraction gate similar to that used in field emitter arrays. Relative to a conventional field emitter array, the new source is expected to require lower extraction fields and exhibit improved emission uniformity, stability, and noise. The {ital I}{endash}{ital V} characteristics are not Fowler{endash}Nordheim and may include a saturation effect at high current densities that could be engineered to improve reliability and uniformity. The group III nitrides can be grown with a continuous range of composition that provides the range of electron affinity needed to produce the proposed electronic structure. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}
The affine quantum gravity programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix { g-hat ab(x)} composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that still retain some basic characteristics of gravity, specifically a partial second-class constraint operator structure. Although perturbatively nonrenormalizable, gravity may possibly be understood nonperturbatively from a hard-core perspective that has proved valuable for specialized models. Finally, developing a procedure to pass to the genuine physical Hilbert space involves several interconnected steps that require careful coordination
A generalized photon propagator
Itin, Yakov
2007-01-01
A covariant gauge independent derivation of the generalized dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with local and linear constitutive law is presented. A generalized photon propagator is derived. For Maxwell constitutive tensor, the standard light cone structure and the standard Feynman propagator are reinstated.
NASA propagation information center
Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.
1990-07-01
The NASA Propagation Information Center became formally operational in July 1988. It is located in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The center is several things: a communications medium for the propagation with the outside world, a mechanism for internal communication within the program, and an aid to management.
Interest Rates with Long Memory: A Generalized Affine Term-Structure Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Osterrieder, Daniela
We propose a model for the term structure of interest rates that is a generalization of the discrete-time, Gaussian, affine yield-curve model. Compared to standard affine models, our model allows for general linear dynamics in the vector of state variables. In an application to real yields of U...
Wan, Xiang; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Tse, Peter W; Tan, Haihui
2016-01-01
Lamb wave technique has been widely used in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). However, due to the multi-mode characteristics and dispersive nature, Lamb wave propagation behavior is much more complex than that of bulk waves. Numerous numerical simulations on Lamb wave propagation have been conducted to study its physical principles. However, few quantitative studies on evaluating the accuracy of these numerical simulations were reported. In this paper, a method based on cross correlation analysis for quantitatively evaluating the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb waves propagation is proposed. Two kinds of error, affecting the position and shape accuracies are firstly identified. Consequently, two quantitative indices, i.e., the GVE (group velocity error) and MACCC (maximum absolute value of cross correlation coefficient) derived from cross correlation analysis between a simulated signal and a reference waveform, are proposed to assess the position and shape errors of the simulated signal. In this way, the simulation accuracy on the position and shape is quantitatively evaluated. In order to apply this proposed method to select appropriate element size and time step, a specialized 2D-FEM program combined with the proposed method is developed. Then, the proper element size considering different element types and time step considering different time integration schemes are selected. These results proved that the proposed method is feasible and effective, and can be used as an efficient tool for quantitatively evaluating and verifying the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb wave propagation. PMID:26315506
Trust Propagation in Small Worlds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong;
2003-01-01
The possibility of a massive, networked infrastructure of diverse entities partaking in collaborative applications with each other increases more and more with the proliferation of mobile devices and the development of ad hoc networking technologies. In this context, traditional security measures...... do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can...... be propagated through relatively short paths connecting entities. Our work describes the design of trust-formation and risk-assessment systems, as well as that of an entity recognition scheme, within the context of the small world network topology....
Error Propagation in a System Model
Schloegel, Kirk (Inventor); Bhatt, Devesh (Inventor); Oglesby, David V. (Inventor); Madl, Gabor (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the present subject matter can enable the analysis of signal value errors for system models. In an example, signal value errors can be propagated through the functional blocks of a system model to analyze possible effects as the signal value errors impact incident functional blocks. This propagation of the errors can be applicable to many models of computation including avionics models, synchronous data flow, and Kahn process networks.
POPPY: Physical Optics Propagation in PYthon
Perrin, Marshall; Long, Joseph; Douglas, Ewan; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Slocum, Christine
2016-02-01
POPPY (Physical Optics Propagation in PYthon) simulates physical optical propagation including diffraction. It implements a flexible framework for modeling Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction and point spread function formation, particularly in the context of astronomical telescopes. POPPY provides the optical modeling framework for WebbPSF (ascl:1504.007) and was developed as part of a simulation package for JWST, but is available separately and is broadly applicable to many kinds of imaging simulations.
Methods for Improving Aptamer Binding Affinity
Hijiri Hasegawa; Nasa Savory; Koichi Abe; Kazunori Ikebukuro
2016-01-01
Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that bind a wide range of biological targets. Although aptamers can be isolated from pools of random sequence oligonucleotides using affinity-based selection, aptamers with high affinities are not always obtained. Therefore, further refinement of aptamers is required to achieve desired binding affinities. The optimization of primary sequences and stabilization of aptamer conformations are the main approaches to refining the binding properties of a...
Ordinary differential equations in affine geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvador Gigena
1996-05-01
Full Text Available The method of qualitative analysis is used, as applied to a class of fourth order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, in order to classify, both locally and globally, two classes of hypersurfaces of decomposable type in affine geometry: those with constant unimodular affine mean curvature L , and those with constant Riemannian scalar curvature R. This allows to provide a large number of new examples of hypersurfaces in affine geometry.
Ordinary differential equations in affine geometry
Salvador Gigena
1996-01-01
The method of qualitative analysis is used, as applied to a class of fourth order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, in order to classify, both locally and globally, two classes of hypersurfaces of decomposable type in affine geometry: those with constant unimodular affine mean curvature L , and those with constant Riemannian scalar curvature R. This allows to provide a large number of new examples of hypersurfaces in affine geometry.
Numerical simulation methods for wave propagation through optical waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The simulation of the field propagation through waveguides requires numerical solutions of the Helmholtz equation. For this purpose a method based on the principle of orthogonal collocation was recently developed. The method is also applicable to nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers. Some of the salient features of this method and its application to both linear and nonlinear wave propagation through optical waveguides are discussed in this report. 51 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs
Affine connections, midpoint formation, and point reflection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Anders
2011-01-01
We describe some differential-geometric structures in combinatorial terms: namely affine connections and their torsion and curvature, and we show that torsion free affine connections may equivalently be presented in terms of some simpler combinatorial structure: midpoint formation, and point refl...... reflection (geodesic symmetry). The method employed is that of synthetic differential geometry, which is briefly explained.......We describe some differential-geometric structures in combinatorial terms: namely affine connections and their torsion and curvature, and we show that torsion free affine connections may equivalently be presented in terms of some simpler combinatorial structure: midpoint formation, and point...
Protein Complex Purification by Affinity Capture.
LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P
2016-01-01
Affinity capture has become a powerful technique for consistently purifying endogenous protein complexes, facilitating biochemical and biophysical assays on otherwise inaccessible biological assemblies, and enabling broader interactomic exploration. For this procedure, cells are broken and their contents separated and extracted into a solvent, permitting access to target macromolecular complexes thus released in solution. The complexes are specifically enriched from the extract onto a solid medium coupled with an affinity reagent-usually an antibody-that recognizes the target either directly or through an appended affinity tag, allowing subsequent characterization of the complex. Here, we discuss approaches and considerations for purifying endogenous yeast protein complexes by affinity capture. PMID:27371601
Mantič, V; Blázquez, A; Graciani, E; París, F
2013-01-01
The crack onset and propagation at the fibre-matrix interface in a composite under tensile/compressive remote biaxial transverse loads is studied by a new linear elastic - (perfectly) brittle interface model. In this model the interface is represented by a continuous distribution of springs which simulates the presence of a thin elastic layer. The constitutive law for the continuous distribution of normal and tangential of initially linear elastic springs takes into account possible frictionless elastic contact between fibre and matrix once a portion of the interface is broken. A brittle failure criterion is employed for the distribution of springs, which enables the study of crack onset and propagation. This interface failure criterion takes into account the variation of the interface fracture toughness with the fracture mode mixity. The main advantages of the present interface model are its simplicity, robustness and its computational efficiency when the so-called sequentially linear analysis is applied. Mo...
Yokota, Hirohisa; Higuchi, Keiichi; Imai, Yoh
2016-08-01
Light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with α-power profiles of air hole diameter distributions were theoretically investigated. It was clarified that the intensity peak of the beam propagating in the PCF with Gaussian beam excitation varied periodically with little power attenuation. It was found that the envelope of the periodic intensity variation depended on α. We theoretically demonstrated that the PCF with the α-power profile of the air hole diameter distribution could be applied to a collimator for a conventional PCF with uniform air holes in Gaussian beam excitation to reduce coupling loss, where a PCF of appropriate length with the α-power air hole diameter distribution was spliced to a conventional PCF. It was also found that the coupling efficiency was higher for a larger α.
Caliendo, Cinzia; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Castro, Fabio Lo
2013-01-01
The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S0 mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes. PMID:23282585
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cinzia Caliendo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S0 mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Pons-Morera
2012-06-01
Full Text Available El uso de las técnicas de affinity diagram está cada día más en alza como método para discernir los puntos clave de una organización o los resortes que darán lugar a una mejora competitiva. El caso que nos ocupa es una primera aproximación a la identificación de qué servicios de los que ofrece la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, podrían ser mejorados con el uso de nuevas tecnologías. (Affinity diagram techniques are used to discern the key points of an organization or key factors that will lead to an improvement in competitive advantages. In this paper we do a first approximation to identify which services offered by the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia could be improved with the use of new technologies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NA
2002-03-04
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.
Veldhuis, J D; Johnson, M.L.; Faunt, L M; MERCADO, M.; Baumann, G
1993-01-01
The discovery of a specific high-affinity growth hormone (GH) binding protein (GH-BP) in plasma adds complexity to the dynamics of GH secretion and clearance. Intuitive predictions are that such a protein would damp sharp oscillations in GH concentrations otherwise caused by bursts of GH secretion into the blood volume, prolong the apparent half-life of circulating GH, and contribute a reservoir function. To test these implicit considerations, we formulated an explicit mathematical model of p...
DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation
Wong, Ka-Chun
2013-06-29
Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).
Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Schramm
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.
Pulse Wave Propagation in the Arterial Tree
van de Vosse, Frans N.; Stergiopulos, Nikos
2011-01-01
The beating heart creates blood pressure and flow pulsations that propagate as waves through the arterial tree that are reflected at transitions in arterial geometry and elasticity. Waves carry information about the matter in which they propagate. Therefore, modeling of arterial wave propagation extends our knowledge about the functioning of the cardiovascular system and provides a means to diagnose disorders and predict the outcome of medical interventions. In this review we focus on the physical and mathematical modeling of pulse wave propagation, based on general fluid dynamical principles. In addition we present potential applications in cardiovascular research and clinical practice. Models of short- and long-term adaptation of the arterial system and methods that deal with uncertainties in personalized model parameters and boundary conditions are briefly discussed, as they are believed to be major topics for further study and will boost the significance of arterial pulse wave modeling even more.
Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives. (topical review)
Lectures on extended affine Lie algebras
Neher, Erhard
2010-01-01
We give an introduction to the structure theory of extended affine Lie algebras, which provide a common framework for finite-dimensional semisimple, affine and toroidal Lie algebras. The notes are based on a lecture series given during the Fields Institute summer school at the University of Ottawa in June 2009.
Global affine differential geometry of hypersurfaces
Li, An-Min; Zhao, Guosong; Hu, Zejun
2015-01-01
This book draws a colorful and widespread picture of global affine hypersurface theory up to the most recent state. Moreover, the recent development revealed that affine differential geometry- as differential geometry in general- has an exciting intersection area with other fields of interest, like partial differential equations, global analysis, convex geometry and Riemann surfaces.
Dyes with high affinity for polylactide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang
2007-01-01
Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.
Free C+ actions on affine threefolds
Kraft, H.
2005-01-01
We study algebraic actions of the additive group C+ on an affine threefold X and prove a smoothness property for the quotient morphism X -< X//C+. Then, following Shulim Kaliman, we give a proof of the conjecture that every free C+ action on affine 3-space C^3 is a translation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lifeng XI
2008-01-01
In this paper,it is proved that any self-affine set satisfying the strong separation condition is uniformly porous.The author constructs a self-affine set which is not porous,although the open set condition holds.Besides,the author also gives a C1 iterated function system such that its invariant set is not porous.
On affine non-negative matrix factorization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai
2007-01-01
We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate...
Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.
2016-01-01
Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...
Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.
2010-11-03
We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.
Reflectable bases for affine reflection systems
Azam, Saeid; Yousofzadeh, Malihe
2011-01-01
The notion of a "root base" together with its geometry plays a crucial role in the theory of finite and affine Lie theory. However, it is known that such a notion does not exist for the recent generalizations of finite and affine root systems such as extended affine root systems and affine reflection systems. As an alternative, we introduce the notion of a "reflectable base", a minimal subset $\\Pi$ of roots such that the non-isotropic part of the root system can be recovered by reflecting roots of $\\Pi$ relative to the hyperplanes determined by $\\Pi$. We give a full characterization of reflectable bases for tame irreducible affine reflection systems of reduced types, excluding types $E_{6,7,8}$. As a byproduct of our results, we show that if the root system under consideration is locally finite then any reflectable base is an integral base.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B
1992-01-01
of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...... and drug binding abilities of the low-affinity component. The fatty acids decanoate, laurate, myristate and palmitate were bound with higher affinity to the mixture than to the low-affinity component. Diazepam was bound with nearly the same affinity to the low-affinity component as to the albumin mixture...
Native Elution of Yeast Protein Complexes Obtained by Affinity Capture.
LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P
2016-01-01
This protocol describes two options for the native (nondenaturing) elution of protein complexes obtained by affinity capture. The first approach involves the elution of complexes purified through a tag that includes a human rhinovirus 3C protease (PreScission protease) cleavage site sequence between the protein of interest and the tag. Incubation with the protease cleaves immobilized complexes from the affinity medium. The second approach involves the release of protein A-tagged protein complexes using a competitive elution reagent called PEGylOx. The degree of purity of the native assemblies eluted is sample dependent and strongly influenced by the affinity capture. It should be noted that the efficiency of native elution is commonly lower than that of elution by a denaturing agent (e.g., SDS) and the release of the complex will be limited by the activity of the protease or the inhibition constant (Ki) of the competitive release agent. However, an advantage of native release is that some nonspecifically bound materials tend to stay adsorbed to the affinity medium, providing an eluted fraction of higher purity. Finally, keep in mind that the presence of the protease or elution peptide could potentially affect downstream applications; thus, their removal should be considered. PMID:27371597
Islam, M J; Reza, A W; Kausar, A S M Z; Ramiah, H
2014-01-01
The advent of technology with the increasing use of wireless network has led to the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) to continuously monitor the change of physiological data in a cost efficient manner. As numerous researches on wave propagation characterization have been done in intrabody communication, this study has given emphasis on the wave propagation characterization between the control units (CUs) and wireless access point (AP) in a hospital scenario. Ray tracing is a tool to predict the rays to characterize the wave propagation. It takes huge simulation time, especially when multiple transmitters are involved to transmit physiological data in a realistic hospital environment. Therefore, this study has developed an accelerated ray tracing method based on the nearest neighbor cell and prior knowledge of intersection techniques. Beside this, Red-Black tree is used to store and provide a faster retrieval mechanism of objects in the hospital environment. To prove the superiority, detailed complexity analysis and calculations of reflection and transmission coefficients are also presented in this paper. The results show that the proposed method is about 1.51, 2.1, and 2.9 times faster than the Object Distribution Technique (ODT), Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP), and Angular Z-Buffer (AZB) methods, respectively. To show the various effects on received power in 60 GHz frequency, few comparisons are made and it is found that on average -9.44 dBm, -8.23 dBm, and -9.27 dBm received power attenuations should be considered when human, AP, and CU move in a given hospital scenario. PMID:25133220
Affine-Detection Loophole in Quantum Data Processing
Vlasov, Alexander Yu.
2002-01-01
Here is considered a specific detection loophole, that is relevant not only to testing of quantum nonlocality, but also to some other applications of quantum computations and communications. It is described by a simple affine relation between different quantum "data structures" like pure and mixed state, separable and inseparable one. It is shown also, that due to such relations imperfect device for a classical model may mimic measurements of quantum correlations on ideal equipment.
Non-Zenoness of piecewise affine dynamical systems and affine complementarity systems with inputs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Le Quang THUAN
2014-01-01
In the context of continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems and affine complementarity systems with inputs, we study the existence of Zeno behavior, i.e., infinite number of mode transitions in a finite-length time interval, in this paper. The main result reveals that continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems with piecewise real-analytic inputs do not exhibit Zeno behavior. Applied the achieved result to affine complementarity systems with inputs, we also obtained a similar conclusion. A direct benefit of the main result is that one can apply smooth ordinary differential equations theory in a local manner for the analysis of continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems with inputs.
Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials
Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.
Theory and application of hydraulic fracture propagation in fractured reservoirs%裂缝性储层水力裂缝延展理论与应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙鹏飞
2015-01-01
The existence of natural fractures in the fractured reservoirs makes the regularity of fracture initiation and fracture propagation extremely complex.This paper summarizes the model of traditional hydraulic fracturing and the theory of hydraulic fracture propagation in fractured reservoirs,and then applies fracturing design software to design the fracturing of one well in Honghe oil field combining with field data,and finally concludes the optimized results considering the influence of fractal theory.%在裂缝性储层储层中，由于天然裂缝的存在，使得裂缝起裂和裂缝延伸规律异常复杂。总结传统水力压裂模型及裂缝性储层水力裂缝扩展理论，结合现场资料应用压裂设计软件设计红河油田某井的压裂，在考虑分析影响的前提下得出优化结果。
Project Integration Architecture: A Practical Demonstration of Information Propagation
Jones, William Henry
2005-01-01
One of the goals of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) effort is to provide the ability to propagate information between disparate applications. With this ability, applications may then be formed into an application graph constituting a super-application. Such a super-application would then provide all of the analysis appropriate to a given technical system. This paper reports on a small demonstration of this concept in which a Computer Aided Design (CAD) application was connected to an inlet analysis code and geometry information automatically propagated from one to the other. The majority of the work reported involved not the technology of information propagation, but rather the conversion of propagated information into a form usable by the receiving application.
Temporal scaling in information propagation
Junming Huang; Chao Li; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hua-Wei Shen; Guojie Li; Xue-Qi Cheng
2014-01-01
For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite ...
Andreasen, J.; Kolesik, M.
2012-01-01
Unidirectional pulse propagation equations [UPPE, Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004)] have provided a theoretical underpinning for computer-aided investigations into dynamics of high-power ultrashort laser pulses and have been successfully utilized for almost a decade. Unfortunately, they are restricted to applications in bulk media or, with additional approximations, to simple waveguide geometries in which only a few guided modes can approximate the propagating waveform. The purpose of this work...
Optimized Affinity Capture of Yeast Protein Complexes.
LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P
2016-01-01
Here, we describe an affinity isolation protocol. It uses cryomilled yeast cell powder for producing cell extracts and antibody-conjugated paramagnetic beads for affinity capture. Guidelines for determining the optimal extraction solvent composition are provided. Captured proteins are eluted in a denaturing solvent (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer) for gel-based proteomic analyses. Although the procedures can be modified to use other sources of cell extract and other forms of affinity media, to date we have consistently obtained the best results with the method presented. PMID:27371596
Affinization of category O for quantum groups
Young, C A S
2012-01-01
Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.
Corner Transfer Matrices and Quantum Affine Algebras
Foda, O E; Foda, Omar; Miwa, Tetsuji
1992-01-01
Let H be the corner-transfer-matrix Hamiltonian for the six-vertex model in the anti-ferroelectric regime. It acts on the infinite tensor product W = V . V . V ....., where is the 2-dimensional irreducible representation of the quantum affine sl(2). We observe that H is the derivation of quantum affine sl(2), and conjecture that the eigenvectors of H form the level-1 vacuum representation of quantum affine sl(2). We report on checks in support of our conjecture.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张志飞; 赵志丽; 文昭竹
2014-01-01
Tandem affinity purification(TAP)is a technology for the purification of protein complex under the normal physiological conditions, which has been extensively utilized to identify protein-protein interactions(PPIs)and reveal interaction network of protein complexes. In recent years, TAP technology has been improving in the PPIs study, with the development of new labels, TAP method improvements and jointed use with other technologies associated. TAP technology is also being increasingly used in the studies of plant PPIs. This paper reviews the selection of TAP affinity tag and advance of research that TAP has been successful used in the study of plant PPIs.%串联亲和纯化法（TAP）是一种纯化生理条件下蛋白复合物的技术，已广泛应用于鉴定蛋白相互作用和揭示蛋白复合物互作网络。近年来，随着TAP新型标签的不断出现以及与其他技术的联用，TAP技术正逐渐应用于植物蛋白质互作研究中。综述了TAP亲和标签选择，并介绍其在植物蛋白互作研究中的成功应用。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任菲
2011-01-01
The carrier of Ideological and political education is the ideological and political education practice in the communica-tion of Ideological and political education and the education of a bridge and medium.Through the ideological education carrier ef-fectively to develop ideological and political education in the affinity.Ideological and political education the affinity of the promo-tion,can be from improving the ideological and political education of comprehensive qualities,change the ideological and political education teaching idea,respect educatees（including its ideological and political education needs） and other aspects.%思想政治教育载体是思想政治教育实践中沟通思想政治教育者和受教育者的一个桥梁和媒介。通过思想教育载体的有效运用来培养思想政治教育中的亲和力。思想政治教育者亲和力的提升,可以从提高思想政治教育者的综合素养,转变思想政治教育者的教学观念,尊重受教育者（包括其思想政治教育需要）等方面入手。
Urrutxua, Hodei; Sanjurjo-Rivo, Manuel; Peláez, Jesús
2016-01-01
In the year 2000 an in-house orbital propagator called DROMO (Peláez et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97:131-150, 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10569-006-9056-3) was developed by the Space Dynamics Group of the Technical University of Madrid, based in a set of redundant variables including Euler-Rodrigues parameters. An original deduction of the DROMO propagator is carried out, underlining its close relation with the ideal frame concept introduced by Hansen (Abh der Math-Phys Cl der Kon Sachs Ges der Wissensch 5:41-218, 1857). Based on the very same concept, Deprit (J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect B Math Sci 79B(1-2):1-15, 1975) proposed a formulation for orbit propagation. In this paper, similarities and differences with the theory carried out by Deprit are analyzed. Simultaneously, some improvements are introduced in the formulation, that lead to a more synthetic and better performing propagator. Also, the long-term effect of the oblateness of the primary is studied in terms of DROMO variables, and new numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the method.
Neutrino Propagation Through Matter
V. A. NaumovLab. of Theoretical Physics, Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia; L. Perrone(Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze, Italy)
2015-01-01
We discuss a simple approach to solve the transport equation for high-energy neutrinos in media of any thickness. We present illustrative results obtained with some specific models for the initial spectra of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos propagating through a normal cold medium.
Neutrino Propagation Through Matter
Naumov, V A
1999-01-01
We discuss a simple approach to solve the transport equation for high-energy neutrinos in media of any thickness. We present illustrative results obtained with some specific models for the initial spectra of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos propagating through a normal cold medium.
Nessel, James
2013-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in the characterization of atmospheric effects on space communications links operating at Ka-band and above for the past 20 years. This presentation reports out on the most recent activities of propagation characterization that NASA is currently involved in.
Nonparaxial propagation of phase-flipped Gaussian beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Zeng-Hui; Lü Bai-Da
2008-01-01
This paper derives the closed-form expressions for nonparaxial phase flipped Gaussian (PFG) beams propagating in free space, through a knife edge and an aperture, which enable us to study nonparaxial propagation properties of PFG beams and to compare nonparaxial results with paraxial ones. It is found that the f parameter, offsetting distance of the knife edge and truncation parameter affect the nonparaxial beam propagation properties. Only under certain conditions the paraxial approximation is applicable. The results are illustrated by numerical examples.
Yu, Hao; Rossi, Giammarco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido
2016-08-10
The paper presents the development of a tool based on a back-propagation artificial neural network to assist in the accurate positioning of the lenses used to collimate the beam from semiconductor laser diodes along the so-called fast axis. After training using a Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model, the network is capable of indicating the tilt, decenter, and defocus of such lenses from the measured field distribution, so the operator can determine the errors with respect to the actual lens position and optimize the diode assembly procedure. An experimental validation using a typical configuration exploited in multi-emitter diode module assembly and fast axis collimating lenses with different focal lengths and numerical apertures is reported. PMID:27534506
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neni Mulyani
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Research on the vegetative propagation of Rhizophora mucronata using hypocotyl cutting sistem was carried out at Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University. Histological analysis of adventitous shoot was done at Biotechnology and Tree Breeding Laboratory, SEAMEO-BIOTROP. Three types of hypocotyl cutting (complete hypocotyl, top part of cut-hypocotyl and bottom part of cut-hypocotyl were induced using 6-BAP hormones at 0 and 500 ppm. Adventitous shoot of bottom part of cut-hypocotyl appeared 140 days after planting. Shoot from complete hypocotyl and top part of cut-hypocotyl grew earlier than adventitous shoot from bottom part of cut-hypocotyl. Hystologycal analysis of adventitous shoot showed the existance of primary meristem, stipule and leaf primordia. The growth of complete hipocotyl was higher than both of top part of cut-hypocotyl and bottom part of cut-hypocotyl. There was no effect of hormone induction on the shoot growth of them.
Automorphisms in Birational and Affine Geometry
Ciliberto, Ciro; Flenner, Hubert; McKernan, James; Prokhorov, Yuri; Zaidenberg, Mikhail
2014-01-01
The main focus of this volume is on the problem of describing the automorphism groups of affine and projective varieties, a classical subject in algebraic geometry where, in both cases, the automorphism group is often infinite dimensional. The collection covers a wide range of topics and is intended for researchers in the fields of classical algebraic geometry and birational geometry (Cremona groups) as well as affine geometry with an emphasis on algebraic group actions and automorphism groups. It presents original research and surveys and provides a valuable overview of the current state of the art in these topics. Bringing together specialists from projective, birational algebraic geometry and affine and complex algebraic geometry, including Mori theory and algebraic group actions, this book is the result of ensuing talks and discussions from the conference “Groups of Automorphisms in Birational and Affine Geometry” held in October 2012, at the CIRM, Levico Terme, Italy. The talks at the conference high...
Peculiarities of Thermodynamic Simulation with the Method of Bound Affinity
Zilbergleyt, B
2004-01-01
Thermodynamic simulation of chemical and metallurgical systems is the only method to predict their equilibrium composition and is the most important application of chemical thermodynamics. The conventional strategy of simulation is always to find the most probable composition of the system, corresponding to thermodynamic equilibrium. Traditional simulation methods do not account for interactions within the chemical system. The Method of Bound Affinity (MBA) is based on the theory that explicitly takes into account interactions between subsystems of a complex chemical system and leads sometimes to essential differences in simulation results. This article discusses peculiarities of MBA application, exemplified by results for a complex system with a set of subsystems.
Quantized Affine Lie Algebras and Diagonalization of Braid Generators
Gould, M D; Gould, Mark D.; Zhang, Yao-Zhong
1994-01-01
Let $U_q(\\hat{\\cal G})$ be a quantized affine Lie algebra. It is proven that the universal R-matrix $R$ of $U_q(\\hat{\\cal G})$ satisfies the celebrated conjugation relation $R^\\dagger=TR$ with $T$ the usual twist map. As applications, braid generators are shown to be diagonalizable on arbitrary tensor product modules of integrable irreducible highest weight $U_q(\\hat{\\cal G})$-module and a spectral decomposition formula for the braid generators is obtained which is the generalization of Reshetikhin's and Gould's forms to the present affine case. Casimir invariants are constructed and their eigenvalues computed by means of the spectral decomposition formula. As a by-product, an interesting identity is found.
Synthesis of a New Series of Bone Affinity Compounds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A new series of bone affinity compounds were synthesized by linking chrysophanol with 5-fluorouracil derivatives. Their bone affinity was established by hydroxyapafive (HA)affinity experiment in vitro, and their cytostatic effects were shown by the MTT assay.
A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor
Xian HUANG; Li, SiQi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao
2013-01-01
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concent...
On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model
Walton, Mark A.
2012-01-01
A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the $su(n)$ Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connec...
Purely affine elementary su(N) fusions
Rasmussen, Jorgen; Walton, Mark A.
2001-01-01
We consider three-point couplings in simple Lie algebras -- singlets in triple tensor products of their integrable highest weight representations. A coupling can be expressed as a linear combination of products of finitely many elementary couplings. This carries over to affine fusion, the fusion of Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories, where the expressions are in terms of elementary fusions. In the case of su(4) it has been observed that there is a purely affine elementary fusion, i.e...
Complete algebraic vector fields on affine surfaces
Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank; Leuenberger, Matthias
2014-01-01
Let $\\AAutH (X)$ be the subgroup of the group $\\AutH (X)$ of holomorphic automorphisms of a normal affine algebraic surface $X$ generated by elements of flows associated with complete algebraic vector fields. Our main result is a classification of all normal affine algebraic surfaces $X$ quasi-homogeneous under $\\AAutH (X)$ in terms of the dual graphs of the boundaries $\\bX \\setminus X$ of their SNC-completions $\\bX$.
Fan affinity laws from a collision model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour of air is incorporated. Our calculations prove the affinity laws and provide numerical estimates of the air delivery, thrust and drag on a rotating fan. (paper)
The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Waldron, TT; Astrof, N;
2007-01-01
Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric proteins that mediate cell-cell, cell-matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. Half of the known integrin alpha subunits contain inserted domains (I domains) that coordinate ligand through a metal ion. Although the importance of conformational changes within...... isolated I domains in regulating ligand binding has been reported, the relationship between metal ion binding affinity and ligand binding affinity has not been elucidated. Metal and ligand binding by several I domain mutants that are stabilized in different conformations are investigated using isothermal...... titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance studies. This work suggests an inverse relationship between metal ion affinity and ligand binding affinity (i.e. constructs with a high affinity for ligand exhibit a low affinity for metal). This trend is discussed in the context of structural studies...
Conductivity dependent surface plasmon polariton propagation
Ali, Arshad; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Jabar, M. S. Abdul; Khan, Anwar Ali; Uddin, Rafi; Ahmad, Iftikhar
2016-09-01
Conductivity-dependent surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagation is investigated at the interface between a metal and a tripod-type atomic medium. Our theoretical investigations show that the SPP propagation depends on the conductivity of the metallic medium and the coherent driving fields applied in the atomic medium up to a saturation limit. Further, the SPPs drag and rotate with collective spinning of the proposed structure. The rotation is modified with the spin angular velocity of the whole structure. A maximum rotation of ±4 microradians is observed. Our results may find applications in plasmonster technology.
Refractive analysis of the human cornea through propagated fields
Illueca Contri, Carlos; Mas Candela, David; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Pons Moreno, Álvaro Máximo; Artigas Verde, José María
2000-01-01
A new technique for analysing the optical quality of the human cornea is presented. Corneal maps are obtained through keratographies and then converted into phase maps. The propagated fields generated from this surface are plotted and studied. It is shown that any irregularity in the cornea affects the propagated field and the energy distribution at the focal plane. Simple applications are also indicated.
Vegetative propagation of jojoba
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Low, C.B.; Hackett, W.P.
1981-03-01
Development of jojoba as an economically viable crop requires improved methods of propagation and culture. Rooting experiments were performed on cutting material collected from wild jojoba plants. A striking seasonal fluctuation in rooting potential was found. Jojoba plants can be successfully propagated from stem cuttings made during spring, summer, and, to some extent, fall. Variability among jojoba plants may also play a role in rooting potential, although it is not as important as season. In general, the use of auxin (4,000 ppm indolebutyric acid) on jojoba cuttings during periods of high rooting potential promotes adventitious root formation, but during periods of low rooting potential it has no effect or is even slightly inhibitory. In the greenhouse, cutting-grown plants apparently reproductively matured sooner than those grown from seed. If this observation holds true for plants transplanted into the field, earlier fruit production by cutting--grown plants would mean earlier return of initial planting and maintenance costs.
Infrared finite electron propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the properties of a dressed electron which reduces, in a particular class of gauges, to the usual fermion. A one-loop calculation of the propagator is presented. We show explicitly that an infrared finite, multiplicative, mass shell renormalization is possible for this dressed electron, or, equivalently, for the usual fermion in the above-mentioned gauges. The results are in complete accord with previous conjectures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
An Analysis of a Transport System Using Non-Affine Transformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Péter Ficzer
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The authors investigated the transformation possibilities and particularly the usage of non-affine transformations of maps in order to analyse the current status and development possibilities of the Hungarian railway system. In the introduction, the authors overview the theoretical background of map transformations and then present the detailed description of the non-parameter affine transformations and their applicability to the evaluation of railway networks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maas, Axel [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria)
2015-03-01
Two popular perspectives on the non-perturbative domain of Yang-Mills theories are either in terms of the gluons themselves or in terms of collective gluonic excitations, i.e. topological excitations. If both views are correct, then they are only two different representations of the same underlying physics. One possibility to investigate this connection is by the determination of gluon correlation functions in topological background fields, as created by the smearing of lattice configurations. This is performed here for the minimal Landau gauge gluon propagator, ghost propagator, and running coupling, both in momentum and position space for SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The results show that the salient low-momentum features of the propagators are qualitatively retained under smearing at sufficiently small momenta, in agreement with an equivalence of both perspectives. However, the mid-momentum behavior is significantly affected. These results are also relevant for the construction of truncations in functional methods, as they provide hints on necessary properties to be retained in truncations. (orig.)
Propagating waves along spicules
Okamoto, Takenori J
2011-01-01
Alfv\\'enic waves are thought to play an important role in coronal heating and acceleration of solar wind. Here we investigated the statistical properties of Alfv\\'enic waves along spicules (jets that protrude into the corona) in a polar coronal hole using high cadence observations of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard \\emph{Hinode}. We developed a technique for the automated detection of spicules and high-frequency waves. We detected 89 spicules, and found: (1) a mix of upward propagating, downward propagating, as well as standing waves (occurrence rates of 59%, 21%, and 20%, respectively). (2) The phase speed gradually increases with height. (3) Upward waves dominant at lower altitudes, standing waves at higher altitudes. (4) Standing waves dominant in the early and late phases of each spicule, while upward waves were dominant in the middle phase. (5) In some spicules, we find waves propagating upward (from the bottom) and downward (from the top) to form a standing wave in the middle of the spicule. (...
Hollow Gaussian Schell-model beam and its propagation
Wang, Li-Gang
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a new model, hollow Gaussian-Schell model beams (HGSMBs), to describe the practical dark hollow beams. An analytical propagation formula for HGSMBs passing through a paraxial first-order optical system is derived based on the theory of coherence. Based on the derived formula, an application example showing the influence of spatial coherence on the propagation of beams is illustrated. It is found that the beam propagating properties of HGSMBs will be greatly affected by their spatial coherence. Our model provides a very convenient way for analyzing the propagation properties of partially coherent dark hollow beams.
Andreasen, J
2012-01-01
Unidirectional pulse propagation equations [UPPE, Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004)] have provided a theoretical underpinning for computer-aided investigations into dynamics of high-power ultrashort laser pulses and have been successfully utilized for almost a decade. Unfortunately, they are restricted to applications in bulk media or, with additional approximations, to simple waveguide geometries in which only a few guided modes can approximate the propagating waveform. The purpose of this work is to generalize the directional pulse propagation equations to structures characterized by strong refractive index differences and material interfaces. We also outline a numerical solution framework that draws on the combination of the bulk-media UPPE method with single-frequency beam-propagation techniques.
Anomaly Detection for Internet of Vehicles: A Trust Management Scheme with Affinity Propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Anomaly detection is critical for intelligent vehicle (IV collaboration. Forming clusters/platoons, IVs can work together to accomplish complex jobs that they are unable to perform individually. To improve security and efficiency of Internet of Vehicles, IVs’ anomaly detection has been extensively studied and a number of trust-based approaches have been proposed. However, most of these proposals either pay little attention to leader-based detection algorithm or ignore the utility of networked Roadside-Units (RSUs. In this paper, we introduce a trust-based anomaly detection scheme for IVs, where some malicious or incapable vehicles are existing on roads. The proposed scheme works by allowing IVs to detect abnormal vehicles, communicate with each other, and finally converge to some trustworthy cluster heads (CHs. Periodically, the CHs take responsibility for intracluster trust management. Moreover, the scheme is enhanced with a distributed supervising mechanism and a central reputation arbitrator to assure robustness and fairness in detecting process. The simulation results show that our scheme can achieve a low detection failure rate below 1%, demonstrating its ability to detect and filter the abnormal vehicles.
Biessen, E.A.L.; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T.
1990-01-01
This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopra
Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term, which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper, with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.
Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAO TengFei; YU Hong
2009-01-01
Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term,which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper,with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.
Progress in front propagation research
Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni
2008-08-01
We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.
Progress in front propagation research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined
Backward Propagation of Otoacoustic Emissions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Wenxuan; REN Tianying
2006-01-01
Normal mammalian ears not only detect but also generate sounds. The ear-generated sounds, I.e., otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), can be measured in the external ear canal using a tiny sensitive microphone. In spite of wide applications of OAEs in diagnosis of hearing disorders and in studies of cochlear functions, the question of how the cochlea emits sounds remains unclear. The current dominating theory is that the OAE reaches the cochlear base through a backward traveling wave. However, recently published works, including experimental data on the spatial pattern ofbasilar membrane vibrations at the emission frequency, demonstrated only forward traveling waves and no signs of backward traveling waves. These new findings indicate that the cochlea emits sounds through cochlear fluids as compression waves rather than through the basilar membrane as backward traveling waves. This article reviews different mechanisms of the backward propagation of OAEs and summarizes recent experimental results.
Progress in front propagation research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fort, Joaquim [Departament de Fisica, Campus de Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Pujol, Toni [Departament de Mecanica, Campus de Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)
2008-08-15
We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisani, F
2000-02-15
In the fast igniter scheme, a recent approach proposed for the inertial confinement fusion, the idea is to dissociate the fuel ignition phase from its compression. The ignition phase would be then achieved by means of an external energy source: a fast electron beam generated by the interaction with an ultra-intense laser. The main goal of this work is to study the mechanisms of the hot electron energy transfer to the compressed fuel. We intent in particular to study the role of the electric and collisional effects involved in the hot electron propagation in a medium with properties similar to the compressed fuel. We carried out two experiments, one at the Vulcan laser facility (England) and the second one at the new LULI 100 TW laser (France). During the first experiment, we obtained the first results on the hot electron propagation in a dense and hot plasma. The innovating aspect of this work was in particular the use of the laser-shock technique to generate high pressures, allowing the strongly correlated and degenerated plasma to be created. The role of the electric and magnetic effects due to the space charge associated with the fast electron beam has been investigated in the second experiment. Here we studied the propagation in materials with different electrical characteristics: an insulator and a conductor. The analysis of the results showed that only by taking into account simultaneously the two propagation mechanisms (collisions and electric effects) a correct treatment of the energy deposition is possible. We also showed the importance of taking into account the induced modifications due to the electrons beam crossing the target, especially the induced heating. (author)
Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.
Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun
2015-05-01
An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litaize, O
2000-07-01
The goal of this thesis is to study the neutron propagation by reflection from lacunar medium interfaces. The most efficient method to calculate this type of propagation is to use the concept of albedo. Actual version of NARCISSE code uses a simple formulation of angular differential albedos and so, can only treat single reflections. Multiple reflections treatment needs the knowledge of neutron spectrum after reflection. This energetic information is contained in double angular and energy differential albedos. The first step of this study consists to generate these albedos for various materials. Several methods have been tested and the Monte Carlo method was retained. A new estimator has been developed and validated in the Mote Carlo transport code TRIPOLI-4. It computes, during the simulation of the neutron history, the angular and energy reflection probability at each collision site. The second step consists to generate an interpolation scheme and albedo libraries for various materials. A new version of NARCISSE was developed to use these libraries and the interpolation module. Spectrum and dose rates comparisons were made between codes to validate these albedos. The neutron propagation by multiple reflections can be studied now, by using this new version of Narcisse. (author)
Affinity chromatography based on a combinatorial strategy for rerythropoietin purification.
Martínez-Ceron, María C; Marani, Mariela M; Taulés, Marta; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Albericio, Fernando; Cascone, Osvaldo; Camperi, Silvia A
2011-05-01
Small peptides containing fewer than 10 amino acids are promising ligand candidates with which to build affinity chromatographic systems for industrial protein purification. The application of combinatorial peptide synthesis strategies greatly facilitates the discovery of suitable ligands for any given protein of interest. Here we sought to identify peptide ligands with affinity for recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), which is used for the treatment of anemia. A combinatorial library containing the octapeptides X-X-X-Phe-X-X-Ala-Gly, where X = Ala, Asp, Glu, Phe, His, Leu, Asn, Pro, Ser, or Thr, was synthesized on HMBA-ChemMatrix resin by the divide-couple-recombine method. For the library screening, rhEPO was coupled to either Texas Red or biotin. Fluorescent beads or beads showing a positive reaction with streptavidin-peroxidase were isolated. After cleavage, peptides were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifty-seven beads showed a positive reaction. Peptides showing more consensuses were synthesized, and their affinity to rhEPO was assessed using a plasma resonance biosensor. Dissociation constant values in the range of 1-18 μM were obtained. The best two peptides were immobilized on Sepharose, and the resultant chromatographic matrixes showed affinity for rhEPO with dissociation constant values between 1.8 and 2.7 μM. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture supernatant was spiked with rhEPO, and the artificial mixture was loaded on Peptide-Sepharose columns. The rhEPO was recovered in the elution fraction with a yield of 90% and a purity of 95% and 97% for P1-Sepharose and P2-Sepharose, respectively. PMID:21495625
Stepparents' Affinity-Seeking and Affinity-Maintaining Strategies with Stepchildren.
Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Fine, Mark; Martin, Patricia
1999-01-01
Examines the strategies that stepparents use to develop and maintain affinity with stepchildren and the effects that these strategies have on the development of stepparent-stepchildren relationships. Thirty-one affinity-seeking strategies are identified. Results show that dyadic activities worked best, but it is important that stepchildren…
Liouvillian propagators, Riccati equation and differential Galois theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper a Galoisian approach to building propagators through Riccati equations is presented. The main result corresponds to the relationship between the Galois integrability of the linear Schrödinger equation and the virtual solvability of the differential Galois group of its associated characteristic equation. As the main application of this approach we solve Ince’s differential equation through the Hamiltonian algebrization procedure and the Kovacic algorithm to find the propagator for a generalized harmonic oscillator. This propagator has applications which describe the process of degenerate parametric amplification in quantum optics and light propagation in a nonlinear anisotropic waveguide. Toy models of propagators inspired by integrable Riccati equations and integrable characteristic equations are also presented. (paper)
Liouvillian propagators, Riccati equation and differential Galois theory
Acosta-Humánez, Primitivo; Suazo, Erwin
2013-11-01
In this paper a Galoisian approach to building propagators through Riccati equations is presented. The main result corresponds to the relationship between the Galois integrability of the linear Schrödinger equation and the virtual solvability of the differential Galois group of its associated characteristic equation. As the main application of this approach we solve Ince’s differential equation through the Hamiltonian algebrization procedure and the Kovacic algorithm to find the propagator for a generalized harmonic oscillator. This propagator has applications which describe the process of degenerate parametric amplification in quantum optics and light propagation in a nonlinear anisotropic waveguide. Toy models of propagators inspired by integrable Riccati equations and integrable characteristic equations are also presented.
Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory
Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.
2016-04-01
Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.
Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard
2016-08-01
This paper discusses the propagation of the instantaneous uncertainty of PIV measurements to statistical and instantaneous quantities of interest derived from the velocity field. The expression of the uncertainty of vorticity, velocity divergence, mean value and Reynolds stresses is derived. It is shown that the uncertainty of vorticity and velocity divergence requires the knowledge of the spatial correlation between the error of the x and y particle image displacement, which depends upon the measurement spatial resolution. The uncertainty of statistical quantities is often dominated by the random uncertainty due to the finite sample size and decreases with the square root of the effective number of independent samples. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to assess the accuracy of the uncertainty propagation formulae. Furthermore, three experimental assessments are carried out. In the first experiment, a turntable is used to simulate a rigid rotation flow field. The estimated uncertainty of the vorticity is compared with the actual vorticity error root-mean-square, with differences between the two quantities within 5-10% for different interrogation window sizes and overlap factors. A turbulent jet flow is investigated in the second experimental assessment. The reference velocity, which is used to compute the reference value of the instantaneous flow properties of interest, is obtained with an auxiliary PIV system, which features a higher dynamic range than the measurement system. Finally, the uncertainty quantification of statistical quantities is assessed via PIV measurements in a cavity flow. The comparison between estimated uncertainty and actual error demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed uncertainty propagation methodology.
Temporal scaling in information propagation
Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-06-01
For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.
On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark A. Walton
2012-11-01
Full Text Available A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.
Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.
Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P
1978-06-01
The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726
Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing
2005-01-01
Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.
Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing
2005-01-01
Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王晖; 刘大有; 等
1994-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.
Rockower, Edward B.
1985-01-01
A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti- sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g. 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. We present a beam-quality/aperture shape scaling rela...
Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.
Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...
Bouhelier, Alexandre; Wiederrecht, Gary P.
2008-02-19
A system and method for generating and using broadband surface plasmons in a metal film for characterization of analyte on or near the metal film. The surface plasmons interact with the analyte and generate leakage radiation which has spectral features which can be used to inspect, identify and characterize the analyte. The broadband plasmon excitation enables high-bandwidth photonic applications.
European and international collaboration in affinity proteomics.
Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J
2012-06-15
In affinity proteomics, specific protein-binding molecules (a.k.a. binders), principally antibodies, are applied as reagents in proteome analysis. In recent years, advances in binder technologies have created the potential for an unprecedented view on protein expression and distribution patterns in plasma, cells and tissues and increasingly on protein function. Particular strengths of affinity proteomics methods include detecting proteins in their natural environments of cell or tissue, high sensitivity and selectivity for detection of low abundance proteins and exploiting binding actions such as functional interference in living cells. To maximise the use and impact of affinity reagents, it will be essential to create comprehensive, standardised binder collections. With this in mind, the EU FP7 programme AFFINOMICS (http://www.affinomics.org), together with the preceding EU programmes ProteomeBinders and AffinityProteome, aims to extend affinity proteomics research by generating a large-scale resource of validated protein-binding molecules for characterisation of the human proteome. Activity is directed at producing binders to about 1000 protein targets, primarily in signal transduction and cancer, by establishing a high throughput, coordinated production pipeline. An important aspect of AFFINOMICS is the development of highly efficient recombinant selection methods, based on phage, cell and ribosome display, capable of producing high quality binders at greater throughput and lower cost than hitherto. The programme also involves development of innovative and sensitive technologies for specific detection of target proteins and their interactions, and deployment of binders in proteomics studies of clinical relevance. The need for such binder generation programmes is now recognised internationally, with parallel initiatives in the USA for cancer (NCI) and transcription factors (NIH) and within the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO). The papers in this volume of New
Bursik, Marcus; Jones, Matthew; Carn, Simon; Dean, Ken; Patra, Abani; Pavolonis, Michael; Pitman, E. Bruce; Singh, Tarunraj; Singla, Puneet; Webley, Peter; Bjornsson, Halldor; Ripepe, Maurizio
2012-12-01
Data on source conditions for the 14 April 2010 paroxysmal phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland, have been used as inputs to a trajectory-based eruption column model, bent. This model has in turn been adapted to generate output suitable as input to the volcanic ash transport and dispersal model, puff, which was used to propagate the paroxysmal ash cloud toward and over Europe over the following days. Some of the source parameters, specifically vent radius, vent source velocity, mean grain size of ejecta, and standard deviation of ejecta grain size have been assigned probability distributions based on our lack of knowledge of exact conditions at the source. These probability distributions for the input variables have been sampled in a Monte Carlo fashion using a technique that yields what we herein call the polynomial chaos quadrature weighted estimate (PCQWE) of output parameters from the ash transport and dispersal model. The advantage of PCQWE over Monte Carlo is that since it intelligently samples the input parameter space, fewer model runs are needed to yield estimates of moments and probabilities for the output variables. At each of these sample points for the input variables, a model run is performed. Output moments and probabilities are then computed by properly summing the weighted values of the output parameters of interest. Use of a computational eruption column model coupled with known weather conditions as given by radiosonde data gathered near the vent allows us to estimate that initial mass eruption rate on 14 April 2010 may have been as high as 108 kg/s and was almost certainly above 107 kg/s. This estimate is consistent with the probabilistic envelope computed by PCQWE for the downwind plume. The results furthermore show that statistical moments and probabilities can be computed in a reasonable time by using 94 = 6,561 PCQWE model runs as opposed to millions of model runs that might be required by standard Monte Carlo techniques. The
Green, R. M.
1997-01-01
We introduce an analogue of the $q$-Schur algebra associated to Coxeter systems of type $\\hat A_{n-1}$. We give two constructions of this algebra. The first construction realizes the algebra as a certain endomorphism algebra arising from an affine Hecke algebra of type $\\hat A_{r-1}$, where $n \\geq r$. This generalizes the original $q$-Schur algebra as defined by Dipper and James, and the new algebra contains the ordinary $q$-Schur algebra and the affine Hecke algebra as subalgebras. Using th...
Affine Projection Algorithm Using Regressive Estimated Error
Zhang, Shu; Zhi, Yongfeng
2011-01-01
An affine projection algorithm using regressive estimated error (APA-REE) is presented in this paper. By redefining the iterated error of the affine projection algorithm (APA), a new algorithm is obtained, and it improves the adaptive filtering convergence rate. We analyze the iterated error signal and the stability for the APA-REE algorithm. The steady-state weights of the APA-REE algorithm are proved to be unbiased and consist. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a f...
Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems
Xu, Jun
2014-01-01
As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are
Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing
Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro
Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.
Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides
Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.
2013-03-01
The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.
Periodic cyclic homology of affine Hecke algebras
Solleveld, Maarten
2009-01-01
This is the author's PhD-thesis, which was written in 2006. The version posted here is identical to the printed one. Instead of an abstract, the short list of contents: Preface 5 1 Introduction 9 2 K-theory and cyclic type homology theories 13 3 Affine Hecke algebras 61 4 Reductive p-adic groups 103 5 Parameter deformations in affine Hecke algebras 129 6 Examples and calculations 169 A Crossed products 223 Bibliography 227 Index 237 Samenvatting 245 Curriculum vitae 253
Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.
Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P
1997-02-01
The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492
Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige, E-mail: suzuki-y@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Display and Semiconductor Physics Department, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-07
The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5 nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.
Development of an aptamer-based affinity purification method for vascular endothelial growth factor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maren Lönne
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Since aptamers bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, they are promising alternative ligands in protein affinity purification. As aptamers are chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, they can be easily produced in large quantities regarding GMP conditions allowing their application in protein production for therapeutic purposes. Several advantages of aptamers compared to antibodies are described in general within this paper. Here, an aptamer directed against the human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF was used as affinity ligand for establishing a purification platform for VEGF in small scale. The aptamer was covalently immobilized on magnetic beads in a controlled orientation resulting in a functional active affinity matrix. Target binding was optimized by introduction of spacer molecules and variation of aptamer density. Further, salt-induced target elution was demonstrated as well as VEGF purification from a complex protein mixture proving the specificity of protein-aptamer binding.
Synthesis of nonlinear discrete control systems via time-delay affine Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models.
Chang, Wen-Jer; Chang, Wei
2005-04-01
The affine Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model played a more important role in nonlinear control because it can be used to approximate the nonlinear systems more than the homogeneous TS fuzzy models. Besides, it is known that the time delays exist in physical systems and the previous works did not consider the time delay effects in the analysis of affine TS fuzzy models. Hence a parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controller design issue for discrete time-delay affine TS fuzzy models is considered in this paper. The time-delay effect is considered in the discrete affine TS fuzzy models and the stabilization issue is developed for the nonlinear time-delay systems. Finally, a numerical simulation for a time-delayed nonlinear truck-trailer system is given to show the applications of the present approach.
Crossing Chris: Some Markerian Affinities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Martin
2010-01-01
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Abstract (E: This essay creatively explores a group of artists, writers, and other special individuals whose work or life story can be described as having an intriguing affinity with the protean career of Chris Marker. Avoiding the ‘usual suspects’ (such as Godard or Sebald, it discusses gossip columnist Milt Machlin, record collector Harry Smith, painter Gianfranco Baruchello, writer-filmmaker Edgardo Cozarinsky, and several others. From this constellation, a particular view of Markerian poetics emerges, touching upon the meanings of anonymity, storytelling, history and archiving.
Abstract (F: Cet essai brosse de manière créative le portrait d’un groupe d'artistes, d'écrivains et d'autres personnes particulières dont le travail ou la biographie peuvent être décrits comme montrant une étrange mais certaine connivence avec la carrière protéiforme de Chris Marker. Evitant les lieux communs (comme Godard ou Sebald, cet article trace des références moins attendues :
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董聿生; 梁峰; 余向阳; 郭立安; 常建华
2001-01-01
采用反相悬浮包埋技术合成多分散的粒径在50目～300目的磁性葡聚糖微球（MDMS）。MDMS经环氧氯丙烷活化后，分别键合氨基乙酸、6-氨基己酸和乙二胺作为间隔臂，以碳二亚胺为偶联剂，分别偶联L-精氨酸甲酯、对氨基苯甲脒和胍基己酸配体，制备了5种磁性亲和吸附剂。研究了分散介质及其粘度和密度、有机相和水相的体积比、表面活性剂的用量、搅拌速度等因素对微球制备的影响。将所制备的磁性亲和吸附剂应用于尿激酶粗品的纯化，并讨论了偶联试剂和配体对尿激酶纯化效果的影响。通过测定，尿激酶的活性回收率为40.0%～60.7%、纯化倍数为14.9～32.8、吸附容量为89mg/L～121mg/L。%The reverse phase suspension and embedment technique were adopted to pre pare magnetic dextran microsphere (MDMS). The dispersion medium was mixture of some organic solvents. Span-80 was used as stabilizer. The aqueous dextran wit h magnetic fluid was suspended in dispersion medium with epichlorohydrin as cross -linking reagent. The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature a nd then he ated at 70 ℃ for 4 hours, MDMS was thus obtained. MDMS was activated by epich lor ohydrin on which 6-aminohexanoic acid, glycine or ethylene diamine was bonded a s spacers. Then it was coupled with p-aminobenzamide, L-arginine methy l ester or guanidohexanoic acid and five magnetic affinity adsorbents were prepared. The M D MS was polydisperse particles with the size of 50-300 meshes and the con tent of Fe3O4 was about 6.2 per cent in the MDMS. Influence of some parameters suc h as visc osity and density of organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phas e, the quantity of surfactant and stirring speed on preparing MDMS was studied. Magnetic affinity adsorbents were used to purify crude urokinase in a batch mode and the effect of coupling reagents and ligands on results of purification was disc
Linear connections with propagating spin-3 field in gravity
Baekler, P; Hehl, F W; Baekler, Peter; Boulanger, Nicolas; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2006-01-01
We show that Fronsdal's Lagrangian for a free massless spin-3 gauge field in Minkowski spacetime is contained in a general Yang--Mills-like Lagrangian of metric-affine gravity (MAG), the gauge theory of the general affine group in the presence of a metric. Due to the geometric character of MAG, this can best be seen by using Vasiliev's frame formalism for higher-spin gauge fields in which the spin-3 frame is identified with the tracefree nonmetricity one-form associated with the shear generators of GL(n,R). Furthermore, for specific gravitational gauge models in the framework of full nonlinear MAG, exact solutions are constructed, featuring propagating massless and massive spin-3 fields.
Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model
Bhattacharjee, Shayak
2012-01-01
The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 107 is achieved in water experimentally.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)
2014-06-16
With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cieslewicz, Maryelise [Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bhushan, Kumar R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Frangioni, John V. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wittrup, K. Dane, E-mail: wittrup@mit.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2011-02-15
Introduction: In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods: We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to DOTA, reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results: Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten-binding affinity of 100 pM is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nM to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2{+-}1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a {sup 111}In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions: We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity, DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Introduction: In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods: We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to DOTA, reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results: Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten-binding affinity of 100 pM is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nM to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2±1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a 111In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions: We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity, DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canneviere, K.
2003-12-15
This work is devoted to the study of the propagation and the structure of two-phases turbulent flames. To this end, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are used. First, numerical systems for two-phases flow simulations is presented along with a specific chemical model. Then, a study of laminar spray flames is carried out. An analytical study related to the dynamics of evaporation of droplets is first proposed where the influence on the equivalence ratio of the ratio between the heating delay of the droplet and the evaporation delay is detailed. The simulation of a propagating flame through a cloud of droplets is carried out and a pulsating behavior is highlighted. A study of these flames according to the topology of liquid fuel enabled us to characterize a double flame structure composed of a premixed flame and a diffusion flame. Our last study is devoted to spray turbulent flames. Two-phase combustion of turbulent jets has been simulated. By varying the spray injection parameters (density, equivalence ratio), a database has been generated. This database allowed us to describe local and global flame regimes appearing in the combustion of sprays. They have been categorized in four main structures: open and closed external regime, group combustion and mixed combustion. Eventually, a combustion diagram has been developed. It involves the spray vaporization time, the mean inter-space between droplets or group of droplets and eventually the injected equivalence ratio. (author)
Propagating Qualitative Values Through Quantitative Equations
Kulkarni, Deepak
1992-01-01
In most practical problems where traditional numeric simulation is not adequate, one need to reason about a system with both qualitative and quantitative equations. In this paper, we address the problem of propagating qualitative values represented as interval values through quantitative equations. Previous research has produced exponential-time algorithms for approximate solution of the problem. These may not meet the stringent requirements of many real time applications. This paper advances the state of art by producing a linear-time algorithm that can propagate a qualitative value through a class of complex quantitative equations exactly and through arbitrary algebraic expressions approximately. The algorithm was found applicable to Space Shuttle Reaction Control System model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)
Light Front Boson Model Propagation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki
2011-01-01
stract The scope and aim of this work is to describe the two-body interaction mediated by a particle (either the scalar or the gauge boson) within the light-front formulation. To do this, first of all we point out the importance of propagators and Green functions in Quantum Mechanics. Then we project the covariant quantum propagator onto the light front time to get the propagator for scalar particles in these coordinates. This operator propagates the wave function from x+ = 0 to x+ ＞ O. It corresponds to the definition of the time ordering operation in the light front time x+. We calculate the light-front Green's function for 2 interacting bosons propagating forward in x+. We also show how to write down the light front Green's function from the Feynman propagator and finally make a generalization to N bosons.
Gauge engineering and propagators
Maas, Axel
2016-01-01
Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.
Unidirectional propagation of designer surface acoustic waves
Lu, Jiuyang; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2014-01-01
We propose an efficient design route to generate unidirectional propagation of the designer surface acoustic waves. The whole system consists of a periodically corrugated rigid plate combining with a pair of asymmetric narrow slits. The directionality of the structure-induced surface waves stems from the destructive interference between the evanescent waves emitted from the double slits. The theoretical prediction is validated well by simulations and experiments. Promising applications can be anticipated, such as in designing compact acoustic circuits.
Propagation aspects of frequency hopping spread spectrum
Fitton, MP; Nix, AR; Beach, MA
1997-01-01
Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FH-SS) has found a number of applications in both CDMA and TDMA cellular systems, wireless local loop, and wireless local area networks. The effect of FH-SS on mobile channel characteristics is evaluated. Employing propagation studies, statistical analysis and simulation models, it is shown that the frequency-hopped channel displays improved characteristics when compared to the non-hopped case. The short term fading statistics are improved, which can be expl...
Join-Graph Propagation Algorithms
Mateescu, Robert; Kask, Kalev; Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina
2014-01-01
The paper investigates parameterized approximate message-passing schemes that are based on bounded inference and are inspired by Pearl's belief propagation algorithm (BP). We start with the bounded inference mini-clustering algorithm and then move to the iterative scheme called Iterative Join-Graph Propagation (IJGP), that combines both iteration and bounded inference. Algorithm IJGP belongs to the class of Generalized Belief Propagation algorithms, a framework that allowed connections with a...
Propagation Terminal Design and Measurements
Nessel, James
2015-01-01
The NASA propagation terminal has been designed and developed by the Glenn Research Center and is presently deployed at over 5 NASA and partner ground stations worldwide collecting information on the effects of the atmosphere on Ka-band and millimeter wave communications links. This lecture provides an overview of the fundamentals and requirements of the measurement of atmospheric propagation effects and, specifically, the types of hardware and digital signal processing techniques employed by current state-of-the-art propagation terminal systems.
Vegetative propagation of Strelitzia reginae.
Pol, van de, J.; Hell, van, T.F.
1988-01-01
Strelitzia reginae is propagated either by division of naturally developed branches known as fans or by seeds. Vegetative propagation by division is limited by a low rate of multiplication being 0.5–1.5 divisions per branch per year. Branching originates in the division of the apical dome with an absolute abscence of branching from axillary buds. Propagation by seeds is undesirable due to juvenility and genetic variation. Therefore induction of branching to increase the multiplication rate of...
Gaind, Vaibhav
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found many applications in in vitro imaging as an indicator of molecular activity. However, till now, in vivo FRET imaging has been restricted to near-surface multiphoton microscopy. Optical diffusion tomography (ODT) is an emerging tool for deep tissue imaging. In this work, FRET was incorporated in an ODT framework, thereby allowing FRET to be applied in deep tissue imaging. Using simulations and tissue phantom and small animal imaging experiments, the possibility of imaging molecular activity on the nanometer scale using macroscopic measurements is demonstrated. The diffusion equation model is limited to regions of high scatter and low absorption. The Bethe-Salpeter equation has been used extensively to explain various scattering phenomena and is more fundamental than the Boltzmann transport equation. In this work, the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been investigated for modeling photon transport in the non-diffusive regime.
Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations
Zhang, Xin
2012-08-01
Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem. The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article. The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise. Of the three main areas of the noise problem, i.e. generation, propagation, and radiation, propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation. Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model. Of the various classes of propagation equations, linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain. The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques, bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations, e.g. acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed, with differing degrees of success.
Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Zhang
2012-01-01
Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.
An investigation into Voigt wave propagation for optical sensing
Mackay, Tom G.
2013-09-01
In the nonsingular case of optical propagation in a linear, homogeneous, anisotropic, dielectric material, two independent plane waves, with orthogonal polarizations and different phase speeds, can propagate in a given direction. However, in certain dissipative biaxial materials there are particular directions along which these two waves coalesce to form a single plane wave. This coalescent Voigt wave represents the singular case. Most conspicuously, the amplitude of Voigt waves are linearly dependent upon propagation direction. A porous nanostructured thin film which supports Voigt wave propagation was investigated, with a view to possible optical sensing applications. The directions along which Voigt waves propagate can be highly sensitive to the refractive index of a fluid which infiltrates this porous material. Indeed, in our theoretical studies sensitivities which compare favourably to those of surface-plasmon-polariton-based optical sensors were found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zohar (two-dimensions, particle-in-cell) [C. K. Birdsall and A. B. Langdon, Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation (McGraw - Hill, New York, 1985)] simulations of ultra intense laser beams boring into overdense plasmas whose parameters are guided by the fast-ignitor concept and radiography applications are presented. Complex low frequency magnetic field structures, narrow channel formation, and beam deflection are all evident. Particle tracking diagnostics elucidate the nature of the currents that produce and interact with these static magnetic fields which are larger than 109 G for simulations at 1021 W/cm2 in a 50nc plasma. Tracking electron orbits provides a more complete understanding of the hot electron generation as the short pulse, high intensity laser penetrates overdense plasma. Particles which constitute the current in the narrow channel are partially confined by the low frequency magnetic field. In contrast, the return current particles on the outside of the channel are defocused by the high magnetic field and move away from the channel
Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen
2014-11-01
One of the most popular instrumental methods to detect the DNA structure is circular dichroism. Specific experimental conditions are required to form different structures of DNA. However, there is the possibility of different structures establishing in the similar circumstance. So, methods development to improve the classification and prediction of structures using their spectra information are needed. To this end, we applied unsupervised (PCA) and supervised (PLS-DA, SKN, and CPNN) approaches to classify CD spectra dataset of different DNA sequences (random coil (ss-DNA), duplex, hairpin, reversed and normal triplex, parallel and antiparallel G-quadruplex, and i-motif). The main part of this work concentrates on the application of artificial neural networks and weight analysis to obtain more classification and prediction accuracy. For this purpose, the trained network was run 10 times, and the average weights were taken. Also, weight analysis was done for the prediction of mixture samples include different structures. The results prove that new method of weights analysis based on SKN and CPNN is useful for classification of complicated data such as different types of DNA structures.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Nissen, Mogens Holst
2000-01-01
The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red-affinities of......The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red......-affinities of native and abnormally folded beta2-microglobulin. We find that native beta2-microglobulin has an intermediate affinity for Congo red at pH 7.3 and that binding involves electrostatic interactions. The conformational variant of beta2-microglobulin that appears in acetonitrile solutions binds Congo red...... more strongly. Affinity CE using Congo red as a buffer additive is a new, simple, fast, and quantitative micromethod for the characterization of soluble conformational intermediates of amyloidogenic proteins....
Assessment of Solvated Interaction Energy Function for Ranking Antibody-Antigen Binding Affinities.
Sulea, Traian; Vivcharuk, Victor; Corbeil, Christopher R; Deprez, Christophe; Purisima, Enrico O
2016-07-25
Affinity modulation of antibodies and antibody fragments of therapeutic value is often required in order to improve their clinical efficacies. Virtual affinity maturation has the potential to quickly focus on the critical hotspot residues without the combinatorial explosion problem of conventional display and library approaches. However, this requires a binding affinity scoring function that is capable of ranking single-point mutations of a starting antibody. We focus here on assessing the solvated interaction energy (SIE) function that was originally developed for and is widely applied to scoring of protein-ligand binding affinities. To this end, we assembled a structure-function data set called Single-Point Mutant Antibody Binding (SiPMAB) comprising several antibody-antigen systems suitable for this assessment, i.e., based on high-resolution crystal structures for the parent antibodies and coupled with high-quality binding affinity measurements for sets of single-point antibody mutants in each system. Using this data set, we tested the SIE function with several mutation protocols based on the popular methods SCWRL, Rosetta, and FoldX. We found that the SIE function coupled with a protocol limited to sampling only the mutated side chain can reasonably predict relative binding affinities with a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient of about 0.6, outperforming more aggressive sampling protocols. Importantly, this performance is maintained for each of the seven system-specific component subsets as well as for other relevant subsets including non-alanine and charge-altering mutations. The transferability and enrichment in affinity-improving mutants can be further enhanced using consensus ranking over multiple methods, including the SIE, Talaris, and FOLDEF energy functions. The knowledge gained from this study can lead to successful prospective applications of virtual affinity maturation. PMID:27367467
AFFINITY OF LIGNIN PREPARATIONS TOWARDS GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Božena Košíková
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chemicals may be modulated by other chemicals, including those prepared by organic synthesis. Consid-ering the several drawbacks of synthetic compounds vis-a-vis the human organism, the lignin biomass component was examined for this purpose. The binding affinity of lignin samples prepared by chemical and biological modification of lignin products derived from chemical wood treatment towards for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDA was examined. The protective role of the lignin samples against carcinogenesis was tested on a well-known model carcinogen, N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. The observed ability of a series of lignin preparations to reduce alkylation damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA on hamster cells in vitro could be explained by their affinity to bind N-nitrosoamines. The results indicate that lignin has potential to protect living organisms against damaging effects of different genotoxicants.
Local structure of self-affine sets
Bandt, Christoph
2011-01-01
The structure of a self-similar set with open set condition does not change under magnification. For self-affine sets the situation is completely different. We consider planar self-affine Cantor sets E of the type studied by Bedford, McMullen, Gatzouras and Lalley, for which the projection onto the horizontal axis is an interval. We show that within small square neighborhoods of almost each point x in E, with respect to many product measures on address space, E is well approximated by product sets of an interval and a Cantor set. Even though E is totally disconnected, the limit sets have the product structure with interval fibres, reminiscent to the view of attractors of chaotic differentiable dynamical systems.
Recent Results Regarding Affine Quantum Gravity
Klauder, John R
2012-01-01
Recent progress in the quantization of nonrenormalizable scalar fields has found that a suitable non-classical modification of the ground state wave function leads to a result that eliminates term-by-term divergences that arise in a conventional perturbation analysis. After a brief review of both the scalar field story and the affine quantum gravity program, examination of the procedures used in the latter surprisingly shows an analogous formulation which already implies that affine quantum gravity is not plagued by divergences that arise in a standard perturbation study. Additionally, guided by the projection operator method to deal with quantum constraints, trial reproducing kernels are introduced that satisfy the diffeomorphism constraints. Furthermore, it is argued that the trial reproducing kernels for the diffeomorphism constraints may also satisfy the Hamiltonian constraint as well.
Vegetative propagation of Strelitzia reginae.
Pol, van de P.A.; Hell, van T.F.
1988-01-01
Strelitzia reginae is propagated either by division of naturally developed branches known as fans or by seeds. Vegetative propagation by division is limited by a low rate of multiplication being 0.5–1.5 divisions per branch per year. Branching originates in the division of the apical dome with an ab
Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1975-01-01
Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....
Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes
Ritacco, Hernán A
2016-01-01
In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.
AFFINE TRANSFORMATION IN RANDOM ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊勇; 史定华
2001-01-01
Random iterated function systems (IFSs) is discussed, which is one of the methods for fractal drawing. A certain figure can be reconstructed by a random IFS. One approach is presented to determine a new random IFS, that the figure reconstructed by the new random IFS is the image of the origin figure reconstructed by old IFS under a given affine transformation. Two particular examples are used to show this approach.
Affine extensions of non-crystallographic Coxeter groups induced by projection
Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Twarock, Reidun
2013-01-01
In this paper, we show that affine extensions of non-crystallographic Coxeter groups can be derived via Coxeter-Dynkin diagram foldings and projections of the root systems E_8, D_6 and A_4. Using the known extensions for these root systems, we induce affine extensions of the non-crystallographic groups H_4, H_3 and H_2, and show that they correspond to Kac-Moody-type extensions considered in Dechant et al. This class of extensions was motivated by physical applications in icosahedral systems in biology (viruses), physics (quasicrystals) and chemistry (fullerenes); the connection with the affine extension of E_8 derived here suggests potential for high energy physics applications. The invertibility of the projection suggests a generalisation of Cartan matrices by relaxing some of the usual requirements.
Modeling turbulent flame propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashurst, W.T.
1994-08-01
Laser diagnostics and flow simulation techniques axe now providing information that if available fifty years ago, would have allowed Damkoehler to show how turbulence generates flame area. In the absence of this information, many turbulent flame speed models have been created, most based on Kolmogorov concepts which ignore the turbulence vortical structure, Over the last twenty years, the vorticity structure in mixing layers and jets has been shown to determine the entrainment and mixing behavior and these effects need to be duplicated by combustion models. Turbulence simulations reveal the intense vorticity structure as filaments and simulations of passive flamelet propagation show how this vorticity Creates flame area and defines the shape of the expected chemical reaction surface. Understanding how volume expansion interacts with flow structure should improve experimental methods for determining turbulent flame speed. Since the last decade has given us such powerful new tools to create and see turbulent combustion microscopic behavior, it seems that a solution of turbulent combustion within the next decade would not be surprising in the hindsight of 2004.
Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.
Patel, Pradip D
2006-01-01
The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field. PMID:16792079
Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.
Patel, Pradip D
2006-01-01
The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field.
Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications
Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid
2012-01-01
Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...
Experimental investigation of streamer affinity for dielectric surfaces
Trienekens, D.J.M.; Nijdam, S.; Akkermans, G.; Plompen, I.; Christen, T.; Ebert, U.
2015-01-01
We have experimentally investigated the affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces using stroboscopic imaging and stereo photography. Affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces was found to depend on a wide set of parameters, including pressure, voltage, dielectric material and di
Quelques remarques sur la notion de modification affine
Dubouloz, Adrien
2005-01-01
in french We construct a global counterpart to the notion of affine modification due to Kaliman and Zaidenberg. This leads to a simple explicit description of the structure of birational affine morphisms between arbitrary quasi-projective varieties.
Subspace model identification of guided wave propagation in metallic plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, a data-driven subspace system identification approach is proposed for modeling guided wave propagation in plate media. In the data-driven approach, the subspace system identification estimates a mathematical model fitted to experimentally measured data, but the black-box model identified captures the dynamics of wave propagation. To demonstrate the versatility of the black-box model, wave motions in various shapes of aluminum plates are investigated in the study. In addition, a waveform predictor and temperature change indicator are proposed as applications of the black-box models, to further promote the modeling approach to guided wave propagation. (paper)
Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro
2015-04-01
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王喆; 贺友安; 汪陈平; 杨生智; 张磊; 杨强; 刘源才
2016-01-01
The application of disc Rhizopus propagation machine in the production of Rhizopus starter was studied. The production technical pa-rameters were determined as follows:5000 kg raw materials mixed with 150 kg yeast with the addition of 1600 L water, then the mixed raw ma-terials temperature kept at 28~31℃, and then static incubation in the disc lasted for 14~18 h at 28~31℃with the humidity of 70%~90%and room temperature between 28℃and 32℃, after the caking of hypha, starter turned over and static incubation continued for 18~20 h with product temperature maintained from 32℃ to 34℃and room humidity maintained from 60%~80%, as the temperature of the product dropped to 30℃, the incubation ended. The saccharifying power of the produced starter was 33.2g/100 g,1.4 g/100 g higher than that produced by shallow tray Rhizopus propagation machine.%研究了圆盘制曲机在根霉曲生产上的应用，确定了生产工艺参数：物料5000 kg，加水1600 L，加种曲150 kg，拌匀，入圆盘制曲机。入圆盘时物料品温28～31℃，静置培养14～18 h，室温维持在28～32℃之间，湿度维持在70%～90%，待菌丝结块后翻曲，继续通风培养18～20 h，品温维持在32～34℃之间，室内湿度维持在60%～80%，待品温降至30℃左右时结束培养，制得成品曲的糖化力为33.2 g/100 g，比浅盘培养根霉曲糖化力高1.4 g/100 g。
Fractal Homeomorphism for Bi-affine Iterated Function Systems
Barnsley, Michael
2011-01-01
The paper concerns fractal homeomorphism between the attractors of two bi-affine iterated function systems. After a general discussion of bi-affine functions, conditions are provided under which a bi-affine iterated function system is contractive, thus guaranteeing an attractor. After a general discussion of fractal homeomorphism, fractal homeomorphisms are constructed for a specific type of bi-affine iterated function system.
The purification of affinity-labelled active-site peptides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The isolation of the labelled peptide from the protein digest, following the affinity labelling of the active sites of enzymes or antibodies, is described. Single-step affinity chromatography utilises the affinity of the native enzymes or antibody for the ligand used to label the same protein. The labelled peptide is the only one in the digest that displays affinity for the immobilised protein and can be released with eluants that dissociate the protein-ligand complex. (Auth.)
Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Dispersive Fibers
Agrawal, Govind P.
Ultrashort optical pulses are often propagated through optical waveguides for a variety of applications including telecommunications and supercontinuum generation [1]. Typically the waveguide is in the form of an optical fiber but it can also be a planar waveguide. The material used to make the waveguide is often silica glass, but other materials such as silicon or chalcogenides have also been used in recent years. What is common to all such materials is they exhibit chromatic dispersion as well as the Kerr nonlinearity. The former makes the refractive index frequency dependent, whereas the latter makes it to depend on the intensity of light propagating through the medium [2]. Both of these effects become more important as optical pulses become shorter and more intense. For pulses not too short (pulse widths > 1 ns) and not too intense (peak powers fibers but similar results are expected for other waveguides made of different materials
M2 qualify laser beam propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the most important properties of a laser resonator is the highly collimated or spatially coherent nature of the laser output beam. Laser beam diameter and quality factor M2 are significant parameters in a wide range of laser applications. This is because the spatial beam quality determines how closely the beam can be focused or how well the beam propagates over long distances without significant dispersion. In the present paper we have used three different methods to qualify the spatial structure of a laser beam propagating in free space, the results are obtained and discussed, and we have found that the Wigner distribution function is a powerful tool which allows a global characterization of any kind of beam
Inferring network topology via the propagation process
Zeng, An
2013-01-01
Inferring the network topology from the dynamics is a fundamental problem with wide applications in geology, biology and even counter-terrorism. Based on the propagation process, we present a simple method to uncover the network topology. The numerical simulation on artificial networks shows that our method enjoys a high accuracy in inferring the network topology. We find the infection rate in the propagation process significantly influences the accuracy, and each network is corresponding to an optimal infection rate. Moreover, the method generally works better in large networks. These finding are confirmed in both real social and nonsocial networks. Finally, the method is extended to directed networks and a similarity measure specific for directed networks is designed.
Topology optimization of vibration and wave propagation problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2007-01-01
The method of topology optimization is a versatile method to determine optimal material layouts in mechanical structures. The method relies on, in principle, unlimited design freedom that can be used to design materials, structures and devices with significantly improved performance and sometimes...... novel functionality. This paper addresses basic issues in simulation and topology design of vibration and wave propagation problems. Steady-state and transient wave propagation problems are addressed and application examples for both cases are presented....
Affinity sensor using 3-aminophenylboronic acid for bacteria detection.
Wannapob, Rodtichoti; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Numnuam, Apon; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote
2010-10-15
Boronic acid that can reversibly bind to diols was used to detect bacteria through its affinity binding reaction with diol-groups on bacterial cell walls. 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) was immobilized on a gold electrode via a self-assembled monolayer. The change in capacitance of the sensing surface caused by the binding between 3-APBA and bacteria in a flow system was detected by a potentiostatic step method. Under optimal conditions the linear range of 1.5×10(2)-1.5×10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the detection limit of 1.0×10(2) CFU ml(-1) was obtained. The sensing surface can be regenerated and reused up to 58 times. The method was used for the analysis of bacteria in several types of water, i.e., bottled, well, tap, reservoir and wastewater. Compared with the standard plate count method, the results were within one standard deviation of each other. The proposed method can save both time and cost of analysis. The electrode modified with 3-APBA would also be applicable to the detection of other cis-diol-containing analytes. The concept could be extended to other chemoselective ligands, offering less expensive and more robust affinity sensors for a wide range of compounds. PMID:20801635
Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants
Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun
2002-01-01
With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
Duals of Affine Grassmann Codes and Their Relatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beelen, P.; Ghorpade, S. R.; Hoholdt, T.
2012-01-01
Affine Grassmann codes are a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes. These codes were introduced in a recent work by Beelen Here, we consider, more generally, affine Grassmann codes of a given level. We explicitly determine the dual of an affine Grassm...
Laser beam propagation generation and propagation of customized light
Forbes, Andrew
2014-01-01
""The text is easy to read and is accompanied by beautiful illustrations. It is an excellent book for anyone working in laser beam propagation and an asset for any library.""-Optics & Photonics News, July 2014
Laser Propagation in Uranium Hexafluoride
Chu, Danny
1990-01-01
Several researchers have simulated the laser pulse propagation through simple N-level systems; but, for UF _6 models, large CPU time and memory is required. In an attempt to efficiently yet accurately characterize laser pulse propagation through a UF _6 molecule, a model of UF_6 is created and analyzed by adiabatic excitation. A minimax numerical method is developed to solve the time -dependent Schrodinger equation and then applied to the study of laser excitation of UF_6 using various Gaussian pulses. The process of laser isotope separation is also discussed. The results from the laser excitation of UF_6 are used to simulate laser propagation through ^{235} UF_6.
Radial propagators and Wilson loops
Leupold, S; Leupold, Stefan; Weigert, Heribert
1996-01-01
We present a relation which connects the propagator in the radial (Fock-Schwinger) gauge with a gauge invariant Wilson loop. It is closely related to the well-known field strength formula and can be used to calculate the radial gauge propagator. The result is shown to diverge in four-dimensional space even for free fields, its singular nature is however naturally explained using the renormalization properties of Wilson loops with cusps and self-intersections. Using this observation we provide a consistent regularization scheme to facilitate loop calculations. Finally we compare our results with previous approaches to derive a propagator in Fock-Schwinger gauge.
TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei G. Marchuk
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.
The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arranz, Marta Galindo
The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Application of Wave Propagation to Pyroshock Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Gherlone
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Pyroshocks are high frequency transients due to pyrotechnic devices used in aerospace engineering in order to deploy solar arrays and antennae, separate subsystems from the spacecraft or separate the spacecraft itself from the base stage booster; their prediction is usually complex and very time consuming.
Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi
2007-01-01
By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.
On Metrizability of Invariant Affine Connections
Tanaka, Erico
2011-01-01
The metrizability problem for a symmetric affine connection on a manifold, invariant with respect to a group of diffeomorphisms G, is considered. We say that the connection is G-metrizable, if it is expressible as the Levi-Civita connection of a G-invariant metric field. In this paper we analyze the G-metrizability equations for the rotation group G = SO(3), acting canonically on three- and four-dimensional Euclidean spaces. We show that the property of the connection to be SO(3)-invariant allows us to find complete explicit description of all solutions of the SO(3)-metrizability equations.
Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.
Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan
2005-06-22
The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.
Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Temirov, Jamshid [INVITROGEN
2008-01-01
Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.
Connection between the Affine and conformal Affine Toda models and their Hirota's solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the Affine Toda models (AT) constitute a gauge fixed version of the Conformal Affine Toda model (CAT). This result enables one to map every solution of the AT models into an infinite number of solutions of the corresponding CAT models, each one associated to a point of the orbit of the conformal group. The Hirota's τ-function are introduced and soliton solutions for the AT and CAT models associated to SL (r+1) and SP (r) are constructed. (author)
Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation
Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie
2013-04-23
Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.
Propagation engineering in wireless communications
Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid
2016-01-01
This book covers the basic principles for understanding radio wave propagation for common frequency bands used in radio-communications. This includes achievements and developments in propagation models for wireless communication. This book is intended to bridge the gap between the theoretical calculations and approaches to the applied procedures needed for radio links design in a proper manner. The authors emphasize propagation engineering by giving fundamental information and explain the use of basic principles together with technical achievements. This new edition includes additional information on radio wave propagation in guided media and technical issues for fiber optics cable networks with several examples and problems. This book also includes a solution manual - with 90 solved examples distributed throughout the chapters - and 158 problems including practical values and assumptions.
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
Davis, Julian L
1990-01-01
This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...
Survey of propagation Model in wireless Network
Hemant Kumar Sharma; Sanjeev Sharma; Krishna Kumar Pandey
2011-01-01
To implementation of mobile ad hoc network wave propagation models are necessary to determine propagation characteristic through a medium. Wireless mobile ad hoc networks are self creating and self organizing entity. Propagation study provides an estimation of signal characteristics. Accurate prediction of radio propagation behaviour for MANET is becoming a difficult task. This paper presents investigation of propagation model. Radio wave propagation mechanisms are absorption, reflection, ref...
Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation
Chapman, Chris
2004-08-01
Presenting a comprehensive introduction to the propagation of high-frequency body-waves in elastodynamics, this volume develops the theory of seismic wave propagation in acoustic, elastic and anisotropic media to allow seismic waves to be modelled in complex, realistic three-dimensional Earth models. The book is a text for graduate courses in theoretical seismology, and a reference for all academic and industrial seismologists using numerical modelling methods. Exercises and suggestions for further reading are included in each chapter.
The metric-affine formalism of f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently a class of alternative theories of gravity which goes under the name f(R) gravity, has received considerable attention, mainly due to its interesting applications in cosmology. However, the phenomenology of such theories is not only relevant to cosmological scales, especially when it is treated within the framework of the so called Palatini variation, an independent variation with respect to the metric and the connection, which is not considered a priori to be the Levi-Civita connection of the metric. If this connection has its standard geometrical meaning the resulting theory will be a metric-affine theory of gravity, as will be discussed in this talk. The general formalism will be presented and several aspects of the theory will be covered, mainly focusing on the enriched phenomenology that such theories exhibit with respect to General Relativity, relevant not only to large scales (cosmology) but also to small scales (e.g. torsion)
Affinity sensor based on immobilized molecular imprinted synthetic recognition elements.
Lenain, Pieterjan; De Saeger, Sarah; Mattiasson, Bo; Hedström, Martin
2015-07-15
An affinity sensor based on capacitive transduction was developed to detect a model compound, metergoline, in a continuous flow system. This system simulates the monitoring of low-molecular weight organic compounds in natural flowing waters, i.e. rivers and streams. During operation in such scenarios, control of the experimental parameters is not possible, which poses a true analytical challenge. A two-step approach was used to produce a sensor for metergoline. Submicron spherical molecularly imprinted polymers, used as recognition elements, were obtained through emulsion polymerization and subsequently coupled to the sensor surface by electropolymerization. This way, a robust and reusable sensor was obtained that regenerated spontaneously under the natural conditions in a river. Small organic compounds could be analyzed in water without manipulating the binding or regeneration conditions, thereby offering a viable tool for on-site application. PMID:25703726
Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing
Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan
1997-01-01
Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘杰; 蒋启海; 傅勤峰; 许仁仁; 张云青; 余凡涛
2011-01-01
对利用圆盘制曲机制备黄酒纯种麦曲进行了研究.生产实践表明,麦片投料5000kg,接种量21.25kg,洒水量1400kg,静止培养12h,温度和湿度分别控制在30℃～37℃和100％,通风培养36h,温度和湿度分别控制在37℃～40℃和100％～95％,培养期间共翻曲3次,制得的成品纯种麦曲的糖化力稳定保持在1030mg/(g·h)以上,液化力、含水量和酸度也均符合优良标准,满足了机械化黄酒酿造的实际需要.%The application of disk starter propagation machine in the production of rice-wine pure wheat Qu was studied. The production practice suggested that the saccharification capacity of pure wheat Qu could keep above 1030mg/(g*h) when the following technology was used: 5000kg wheat, 21.25kg inoculum and 1400kg cold boiled water were mixed for 12h static incubation at 30
From guided to optical microvave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A wide theoretical study on quasi-optical microwave propagation has been carried out in the range 3 GHz - 300 GHz. A high power TEMOO Gaussian beam can be propagated for long distances with low losses if a nearly-confocal system of mirrors is used as phase corrector. The theory of beam waveguides using elliptic paraboloidal reflectors has been critically revisited and developed. All the kind of losses (diffraction, matching, truncation, divergence, ohmic, atmospheric, depolarization, misalignment) have been examinated into detail. Criteria to find the best design parameters of a quasi-optical transmission line are given once the frequency, the power and the available room are known. In general, a well designed Reflecting Beam Waveguide should permit the propagation of several MW in CW without a sensible beam shape deformation, and with total losses of about a fraction of % in 10 meters. Several examples at different frequencies are herein reported, and applications to high power Electron Cyclotron Heating and Lower Hybrid Heating of a plasma find a good solution using quasi-optical schemes. The wide bandwidth, the fact of having a single line needing no cooling and without requirements of high mechanical precision (as in certain waveguide components at high frequency), are other advantages of the Reflecting Beam Waveguide System (RBWS) which have been examined in this work
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Querol, X.; Chenery, S. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Institute of Earth Science `Jaume Almera`
1995-08-01
The occurrence, association and distribution of potentially toxic trace elements (PTTEs) in coal are basic criteria for predicting the forms and amounts of trace elements that are transferred to the environment during coal combustion processes. Previously, the determineration of the affinities of PTTEs in coal was carried out by laborious density separation and subsequent analysis of the density fractions. This study has evaluated a new means of directly determining PTTE affinities in coal by laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAMP-ICP-MS). The affinities were determined by a rapid semiquantitative methodology. Additionally, some preliminary quantitative concentrations were obtained using a novel calibration strategy. The spatial resolution of the LAMP-ICP-MS technique allows the analysis of single grains of macerals and minerals in polished blocks, leading to a wide range of applications in coal geochemistry. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
Dynamical surface affinity of diphasic liquids as a probe of wettability of multimodal porous media.
Korb, J-P; Freiman, G; Nicot, B; Ligneul, P
2009-12-01
We introduce a method for estimating the wettability of rock/oil/brine systems using noninvasive in situ nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion. This technique scans over a large range of applied magnetic fields and yields unique information about the extent to which a fluid is dynamically correlated with a solid rock surface. Unlike conventional transverse relaxation studies, this approach is a direct probe of the dynamical surface affinity of fluids. To quantify these features we introduce a microscopic dynamical surface affinity index which measures the dynamical correlation (i.e., the microscopic wettability) between the diffusive fluid and the fixed paramagnetic relaxation sources at the pore surfaces. We apply this method to carbonate reservoir rocks which are known to hold about two thirds of the world's oil reserves. Although this nondestructive method concerns here an application to rocks, it could be generalized as an in situ liquid/surface affinity indicator for any multimodal porous medium including porous biological media. PMID:20365175
Aspects of affine Toda field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The report is devoted to properties of the affine Toda field theory, the intention being to highlight a selection of curious properties that should be explicable in terms of the underlying group theory but for which in most cases there are no explanation. The motivation for exploring the ideas contained in this report came principally from the recent work of Zamolodchikov concerning the two dimensional Ising model at critical temperature perturbed by a magnetic field. Hollowood and Mansfield pointed out that since Toda field theory is conformal the perturbation considered by Zamolodchikov might well be best regarded as a perturbation of a Toda field theory. This work made it seem plausible that the theory sought by Zamolodchikov was actually affine E8 Toda field theory. However, this connection required an imaginary value of the coupling constant. Investigations here concerning exact S-matrices use a perturbative approach based on real coupling and the results differ in various ways from those thought to correspond to perturbed conformal field theory. A further motivation is to explore the connection between conformal and perturbed conformal field theories in other contexts using similar ideas. (N.K.)
Exploring Fluorous Affinity by Liquid Chromatography.
Catani, Martina; Guzzinati, Roberta; Marchetti, Nicola; Pasti, Luisa; Cavazzini, Alberto
2015-07-01
Terms such as "fluorous affinity" and "fluorophilicity" have been used to describe the unique partition and sorption properties often exhibited by highly fluorinated organic compounds, that is molecules rich in sp(3) carbon-fluorine bonds. In this work, we made use of a highly fluorinated stationary phase and a series of benzene derivatives to study the effect of one single perfluorinated carbon on the chromatographic behavior and adsorption properties of molecules. For this purpose, the adsorption equilibria of α,α,α-trifluorotoluene, toluene, and other alkylbenzenes have been studied by means of nonlinear chromatography in a variety of acetonitrile/water eluents. Our results reveal that one single perfluorinated carbon is already enough to induce a drastic change in the adsorption properties of molecules on the perfluorinated stationary phase. In particular, it has been found that adsorption is monolayer if the perfluoroalkyl carbon is present but that, when this unit is missing, molecules arrange as multilayer stack structures. These findings can contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of fluorous affinity. PMID:26047527
Affine Mirkovi\\'c-Vilonen polytopes
Baumann, Pierre; Tingley, Peter
2011-01-01
Each integrable lowest weight representation of a symmetrizable Kac-Moody Lie algebra g has a crystal in the sense of Kashiwara, which describes its combinatorial properties. For a given g, there is a limit crystal, usually denoted by B(-\\infty), which contains all the other crystals. When g is finite dimensional, a convex polytope, called the Mirkovi\\'c-Vilonen polytope, can be associated to each element in B(-\\infty). This polytope sits in the dual space of a Cartan subalgebra of g, and its edges are parallel to the roots of g. In this paper, we generalize this construction to the case where g is a symmetric affine Kac-Moody algebra. The datum of the polytope must however be complemented by partitions attached to the edges parallel to the imaginary root \\delta. We prove that these decorated polytopes are characterized by conditions on their normal fans and on their 2-faces. In addition, we discuss how our polytopes provide an analog of the notion of Lusztig datum for affine Kac-Moody algebras. Our main tool...
Affine conformal vectors in space-time
Coley, A. A.; Tupper, B. O. J.
1992-05-01
All space-times admitting a proper affine conformal vector (ACV) are found. By using a theorem of Hall and da Costa, it is shown that such space-times either (i) admit a covariantly constant vector (timelike, spacelike, or null) and the ACV is the sum of a proper affine vector and a conformal Killing vector or (ii) the space-time is 2+2 decomposable, in which case it is shown that no ACV can exist (unless the space-time decomposes further). Furthermore, it is proved that all space-times admitting an ACV and a null covariantly constant vector (which are necessarily generalized pp-wave space-times) must have Ricci tensor of Segré type {2,(1,1)}. It follows that, among space-times admitting proper ACV, the Einstein static universe is the only perfect fluid space-time, there are no non-null Einstein-Maxwell space-times, and only the pp-wave space-times are representative of null Einstein-Maxwell solutions. Otherwise, the space-times can represent anisotropic fluids and viscous heat-conducting fluids, but only with restricted equations of state in each case.
Jain, Tarun; Jayaram, B
2007-06-01
Zinc is one of the most important metal ions found in proteins performing specific functions associated with life processes. Coordination geometry of the zinc ion in the active site of the metalloprotein-ligand complexes poses a challenge in determining ligand binding affinities accurately in structure-based drug design. We report here an all atom force field based computational protocol for estimating rapidly the binding affinities of zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complexes, considering electrostatics, van der Waals, hydrophobicity, and loss in conformational entropy of protein side chains upon ligand binding along with a nonbonded approach to model the interactions of the zinc ion with all the other atoms of the complex. We examined the sensitivity of the binding affinity predictions to the choice of Lennard-Jones parameters, partial atomic charges, and dielectric treatments adopted for system preparation and scoring. The highest correlation obtained was R2 = 0.77 (r = 0.88) for the predicted binding affinity against the experiment on a heterogenous dataset of 90 zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complexes consisting of five unique protein targets. Model validation and parameter analysis studies underscore the robustness and predictive ability of the scoring function. The high correlation obtained suggests the potential applicability of the methodology in designing novel ligands for zinc-metalloproteins. The scoring function has been web enabled for free access at www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/drugdesign/bapplz.jsp as BAPPL-Z server (Binding Affinity Prediction of Protein-Ligand complexes containing Zinc metal ions).
The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation
Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.
2011-02-01
Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.
硼酸作为亲和色谱配基的研究进展%Boronic Acids as Ligands for Affinity Chromatography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晓川
2006-01-01
A review on the principles and applications of boronic acids as affinity ligands for the chromatographic separation of carbohydrates, nucleic acid components, glycoproteins, and other small biomolecules.The mechanisms of interactions between boronate ligands and analytes are described. Various boronate ligands and supports are discussed. Examples of the use of boronate affinity chromatography for separation of each class of analytes are presented.
FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION THROUGH AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON MICROSTRUCTURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukáš Bubenko
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron (ADI has a wide range of application, particularly for castings used in automotive and earth moving machinery industries. These components are usually subjected to variable dynamic loading that may promote initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks up to final fracture. Thus, it is important to determine the fatigue crack propagation behavior of ADI. Since fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN vs. stress intensity factor K data describe fatigue crack propagation resistance and fatigue durability of structural materials, da/dN vs. Ka curves of ADI 1050 are reported here. The threshold amplitude of stress intensity factor Kath is also determined. Finally, the influence of stress intensity factor amplitude to the character of fatigue crack propagation through the ADI microstructure is described.
Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations
Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan
2013-01-01
Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...
Infrared propagator corrections for constant deceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janssen, T M; Miao, S P; Prokopec, T [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu
2008-12-21
We derive the propagator for a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a D-dimensional, spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic background with arbitrary constant deceleration parameter. Our construction uses the operator formalism by integrating the Fourier mode sum. We give special attention to infrared corrections from the nonzero lower limit associated with working on finite spatial sections. These corrections eliminate infrared divergences that would otherwise be incorrectly treated by dimensional regularization, resulting in off-coincidence divergences for those special values of the deceleration parameter at which the infrared divergence is logarithmic. As an application we compute the expectation value of the scalar stress-energy tensor.
Propagation of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Techniques for modeling the propagation of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei, and the required atomic and nuclear data, are assembled in this paper. Emphasis is on understanding nuclear composition in the charge range 3< Z<83. Details of the application of ''matrix methods'' above a few hundred meV per nucleon, a new treatment of electron capture decay, and a new table of cosmic-ray-stable isotopes are presented. Computation of nuclear fragmentation cross sections, stopping power, and electron stripping and attachment are briefly reviewed
Semidirect algorithms in electron propagator calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakrzewski, V.G.; Ortiz, J.V. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-12-31
Electron propagator calculations have been executed with a semi-direct algorithm that generates only a subset of transformed electron repulsion integrals and that takes advantage of Abelian point group symmetry. Diagonal self-energy expressions that are advantageous for large molecules are employed. Illustrative calculations with basis sets in excess of 200 functions include evaluations of the ionization energies of C{sup 2{minus}}{sub 7} and Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}. In the former application, a bound dianion is obtained for a D{sub 3h} structure. In the latter, many final states of the same symmetry are calculated without difficulty.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Shi-Jian; Wang, Yingchun; Jacobs, Jon M.; Qian, Weijun; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Du, Xiuxia; Wang, Wei; Moore, Ronald J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Waters, Katrina M.; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Camp, David G.; Klemke, Richard L.; Smith, Richard D.
2008-10-01
Reversible protein phosphorylation is a central cellular regulatory mechanism in modulating protein activity and propagating signals within cellular pathways and networks. Development of more effective methods for the simultaneous identification of phosphorylation sites and quantification of temporal changes in protein phosphorylation could provide important insights into molecular signaling mechanisms in a variety of different cellular processes. Here we present an integrated quantitative phosphoproteomics approach and its applications for comparative analysis of Cos-7 cells in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) gradient stimulation. The approach combines trypsin-catalyzed 16O/18O labeling plus 16O/18O-methanol esterification labeling for quantitation, a macro- Immobilized Metal-ion Affinity Chromatography trap for phosphopeptide enrichment, and a monolithic capillary column with integrated electrospray emitter. LC separation and MS/MS is followed by neutral loss-dependent MS/MS/MS for phosphopeptide identification using a linear ion trap (LTQ)-FT mass spectrometer and complementary searching algorithms for interpreting MS/MS spectra. Protein phosphorylation involved in various signaling pathways of cell migration were identified and quantified, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2, and dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1b, and a number of Rho GTPase-activating proteins. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this quantitative phosphoproteomics approach and its application for rapid discovery of phosphorylation events associated with gradient sensing and cell chemotaxis.
Affine connection form of Regge calculus
Khatsymovsky, V M
2015-01-01
Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the 3-simplices which play a role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4,R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w. r. t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4,R) transformations in...
Affine and Projective Tree Metric Theorems
Harel, Matan; Pachter, Lior
2011-01-01
The tree metric theorem provides a combinatorial four point condition that characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from pairwise compatible split systems. A similar (but weaker) four point condition characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from circular split systems (Kalmanson metrics). The tree metric theorem was first discovered in the context of phylogenetics and forms the basis of many tree reconstruction algorithms, whereas Kalmanson metrics were first considered by computer scientists, and are notable in that they are a non-trivial class of metrics for which the traveling salesman problem is tractable. We present a unifying framework for these theorems based on combinatorial structures that are used for graph planarity testing. These are (projective) PC-trees, and their affine analogs, PQ-trees. In the projective case, we generalize a number of concepts from clustering theory, including hierarchies, pyramids, ultrametrics and Robinsonian matrices, and the theorems that relate them. As with tree metric...
Effectively nonlocal metric-affine gravity
Golovnev, Alexey; Sandstad, Marit
2015-01-01
In metric-affine theories of gravity such as the C-theories, the spacetime connection is associated to a metric that is nontrivially related to the physical metric. In this article, such theories are rewritten in terms of a single metric and it is shown that they can be recast as effectively nonlocal gravity. With some assumptions, known ghost-free theories with non-singular and cosmologically interesting properties may be recovered. Relations between different formulations are analysed at both perturbative and nonperturbative levels taking carefully into account subtleties with boundary conditions in the presence of integral operators in the action, and equivalences between theories related by nonlocal redefinitions of the fields are verified at the level of equations of motion. This suggests a possible geometrical interpretation of nonlocal gravity as an emergent property of non-Riemannian spacetime structure.
Effectively nonlocal metric-affine gravity
Golovnev, Alexey; Koivisto, Tomi; Sandstad, Marit
2016-03-01
In metric-affine theories of gravity such as the C-theories, the spacetime connection is associated to a metric that is nontrivially related to the physical metric. In this article, such theories are rewritten in terms of a single metric, and it is shown that they can be recast as effectively nonlocal gravity. With some assumptions, known ghost-free theories with nonsingular and cosmologically interesting properties may be recovered. Relations between different formulations are analyzed at both perturbative and nonperturbative levels, taking carefully into account subtleties with boundary conditions in the presence of integral operators in the action, and equivalences between theories related by nonlocal redefinitions of the fields are verified at the level of equations of motion. This suggests a possible geometrical interpretation of nonlocal gravity as an emergent property of non-Riemannian spacetime structure.
Affine trajectory correction for nonholonomic mobile robots
Pham, Quang-Cuong
2011-01-01
Planning trajectories for nonholonomic systems is difficult and computationally expensive. When facing unexpected events, it may therefore be preferable to deform in some way the initially planned trajectory rather than to re-plan entirely a new one. We suggest here a method based on affine transformations to make such deformations. This method is exact and fast: the deformations and the resulting trajectories can be computed algebraically, in one step, and without any trajectory re-integration. To demonstrate the possibilities offered by this new method, we use it to derive position correction, orientation correction, obstacle avoidance and feedback control algorithms for the general class of planar wheeled robots and for a tridimensional underwater vehicle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glinec, Y
2006-09-15
This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)
Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui
2005-01-01
Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.
A thermal responsive affinity ligand for precipitation of sialylated proteins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lindsay Arnold
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We report here the development of a thermal responsive affinity ligand specific to sialic acid, sialic acid containing oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, and other sialylated glycoconjugates. The ligand is a fusion protein of 40 repeats of pentapeptide of an elastin like polymer (ELP and the 21 kD sialic acid binding domain of a Vibrio cholera neuraminidase (VCNA. For cost-effective synthesis, the fusion protein was targeted to the periplasmic space of an E. coli lpp deletion mutant, resulting in its secretion to the growth medium. A pre-induction heat-shock step at 42 ˚C for 20 minutes was necessary to achieve high level expression of the ligand. Under optimized induction condition (18 ˚C, 0.1 mM IPTG and 48 hours of post-induction cultivation, the ligand was produced to about 100 mg/L. The ligand exhibited a transition temperature of 52 ˚C, which could be depressed to 37 ˚C with the addition of 0.5 M NaCl. Using fetuin as a model sialylated protein, the ligand was applied in an affinity precipitation process to illustrate its potential application in glycoprotein isolation. The ligand captured 100% fetuin from an aqueous solution when the molar ratio of ligand to fetuin was 10 to 1, which was lower than the expected for full titration of sialic acid on the glycoprotein by the lectin. Elution of fetuin from ligand was achieved with PBS buffer containing 2 mM sialic acid. To evaluate how protein and other contaminants influence the recovery of sialylated proteins, CHO medium was spiked into the fetuin solution. The predominant protein species in CHO medium was found to be albumin. Although its removal of over 94% was evident, purified fetuin contained some albumin due to its over-abundance. Additional experiments with albumin contaminant of varying concentrations showed that below 1 mg/L, albumin had no impact on the affinity precipitation, whereas above 10 mg/L, some albumin was co-purified with fetuin. However, even at 50 mg/ml, fetuin
Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions
Gokalp, Iskender
2016-07-01
Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions R. Thimothée, C. Chauveau, F. Halter, I Gökalp Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement (ICARE), CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France This paper presents and discusses recent results on two-phase flame propagation experiments we carried out with mono-sized ethanol droplet aerosols under microgravity conditions. Fundamental studies on the flame propagation in fuel droplet clouds or sprays are essential for a better understanding of the combustion processes in many practical applications including internal combustion engines for cars, modern aircraft and liquid rocket engines. Compared to homogeneous gas phase combustion, the presence of a liquid phase considerably complicates the physico-chemical processes that make up combustion phenomena by coupling liquid atomization, droplet vaporization, mixing and heterogeneous combustion processes giving rise to various combustion regimes where ignition problems and flame instabilities become crucial to understand and control. Almost all applications of spray combustion occur under high pressure conditions. When a high pressure two-phase flame propagation is investigated under normal gravity conditions, sedimentation effects and strong buoyancy flows complicate the picture by inducing additional phenomena and obscuring the proper effect of the presence of the liquid droplets on flame propagation compared to gas phase flame propagation. Conducting such experiments under reduced gravity conditions is therefore helpful for the fundamental understanding of two-phase combustion. We are considering spherically propagating two-phase flames where the fuel aerosol is generated from a gaseous air-fuel mixture using the condensation technique of expansion cooling, based on the Wilson cloud chamber principle. This technique is widely recognized to create well-defined mono-size droplets
Classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suh, Uhi Rinn, E-mail: uhrisu1@math.snu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, GwanAkRo 1, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
In this paper, we prove classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras (W-superalgebras), which can be constructed in two different ways: via affine classical Hamiltonian reductions and via taking quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-superalgebras. Also, we show that a classical finite W-superalgebra can be obtained by a Zhu algebra of a classical affine W-superalgebra. Using the definition by Hamiltonian reductions, we find free generators of a classical W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent. Moreover, we compute generators of the classical W-algebra associated to spo(2|3) and its principal nilpotent. In the last part of this paper, we introduce a generalization of classical affine W-superalgebras called classical affine fractional W-superalgebras. We show these have Poisson vertex algebra structures and find generators of a fractional W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent.
Indefinite Affine Hyperspheres Admitting a Pointwise Symmetry. Part 2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christine Scharlach
2009-10-01
Full Text Available An affine hypersurface M is said to admit a pointwise symmetry, if there exists a subgroup G of Aut(T_pM for all p in M, which preserves (pointwise the affine metric h, the difference tensor K and the affine shape operator S. Here, we consider 3-dimensional indefinite affine hyperspheres, i.e. S = HId (and thus S is trivially preserved. In Part 1 we found the possible symmetry groups G and gave for each G a canonical form of K. We started a classification by showing that hyperspheres admitting a pointwise Z_2 × Z_2 resp. R-symmetry are well-known, they have constant sectional curvature and Pick invariant J < 0 resp. J = 0. Here, we continue with affine hyperspheres admitting a pointwise Z_3- or SO(2-symmetry. They turn out to be warped products of affine spheres (Z_3 or quadrics (SO(2 with a curve.
Gluon propagator with dynamical quarks
Papavassiliou, Joannis
2014-01-01
We review recent work on the effects of quark loops on the gluon propagator in the Landau gauge, relying mainly on the Schwinger-Dyson equations that describe the two-point sector of QCD. Particularly important in this context is the detailed study of how the standard gluon mass generation mechanism, which is responsible for the infrared finiteness of the quenched gluon propagator, is affected by the inclusions of dynamical quarks. This issue is especially relevant and timely, given the qualitative picture that emerges from recent unquenched lattice simulations. Our results demonstrate clearly that the gluon mass generation persists, and that the corresponding saturation points of the unquenched gluon propagators are progressively suppressed, as the number of quark flavors increases.
Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.
2016-01-01
Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-fi
Abacus models for parabolic quotients of affine Weyl groups
Hanusa, Christopher R H
2011-01-01
We introduce abacus diagrams that describe minimal length coset representatives in affine Weyl groups of types B, C, and D. These abacus diagrams use a realization of the affine Weyl group of type C due to Eriksson to generalize a construction of James for the symmetric group. We also describe several combinatorial models for these parabolic quotients that generalize classical results in affine type A related to core partitions.
SIS epidemic propagation on hypergraphs
Bodó, Ágnes; Simon, Péter L
2015-01-01
Mathematical modeling of epidemic propagation on networks is extended to hypergraphs in order to account for both the community structure and the nonlinear dependence of the infection pressure on the number of infected neighbours. The exact master equations of the propagation process are derived for an arbitrary hypergraph given by its incidence matrix. Based on these, moment closure approximation and mean-?eld models are introduced and compared to individual-based stochastic simulations. The simulation algorithm, developed for networks, is extended to hypergraphs. The e?ects of hypergraph structure and the model parameters are investigated via individual-based simulation results.
Mesoporous Few-Layer Graphene Platform for Affinity Biosensing Application.
Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Chandan; Mondal, Kunal; Srivastava, Saurabh; Sharma, Ashutosh; Malhotra, Bansi D
2016-03-30
A label-free, highly reproducible, sensitive, and selective biosensor is proposed using antiapolipoprotein B 100 (AAB) functionalized mesoporous few-layer reduced graphene oxide and nickel oxide (rGO-NiO) nanocomposite for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules. The formation of mesoporous rGO-NiO composite on indium tin oxide conductive electrode has been accomplished via electrophoretic technique using colloidal suspension of rGO sheets and NiO nanoparticles. This biosensor shows good stability obtained by surface conjugation of antibody AAB molecules with rGO-NiO matrix by EDC-NHS coupling chemistry. The defect-less few layer rGO sheets, NiO nanoparticles (nNiO) and formation of nanocomposite has been confirmed by Raman mapping, electron microscopic studies, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical techniques. The synthesized rGO-NiO composite is mesoporous dominated with a small percentage of micro and macroporous structure as is evident by the results of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller experiment. Further, the bioconjugation of AAB with rGO-NiO has been investigated by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The kinetic studies for binding of antigen-antibody (LDL-AAB) and analytical performance of this biosensor have been evaluated by the impedance spectroscopic method. This biosensor exhibits an excellent sensitivity of 510 Ω (mg/dL)(-1) cm(-2) for detection of LDL molecules and is sensitive to 5 mg/dL concentration of LDL in a wide range of 0-130 mg/dL. Thus, this fabricated biosensor is an efficient and highly sensitive platform for the analysis of other antigen-antibody interactions and biomolecules detection. PMID:26950488
Congestion Propagation among Routers with TCP Flows
Hiroyuki Ohsaki; Kouhei Sugiyama; Makoto Imase
2009-01-01
In recent years, various non-linear phenomena of the Internet have been discovered. For instance,it is reported that congestion of a router propagates to neighboring routers like a wave. Severalresearches on congestion propagation among routers have been performed. However, in theseresearches, cause of congestion propagation and condition that congestion propagation occurshave not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, we reveal a cause of congestion propagation,and also investigate u...
On invariant measures of finite affine type tilings
Petite, S.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we consider tilings of the hyperbolic 2-space, built with a finite number of polygonal tiles, up to affine transformation. To such a tiling T, we associate a space of tilings: the continuous hull Omega(T) on which the affine group acts. This space Omega(T) inherits a solenoid structure whose leaves correspond to the orbits of the affine group. First we prove the finite harmonic measures of this laminated space correspond to finite invariant measures for the affine group action....
Biomimetic design of affinity peptide ligand for capsomere of virus-like particle.
Li, Yanying; Liu, Xiaodan; Dong, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Yan
2014-07-22
Virus-like particle (VLP) of murine polyomavirus (MPV) is a T = 7d icosahedral capsid that self-assembles from 72 capsomeres (Caps), each of which is a pentamer of major coat protein VP1. VLP has great potential in vaccinology, gene therapy, drug delivery, and materials science. However, its application is hindered by high cost downstream processes, leading to an urgent demand of a highly efficient affinity ligand for the separation and purification of Cap by affinity chromatography. Herein a biomimetic design strategy of an affinity peptide ligand of Cap has been developed on the basis of the binding structure of the C-terminus of minor coat protein (VP2-C) on the inner surface of Cap. The molecular interactions between VP2-C and Cap were first examined using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method, where V283, P285, D286, W287, L289, and Y296 of VP2-C were identified as the hot spots. An affinity peptide library (DWXLXLXY, X denotes arbitrary amino acids except cysteine) was then constructed for virtual screening sequently by docking with AUTODOCK VINA, binding structure comparison, and final docking with ROSETTA FlexPepDock. Ten peptide candidates were selected and further confirmed by MD simulations and MM/PBSA, where DWDLRLLY was found to have the highest affinity to Cap. In DWDLRLLY, six residues are favorable for the binding, including W2, L4, L6 and Y8 inheriting from VP2-C, and R5 and L7 selected in the virtual screening. This confirms the high efficiency and accuracy of the biomimetic design strategy. DWDLRLLY was then experimentally validated by a one-step purification of Cap from crude cell lysate using affinity chromatography with the octapeptide immobilized on Sepharose gel. The purified Caps were observed to self-assemble into VLP with consistent structure of authentic MPV. PMID:24976378
Non-approximated numerical modeling of propagation of light in any state of spatial coherence.
Castañeda, Román; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2011-12-01
Due to analytical and numerical difficulties, the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is traditionally computed under severe approximations. The paraxial approach in the Fresnel-Fraunhofer domain is one of the most widely used. These approximations provide a rough knowledge of the actual light behavior as it propagates, which is not enough for supporting applications, such as light propagation under a high numerical aperture (NA). In this paper, a non-approximated model for the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is presented. The method is applicable in very practical cases, as high-NA propagations, because of its simplicity of implementation. This approach allows for studying unaware behaviors of light as it propagates. The light behavior close to the diffracting transmittances can also be analyzed with the aid of the proposed tool.
The cohomology of the affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties in the affine flag manifold of $GL_2$
Ivanov, Alexander
2009-01-01
This paper studies affine Deligne-Lusztig varieties in the affine flag manifold of GL_2. At first we determine all such varieties up to isomorphy. After this we investigate the representations of the sigma-stabilizer of an element b of the group on the etale cohomology of the affine Deligne-Lusztig variety X_w(b). We describe such representations as inductions from compact subgroups and in terms of noncuspidal representations.
Overseas propagation of kiwifruit pollinator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
@@ One year after granting to the Italian firm Kiwigold Consortium the world-wide propagation and commercialization rights of Jintao,a female cultivar plant from the novel variety of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch), the CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG) reached a new agreement with the firm on the similar right of a male plant cultivar Moshan-4.
Wave equations for pulse propagation
Shore, B. W.
1987-06-01
Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity.
Light Front Fermion Model Propagation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki
2013-01-01
In this work we consider the propagation of two fermion fields interacting with each other by the exchange of intermediate scalar bosons in the light front.We obtain the corrections up to fourth order in the coupling constant using hierarchical equations in order to obtain the bound state equation (Bethe-Salpeter equation).
A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices
Vanbrabant, P. J. M.; Beeckman, J.; Neyts, K.; James, R.; Fernandez, F. A.
2009-01-01
An efficient full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method is presented that uses higher order vector elements to calculate the wide angle propagation of an optical field through inhomogeneous, anisotropic optical materials such as liquid crystals. The full dielectric permittivity tensor is considered in solving Maxwell's equations. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated with different examples: the propagation of a laser beam in a uniaxial medium, the tunability of a dir...
The induced turbulence effect on propagation of radio emission in pulsar magnetospheres
Luo, Qinghuan; Melrose, D. B.
2006-01-01
The effect of photon-beam-induced turbulence on propagation of radio emission in a pulsar magnetosphere is discussed. Beamed radio emission with a high brightness temperature can generate low-frequency plasma waves in the pulsar magnetosphere and these waves scatter the radio beam. We consider this effect on propagation of radio emission both in the open field line region and in the closed field line region. The former is applicable to most cases of pulsar radio emission where the propagation...
PICARD: A novel code for the Galactic Cosmic Ray propagation problem
Kissmann, R.
2014-03-01
In this manuscript we present a new approach for the numerical solution of the Galactic Cosmic Ray propagation problem. We introduce a method using advanced contemporary numerical algorithms while retaining the general complexity of other established codes. In this paper we present the underlying numerical scheme in conjunction with tests showing the correctness of the scheme. Finally we show the solution of a first example propagation problem using the new code to show its applicability to Galactic Cosmic Ray propagation.
Interactive Sound Propagation using Precomputation and Statistical Approximations
Antani, Lakulish
Acoustic phenomena such as early reflections, diffraction, and reverberation have been shown to improve the user experience in interactive virtual environments and video games. These effects arise due to repeated interactions between sound waves and objects in the environment. In interactive applications, these effects must be simulated within a prescribed time budget. We present two complementary approaches for computing such acoustic effects in real time, with plausible variation in the sound field throughout the scene. The first approach, Precomputed Acoustic Radiance Transfer, precomputes a matrix that accounts for multiple acoustic interactions between all scene objects. The matrix is used at run time to provide sound propagation effects that vary smoothly as sources and listeners move. The second approach couples two techniques---Ambient Reverberance, and Aural Proxies---to provide approximate sound propagation effects in real time, based on only the portion of the environment immediately visible to the listener. These approaches lie at different ends of a space of interactive sound propagation techniques for modeling sound propagation effects in interactive applications. The first approach emphasizes accuracy by modeling acoustic interactions between all parts of the scene; the second approach emphasizes efficiency by only taking the local environment of the listener into account. These methods have been used to efficiently generate acoustic walkthroughs of architectural models. They have also been integrated into a modern game engine, and can enable realistic, interactive sound propagation on commodity desktop PCs.
On the development of approximate models for outdoor sound propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Karsten Bo
1998-01-01
The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound propagation depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive method such as Parabolic Equation methods, FFP methods and Boundary Element Methods all have advantages in certain situations. None of these approaches are at present...
Numerical Algorithms for Precise and Efficient Orbit Propagation and Positioning
Bradley, Ben K.
Motivated by the growing space catalog and the demands for precise orbit determination with shorter latency for science and reconnaissance missions, this research improves the computational performance of orbit propagation through more efficient and precise numerical integration and frame transformation implementations. Propagation of satellite orbits is required for astrodynamics applications including mission design, orbit determination in support of operations and payload data analysis, and conjunction assessment. Each of these applications has somewhat different requirements in terms of accuracy, precision, latency, and computational load. This dissertation develops procedures to achieve various levels of accuracy while minimizing computational cost for diverse orbit determination applications. This is done by addressing two aspects of orbit determination: (1) numerical integration used for orbit propagation and (2) precise frame transformations necessary for force model evaluation and station coordinate rotations. This dissertation describes a recently developed method for numerical integration, dubbed Bandlimited Collocation Implicit Runge-Kutta (BLC-IRK), and compare its efficiency in propagating orbits to existing techniques commonly used in astrodynamics. The BLC-IRK scheme uses generalized Gaussian quadratures for bandlimited functions. It requires significantly fewer force function evaluations than explicit Runge-Kutta schemes and approaches the efficiency of the 8th-order Gauss-Jackson multistep method. Converting between the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) and International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) is necessary for many applications in astrodynamics, such as orbit propagation, orbit determination, and analyzing geoscience data from satellite missions. This dissertation provides simplifications to the Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO) transformation scheme and Earth orientation parameter (EOP) storage for use in positioning and
Striving for Empathy: Affinities, Alliances and Peer Sexuality Educators
Fields, Jessica; Copp, Martha
2015-01-01
Peer sexuality educators' accounts of their work reveal two approaches to empathy with their students: affinity and alliance. "Affinity-based empathy" rests on the idea that the more commonalities sexuality educators and students share (or perceive they share), the more they will be able to empathise with one another, while…
Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography
Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.
2015-01-01
The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu [Department of Physics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Synthesis of tetracycline analogs and their bone affinities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Cai Huang; Hu Zheng; Ling Ling Weng
2008-01-01
Tetracycline analogs were designed and synthesized and their bone affinities were tested on hydroxyapatite. The results showedthat the carbonyl-amide-enol structure in A ring and phenol-ketone structure in BCD ring may be responsible for tetracycline's highbone affinity and either A ring or BCD ring has a planar conformation is essential.
Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity
Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J
2014-01-01
Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a heavy-chain-
Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance
Palasantzas, G
2005-01-01
In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0
Frame-independent mechanics:geometry on affine bundles
Grabowska, K.; Grabowski, J.; Urbanski, P.
2005-01-01
Main ideas of the differential geometry on affine bundles are presented. Affine counterparts of Lie algebroid and Poisson structures are introduced and discussed. The developed concepts are applied in a frame-independent formulation of the time-dependent and the Newtonian mechanics.
Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1998-01-01
A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic aci...
High affinity retinoic acid receptor antagonists: analogs of AGN 193109.
Johnson, A T; Wang, L; Gillett, S J; Chandraratna, R A
1999-02-22
A series of high affinity retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonists were prepared based upon the known antagonist AGN 193109 (2). Introduction of various phenyl groups revealed a preference for substitution at the para-position relative to the meta-site. Antagonists with the highest affinities for the RARs possessed hydrophobic groups, however, the presence of polar functionality was also well tolerated.