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Sample records for affinity propagation applications

  1. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  2. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339

  3. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.

  4. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-07-09

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  5. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eSantana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. Neuronal classification has been a difficult problem because it is unclear what a neuronal cell class actually is and what are the best characteristics are to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological or molecular characteristics, when applied to selected datasets, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. We explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. In fact, using a combined anatomical/physiological dataset, our algorithm differentiated parvalbumin from somatostatin interneurons in 49 out of 50 cases. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.

  6. Fast Affinity Propagation Clustering based on Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra Kumar Shrivastava; J. L. Rana; DR.R.C.JAIN

    2013-01-01

    Affinity propagation (AP) was recently introduced as an un-supervised learning algorithm for exemplar based clustering. In this paper a novel Fast Affinity Propagation clustering Approach based on Machine Learning (FAPML) has been proposed. FAPML tries to put data points into clusters based on the history of the data points belonging to clusters in early stages. In FAPML we introduce affinity learning constant and dispersion constant which supervise the clustering process. FAPML also enforces...

  7. Fast Affinity Propagation Clustering based on Machine Learning

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    Shailendra Kumar Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Affinity propagation (AP was recently introduced as an un-supervised learning algorithm for exemplar based clustering. In this paper a novel Fast Affinity Propagation clustering Approach based on Machine Learning (FAPML has been proposed. FAPML tries to put data points into clusters based on the history of the data points belonging to clusters in early stages. In FAPML we introduce affinity learning constant and dispersion constant which supervise the clustering process. FAPML also enforces the exemplar consistency and one of 'N constraints. Experiments conducted on many data sets such as Olivetti faces, Mushroom, Documents summarization, Thyroid, Yeast, Wine quality Red, Balance etc. show that FAPML is up to 54 % faster than the original AP with better Net Similarity.

  8. Semi-supervised clustering using soft-constraint affinity propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Michele; Weigt, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Semi-supervised clustering aims at dividing partially labeled data into groups, assigning labels to previously unlabeled points. It uses both the geometrical organization of the data set and the available labels assigned to few points, giving additional information compared to unsupervised clustering methods. In this letter, we present a novel, computationally efficient and statistically robust semi-supervised clustering algorithm based on soft-constraint affinity propagation. The method is successfully tested on artificial and biological benchmark data.

  9. An Affinity Propagation-Based DNA Motif Discovery Algorithm

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    Chunxiao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted (l,d motif search (PMS is one of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics, which plays an important role in locating transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in DNA sequences. Nowadays, identifying weak motifs and reducing the effect of local optimum are still important but challenging tasks for motif discovery. To solve the tasks, we propose a new algorithm, APMotif, which first applies the Affinity Propagation (AP clustering in DNA sequences to produce informative and good candidate motifs and then employs Expectation Maximization (EM refinement to obtain the optimal motifs from the candidate motifs. Experimental results both on simulated data sets and real biological data sets show that APMotif usually outperforms four other widely used algorithms in terms of high prediction accuracy.

  10. An Affinity Propagation-Based DNA Motif Discovery Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunxiao; Huo, Hongwei; Yu, Qiang; Guo, Haitao; Sun, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The planted (l, d) motif search (PMS) is one of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics, which plays an important role in locating transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in DNA sequences. Nowadays, identifying weak motifs and reducing the effect of local optimum are still important but challenging tasks for motif discovery. To solve the tasks, we propose a new algorithm, APMotif, which first applies the Affinity Propagation (AP) clustering in DNA sequences to produce informative and good candidate motifs and then employs Expectation Maximization (EM) refinement to obtain the optimal motifs from the candidate motifs. Experimental results both on simulated data sets and real biological data sets show that APMotif usually outperforms four other widely used algorithms in terms of high prediction accuracy.

  11. Applications of new affine invariant for polytopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the Schneider's projection problem,Lutwak,Yang and Zhang recently introduced a new .affine invariant functional U(P) for convex polytopes in Rn.In the paper,we obtain the analytic expression of the affine-invariant U(P) defined on a specific subclass of origin-symmetric convex polytopes in Rn and give an application of U(P) to the Lp-Minkowski problem.

  12. An Efficient Clustering Technique for Message Passing between Data Points using Affinity Propagation

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    D. NAPOLEON,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of clustering algorithms is available in literature and still an open area for researcher’s k-means algorithm is one of the basic and most simple partitioning clustering technique is given by Macqueen in 1967. A new clustering algorithm used in this paper is affinity propagation. The number of cluster k has been supplied by the user and the Affinity propagation found clusters with much lower error than other methods, and it did so in less than one-hundredth the amount of time between data point. In this paper we make analysis on cluster algorithm k-means, efficient k-means, and affinity propagation with colon dataset. And the result of affinity ropagation shows much lower error when compare with other algorithm and the average accuracy is good.

  13. Application of PCA and Eros Affinity Propagation Clustering in Financial Data Sets%基于主成分分析和 Eros 的邻近传播算法在金融数据集中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖洪一; 王欣

    2015-01-01

    The multi-dimensional characteristics and high noise characteristics of the financial data set make it hard to analyze the time series.This paper puts forward an algorithm based on the principal component analysis and the Eros affinity propagation clustering.First it uses the principal component analysis method to extract the main eigenvalues of the multivariate financial time series data;then uses the Eros affinity propagation clustering to analyze the extracted eigenvalues.This kind of clustering algo-rithm can make the individual data as an attribute of the original data, through iterate competition to achieve optimal, do not need to find the number of clusters.The research results show that, this integrated method greatly reduces the dimension of the time se-ries, and has a highly correct classification rate.It proves that this algorithm is very effective.%金融数据集的多维特性和高噪声特性使得对金融时间序列数据的分析难上加难,本文提出一种基于主成分分析和Eros的近邻传播的聚类算法。首先利用主成分分析方法对多变量的金融时间序列数据进行降维处理,提取出主要特征值;然后使用基于Eros的近邻传播算法聚类对提取出的特征值进行分析。该聚类方法可以把数据集中的个体当作是原始数据的一个属性,通过迭代竞争达到最优,不需要事先确定聚类数目。研究结果表明,这种集成算法大大降低了时间序列数据的维度,有很高的分类正确率,表明该聚类方法用于金融时间序列数据处理是有效可行的。

  14. Local and global approaches of affinity propagation clustering for large scale data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-yin XIA; Fei WU; Xu-qing ZHANG; Yue-ting ZHUANG

    2008-01-01

    Recently a new clustering algorithm called 'affinity propagation' (AP) has been proposed, which efficiently clustered sparsely related data by passing messages between data points. However, we want to cluster large scale data where the similarities are not sparse in many cases. This paper presents two variants of AP for grouping large scale data with a dense similarity matrix.The local approach is partition affinity propagation (PAP) and the global method is landmark affinity propagation (LAP). PAP passes messages in the subsets of data first and then merges them as the number of initial step of iterations; it can effectively reduce the number of iterations of clustering. LAP passes messages between the landmark data points first and then clusters non-landmarkdata points; it is a large global approximation method to speed up clustering. Experiments are conducted on many datasets, such as random data points, manifold subspaces, images of faces and Chinese calligraphy, and the results demonstrate that the two ap-proaches are feasible and practicable.

  15. Using affinity propagation for identifying subspecies among clonal organisms: lessons from M. tuberculosis

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    Franz Silvio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification and naming is a key step in the analysis, understanding and adequate management of living organisms. However, where to set limits between groups can be puzzling especially in clonal organisms. Within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, experts have first identified several groups according to their pattern at repetitive sequences, especially at the CRISPR locus (spoligotyping, and to their epidemiological relevance. Most groups such as "Beijing" found good support when tested with other loci. However, other groups such as T family and T1 subfamily (belonging to the "Euro-American" lineage correspond to non-monophyletic groups and still need to be refined. Here, we propose to use a method called Affinity Propagation that has been successfully used in image categorization to identify relevant patterns at the CRISPR locus in MTC. Results To adequately infer the relative divergence time between strains, we used a distance method inspired by the recent evolutionary model by Reyes et al. We first confirm that this method performs better than the Jaccard index commonly used to compare spoligotype patterns. Second, we document the support of each spoligotype family among the previous classification using affinity propagation on the international spoligotyping database SpolDB4. This allowed us to propose a consensus assignation for all SpolDB4 spoligotypes. Third, we propose new signatures to subclassify the T family. Conclusion Altogether, this study shows how the new clustering algorithm Affinity Propagation can help building or refining clonal organims classifications. It also describes well-supported families and subfamilies among M. tuberculosis complex, especially inside the modern "Euro-American" lineage.

  16. A multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to find community structures based on affinity propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ronghua; Luo, Shuang; Zhang, Weitong; Stolkin, Rustam; Jiao, Licheng

    2016-07-01

    Community detection plays an important role in reflecting and understanding the topological structure of complex networks, and can be used to help mine the potential information in networks. This paper presents a Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Affinity Propagation (APMOEA) which improves the accuracy of community detection. Firstly, APMOEA takes the method of affinity propagation (AP) to initially divide the network. To accelerate its convergence, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm selects nondominated solutions from the preliminary partitioning results as its initial population. Secondly, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm finds solutions approximating the true Pareto optimal front through constantly selecting nondominated solutions from the population after crossover and mutation in iterations, which overcomes the tendency of data clustering methods to fall into local optima. Finally, APMOEA uses an elitist strategy, called "external archive", to prevent degeneration during the process of searching using the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. According to this strategy, the preliminary partitioning results obtained by AP will be archived and participate in the final selection of Pareto-optimal solutions. Experiments on benchmark test data, including both computer-generated networks and eight real-world networks, show that the proposed algorithm achieves more accurate results and has faster convergence speed compared with seven other state-of-art algorithms.

  17. A Poisson-based adaptive affinity propagation clustering for SAGE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, DongMing; Zhu, QingXin; Yang, Fan

    2010-02-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful tool to obtain gene expression profiles. Clustering analysis is a valuable technique for analyzing SAGE data. In this paper, we propose an adaptive clustering method for SAGE data analysis, namely, PoissonAPS. The method incorporates a novel clustering algorithm, Affinity Propagation (AP). While AP algorithm has demonstrated good performance on many different data sets, it also faces several limitations. PoissonAPS overcomes the limitations of AP using the clustering validation measure as a cost function of merging and splitting, and as a result, it can automatically cluster SAGE data without user-specified parameters. We evaluated PoissonAPS and compared its performance with other methods on several real life SAGE datasets. The experimental results show that PoissonAPS can produce meaningful and interpretable clusters for SAGE data.

  18. An Affinity Propagation Clustering Algorithm for Mixed Numeric and Categorical Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering has been widely used in different fields of science, technology, social science, and so forth. In real world, numeric as well as categorical features are usually used to describe the data objects. Accordingly, many clustering methods can process datasets that are either numeric or categorical. Recently, algorithms that can handle the mixed data clustering problems have been developed. Affinity propagation (AP algorithm is an exemplar-based clustering method which has demonstrated good performance on a wide variety of datasets. However, it has limitations on processing mixed datasets. In this paper, we propose a novel similarity measure for mixed type datasets and an adaptive AP clustering algorithm is proposed to cluster the mixed datasets. Several real world datasets are studied to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Comparisons with other clustering algorithms demonstrate that the proposed method works well not only on mixed datasets but also on pure numeric and categorical datasets.

  19. K-AP: Generating specified K clusters by efficient Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2010-12-01

    The Affinity Propagation (AP) clustering algorithm proposed by Frey and Dueck (2007) provides an understandable, nearly optimal summary of a data set. However, it suffers two major shortcomings: i) the number of clusters is vague with the user-defined parameter called self-confidence, and ii) the quadratic computational complexity. When aiming at a given number of clusters due to prior knowledge, AP has to be launched many times until an appropriate setting of self-confidence is found. The re-launched AP increases the computational cost by one order of magnitude. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, called K-AP, to exploit the immediate results of K clusters by introducing a constraint in the process of message passing. Through theoretical analysis and experimental validation, K-AP was shown to be able to directly generate K clusters as user defined, with a negligible increase of computational cost compared to AP. In the meanwhile, K-AP preserves the clustering quality as AP in terms of the distortion. K-AP is more effective than k-medoids w.r.t. the distortion minimization and higher clustering purity. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. An extended affinity propagation clustering method based on different data density types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, XiuLi; Xu, WeiXiang

    2015-01-01

    Affinity propagation (AP) algorithm, as a novel clustering method, does not require the users to specify the initial cluster centers in advance, which regards all data points as potential exemplars (cluster centers) equally and groups the clusters totally by the similar degree among the data points. But in many cases there exist some different intensive areas within the same data set, which means that the data set does not distribute homogeneously. In such situation the AP algorithm cannot group the data points into ideal clusters. In this paper, we proposed an extended AP clustering algorithm to deal with such a problem. There are two steps in our method: firstly the data set is partitioned into several data density types according to the nearest distances of each data point; and then the AP clustering method is, respectively, used to group the data points into clusters in each data density type. Two experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of our algorithm: one utilizes an artificial data set and the other uses a real seismic data set. The experiment results show that groups are obtained more accurately by our algorithm than OPTICS and AP clustering algorithm itself.

  1. BinSanity: unsupervised clustering of environmental microbial assemblies using coverage and affinity propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, John F.; Tully, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has become an integral part of defining microbial diversity in various environments. Many ecosystems have characteristically low biomass and few cultured representatives. Linking potential metabolisms to phylogeny in environmental microorganisms is important for interpreting microbial community functions and the impacts these communities have on geochemical cycles. However, with metagenomic studies there is the computational hurdle of ‘binning’ contigs into phylogenetically related units or putative genomes. Binning methods have been implemented with varying approaches such as k-means clustering, Gaussian mixture models, hierarchical clustering, neural networks, and two-way clustering; however, many of these suffer from biases against low coverage/abundance organisms and closely related taxa/strains. We are introducing a new binning method, BinSanity, that utilizes the clustering algorithm affinity propagation (AP), to cluster assemblies using coverage with compositional based refinement (tetranucleotide frequency and percent GC content) to optimize bins containing multiple source organisms. This separation of composition and coverage based clustering reduces bias for closely related taxa. BinSanity was developed and tested on artificial metagenomes varying in size and complexity. Results indicate that BinSanity has a higher precision, recall, and Adjusted Rand Index compared to five commonly implemented methods. When tested on a previously published environmental metagenome, BinSanity generated high completion and low redundancy bins corresponding with the published metagenome-assembled genomes. PMID:28289564

  2. Detection-Guided Fast Affine Projection Channel Estimator for Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In various adaptive estimation applications, such as acoustic echo cancellation within teleconferencing systems, the input signal is a highly correlated speech. This, in general, leads to extremely slow convergence of the NLMS adaptive FIR estimator. As a result, for such applications, the affine projection algorithm (APA or the low-complexity version, the fast affine projection (FAP algorithm, is commonly employed instead of the NLMS algorithm. In such applications, the signal propagation channel may have a relatively low-dimensional impulse response structure, that is, the number m of active or significant taps within the (discrete-time modelled channel impulse response is much less than the overall tap length n of the channel impulse response. For such cases, we investigate the inclusion of an active-parameter detection-guided concept within the fast affine projection FIR channel estimator. Simulation results indicate that the proposed detection-guided fast affine projection channel estimator has improved convergence speed and has lead to better steady-state performance than the standard fast affine projection channel estimator, especially in the important case of highly correlated speech input signals.

  3. A Mixed Approach to Similarity Metric Selection in Affinity Propagation-Based WiFi Fingerprinting Indoor Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Giuseppe; de Nardis, Luca; di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella

    2015-10-30

    The weighted k-nearest neighbors (WkNN) algorithm is by far the most popular choice in the design of fingerprinting indoor positioning systems based on WiFi received signal strength (RSS). WkNN estimates the position of a target device by selecting k reference points (RPs) based on the similarity of their fingerprints with the measured RSS values. The position of the target device is then obtained as a weighted sum of the positions of the k RPs. Two-step WkNN positioning algorithms were recently proposed, in which RPs are divided into clusters using the affinity propagation clustering algorithm, and one representative for each cluster is selected. Only cluster representatives are then considered during the position estimation, leading to a significant computational complexity reduction compared to traditional, flat WkNN. Flat and two-step WkNN share the issue of properly selecting the similarity metric so as to guarantee good positioning accuracy: in two-step WkNN, in particular, the metric impacts three different steps in the position estimation, that is cluster formation, cluster selection and RP selection and weighting. So far, however, the only similarity metric considered in the literature was the one proposed in the original formulation of the affinity propagation algorithm. This paper fills this gap by comparing different metrics and, based on this comparison, proposes a novel mixed approach in which different metrics are adopted in the different steps of the position estimation procedure. The analysis is supported by an extensive experimental campaign carried out in a multi-floor 3D indoor positioning testbed. The impact of similarity metrics and their combinations on the structure and size of the resulting clusters, 3D positioning accuracy and computational complexity are investigated. Results show that the adoption of metrics different from the one proposed in the original affinity propagation algorithm and, in particular, the combination of different

  4. Fundamentals and application of ordered molecular assemblies to affinity biosensing.

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    Matharu, Zimple; Bandodkar, Amay Jairaj; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2012-02-07

    Organization of biomolecules in two/three dimensional assemblies has recently aroused much interest in nanobiotechnology. In this context, the development of techniques for controlling spatial arrangement and orientation of the desired molecules to generate highly-ordered nanostructures in the form of a mono/multi layer is considered highly significant. The studies of monolayer films to date have focused on three distinct methods of preparation: (i) the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, involving the transfer of a monolayer assembled at the gas-liquid interface; (ii) self-assembly at the liquid-solid interface, based on spontaneous adsorption of desired molecules from a solution directly onto a solid surface; and (iii) Layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly at a liquid-solid interface, based on inter-layer electrostatic attractions for fabrication of multilayers. A variety of monolayers have been utilized to fabricate biomolecular electronic devices including biosensors. The composition of a monolayer based matrix has been found to influence the activity(ies) of biomolecule(s). We present comprehensive and critical analysis of ordered molecular assemblies formed by LB and self-assembly with potential applications to affinity biosensing. This critical review on fundamentals and application of ordered molecular assemblies to affinity biosensing is likely to benefit researchers working in this as well as related fields of research (401 references).

  5. Affine diffusions and related processes simulation, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of affine diffusions, from Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to Wishart processes and it considers some related diffusions such as Wright-Fisher processes. It focuses on different simulation schemes for these processes, especially second-order schemes for the weak error. It also presents some models, mostly in the field of finance, where these methods are relevant and provides some numerical experiments. The book explains the mathematical background to understand affine diffusions and analyze the accuracy of the schemes.  

  6. Application of propagating beam methods to electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation problems - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.E.; Baets, R.

    1987-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various propagating beam methods (BPMs) used in the solution of electromagnetic and acoustical problems are considered. The basic assumptions and approximations which are necessary for the derivation of the BPM algorithm are discussed with respect to applications to acoustics and optics and linear and nonlinear materials. Particular attention is given to the case of passive waveguiding structures and the role that BPM can play in the analysis of nonlinear structures such as semiconductor lasers. 28 references.

  7. Application of propagating beam methods to electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation problems - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P. E.; Baets, R.

    1987-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various propagating beam methods (BPMs) used in the solution of electromagnetic and acoustical problems are considered. The basic assumptions and approximations which are necessary for the derivation of the BPM algorithm are discussed with respect to applications to acoustics and optics and linear and nonlinear materials. Particular attention is given to the case of passive waveguiding structures and the role that BPM can play in the analysis of nonlinear structures such as semiconductor lasers.

  8. APPLICATION OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN-BINDING PROTEINS A, G, L IN THE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Sviatenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteins A, G and L are native or recombinant proteins of microbial origin that bind to mammalian immunoglobulins. Preferably recombinant variants of proteins A, G, L are used in biotechnology for affinity sorbents production. Сomparative characteristics of proteins A, G, L and affinity sorbents on the basis of them, advantages and disadvantages of these proteins application as ligands in the affinity chromatography are done. Analysis of proteins A, G, L properties is presented. Binding specificities and affinities of these proteins differ between species and antibody subclass. Protein А has high affinity to human IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, mouse IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, goat and sheep IgG2, dog, cat, guinea pig, rabbit IgG. Protein G binds strongly to human, mouse, cow, goat, sheep and rabbit IgG. Protein L has ability of strong binding to immunoglobulin kappa-chains of human, mouse, rat and pig. Expediency of application of affinity chromatography with usage of sorbents on the basis of immobilized proteins A, G, L are shown for isolation and purification of antibodies different classes. Previously mentioned method is used as an alternative to conventional methods of protein purification, such as ion-exchange, hydrophobic interactions, metal affinity chromatography, ethanol precipitation due to simplicity in usage, possibility of one-step purification process, obtaining of proteins high level purity, multiuse at maintenance of proper storage and usage conditions. Affinity sorbents on the basis of immobilized proteins A, G, L are used not only for antibodies purification, but also for extraction of different antibodies fractions from blood serum.

  9. Affine bracket algebra theory and algorithms and their applications in mechanical theorem proving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses two problems:one is some important theories and algorithms of affine bracket algebra;the other is about their applications in mechanical theorem proving.First we give some efficient algorithms including the boundary expanding algorithm which is a key feature in application.We analyze the characteristics of the boundary operator and this is the base for the implementation of the system.We also give some new theories or methods about the exact division,the representations and structure of affine geometry and so on.In practice,we implement the mechanical auto-proving system in Maple 10 based on the above algorithms and theories.Also we test about more than 100 examples and compare the results with the methods before.

  10. Affine bracket algebra theory and algorithms and their applications in mechanical theorem proving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning ZHANG; Hong-bo LI

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses two problems: one is some important theories and algorithms of affine bracket algebra; the other is about their applications in mechanical theorem proving. First we give some efficient algorithms including the boundary expanding algorithm which is a key feature in application. We analyze the characteristics of the boundary operator and this is the base for the implementation of the system. We also give some new theories or methods about the exact division, the representations and structure of affine geometry and so on. In practice, we implement the mechanical auto-proving system in Maple 10 based on the above algorithms and theories. Also we test about more than 100 examples and compare the results with the methods before.

  11. Clustering of Symbolic Data based on Affinity Coefficient: Application to a Real Data Set

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Áurea; Bacelar-Nicolau,Helena; Nicolau, Fernando C.; Silva, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Copyright © 2013 Walter de Gruyter GmbH. In this paper, we illustrate an application of Ascendant Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (AHCA) to complex data taken from the literature (interval data), based on the standardized weighted generalized affinity coefficient, by the method of Wald and Wolfowitz. The probabilistic aggregation criteria used belong to a parametric family of methods under the probabilistic approach of AHCA, named VL methodology. Finally, we compare the results achieved usin...

  12. Polystyrene-type resin used for peptide synthesis: application for anion-exchange and affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Regina S H; Ianzer, Danielle A; Malavolta, Luciana; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Cilli, Eduardo M; Nakaie, Clovis R

    2005-03-25

    This paper deals with an unusual application for a copolymer of styrene-1% divinylbenzene bearing high amount of aminomethyl groups for anion-exchange and affinity chromatography. The so-called aminomethyl resin (AMR), to date only employed for peptide synthesis, swelled appreciably in water and was used successfully to purify negatively charged peptides. By correlating swelling degree of beads with pH of the media, it was possible to estimate that the AMR amino group pK(a) is approximately 5.5. In addition, the synthesized acetyl-(NANP)3-AMR succeeded in the affinity interaction with large antibody molecules related to malaria transmission and raised previously against this dodecapeptide sequence.

  13. Respiratory motion correction for PET oncology applications using affine transformation of list mode data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Cresson, T [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Savean, J [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Rest, C Cheze Le [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Reader, A J [Department of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Visvikis, D [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France)

    2007-01-07

    Respiratory motion is a source of artefacts and reduced image quality in PET. Proposed methodology for correction of respiratory effects involves the use of gated frames, which are however of low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore a method accounting for respiratory motion effects without affecting the statistical quality of the reconstructed images is necessary. We have implemented an affine transformation of list mode data for the correction of respiratory motion over the thorax. The study was performed using datasets of the NCAT phantom at different points throughout the respiratory cycle. List mode data based PET simulated frames were produced by combining the NCAT datasets with a Monte Carlo simulation. Transformation parameters accounting for respiratory motion were estimated according to an affine registration and were subsequently applied on the original list mode data. The corrected and uncorrected list mode datasets were subsequently reconstructed using the one-pass list mode EM (OPL-EM) algorithm. Comparison of corrected and uncorrected respiratory motion average frames suggests that an affine transformation in the list mode data prior to reconstruction can produce significant improvements in accounting for respiratory motion artefacts in the lungs and heart. However, the application of a common set of transformation parameters across the imaging field of view does not significantly correct the respiratory effects on organs such as the stomach, liver or spleen.

  14. Applicability of Parametrized Form of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation with an effective gluon propagator, a parametrized fully dressed confining quark propagator is suggested in this paper. The parametrized quark propagator describes a confined quark propagation in hadron, and is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The vector and scalar self-energy functions [1 - Af(p2)] and [Bf(p2) - mf], dynamically running effective mass of quark Mf(p2) and the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as local quark vacuum condensates are predicted by use of the parametrized quark propagator. The results are compatible with other theoretical calculations.

  15. Application of coupled affinity-sizing chromatography for the detection of proteolyzed HSA-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Patel, Kunal; Quinn, Lisa; Lemmerer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Coupled affinity liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography (ALC-SEC) is a technique that has been shown to successfully report product quality of proteins during cell expression and prior to the commencement of downstream processing chromatography steps. This method was applied to monitoring the degradation and subsequent partial remediation of a HSA-tagged protein which showed proteolysis, allowing for rapid cell line development to address this product quality dilemma. This paper outlines the novel application of this method for measuring and addressing protease-induced proteolysis.

  16. Advances and applications of binding affinity prediction methods in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Marco Daniele; Rastelli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the improvement of R&D productivity is the primary commitment in pharmaceutical research, both in big pharma and smaller biotech companies. To reduce costs, to speed up the discovery process and to increase the chance of success, advanced methods of rational drug design are very helpful, as demonstrated by several successful applications. Among these, computational methods able to predict the binding affinity of small molecules to specific biological targets are of special interest because they can accelerate the discovery of new hit compounds. Here we provide an overview of the most widely used methods in the field of binding affinity prediction, as well as of our own work in developing BEAR, an innovative methodology specifically devised to overtake some limitations in existing approaches. The BEAR method was successfully validated against different biological targets, and proved its efficacy in retrieving active compounds from virtual screening campaigns. The results obtained so far indicate that BEAR may become a leading tool in the drug discovery pipeline. We primarily discuss advantages and drawbacks of each technique and show relevant examples and applications in drug discovery.

  17. A current perspective on applications of macrocyclic‐peptide‐based high‐affinity ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Daniël; ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Monoclonal antibodies can bind with high affinity and high selectivity to their targets. As a tool in therapeutics or diagnostics, however, their large size (∼150 kDa) reduces penetration into tissue and prevents passive cellular uptake. To overcome these and other problems, minimized protein scaffolds have been chosen or engineered, with care taken to not compromise binding affinity or specificity. An alternate approach is to begin with a minimal non‐antibody scaffold and select functional ligands from a de novo library. We will discuss the structure, production, applications, strengths, and weaknesses of several classes of antibody‐derived ligands, that is, antibodies, intrabodies, and nanobodies, and nonantibody‐derived ligands, that is, monobodies, affibodies, and macrocyclic peptides. In particular, this review is focussed on macrocyclic peptides produced by the Random non‐standard Peptides Integrated Discovery (RaPID) system that are small in size (typically ∼2 kDa), but are able to perform tasks typically handled by larger proteinaceous ligands. PMID:27352774

  18. Fractional calculus with applications in mechanics wave propagation, impact and variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Atanackovic, Teodor M; Stankovic, Bogoljub; Zorica, Du?an

    2014-01-01

    The books Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Vibrations and Diffusion Processes and Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Wave Propagation, Impact and Variational Principles contain various applications of fractional calculus to the fields of classical mechanics. Namely, the books study problems in fields such as viscoelasticity of fractional order, lateral vibrations of a rod of fractional order type, lateral vibrations of a rod positioned on fractional order viscoelastic foundations, diffusion-wave phenomena, heat conduction, wave propagation, forced oscillati

  19. Microwave propagation and remote sensing atmospheric influences with models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Pranab Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the probl

  20. Propagation of elastic waves through textured polycrystals: application to ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Agnès; Lund, Fernando; Montagnat, Maurine

    2015-05-08

    The propagation of elastic waves in polycrystals is revisited, with an emphasis on configurations relevant to the study of ice. Randomly oriented hexagonal single crystals are considered with specific, non-uniform, probability distributions for their major axis. Three typical textures or fabrics (i.e. preferred grain orientations) are studied in detail: one cluster fabric and two girdle fabrics, as found in ice recovered from deep ice cores. After computing the averaged elasticity tensor for the considered textures, wave propagation is studied using a wave equation with elastic constants c=〈c〉+δc that are equal to an average plus deviations, presumed small, from that average. This allows for the use of the Voigt average in the wave equation, and velocities are obtained solving the appropriate Christoffel equation. The velocity for vertical propagation, as appropriate to interpret sonic logging measurements, is analysed in more details. Our formulae are shown to be accurate at the 0.5% level and they provide a rationale for previous empirical fits to wave propagation velocities with a quantitative agreement at the 0.07-0.7% level. We conclude that, within the formalism presented here, it is appropriate to use, with confidence, velocity measurements to characterize ice fabrics.

  1. Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth...... are considered. The consequences of this bounding for communication network planning and provisioning are discussed in relation to mitigating the effects of signal propagation delay as a barrier to the penetration of control applications into WAN...

  2. Describing high-dimensional dynamics with low-dimensional piecewise affine models: applications to renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a low-dimensional description for a high-dimensional system, which is a piecewise affine model whose state space is divided by permutations. We show that the proposed model tends to predict wind speeds and photovoltaic outputs for the time scales from seconds to 100 s better than by global affine models. In addition, computations using the piecewise affine model are much faster than those of usual nonlinear models such as radial basis function models.

  3. Application of Epidemiology Model on Complex Networks in Propagation Dynamics of Airspace Congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxu; Hu, Minghua; Tian, Wen; Xie, Daoyi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a propagation dynamics model for congestion propagation in complex networks of airspace. It investigates the application of an epidemiology model to complex networks by comparing the similarities and differences between congestion propagation and epidemic transmission. The model developed satisfies the constraints of actual motion in airspace, based on the epidemiology model. Exploiting the constraint that the evolution of congestion cluster in the airspace is always dynamic and heterogeneous, the SIR epidemiology model (one of the classical models in epidemic spreading) with logistic increase is applied to congestion propagation and shown to be more accurate in predicting the evolution of congestion peak than the model based on probability, which is common to predict the congestion propagation. Results from sample data show that the model not only predicts accurately the value and time of congestion peak, but also describes accurately the characteristics of congestion propagation. Then, a numerical study is performed in which it is demonstrated that the structure of the networks have different effects on congestion propagation in airspace. It is shown that in regions with severe congestion, the adjustment of dissipation rate is more significant than propagation rate in controlling the propagation of congestion.

  4. Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, AH

    1995-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.

  5. Imaging by forward propagating the data: Theory and application

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Akbar

    2013-02-27

    The forward (modelled) wavefield for conventional reverse time migration (RTM) is computed by extrapolating the wavefield from an estimated source wavelet. In the typical case of a smooth subsurface velocity, this wavefield lacks the components, including surface reflections, necessary to image multiples in the observed data. We, instead, introduce the concept of forward propagating the recorded data, including direct arrivals, as part of RTM. We analyse the influence of the main components of the data on the imaging process, which include direct arrivals, primaries and surface-related multiples. In our RTM methodology, this implies correlating the forward extrapolated recorded data wavefield with its reversely extrapolated version prior to applying the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition. The interaction of the data components with each other in the cross-correlation process will image primaries and multiples, as well as introduce cross-talk artefact terms. However, some of these artefacts are present in conventional RTM implementation and they tend to be relatively weak. In fact, for the surface seismic experiment, forward propagating the direct arrivals is almost equivalent to forward propagating a source and it tends to contribute the majority of the data imaging energy. In addition, primaries and multiples recorded in the data become multiples of one higher order. Forward propagating the recorded data to recreate the source will relieve us from the requirement of estimating the source function. It will also include near-surface information necessary to improve the image in areas with near-surface complexity. Data from a simple synthetic layered model, as well as the Marmousi model, are used to demonstrate some of these features. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  6. On affine rigidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Gortler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of affine rigidity of a hypergraph and prove a variety of fundamental results. First, we show that affine rigidity is a generic property (i.e., depends only on the hypergraph, not the particular embedding. Then we prove that a graph is generically neighborhood affinely rigid in d-dimensional space if it is (d+1-vertex-connected. We also show neighborhood affine rigidity of a graph implies universal rigidity of its squared graph.  Our results, and affine rigidity more generally, have natural applications in point registration and localization, as well as connections to manifold learning.

  7. Preparation of Chitosan-coated Nylon Membranes and their Application as Affinity Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei SHI; Feng Bao ZHANG; Guo Liang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan-coated nylon membranes which possess a large number of reactive groups of-CH2OH and -NH2 were prepared by coupling chitosan onto the nylon membrane. Then polylysine as ligand was also immobilized onto the composite membranes by 1, l′-carbonyldiimidazole activation to prepare affinity membranes for bilirubin adsorption. The results showed that these membranes exhibited high binding affinity capacities for bilirubin and the adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model well.

  8. Brief review on PE method application to propagation channel modeling in sea environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkova, Irina

    2012-03-01

    This work provides an introduction to one of the most widely used advanced methods for wave propagation modeling, the Parabolic Equation (PE) method, with emphasis on its application to tropospheric radio propagation in coastal and maritime regions. The assumptions of the derivation, the advantages and drawbacks of the PE, the numerical methods for solving it, and the boundary and initial conditions for its application to the tropospheric propagation problem are briefly discussed. More details are given for the split-step Fourier-transform (SSF) solution of the PE. The environmental input to the PE, the methods for tropospheric refractivity profiling, their accuracy, limitations, and the average refractivity modeling are also summarized. The reported results illustrate the application of finite element (FE) based and SSF-based solutions of the PE for one of the most difficult to treat propagation mechanisms, yet of great significance for the performance of radars and communications links working in coastal and maritime zones — the tropospheric ducting mechanism. Recent achievements, some unresolved issues and ongoing developments related to further improvements of the PE method application to the propagation channel modeling in sea environment are highlighted.

  9. A Multi-Model Approach for Uncertainty Propagation and Model Calibration in CFD Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jian-xun; Xiao, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Proper quantification and propagation of uncertainties in computational simulations are of critical importance. This issue is especially challenging for CFD applications. A particular obstacle for uncertainty quantifications in CFD problems is the large model discrepancies associated with the CFD models used for uncertainty propagation. Neglecting or improperly representing the model discrepancies leads to inaccurate and distorted uncertainty distribution for the Quantities of Interest. High-fidelity models, being accurate yet expensive, can accommodate only a small ensemble of simulations and thus lead to large interpolation errors and/or sampling errors; low-fidelity models can propagate a large ensemble, but can introduce large modeling errors. In this work, we propose a multi-model strategy to account for the influences of model discrepancies in uncertainty propagation and to reduce their impact on the predictions. Specifically, we take advantage of CFD models of multiple fidelities to estimate the model ...

  10. Applications of on-line weak affinity interactions in free solution capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Nissen, Mogens H; Chen, David D Y

    2002-01-01

    The impressive selectivity offered by capillary electrophoresis can in some cases be further increased when ligands or additives that engage in weak affinity interactions with one or more of the separated analytes are added to the electrophoresis buffer. This on-line affinity capillary...... enantiomers and on using capillary electrophoresis to characterize such interactions quantitatively. We describe the equations for binding isotherms, illustrate how selectivity can be manipulated by varying the additive concentrations, and show how the methods may be used to estimate binding constants. On......-line affinity capillary electrophoresis methods are especially valuable for enantiomeric separations and for functional characterization of the contents of biological samples that are only available in minute quantities....

  11. Abrupt fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on affinity propagation clustering%基于相似性传播聚类的航空发动机突发故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 王仲生; 姜洪开

    2014-01-01

    针对航空发动机突发故障,构建了一种基于相似性传播聚类的突发故障诊断方法。首先利用突发故障历史监测数据建立突发故障数据库,通过相似性传播聚类找到数据库中所有突发故障数据的中心,当诊断新采集数据的突发故障类型时,通过相似性传播聚类找到当前新采集数据的中心,经过与突发故障数据库中的数据中心进行匹配判断该新采集数据所对应的突发故障类型。将该突发故障诊断方法应用到发动机转子实验台的突发故障诊断中,仿真和实验结果表明该方法的可行性,并通过与其他方法比较,表明该方法具有诊断时间短和误差小的优点。%Aiming at aero-engine faults,an abrupt fault diagnosis method based on affinity propagation clustering was proposed.Abrupt fault historical monitoring data were used to establish faults database.Through affinity propagation clustering,all the exemplars of abrupt faults in the database were found and the affinity propagation clustering was applied once again to find the exemplar of the new collected data.The fault type was then identified by matching the center with the centers obtained from the faults database.The method was used in the aero-engine abrupt fault diagnosis.The simulation and experiment results show that the method is feasible to diagnose abrupt fault,and compared with other methods,it needs shorter time consuming and produces lower error.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Radio Signal Propagation in Scientific Facilities for Telerobotic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ramviyas Parasuraman; Keith Kershaw(CERN); Manuel Ferre

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the radio signal transmission characteristics in the environment where the telerobotic application is sought is a key part of achieving a reliable wireless communication link between a telerobot and a control station. In this paper, wireless communication requirements and a case study of a typical telerobotic application in an underground facility at CERN are presented. Then, the theoretical and experimental characteristics of radio propagation are investigated with respect to t...

  13. Affine nonmagnetic transformation optics and its application to a practical bending adapter design

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hongyi; Yu, Tianyuan; Barbastathis, George; Sun, Handong

    2011-01-01

    One of the bottlenecks that limit the transition of transformation-optics devices from concepts to practical use is the nonunit magnetic permeability generally required from a mathematical transformation. Simple renormalization of permeability, as used in many previous designs and experiments, introduces impedance mismatch and thus degrades the functional photonic performance. Here we propose an area-preserving affine coordinate transformation as a general method to solve this problem. Ideal transformation-optics functions can be preserved while nonmagnetism is achieved. As a specific example, we illustrate how to apply this affine method into the design of a two-dimensional electromagnetic beam bending adapter. Concerns related to fabrication, such as anisotropy degree and bending angles, are fully discussed. Our study is a significant step toward practical use of ideal transformation optics devices that can be implemented directly with existing dielectric materials.

  14. Application of Frontal Affinity Chromatography to Study the Biomolecular Interactions with Trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuanYuan; Qian, Junqing; Guo, Hui; Jiang, ShengLan; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Trypsin is a serine protease that has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders and malignancy diseases, thus the identification of biomolecular interactions of compounds to trypsin could be of great therapeutic importance. In this study, trypsin was immobilized on a monolithic silica capillary column via sol-gel. The binding properties of four small molecules (daidzin, genistin, matrine and oxymatrine) to trypsin were examined using the trypsin affinity columns by frontal analysis. The results indicate that the matrine (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.904 μM) has stronger interaction with trypsin than the oxymatrine (Kd = 8.204 μM), whereas daidzin and genistin were nearly have no affinity with trypsin. The results demonstrated that the frontal affinity chromatography can be used for the direct determination of protein-protease inhibitor binding interactions and have several significant advantages, including easy fabricating, reproducible, minimal technological requirements and potential to become a reliable alternative for quantitative studies of biomolecular interactions.

  15. 基于改进近邻传播聚类的异构无线传感器网络分簇算法%Clustering Algorithm Based on P-Changed Affinity Propagation for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟民; 王月琴; 梁毅; 祁荣宾; 钱锋

    2012-01-01

    Based on AP (Affinity Propagation) algorithm, a new algorithm named CPAP ( Clustering based on P-changed Affinity Propagation) is proposed. For the background of heterogeneous wireless sensor network,CPAP changes the conventional set mode of preference p, and considering both energy and distance while clustering. Besides, by analysing and comparing the effects of the parameter K, its approximate optimal value is achieved. Simulation results show that compared with PECBA, the first nodes death time is delayed by 28. 5% in CPAP, which illustrates that the proposed solution makes a better utilization of energy before network is dead and enhances the energy efficiency.%在近邻传播聚类算法基础上提出了基于偏向参数P可变的分簇路由算法CPAP,该算法针对异构无线传感器网络的特殊背景,改变AP算法偏向参数P的常规设置方式,综合考虑能量、距离因素解决分簇问题;另外,分析了算法中K参数的影响,取得其近似最优值.仿真结果表明:CPAP与PECBA相比,第一死亡节点出现时间推迟了28.5%,将更多的能量用于网络开始死亡之前,提高了网络的能量利用率.

  16. Fingerprint-based algorithm of indoor localization based on singularity detection and affinity propagation clustering%基于奇异值检测和AP聚类的室内指纹定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚虎

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem caused by fluctuation of received signal strength indicator and large computing capacity in on‐line measurement ,an indoor localization algorithm based on singularity detection and affinity propagation clustering was proposed . Taking advantage of Hampel filter and KDE ,a method of singularity detection was proposed ,then affinity propagation clustering algorithm was used to cluster received signal strength indicator .Rough and meticulous localization method was used to locate the consumer .The algorithm proposed can improve localization accuracy and reduce computing capacity Comparing with the tradi‐tional method .%为克服基于无线局域网指纹定位算法中接收信号值波动和在线检测时计算量大的问题,提出一种基于奇异值检测和A P聚类的无线局域网指纹定位算法。分析 H am pel滤波器和核概率密度估计在接收信号强度值中奇异值检测的不足,结合Hampel滤波器和核概率密度估计两种方法在奇异值检测中的优势,给出一种奇异值检测算法;利用 AP聚类算法,对离线训练系统中的信号强度测量值进行聚类;通过AP聚类粗检测和基于加权 k近邻算法的细检测评估得到用户位置,完成定位。对比传统方法,该定位算法能够提高定位的准确性,降低算法的计算复杂度。

  17. Application of a novel affinity adsorbent for the capture and purification of recombinant factor VIII compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin T; Selvitelli, Keith; Walker, Joshua

    2009-11-06

    Recombinant Factor VIII (FVIII) therapies have been created to provide treatment for Hemophilia A, an inherited bleeding disorder caused by mutation in the FVIII gene. A major challenge in the purification of recombinant FVIII molecules is the development of an affinity chromatography step. Such a step must be highly specific and selective for the FVIII molecule, but also must be designed appropriately to ensure the FVIII molecule can be effectively recovered without resorting to harsh elution conditions which may be harmful to the product. Additionally, it is desirable to have affinity adsorbents designed to be reusable over a large number of column cycles while maintaining consistent purification performance. In this work, we describe the use of VIIISelect, a commercially available affinity adsorbent designed specifically for the purification of FVIII compounds. The VIIISelect adsorbent consists of a 13kDa recombinant protein ligand attached to a cross-linked agarose base matrix. The structure of the recombinant ligand is based upon Camelid-derived single domain antibody fragments. The VIIISelect adsorbent is produced using a process free of animal-derived raw materials, which is a highly desirable attribute for adsorbents used in the purification processes of recombinant protein therapeutics. The VIIISelect adsorbent was used as the initial capture column to purify a FVIII compound directly from clarified cell culture fluid prior to further downstream purification. The purification performance of the VIIISelect was evaluated, which included measurement of the static binding capacity, dynamic binding capacity, product recovery, impurity clearance, and adsorbent reuse. Following laboratory-scale process development, the VIIISelect adsorbent was scaled up and used in the large scale manufacturing of a FVIII compound.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Radio Signal Propagation in Scientific Facilities for Telerobotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramviyas Parasuraman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the radio signal transmission characteristics in the environment where the telerobotic application is sought is a key part of achieving a reliable wireless communication link between a telerobot and a control station. In this paper, wireless communication requirements and a case study of a typical telerobotic application in an underground facility at CERN are presented. Then, the theoretical and experimental characteristics of radio propagation are investigated with respect to time, distance, location and surrounding objects. Based on analysis of the experimental findings, we show how a commercial wireless system, such as Wi-Fi, can be made suitable for a case study application at CERN.

  19. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the development and evaluation of aptamer affinity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooter, Letha J.; McMasters, Sun; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2007-09-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers can exhibit high binding affinities for a wide variety of targets and have received much attention as molecular recognition elements for enhanced biosensor performance. These aptamers recognize target molecules through a combination of conformational dependent non-covalent interactions in aqueous media which can be investigated using capillary electrophoresis-based methods. In this paper we report on the results of our studies of the relative binding affinity of Campylobacter jejuni aptamers using a capillary electrophoretic immunoassay. Our results show preferential binding to C. jejuni over other common food pathogen bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis can also be used to develop new aptamer recognition elements using an in vitro selection process known as systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Recently, this process has been adapted to use capillary electrophoresis in an attempt to shorten the overall selection process. This smart selection of nucleic acid aptamers from a large diversity of a combinatorial DNA library is under optimization for the development of aptamers which bind to Army-relevant targets. This paper will include a discussion of the establishment of CE-SELEX methods for the future development of smart aptamer probes.

  20. Study of the propagation and detection of the orbital angular momentum of light for astrophysical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sponselli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the propagation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for astrophysical applications and a method for OAM detection with optical telescopes. The thesis deals with the study of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a new observable for astronomers, which could give additional information with respect to those already inferred from the analysis of the intensity, frequency and polarization of light. Indeed, the main purpose of this work is to highlight th...

  1. Impedance Matching for Discrete, Periodic Media and Application to Two-Scale Wave Propagation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Senganal

    This dissertation introduces the idea of an equivalent continuous medium (ECM) that has the same impedance as that of an unbounded discrete periodic medium. Contrary to existing knowledge, we constructively show that it is indeed possible to achieve perfect matching for periodic and discrete media. We present analytical results relating the propagation characteristics of periodic media and the corresponding ECM, leading to the development of numerical methods for wave propagation in these media. In this dissertation, we present the main idea of ECM and apply it, with mixed results, to seemingly different problems requiring effective numerical methods for modeling wave propagation in unbounded media. An immediate application of ECM is in developing absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) for wave propagation in unbounded discrete media. Using the idea of ECM, and building on class of continuous ABCs called perfectly matched discrete layers (PMDL), we propose a new class of discrete ABCs called discrete PMDL and develop frequency domain formulations that are shown to be superior to continuous ABCs. Another application that is explored in this dissertation is the design of interface conditions for concurrent coupling of two-scale wave propagation models, e.g. Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) coupling. We propose a domain-decomposition (DD) approach and develop accurate interface conditions that are critical for the concurrent coupling of the two-scale models. It turns out that time-domain discrete ABCs are key to the the accuracy of these interface conditions. Since discrete PMDL is well-posed and accurate for the model problem, we build on it to propose an efficient and accurate interface condition for two-scale wave propagation models. Although many open problems remain with respect to implementation, we believe that the proposed DD based approach is a good first step towards achieving efficient coupling of two-scale wave propagation models. Time-domain discrete PMDL can

  2. Affinity in electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Niels H H

    2009-06-01

    The journal Electrophoresis has greatly influenced my approaches to biomolecular affinity studies. The methods that I have chosen as my main tools to study interacting biomolecules--native gel and later capillary zone electrophoresis--have been the topic of numerous articles in Electrophoresis. Below, the role of the journal in the development and dissemination of these techniques and applications reviewed. Many exhaustive reviews on affinity electrophoresis and affinity CE have been published in the last few years and are not in any way replaced by the present deliberations that are focused on papers published by the journal.

  3. Aerodynamic distortion propagation calculation in application of high-speed target detection by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao

    2015-10-01

    Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.

  4. Development and Applications of Benchmark Examples for Static Delamination Propagation Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The development and application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasistatic delamination propagation capabilities was demonstrated for ANSYS (TradeMark) and Abaqus/Standard (TradeMark). The examples selected were based on finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimens. First, quasi-static benchmark results were created based on an approach developed previously. Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in ANSYS (TradeMark) and Abaqus/Standard (TradeMark). Input control parameters were varied to study the effect on the computed delamination propagation. Overall, the benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the appropriate input parameters for the VCCT implementations in ANSYS® and Abaqus/Standard®. However, further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required. Additionally studies should include the assessment of the propagation capabilities in more complex specimens and on a structural level.

  5. Integral Value Transformations: A Class of Affine Discrete Dynamical Systems and an Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Sk S; Nayak, B K; Ghosh, A; Banerjee, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of Integral Value Transformations (IVTs), a class of Discrete Dynamical Maps has been introduced. Then notion of Affine Discrete Dynamical System (ADDS) in the light of IVTs is defined and some rudimentary mathematical properties of the system are depicted. Collatz Conjecture is one of the most enigmatic problems in 20th Century. The Conjecture was posed by German Mathematician L. Collatz in 1937. There are much advancement in generalizing and defining analogous conjectures, but even to the date, there is no fruitful result for the advancement for the settlement of the conjecture. We have made an effort to make a Collatz type problem in the domain of IVTs and we have been able to solve the problem in 2011 [1]. Here mainly, we have focused and inquired on Collatz-like ADDS. Finally, we have designed the Optimal Distributed and Parallel Environment (ODPE) in the light of ADDS.

  6. Affinity reagent technology development and application to rapid immunochromatographic pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooter, Letha J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Zhang, Yanting; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, H. Tom; Pellegrino, Paul; Stagliano, Nancy

    2007-09-01

    Immunochromatography is a rapid, reliable, and cost effective method of detecting biowarfare agents. The format is similar to that of an over-the-counter pregnancy test. A sample is applied to one end of a cassette and then a control line, and possibly a sample line, are visualized at the other end of the cassette. The test is based upon a sandwich assay. For the control, a line of Protein A is immobilized on the membrane. Gold nanoparticle bound IgG flows through the membrane and binds the Protein A, creating a visible line on the membrane. For the sample, one epitope is immobilized on the membrane and another epitope is attached to gold nanoparticles. The sample binds gold bound epitope, travels through the membrane, and binds membrane bound epitope. The two epitopes are not cross-reactive, therefore a sample line is only visible if the sample is present. In order to efficiently screen for binders to a sample target, a novel, Continuous Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (CMACS) has been developed on a disposable, microfluidic platform. The CMACS chip quickly sorts E. coli peptide libraries for target binders with high affinity. Peptide libraries, are composed of approximately ten million bacteria, each displaying a different peptide on their surface. The target of interest is conjugated to a micrometer sized magnetic particle. After the library and the target are incubated together to allow binding, the mixture is applied to the CMACS chip. In the presence of patterned nickel and an external magnet, separation occurs of the bead-bound bacteria from the bulk material. The bead fraction is added to bacterial growth media where any attached E. coli grow and divide. These cells are cloned, sequenced, and the peptides are assayed for target binding affinity. As a proof-of-principle, assays were developed for human C-reactive protein. More defense relevant targets are currently being pursued.

  7. 改进近邻传播聚类算法的抗生素处方行为%Antibiotic Prescribing Behavior of Physicians Based on Improved Affinity Propagation Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶枫; 钟会玲

    2015-01-01

    A method based on improved affinity propagation clustering of data warehouse is proposed by analyzing physicians’ antibiotic prescribing practices in this article. Loading pivottable by the data warehouse, we can select a representative physicians’ antibiotic prescription data and find the internal factors of antibiotic prescribing behavior of physicians through improved affinity propagation. The data is from the antibiotic prescription of information system of a first-class hospital in Zhejiang province in 2012, which is studied through cross-sectional. Firstly, we build the data warehouse, then cluster and reduce the dimensionality of data set by improved affinity propagation clustering to get the training set and test set. Finally, the results show that different departments, months and types of antibiotics have significant impacts on the data of antibiotic prescriptions. There are significant differences of cephalosporin and penicillin with seasonal changes in this hospital which can be used as evaluation index of the doctor’s prescription.%通过有效分析某医院抗生素处方行为,提出了一种基于数据仓库改进的近邻传播聚类方法,利用数据仓库透视出所需数据,而利用改进的近邻传播聚类方法在数据仓库的基础上聚类出具有代表性医生的抗生素处方数据,找到抗生素处方行为的影响因素以及规范医生处方行为的评价指标.采用2012年浙江省某三甲医院信息系统中的抗生素处方数据,对数据进行横断面研究,首先对提取的数据建立数据仓库,之后利用改进的近邻传播聚类算法对数据降维和分类,得到医生的抗生素处方行为的训练集和测试集,最后利用 SAS9.1软件的多因素方差分析和配对非参数检验,分析抗生素处方行为的影响因素以及评价指标.结果表明,不同科室、不同月份、不同抗生素种类对抗生素处方数据有显著影

  8. Efficient techniques for wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Ravish

    Sound propagation techniques model the effect of the environment on sound waves and predict their behavior from point of emission at the source to the final point of arrival at the listener. Sound is a pressure wave produced by mechanical vibration of a surface that propagates through a medium such as air or water, and the problem of sound propagation can be formulated mathematically as a second-order partial differential equation called the wave equation. Accurate techniques based on solving the wave equation, also called the wave-based techniques, are too expensive computationally and memory-wise. Therefore, these techniques face many challenges in terms of their applicability in interactive applications including sound propagation in large environments, time-varying source and listener directivity, and high simulation cost for mid-frequencies. In this dissertation, we propose a set of efficient wave-based sound propagation techniques that solve these three challenges and enable the use of wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications. Firstly, we propose a novel equivalent source technique for interactive wave-based sound propagation in large scenes spanning hundreds of meters. It is based on the equivalent source theory used for solving radiation and scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics. Instead of using a volumetric or surface-based approach, this technique takes an object-centric approach to sound propagation. The proposed equivalent source technique generates realistic acoustic effects and takes orders of magnitude less runtime memory compared to prior wave-based techniques. Secondly, we present an efficient framework for handling time-varying source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation. The source directivity is represented as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic sources. This spherical harmonic-based representation of source directivity can support analytical, data

  9. Propagation of Nonlinear Waves in Waveguides and Application to Nondestructive Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Claudio

    Propagation of nonlinear waves in waveguides is a field that has received an ever increasing interest in the last few decades. Nonlinear guided waves are excellent candidates for interrogating long waveguide like structures because they combine high sensitivity to structural conditions, typical of nonlinear parameters, with large inspection ranges, characteristic of wave propagation in bounded media. The primary topic of this dissertation is the analysis of ultrasonic waves, including ultrasonic guided waves, propagating in their nonlinear regime and their application to structural health monitoring problems, particularly the measurement of thermal stress in Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). Following an overview of basic physical principles generating nonlinearities in ultrasonic wave propagation, the case of higher-harmonic generation in multi-mode and dispersive guided waves is examined in more detail. A numerical framework is developed in order to predict favorable higher-order generation conditions (i.e. specific guided modes and frequencies) for waveguides of arbitrary cross-sections. This model is applied to various benchmark cases of complex structures. The nonlinear wave propagation model is then applied to the case of a constrained railroad track (CWR) subjected to thermal variations. This study is a direct response to the key need within the railroad transportation community to develop a technique able to measure thermal stresses in CWR, or determine the rail temperature corresponding to a null thermal stress (Neutral Temperature -- NT). The numerical simulation phase concludes with a numerical study performed using ABAQUS commercial finite element package. These analyses were crucial in predicting the evolution of the nonlinear parameter beta with thermal stress level acting in the rail. A novel physical model, based on interatomic potential, was developed to explain the origin of nonlinear wave propagation under constrained thermal expansion. In fact

  10. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Ángel-Toro, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB® software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  11. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano, E-mail: dsierras@eafit.edu.co, E-mail: langel@eafit.edu.co [Grupo de Optica Aplicada, Universidad EAFIT, 1 Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  12. Preparation, optimization and application of affinity absorbent with a polysaccharide YCP as the ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ran; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Xian; Zhu, Rui; Yao, Wen-Bing; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2014-04-15

    YCP, an α-glucan from the mycelium of marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108, has great antitumor potential via enhancement of host immune through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 signaling. In the current study, YCP was coupled to EAH Sepharose 4B agarose beads to prepare the YCP-Sepharose affinity absorbent using 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) as the activating agent. An orthogonal experiment L9 (3)(4) was applied to optimize the coupling procedure, giving the optimal parameters as follows: molar ratio of CDAP to YCP of 1:2, CDAP-activation time of 5 min, gel volume of 0.1 mL, and gel-incubation time of 72 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated successfully preparation of YCP immobilized sepharose beads, while these beads essentially maintained biological properties of free YCP since they can interact with TLR2 and TLR4 specifically at comparable level. Collectively, our findings provide an alternative approach to immobilize carbohydrate-based molecules for studying the carbohydrate-protein interaction.

  13. Characterization of the galactomannans from Parkinsonia aculeata seeds and their application on affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Garros-Rosa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Successive aqueous (10 ºC, 25 ºC and 80 ºC and alkaline (1M NaOH; 25 ºC extractions of milled Parkinsonia aculeata endosperms gave rise to four galactomannan fractions. These extractions furnished viscous galactomannans with Man:Gal ratios ranging from 3.1:1; 3.7:1; 4.9:1 and 6.1:1 (P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively. Fraction P1 was used for structural studies by using methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and 13C-NMR. It showed a linear backbone of beta(1->4 linked D-mannose units, to which single alpha(1->6-linked D-galactose are attached. This galactomannan has Mw 775700 g/mol and intrinsic viscosity of 558 mL/g. The four fractions and the crude endosperm were treated with epichlorydrin and used as matrix for affinity chromatography. All columns tested showed ability to bind lectin samples. The efficiency is related to the degree and pattern of substitution of galactosyl units on the D-mannan backbone.

  14. SNR enhancement for composite application using multiple Doppler vibrometers based laser ultrasonic propagation imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thanh Chung; Lee, Jung Ryul

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the technology of using laser ultrasonic propagation imaging for damage visualization of composite structures were applied to real-world applications. Among many choices of sensor for the Ultrasonic Propagation Imager, the laser interferometry has several advantages: it is non-invasive, and portable, and with extraordinarily long-range measurement. However, the critical issue with interferometry sensing is its low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), where the background noise can mask the damage-induced waves and making it impossible to identify the damages, especially in composite structures. In this paper, we propose a hardware-based SNR enhancement technique using multiple Laser Doppler Vibrometers (LDVs). The out-of-plane mode of ultrasonic signals are measured by multiple LDVs at a common sensing point and then averaged in real time. We showed that the SNR enhancement in experiments was consistent with the theoretical prediction, and also the test results showed a clear improvement for damage visualization of structures using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Imaging and Ultrasonic Wavenumber Imaging algorithms.

  15. Manifold structure based multi-exemplar affinity propagation%基于流形结构的多聚类中心近邻传播聚类算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷雷; 葛洪伟; 杨金龙; 袁运浩

    2016-01-01

    When dealing with arbitrary shape data set with manifold structure, multi-exemplar affinity propagation cannot obtain good clustering results. To overcome this shortcoming, this paper designs a brand new similarity measure based on the idea of manifold learning. This similarity can amplify the similarity between data points of the same manifold and reduce the similarity between data points of different manifolds. As a result, the similarity matrix can reflect the internal manifold structure of the data set precisely. Based on this similarity matrix, this paper proposes the novel manifold structure based multi-exemplar affinity propagation, which can solve the problem mentioned above effectively and also improve the effi-ciency of this algorithm. It obtains promising results both on artificial datasets and USPS handwritten digits datasets. The simulation results show that the new method outperforms traditional MEAP algorithm.%多聚类中心近邻传播聚类算法(MEAP),在处理任意形状具有流形分布结构的数据时,往往得不到理想的聚类结果。为此,基于流形学习的思想,设计了一种全新的相似性度量,该相似性度量能够扩大位于同一流形中数据点间的相似性,同时缩小处于不同流形上数据点间的相似性,从而使得相似性矩阵能够准确地反映数据集内在的流形分布结构。将该相似性度量与MEAP相结合,提出基于流形结构的多聚类中心近邻传播聚类算法MS-MEAP (Manifold Structure based Multi-Exemplar Affinity Propagation),从而有效地拓展了算法处理任意形状具有流形分布结构数据集的能力,同时提高了算法的运行效率。在人工数据集与USPS手写体数据集上进行了实验,仿真实验结果及算法有效性分析证明,MS-MEAP算法相比于原算法在处理任意形状具有流形分布结构的数据时,具有更好的聚类性能。

  16. Introductory Applications of Partial Differential Equations With Emphasis on Wave Propagation and Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, George L

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. With Emphasis on Wave Propagation and Diffusion. This is the ideal text for students and professionals who have some familiarity with partial differential equations, and who now wish to consolidate and expand their knowledge. Unlike most other texts on this topic, it interweaves prior knowledge of mathematics and physics, especially heat conduction and wave motion, into a presentation that demonstrates their interdependence. The result is a superb teaching text that reinforces the reader's understanding of both mathematics and physic

  17. Application of a convergent, composite coupled cluster approach to bound state, adiabatic electron affinities in atoms and small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, David

    2016-01-01

    Benchmark quality adiabatic electron affinities for a collection of atoms and small molecules were obtained with the Feller-Peterson-Dixon composite coupled cluster theory method. Prior applications of this method demonstrated its ability to accurately predict atomization energies/heats of formation for more than 170 molecules. In the current work, the 1-particle expansion involved very large correlation consistent basis sets, ranging up to aug-cc-pV9Z (aug-cc-pV10Z for H and H2), with the goal of minimizing the residual basis set truncation error that must otherwise be approximated with extrapolation formulas. The n-particle expansion begins with coupled cluster calculations through iterative single and double excitations plus a quasiperturbative treatment of "connected" triple excitations (CCSD(T)) pushed to the complete basis set limit followed by CCSDT, CCSDTQ, or CCSDTQ5 corrections. Due to the small size of the systems examined here, it was possible in many cases to extend the n-particle expansion to the full configuration interaction wave function limit. Additional, smaller corrections associated with core/valence correlation, scalar relativity, anharmonic zero point vibrational energies, and non-adiabatic effects were also included. The overall root mean square (RMS) deviation was 0.005 eV (0.12 kcal/mol). This level of agreement was comparable to what was found with molecular heats of formation. A 95% confidence level corresponds to roughly twice the RMS value or 0.01 eV. While the atomic electron affinities are known experimentally to high accuracy, the molecular values are less certain. This contributes to the difficulty of gauging the accuracy of the theoretical results. A limited number of electron affinities were determined with the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b method. After extending the VnZ-F12 orbital basis sets with additional diffuse functions, the F12b method was found to accurately reproduce the best F/F- value obtained with standard

  18. Analysis of the quench propagation along Nb3Sn Rutherford cables with the THELMA code. Part II: application to the quench longitudinal propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Manfreda, G.; Bajas, H.; Perez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the technology of the new generation of accelerator magnets, prototypes are being manufactured and tested in several laboratories. In parallel, many numerical analyses are being carried out to predict the magnets behaviour and interpret the experimental results. This paper focuses on the quench propagation velocity, which is a crucial parameter as regards the energy dissipation along the magnet conductor. The THELMA code, originally developed for cable-in-conduit conductors for fusion magnets, has been used to study such quench propagation. To this purpose, new code modules have been added to describe the Rutherford cable geometry, the material non-linear thermal properties and to describe the thermal conduction problem in transient regime. THELMA can describe the Rutherford cable at the strand level, modelling both the electrical and thermal contact resistances between strands and enabling the analysis of the effects of local hot spots and quench heaters. This paper describes the model application...

  19. Elastic wavelets and their application to problems of solitary wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattani, Carlo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper can be referred to that direction in the wavelet theory, which was called by Kaiser "the physical wavelets". He developed the analysis of first two kinds of physical wavelets - electromagnetic (optic and acoustic wavelets. Newland developed the technique of application of harmonic wavelets especially for studying the harmonic vibrations. Recently Cattani and Rushchitsky proposed the 4th kind of physical wavelets - elastic wavelets. This proposal was based on three main elements: 1. Kaiser's idea of constructing the physical wavelets on the base of specially chosen (admissible solutions of wave equations. 2. Developed by one of authors theory of solitary waves (with profiles in the form of Chebyshov-Hermite functions propagated in elastic dispersive media. 3. The theory and practice of using the wavelet "Mexican Hat" system, the mother and farther wavelets (and their Fourier transforms of which are analytically represented as the Chebyshov-Hermite functions of different indexes. An application of elastic wavelets to studying the evolution of solitary waves of different shape during their propagation through composite materials is shown on many examples.

  20. Comparison between different uncertainty propagation methods in multivariate analysis: An application in the bivariate case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullor, R. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Alicante (Spain); Sanchez, A., E-mail: aisanche@eio.upv.e [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 (Spain); Martorell, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Martinez-Alzamora, N. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Safety related systems performance optimization is classically based on quantifying the effects that testing and maintenance activities have on reliability and cost (R+C). However, R+C quantification is often incomplete in the sense that important uncertainties may not be considered. An important number of studies have been published in the last decade in the field of R+C based optimization considering uncertainties. They have demonstrated that inclusion of uncertainties in the optimization brings the decision maker insights concerning how uncertain the R+C results are and how this uncertainty does matter as it can result in differences in the outcome of the decision making process. Several methods of uncertainty propagation based on the theory of tolerance regions have been proposed in the literature depending on the particular characteristics of the variables in the output and their relations. In this context, the objective of this paper focuses on the application of non-parametric and parametric methods to analyze uncertainty propagation, which will be implemented on a multi-objective optimization problem where reliability and cost act as decision criteria and maintenance intervals act as decision variables. Finally, a comparison of results of these applications and the conclusions obtained are presented.

  1. Affine stochastic mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F. Schrager

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new model for stochastic mortality. The model is based on the literature on affine term structure models. It satisfies three important requirements for application in practice: analytical tractibility, clear interpretation of the factors and compatibility with financial option pricing m

  2. Signal Transceiver Transit Times and Propagation Delay Corrections for Ranging and Georeferencing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of ranging measurements depends critically on the knowledge of time delays undergone by signals when retransmitted by a remote transponder and due to propagation effects. A new method determines these delays for every single pulsed signal transmission. It utilizes four ground-based reference stations, synchronized in time and installed at well-known geodesic coordinates and a repeater in space, carried by a satellite, balloon, aircraft, and so forth. Signal transmitted by one of the reference bases is retransmitted by the transponder, received back by the four bases, producing four ranging measurements which are processed to determine uniquely the time delays undergone in every retransmission process. A minimization function is derived comparing repeater’s positions referred to at least two groups of three reference bases, providing the signal transit time at the repeater and propagation delays, providing the correct repeater position. The method is applicable to the transponder platform positioning and navigation, time synchronization of remote clocks, and location of targets. The algorithm has been demonstrated by simulations adopting a practical example with the transponder carried by an aircraft moving over bases on the ground.

  3. Jacobi Structures on Affine Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. GRABOWSKI; D. IGLESIAS; J. C. MARRERO; E. PADR(O)N; P. URBA(N)SKI

    2007-01-01

    We study affine Jacobi structures (brackets) on an affine bundle π: A→M, i.e. Jacobi brackets that close on affine functions. We prove that if the rank of A is non-zero, there is a one-to- one correspondence between affine Jacobi structures on A and Lie algebroid structures on the vector bundle A+=∪p∈M Aff(Ap, R) of affine functionals. In the case rank A = 0, it is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between affins Jacobi structures on A and local Lie algebras on A+. Some examples and applications, also for the linear case, are discussed. For a special type of affine Jacobi structures which are canonically exhibited (strongly-affine or affine-homogeneous Jacobi structures) over a real vector space of finite dimension, we describe the leaves of its characteristic foliation as the orbits of an affine representation. These afline Jacobi structures can be viewed as an analog of the Kostant-Arnold-LiouviUe linear Poisson structure on the dual space of a real finite-dimensional Lie algebra.

  4. Light propagation through weakly scattering media: a study of Monte Carlo vs. diffusion theory with application to neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Daniele; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2015-07-01

    One of the major challenges within Optical Imaging, photon propagation through clear layers embedded between scattering tissues, can be now efficiently modelled in real-time thanks to the Monte Carlo approach based on GPU. Because of its nature, the photon propagation problem can be very easily parallelized and ran on low cost hardware, avoiding the need for expensive Super Computers. A comparison between Diffusion and MC photon propagation theory is presented in this work with application to neuroimaging, investigating low scattering regions in a mouse-like phantom. Regions such as the Cerebral Spinal Fluid, are currently not taken into account in the classical computational models because of the impossibility to accurately simulate light propagation using fast Diffusive Equation approaches, leading to inaccuracies during the reconstruction process. The goal of the study presented here, is to reduce and further improve the computation accuracy of the reconstructed solution in a highly realistic scenario in the case of neuroimaging in preclinical mouse models.

  5. Extrapolated intermediate Hamiltonian coupled-cluster approach: theory and pilot application to electron affinities of alkali atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliav, Ephraim; Vilkas, Marius J; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kaldor, Uzi

    2005-06-08

    The intermediate Hamiltonian (IH) coupled-cluster method makes possible the use of very large model spaces in coupled-cluster calculations without running into intruder states. This is achieved at the cost of approximating some of the IH matrix elements, which are not taken at their rigorous effective Hamiltonian (EH) value. The extrapolated intermediate Hamiltonian (XIH) approach proposed here uses a parametrized IH and extrapolates it to the full EH, with model spaces larger by several orders of magnitude than those possible in EH coupled-cluster methods. The flexibility and resistance to intruders of the IH approach are thus combined with the accuracy of full EH. Various extrapolation schemes are described. A pilot application to the electron affinities (EAs) of alkali atoms is presented, where converged EH results are obtained by XIH for model spaces of approximately 20,000 determinants; direct EH calculations converge only for a one-dimensional model space. Including quantum electrodynamic effects, the average XIH error for the EAs is 0.6 meV and the largest error is 1.6 meV. A new reference estimate for the EA of Fr is proposed at 486+/-2 meV.

  6. Parallel Reservoir Simulations with Sparse Grid Techniques and Applications to Wormhole Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing

    2015-09-08

    In this work, two topics of reservoir simulations are discussed. The first topic is the two-phase compositional flow simulation in hydrocarbon reservoir. The major obstacle that impedes the applicability of the simulation code is the long run time of the simulation procedure, and thus speeding up the simulation code is necessary. Two means are demonstrated to address the problem: parallelism in physical space and the application of sparse grids in parameter space. The parallel code can gain satisfactory scalability, and the sparse grids can remove the bottleneck of flash calculations. Instead of carrying out the flash calculation in each time step of the simulation, a sparse grid approximation of all possible results of the flash calculation is generated before the simulation. Then the constructed surrogate model is evaluated to approximate the flash calculation results during the simulation. The second topic is the wormhole propagation simulation in carbonate reservoir. In this work, different from the traditional simulation technique relying on the Darcy framework, we propose a new framework called Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer framework to simulate wormhole propagation. Furthermore, to process the large quantity of cells in the simulation grid and shorten the long simulation time of the traditional serial code, standard domain-based parallelism is employed, using the Hypre multigrid library. In addition to that, a new technique called “experimenting field approach” to set coefficients in the model equations is introduced. In the 2D dissolution experiments, different configurations of wormholes and a series of properties simulated by both frameworks are compared. We conclude that the numerical results of the DBF framework are more like wormholes and more stable than the Darcy framework, which is a demonstration of the advantages of the DBF framework. The scalability of the parallel code is also evaluated, and good scalability can be achieved. Finally, a mixed

  7. A higher-order nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and its applications in wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.

    2015-05-01

    approach. Two additional kinds of parameters, the higher-order nonlocal parameters and the nonlocal gradient length coefficients are introduced to account for the size-dependent characteristics of nonlocal gradient materials at nanoscale. To illustrate its application values, the theory is applied for wave propagation in a nonlocal strain gradient system and the new dispersion relations derived are presented through examples for wave propagating in Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko nanobeams. The numerical results based on the new nonlocal strain gradient theory reveal some new findings with respect to lattice dynamics and wave propagation experiment that could not be matched by both the classical nonlocal stress model and the contemporary strain gradient theory. Thus, this higher-order nonlocal strain gradient model provides an explanation to some observations in the classical and nonlocal stress theories as well as the strain gradient theory in these aspects.

  8. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a

  9. Kinetic Characterization of a Panel of High-Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Ricin and Recombinant Re-Formatting for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cummins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent glycoprotein toxin that is structurally composed of two subunits joined via a disulfide bond: a ~30 kDa subunit A (RTA and a ~32 kDa subunit B (RTB. There are fears of ricin being used as a weapon for warfare and terrorism and, as such, there is an increasing need for the development of immunodiagnostic reagents targeted towards this toxin. This article describes the production and characterization of a panel of six ricin-specific monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs, previously selected based upon their ability to inhibit ricin-mediated killing of cultured cells. Subsequent epitope binding analysis using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR array biosensor (ProteOn XPR36 indicated three distinct, non-competitive binding epitopes (“bins”. The association (ka and dissociation (kd rate constants and binding affinities (KD of each of the mAbs to ricin were also determined by SPR using Biacore T100 instrument. Affinities (KD ranged from 0.1 nM to 9 nM. We present the coding sequences of the variable domains of the six mAbs, the expression, kinetic and cytotoxicity assays for two recombinant Fab (rFab fragments and demonstrate a rFab affinity improvement by chain-shuffling. Together, these antibodies and constituent rFabs represent a panel of reagents for high-affinity recognition of ricin with potential national security biosensor applications.

  10. Titanium dioxide as chemo-affinity chromatographic sorbent of biomolecular compounds - Applications in acidic modification-specific proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    matrices for further characterization is affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction between an analyte in solution and a solid adsorbent. Titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography has proven to be a versatile tool in enrichment of various compounds such as phosphorylated...... biomolecules due to its unique ion and ligand exchange properties and high stability towards pH and temperature. Recently, titanium dioxide chromatography was introduced in proteomics as a highly specific method for enriching phosphorylated peptides - a method, which has been widely adapted by the field...

  11. New model for light propagation in highly inhomogeneous polydisperse turbid media with applications in spray diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Edouard; Meglinski, Igor; Jermy, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Modern optical diagnostics for quantitative characterization of polydisperse sprays and other aerosols which contain a wide range of droplet size encounter difficulties in the dense regions due to the multiple scattering of laser radiation with the surrounding droplets. The accuracy and efficiency of optical measurements can only be improved if the radiative transfer within such polydisperse turbid media is understood. A novel Monte Carlo code has been developed for modeling of optical radiation propagation in inhomogeneous polydisperse scattering media with typical drop size ranging from 2 μm to 200 μm in diameter. We show how strong variations of both particle size distribution and particle concentration within a 3D scattering medium can be taken into account via the Monte Carlo approach. A new approximation which reduces ~20 times the computational memory space required to determine the phase function is described. The approximation is verified by considering four log-normal drop size distributions. It is found valid for particle sizes in the range of 10-200 μm with increasing errors, due to additional photons scattered at large angles, as the number of particles below than 10 μm increases. The technique is applied to the simulation of typical planar Mie imaging of a hollow cone spray. Simulated and experimental images are compared and shown to agree well. The code has application in developing and testing new optical diagnostics for complex scattering media such as dense sprays.

  12. Good modeling practice for PAT applications: propagation of input uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2009-01-01

    The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are evaluated for their usefulness as part of the model-building within Process Analytical Technology applications. A mechanistic model describing a batch cultivation of Streptomyces coelicolor for antibiotic production was used as case study. The input uncertainty resulting from assumptions of the model was propagated using the Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the output uncertainty. The results showed that significant uncertainty exists in the model outputs. Moreover the uncertainty in the biomass, glucose, ammonium and base-consumption were found low compared to the large uncertainty observed in the antibiotic and off-gas CO(2) predictions. The output uncertainty was observed to be lower during the exponential growth phase, while higher in the stationary and death phases - meaning the model describes some periods better than others. To understand which input parameters are responsible for the output uncertainty, three sensitivity methods (Standardized Regression Coefficients, Morris and differential analysis) were evaluated and compared. The results from these methods were mostly in agreement with each other and revealed that only few parameters (about 10) out of a total 56 were mainly responsible for the output uncertainty. Among these significant parameters, one finds parameters related to fermentation characteristics such as biomass metabolism, chemical equilibria and mass-transfer. Overall the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are found promising for helping to build reliable mechanistic models and to interpret the model outputs properly. These tools make part of good modeling practice, which can contribute to successful PAT applications for increased process understanding, operation and control purposes.

  13. Recombinant Staphylococcal protein A with cysteine residue for preparation of affinity chromatography stationary phase and immunosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbatiuk O. B.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Engineering of recombinant Staphylococcal protein A with cysteine residue (SPA-Cys for preparation of affinity chromatography stationary phase and formation of bioselective element of immunosensor. Methods. DNA sequences encoding IgG-binding region of SPA, His-tag and cysteine were genetically fused and expressed in E. coli. SPA-Cys was immobilized on maleimide-functionalized silica beads for affinity chromatography stationary phase preparation and on a gold sensor surface as a bioselective element of immunosensor. Results. SPA-Cys was expressed at a high-level in a soluble form. The target protein was purified and showed a high IgG-binding activity. The capacity of the obtained SPA-Cys-based affinity chromatography stationary phase was 10–12 mg of IgG /ml. The purity of eluted IgG was more than 95 % in one-step purification procedure. The developed SPA-Cys-based bioselective element of immunosensor selectively interacted with human IgG and did not interact with the control proteins. Conclusions. The recombinant Staphylococcal protein A with cysteine residue was successfully used for the preparation of affinity chromatography stationary phase and formation of the bioselective element of immunosensor.

  14. Gaussian processes with built-in dimensionality reduction: Applications to high-dimensional uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Rohit; Bilionis, Ilias; Gonzalez, Marcial

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the

  15. Gaussian processes with built-in dimensionality reduction: Applications to high-dimensional uncertainty propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Rohit, E-mail: rtripath@purdue.edu; Bilionis, Ilias, E-mail: ibilion@purdue.edu; Gonzalez, Marcial, E-mail: marcial-gonzalez@purdue.edu

    2016-09-15

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the

  16. An explicitly solvated full atomistic model of the cardiac thin filament and application on the calcium binding affinity effects from familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy linked mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    The previous version of our cardiac thin filament (CTF) model consisted of the troponin complex (cTn), two coiled-coil dimers of tropomyosin (Tm), and 29 actin units. We now present the newest revision of the model to include explicit solvation. The model was developed to continue our study of genetic mutations in the CTF proteins which are linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. Binding of calcium to the cTnC subunit causes subtle conformational changes to propagate through the cTnC to the cTnI subunit which then detaches from actin. Conformational changes propagate through to the cTnT subunit, which allows Tm to move into the open position along actin, leading to muscle contraction. Calcium disassociation allows for the reverse to occur, which results in muscle relaxation. The inclusion of explicit TIP3 water solvation allows for the model to get better individual local solvent to protein interactions; which are important when observing the N-lobe calcium binding pocket of the cTnC. We are able to compare in silica and in vitro experimental results to better understand the physiological effects from mutants, such as the R92L/W and F110V/I of the cTnT, on the calcium binding affinity compared to the wild type.

  17. Power Series Expansion of Propagator for Path Integral and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we obtain a propagator of path integral for a harmonic oscillator and a driven harmonic oscillator by using the power series expansion. It is shown that our result for the harmonic oscillator is more exact than the previous one obtained with other approximation methods. By using the same method, we obtain a propagator of path integral for the driven harmonic oscillator, which does not have any exact expansion. The more exact propagators may improve the path integral results for these systems.

  18. Affinity chromatography of phosphorylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaga, Grigoriy S

    2008-01-01

    This chapter covers the use of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) for enrichment of phosphorylated proteins. Some requirements for successful enrichment of these types of proteins are discussed. An experimental protocol and a set of application data are included to enable the scientist to obtain high-yield results in a very short time with pre-packed phospho-specific metal ion affinity resin (PMAC).

  19. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenas, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chong, See Yenn [Engineering Institute-Korea; Lee, J.R. [Engineering Institute-Korea; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to

  20. A numerical solution algorithm and its application to studies of pulsed light fields propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakh, V. A.; Gerasimova, L. O.; Smalikho, I. N.; Falits, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new method for studies of pulsed laser beams propagation in a turbulent atmosphere was proposed. The algorithm of numerical simulation is based on the solution of wave parabolic equation for complex spectral amplitude of wave field using method of splitting into physical factors. Examples of the use of the algorithm in the case the propagation pulsed Laguerre-Gaussian beams of femtosecond duration in the turbulence atmosphere has been shown.

  1. Seismic Wave Propagation in Fully Anisotropic Axisymmetric Media: Applications and Practical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Martin; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Stähler, Simon; Waszek, Lauren; Hempel, Stefanie; Auer, Ludwig; Deuss, Arwen

    2014-05-01

    We present a numerical method to compute high-frequency 3D elastic waves in fully anisotropic axisymmetric media. The method is based on a decomposition of the wavefield into a series of uncoupled 2D equations, for which the dependence of the wavefield on the azimuth can be solved analytically. The remaining 2D problems are then solved using a spectral element method (AxiSEM). AxiSEM was recently published open-source (Nissen-Meyer et al. 2014) as a production ready code capable to compute global seismic wave propagation up to frequencies of ~2Hz. It accurately models visco-elastic dissipation and anisotropy (van Driel et al., submitted to GJI) and runs efficiently on HPC resources using up to 10K cores. At very short period, the Fresnel Zone of body waves is narrow and sensitivity is focused around the geometrical ray. In cases where the azimuthal variations of structural heterogeneity exhibit long spatial wavelengths, so called 2.5D simulations (3D wavefields in 2D models) provide a good approximation. In AxiSEM, twodimensional variations in the source-receiver plane are effectively modelled as ringlike structures extending in the out-of-plane direction. In contrast to ray-theory, which is widely used in high-frequency applications, AxiSEM provides complete waveforms, thus giving access to frequency dependency, amplitude variations, and peculiar wave effects such as diffraction and caustics. Here we focus on the practical implications of the inherent axisymmetric geometry and show how the 2.5D-features of our method method can be used to model realistic anisotropic structures, by applying it to problems such as the D" region and the inner core.

  2. Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under a system of affine equality constraints with application to portfolio management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Zinoviy

    2008-10-01

    We present an explicit closed form solution of the problem of minimizing the root of a quadratic functional subject to a system of affine constraints. The result generalizes Z. Landsman, Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under an affine equality constraint, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2007, to appear, see sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03770427>, articles in press, where the optimization problem was solved under only one linear constraint. This is of interest for solving significant problems pertaining to financial economics as well as some classes of feasibility and optimization problems which frequently occur in tomography and other fields. The results are illustrated in the problem of optimal portfolio selection and the particular case when the expected return of finance portfolio is certain is discussed.

  3. Application of high-throughput affinity-selection mass spectrometry for screening of chemical compound libraries in lead discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehender, Hartmut; Mayr, Lorenz M

    2007-02-01

    High-throughput screening of chemical libraries for compounds that interfere with a particular molecular target is among the most powerful methodologies applied in lead discovery at present. In this review, the authors describe a label-free, homogeneous, affinity-selection-based technology developed at Novartis, termed SpeedScreen, which is compared with similar technologies used for high-throughput screening in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The focus at present of SpeedScreen is twofold: first, this technology is applied to orphan genomic targets and to those targets that are non-tractable by a functional assay; second, this technology is applied complementary to the well-established traditional methodologies for the screening of molecular targets. In summary, the authors discuss the value of affinity-selection-based high-throughput screening as a complementary technology to the common functional screening platforms and the benefits as well as the limitations of this new technology are outlined.

  4. Magnetic Parkia pendula seed gum as matrix for Concanavalin A lectin immobilization and its application in affinity purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOACYR J.B.M. RÊGO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to magnetize Parkia pendula seeds gum and use it as a matrix for Concanavalin A covalent immobilization. This composite was applied in affinity purification of glycoconjugates. Parkia pendula seeds were hydrated and the gum provenient from the supernatant was precipitated and washed with ethanol and dried. The gum was magnetized in co-precipitation using solutions of Fe+2 and Fe+3. Matrix activation was accomplished with NaIO4. Magnetized Parkia pendula seeds gum with covalently immobilized Concanavalin A was used as an affinity matrix for the recognition of bovine serum fetuin glycoprotein. Fetuin elution was carried out with a solution of glucose (300mM and evaluated through SDS-PAGE. The efficiency of lectin immobilization and fetuin purification were 63% and 14%, respectively. These results indicate that the composite produced is a promising magnetic polysaccharide matrix for lectins immobilization. Thus, such system can be applied for affinity purification allowing an easy recovery by magnetic field.

  5. Magnetic Parkia pendula seed gum as matrix for Concanavalin A lectin immobilization and its application in affinity purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Moacyr J B M; Almeida, Sinara M; Bezerra, Sérgio A; Carvalho Júnior, Luiz B; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2014-09-01

    The present work aimed to magnetize Parkia pendula seeds gum and use it as a matrix for Concanavalin A covalent immobilization. This composite was applied in affinity purification of glycoconjugates. Parkia pendula seeds were hydrated and the gum provenient from the supernatant was precipitated and washed with ethanol and dried. The gum was magnetized in co-precipitation using solutions of Fe+2 and Fe+3. Matrix activation was accomplished with NaIO4. Magnetized Parkia pendula seeds gum with covalently immobilized Concanavalin A was used as an affinity matrix for the recognition of bovine serum fetuin glycoprotein. Fetuin elution was carried out with a solution of glucose (300mM) and evaluated through SDS-PAGE. The efficiency of lectin immobilization and fetuin purification were 63% and 14%, respectively. These results indicate that the composite produced is a promising magnetic polysaccharide matrix for lectins immobilization. Thus, such system can be applied for affinity purification allowing an easy recovery by magnetic field.

  6. Application of Benchmark Examples to Assess the Single and Mixed-Mode Static Delamination Propagation Capabilities in ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The application of benchmark examples for the assessment of quasi-static delamination propagation capabilities is demonstrated for ANSYS. The examples are independent of the analysis software used and allow the assessment of the automated delamination propagation in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The examples selected are based on two-dimensional finite element models of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB), End-Notched Flexure (ENF), Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) and Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimens. First, the quasi-static benchmark examples were recreated for each specimen using the current implementation of VCCT in ANSYS . Second, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading from its initial location using the automated procedure implemented in the finite element software. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for three-dimensional solid models is required.

  7. Sea wave propagation from offshore to Maputo's coast. Application to longshore sediment transport assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Cristina N A; Grifoll, Manel; Palalane, Jaime; Oliveira, Tiago C A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the wave climate near the coastal region of Maputo (Mozambique), and to provide a first assessment of the sediment transport load in this area. A time-series of 13 years' worth of offshore wave data, obtained from reanalysis products, was propagated to the coast. Wave propagation was performed using Linear Wave theory and the numerical model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Propagations with SWAN were carried out considering different scenarios in order to evaluate the influence of parameters such as wind, tidal level, frequency spectrum and numerical mesh resolution on wave characteristics along the coast. The prevalent waves propagated came from between east and southwest directions. Results from linear propagation were used to estimate the potential longshore sediment transport. The Coastal Engineering Research Center formula was applied for a stretch of beach in the Machangulo Peninsula. A net potential rate of longitudinal sediment transport (of the order of 10(5) m(3)/year, along an extension of the coast of 21 km) was directed northwards, and was consistent with the frequent wave directions.

  8. Human IgA-binding peptides selected from random peptide libraries: affinity maturation and application in IgA purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Takaaki; Ohzono, Shinji; Park, Mirae; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Tsukamoto, Shogo; Sugita, Ryohei; Ishitobi, Hiroyuki; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ito, Osamu; Sorajo, Koichi; Sugimura, Kazuhisa; Ham, Sihyun; Ito, Yuji

    2012-12-14

    Phage display system is a powerful tool to design specific ligands for target molecules. Here, we used disulfide-constrained random peptide libraries constructed with the T7 phage display system to isolate peptides specific to human IgA. The binding clones (A1-A4) isolated by biopanning exhibited clear specificity to human IgA, but the synthetic peptide derived from the A2 clone exhibited a low specificity/affinity (K(d) = 1.3 μm). Therefore, we tried to improve the peptide using a partial randomized phage display library and mutational studies on the synthetic peptides. The designed Opt-1 peptide exhibited a 39-fold higher affinity (K(d) = 33 nm) than the A2 peptide. An Opt-1 peptide-conjugated column was used to purify IgA from human plasma. However, the recovered IgA fraction was contaminated with other proteins, indicating nonspecific binding. To design a peptide with increased binding specificity, we examined the structural features of Opt-1 and the Opt-1-IgA complex using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water. The simulation results revealed that the Opt-1 peptide displayed partial helicity in the N-terminal region and possessed a hydrophobic cluster that played a significant role in tight binding with IgA-Fc. However, these hydrophobic residues of Opt-1 may contribute to nonspecific binding with other proteins. To increase binding specificity, we introduced several mutations in the hydrophobic residues of Opt-1. The resultant Opt-3 peptide exhibited high specificity and high binding affinity for IgA, leading to successful isolation of IgA without contamination.

  9. Extended sources radiation and laplace type integral representation: Application to wave propagation above and within layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, P. J. T.

    1983-11-01

    In has been shown that the sound field reflected by the plane boundary of a layered ground can always be described by a specularly reflected wave, and layer potentials. Despite its generality, this representation is not quite suitable for numerical computation. Dealing with a very simple case, Weyl, and later on Ingard and Thomasson, proposed a representation of the solution in which the layer potential terms are replaced by the sum of surface wave and a Laplace type integral. Such an integral is very convenient for numerical purposes. In this paper, it is shown that this kind of representation can be obtained for a very wide class of sound propagation problems above or within layered media: a half-space bounded by a locally reacting surface, a finite layer of porous medium, a porous medium with depth-varying porosity, a thin elastic plate; wave propagation in shallow water with an impedance bottom. Many other applications could be developed.

  10. Analysis of Wave Propagation in Stratified Structures Using Circuit Analogues, with Application to Electromagnetic Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how circuit models can be used for analysing wave propagation in stratified structures. Relatively complex structures can be analysed using models which are accessible to undergraduate students. Homogeneous slabs are modelled as transmission lines, and thin sheets between the slabs are modelled as lumped…

  11. Crack Closure Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rates: Application of a Proposed Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. O. Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.

  12. β2-Adrenoceptor affinity chromatography and its application in the screening of the active compounds from Semen Armeniacae Amarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XiaoHui; ZHAO XinFeng; YANG Rong; WANG ShiXiang; WEI YinMao; ZHENG JianBin

    2008-01-01

    β2-Adrenoceptor (β2-AR) was purified from the rabbit lung tissue by sepharose-salbutamol affinity chromatographic column. To prepare the β2-AR stationary phase, β2-AR was evenly immobilized on the surface of macro-pore silica with a mild chemical coupling method through covalent bond. The reten-tion properties of β2-AR stationary phase were characterized by four ligands, salbutamol sulfate, noradrenaline bitartrate, adrenaline hydrochloride and propranolol hydrochloride, to establish the β2-AR affinity chromatography. Then, the method was used to screen the active compounds from the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. The results showed that β2-AR on the surface of the sta-tionary phase could keep its original bioactivity and selectivity. Amygdalin retained in the chroma-tographic column was proved to be the active compound of the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. Compared with the existing chromatographic screening approaches, this method showed a good stability and high selectivity. The active compounds which could interact with β2-AR in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be screened efficiently by this method, providing a new way to screen the active compounds in complicated samples such as TCM.

  13. Preparation of Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatographic Packings Based on Monodisperse Hydrophilic Non-porous Beads and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Chun-Miao; GONG Bo-Lin; HU Wen-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Three hydrophilic immobilized metal affinity chromatographic packings for HPLC have been synthesized by chemical modification of 3.0 μm monodisperse non-porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate)(PGMMEDMA)beads.The retention behavior of proteins on the metal ion chelated columns loaded with copper(Ⅱ),nickel(Ⅱ)and zin(Ⅱ)ion was studied.The effect of pH on the protein retention Was investigated on both the naked and metal ion chelated columns in the range from 4.0 to 9.0.Four proteins were quickly separated in 3.0 min with linear gradient elution at a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min by using the synthesized Ni2+ -IDA(iminodiacetic acid)packings.The separation time was shorter than other immobilized metal affinity chromatography reported in the literature.Purification of lysozyme from egg white and trypsin on the commercially available trypsin was performed on the naked-IDA and Cu2+ -IDA columns,respectively.The purities of the purified trypsin and lysozyme were more than 92%and 95%,respectively.

  14. Identification of a high-affinity monoclonal antibody against ochratoxin A and its application in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Sun, Mengjiao; Kang, Yue; Xie, Hui; Wang, Xin; Song, Houhui; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2015-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most commonly occurring mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus and can contaminate cereal and cereal products. A high-affinity anti-OTA monoclonal antibody (mAb) was generated from a hybridoma cell line 2D8 using splenocytes from a BALB/c mouse immunized with synthesized OTA-bovine serum albumin conjugate. The mAb 2D8 is specific with high affinity (3.75 × 10(9) L/M). An indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) was then developed using this mAb for quantitative determination of OTA in corn and feed samples. Using the optimized conditions, there was good linearity between OTA concentration and competitive inhibition (y = -0.6076x + 0.2441, R(2) = 0.9923) with the working range from 2.4 to 23.6 μg/kg, IC50 at 7.6 μg/kg and lower limit of detection at 1.4 μg/kg. The recovery rates in spiked samples were 91.2-110.3%. Of the 56 corn and feed samples, this ic-ELISA and a commercial kit both found the same 13 samples positive for OTA with good linear correlation between the two methods in OTA quantification (R(2) = 0.9706). We conclude that this ic-ELISA can be used for rapid and quantitative screening of corn and feed samples for the presence of OTA.

  15. Propagator for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator with application to an ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, Gal; Ben-Aryeh, Yacob; Mann, Ady [Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, IL-32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2011-12-15

    We present the simplest possible formula for the propagator of the general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian, including linear terms. The method is based on the use of a linear time-dependent invariant and requires only the solution of a linear homogeneous second-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to the classical quadratic Hamiltonian. We give an example for the case of the Paul trap.

  16. Wave propagation in one-dimension: Methods and applications to complex and fractal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, Eric; Levy, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is a pedagogical review of methods and results for studying wave propagation in one-dimensional complex structures. We describe and compare the tight-binding, scattering matrix, transfer matrix and Riccati formalisms. We present examples for transport through finite-sized layered dielectric systems with periodic, quasi-periodic, fractal, disordered, and random structure, illustrating how can spatial structure affect the spectrum of modes as well as the local mode intensity.

  17. IonRayTrace: An HF Propagation Model for Communications and Radar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    this report was performed by the Atmospheric Propagation Branch (Code 55280), Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific), San Diego...the 2- to 7-MHz (red), 7- to 12-MHz (green), and 12- to 17-MHz (blue) bands ..................... 9 1 1. OVERVIEW The Advanced Refractivity ...density of free electrons (102 to 104 cm-3) and has negligible refractive effect on electromagnetic waves in the HF band [5]. However, in general

  18. PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH ORDER LONGITUDINAL MODES IN STEEL STRANDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zenghua Liu; Su Liu; Bin Wu; Yinong Zhang; Cunfu He

    2008-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of high order longitudinal modes of ultrasonic guided waves in seven-wire steel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. According to these analysis results, proper longitudinal modes are selected for defect detection in steel strands.Dispersion curves for helical and central wires in a 17.80 mm nominal diameter seven-wire steel strand are numerically obtained firstly, and propagation characteristics of high-order longitudinal modes, such as wave structures, attenuation and dispersion, are analyzed. In experiments, the signals of ultrasonic guided wave at different high frequencies are excited and received at one end of a steel strand by using the same single piezoelectric transducer. The identification of longitudinal modes in the received signals is achieved based on short time Fourier transform. Furthermore,appropriate L(0, 5) mode at 2.54 MHz is chosen for detecting an artificial defect in a helical wire of the steel strand. Results show that high order longitudinal modes in a high frequency range with low dispersion and attenuation whose energy propagates mainly in the center of the wires can be used for defect detection in long range steel strands.

  19. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mode II Static Delamination Propagation and Fatigue Growth Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for static delamination propagation and cyclic delamination onset and growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of an End-Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation, onset and growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, static benchmark examples were created for the specimen. Second, based on the static results, benchmark examples for cyclic delamination growth were created. Third, the load-displacement relationship from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Fourth, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the automated analysis and compared to the benchmark examples. Again, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Overall the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.

  20. A fast Fourier transform implementation of the Kramers-Kronig relations: Application to anomalous and left handed propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lucas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this this paper we quickly derive the Kramers-Kronig relations from simple causality considerations and propose a simple way to implement them using the Fast Fourier Transform. This work focuses on how to make these relations a usable tool even when their conditions of validity are not strictly respected. In this respect we emphasize on their application to the constant low level loss approximation at microwave frequencies. The method presented is demonstrated on various typical cases of fancy propagation: high velocity, negative phase velocity and evanescent waves.

  1. Wave equations, dispersion relations, and van Hove singularities for applications of doublet mechanics to ultrasound propagation in bio- and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junru; Layman, Christopher; Liu, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A fundamental mathematical framework for applications of Doublet Mechanics to ultrasound propagation in a discrete material is introduced. A multiscale wave equation, dispersion relation for longitudinal waves, and shear waves are derived. The van Hove singularities and corresponding highest frequency limits for the Mth-order wave equations of longitudinal and shear waves are determined for a widely used microbundle structure. Doublet Mechanics is applied to soft tissue and low-density polyethylene. The experimental dispersion data for soft tissue and low-density polyethylene are compared with results predicted by Doublet Mechanics and an attenuation model based on a Kramers-Kronig relation in classical continuum mechanics.

  2. Synchronized diffusive-wave spectroscopy: Principle and application to sound propagation in aqueous foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassous, Jérôme; Chasle, Patrick; Pierre, Juliette; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Dollet, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We present an experimental method to measure oscillatory strains in turbid material. The material is illuminated with a laser, and the speckle patterns are recorded. The analysis of the deformations of the optical path length shows that the speckle patterns are modulated at the strain frequency. By recording those patterns synchronously with the strain source, we are able to measure the amplitude and the phase of the strain. This method is tested in the specific case of an aqueous foam where an acoustic wave propagates. The effects of material internal dynamics and heterogeneous deformations are also discussed.

  3. Application of the PE method to up-slope sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Arranz, Marta Galindo

    1995-01-01

    velocity at the surface. The staircase PE method approximates the normal at the slope surface with the vertical component at the stair-step surface. A numerical correction can be included. Using a scale model facility [K. B. Rasmussen, 3617–3620 (1994)], a series of measurements is carried out. The results......The wide-angle PE method is applied to the prediction of sound propagation in a range-dependent environment. The finite-difference model treats the sloping ground by a staircase approximation. The method allows impedance and slope angle variations to be taken into account. The implementation...

  4. Shallow-Water Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  5. Kernel Affine Projection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Príncipe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the famed kernel trick and affine projection algorithms (APAs yields powerful nonlinear extensions, named collectively here, KAPA. This paper is a follow-up study of the recently introduced kernel least-mean-square algorithm (KLMS. KAPA inherits the simplicity and online nature of KLMS while reducing its gradient noise, boosting performance. More interestingly, it provides a unifying model for several neural network techniques, including kernel least-mean-square algorithms, kernel adaline, sliding-window kernel recursive-least squares (KRLS, and regularization networks. Therefore, many insights can be gained into the basic relations among them and the tradeoff between computation complexity and performance. Several simulations illustrate its wide applicability.

  6. Kernel Affine Projection Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Príncipe, José C.

    2008-12-01

    The combination of the famed kernel trick and affine projection algorithms (APAs) yields powerful nonlinear extensions, named collectively here, KAPA. This paper is a follow-up study of the recently introduced kernel least-mean-square algorithm (KLMS). KAPA inherits the simplicity and online nature of KLMS while reducing its gradient noise, boosting performance. More interestingly, it provides a unifying model for several neural network techniques, including kernel least-mean-square algorithms, kernel adaline, sliding-window kernel recursive-least squares (KRLS), and regularization networks. Therefore, many insights can be gained into the basic relations among them and the tradeoff between computation complexity and performance. Several simulations illustrate its wide applicability.

  7. Stochastic response surface methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation: Application to environmental and biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P.G. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.]|[Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Comprehensive uncertainty analyses of complex models of environmental and biological systems are essential but often not feasible due to the computational resources they require. Traditional methods, such as standard Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling, for propagating uncertainty and developing probability densities of model outputs, may in fact require performing a prohibitive number of model simulations. An alternative is offered, for a wide range of problems, by the computationally efficient Stochastic Response Surface Methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation. These methods extend the classical response surface methodology to systems with stochastic inputs and outputs. This is accomplished by approximating both inputs and outputs of the uncertain system through stochastic series of well behaved standard random variables; the series expansions of the outputs contain unknown coefficients which are calculated by a method that uses the results of a limited number of model simulations. Two case studies are presented here involving (a) a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for perchloroethylene (PERC) for humans, and (b) an atmospheric photochemical model, the Reactive Plume Model (RPM-IV). The results obtained agree closely with those of traditional Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling methods, while significantly reducing the required number of model simulations.

  8. Acoustic wave propagation in austenitic stainless steel AISI 304L: Application examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmene, F., E-mail: fethidahmen@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Roberval Unite Mixte 6066 CNRS, UTC, BP20592, 60205 Compiegne (France)] [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Technologies des Polymeres et Composites and Ingenierie Mecanique, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP. 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex (France); Laksimi, A. [Laboratoire Roberval Unite Mixte 6066 CNRS, UTC, BP20592, 60205 Compiegne (France); Hariri, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Technologies des Polymeres et Composites and Ingenierie Mecanique, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP. 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex (France); Herve, C.; Jaubert, L.; Cherfaoui, M. [Pole EPI, Equipements sous Pression et Ingenierie d' Instrumentation, CETIM, 52, Avenue Felix-Lauat, BP80067, 60304 Senlis (France); Mouftiez, A. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Departement Technologies des Polymeres et Composites and Ingenierie Mecanique, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP. 10838, 59508 Douai Cedex (France)

    2012-04-15

    Prior to the detection and monitoring by acoustic emission of defects in steel, this paper deals with the use of waveguide that avoids direct contact between the sensor and monitoring structure when working at high temperature. The study of the waveguide effect on elastic wave transmission shows that waveguide deforms the waveform but it does not affect its frequency. Waveguide length does not affect signal magnitude. An experimental example of compact tensile specimen monitoring by acoustic emission is given. The monitoring of the damage at low and high temperature '450 Degree-Sign C' by acoustic emission enables us to identify crack propagation stages and their acoustic signature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper deals with the use of waveguide that avoids direct contact between the sensor and monitoring structure when working at high temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The objective is the development of nondestructive testing by acoustic emission (AE) of pressure equipment (PE) operating at high temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of AE in this work has underlined high temperature mechanical behavior in terms of damage and crack propagation.

  9. Application of the Beilis-Tappert parabolic equation method to sound propagation over irregular terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakkal, Santosh; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Di, Xiao

    2012-02-01

    The Beilis-Tappert (1979) parabolic equation method is attractive for irregular terrain because it treats surface variations in terms of a simple multiplicative factor ("phase screen"). However, implementing the exact sloping-surface impedance condition is problematic if one wants the computational efficiency of a Fourier parabolic equation algorithm. This article investigates an approximate flat-ground impedance condition that allows the Beilis-Tappert phase screen method to be used with a Fourier algorithm without any added complications. The exact sloping-surface impedance condition is derived and applied to propagation predictions over hills with maximum slopes from 5° to 22°. The predictions with the exact impedance condition are compared to predictions using the approximate flat-ground impedance condition. It is found that for slopes less than 15°-20°, the flat-ground impedance condition is sufficiently accurate. For slopes greater than approximately 20°, the limiting factor on numerical accuracy is not the flat-ground impedance approximation, but rather the narrow-angle approximation required by the Beilis-Tappert method. Thus, within the 20° limitation and using the flat-ground impedance condition with a Fourier parabolic equation, sound propagation over irregular terrain can be computed simply, efficiently, and accurately.

  10. Wave-like warp propagation in circumbinary discs II. Application to KH 15D

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    KH 15D is a protostellar binary system that shows a peculiar light curve. In order to model it, a narrow circumbinary precessing disc has been invoked, but a proper dynamical model has never been developed. In this paper, we analytically address the issue of whether such a disc can rigidly precess around KH 15D, and we relate the precessional period to the main parameters of the system. Then, we simulate the disc's dynamics by using a 1D model developed in a companion paper, such that the warp propagates into the disc as a bending wave, which is expected to be the case for protostellar discs. The validity of such an approach has been confirmed by comparing its results with full 3D SPH simulations on extended discs. In the present case, we use this 1D code to model the propagation of the warp in a narrow disc. If the inner truncation radius of the disc is set by the binary tidal torques at {\\sim} 1 AU, we find that the disc should extend out to 6-10 AU (depending on the models), and is therefore wider than pre...

  11. A Novel Vertex Affinity for Community Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We propose a novel vertex affinity measure in this paper. The new vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength and is ideal for such graph analytics applications as community detection. We also developed a framework that combines simple graph searches and resistance circuit formulas to compute the vertex affinity efficiently. We study the properties of the new affinity measure empirically in comparison to those of other popular vertex proximity metrics. Our results show that the existing metrics are ill-suited for community detection due to their lack of fundamental properties that are essential for correctly capturing inter- and intra-cluster vertex proximity.

  12. Affine processes on positive semidefinite matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Cuchiero, Christa; Mayerhofer, Eberhard; Teichmann, Josef

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the mathematical foundation for stochastically continuous affine processes on the cone of positive semidefinite symmetric matrices. These matrix-valued affine processes have arisen from a large and growing range of useful applications in finance, including multi-asset option pricing with stochastic volatility and correlation structures, and fixed-income models with stochastically correlated risk factors and default intensities.

  13. Analytical Uncertainty Propagation in Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment: Application to an Automobile Front Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shaked, Shanna; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2010-01-01

    to develop and apply to both inventory and impact assessment an explicit and transparent analytical approach to uncertainty. This approach applies Taylor series expansions to the uncertainty propagation of lognormally distributed parameters. Materials and methods We first apply the Taylor series expansion...... determine a range and a best estimate of a) the squared geometric standard deviation on the ratio of the two scenario scores, "A/B", and b) the degree of confidence in the prediction that the impact of scenario A is lower than B (i.e., the probability that A/B75%). For the aluminum panel, the electricity......, we obtained a good concordance between the Monte Carlo and the Taylor series expansion methods regarding the probability that one scenario is better than the other. Discussion The Taylor series expansion method addresses the crucial need of accounting for dependencies in LCA, both for common LCI...

  14. Propagation characteristics of converted refracted wave and its application in static correction of converted wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three-component seismic exploration through P-wave source and three-component geophone is an effective technique used in complicated reservoir exploration. In three-component seismic exploration data processing,one of the difficulties is static correction of converted wave. This paper analyzes propagation characteristics of non-converted and converted refracted waves,and discovers a favor-able condition for the formation of converted refracted wave,i.e. the velocity of overlaying medium S wave is much lower than that of underlying medium S wave. In addition,the paper proposes the static correction method of converted wave based on PPS converted refracted wave,and processes the real three-component seismic data with better results of static correction of converted wave.

  15. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J.; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O.; DuBow, Michael S.; Odic, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H2O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ~5.5 and ~5 log10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 106 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H2O2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C the contribution of heating, along with that of H2O2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions.

  16. Affine Dynamics with Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Gultekin, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schroedinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on determinants of the Ricci tensor, torsion tensor, Riemann tensor and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to construction of the affine connection in terms of curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor.

  17. Application of partially coherent wavefront propagation calculations for design of coherence-preserving synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Chu, Yong S.; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Yan, Hanfei

    2011-09-01

    Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, such as NSLS-II and MAX-IV, will offer excellent opportunities for further development of experimental techniques exploiting X-ray coherence. However, even in these new SR sources, the radiation produced by relativistic electrons (in undulators, wigglers and bending magnets) will remain only partially coherent in the X-ray spectral range. "Extraction" of "coherent portion" of the radiation flux and its transport to sample without loss of coherence must be performed by dedicated SR beamlines, optimized for particular types of experiments. Detailed quantitative prediction of partially coherent X-ray beam properties at propagation through optical elements, which is required for the optimization of such beamlines, can only be obtained from accurate and efficient physical-optics based numerical simulations. Examples of such simulations, made for NSLS-II beamlines, using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) computer code, are presented. Special attention is paid to the numerical analysis of the basic properties of partially coherent undulator radiation beam and its distinctions from the Gaussian beam. Performance characteristics of importance for particular beamlines, such as radiation spot size and flux at sample vs size of secondary source aperture for high-resolution microscopy beamlines, are predicted by the simulations.

  18. Elastodynamic wave propagation in graded materials: simulations, experiments, phenomena, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Jacqueline; Profunser, Dieter M; Bryner, Jürg; Dual, Jürg

    2006-12-22

    A two-dimensional numerical simulation model for the elastodynamic wave propagation in two linear elastic, isotropic, joint half-spaces is presented. The border between the two half-spaced is graded in a way, that the values of the elastic properties and the densities vary smoothly (sinusoidally) from the values of one continuum to the values of the other continuum within a transition zone of a defined thickness. It is demonstrated, that a graded layer leads to a frequency and wavelength dependent refraction and reflection behavior of elastodynamic waves. Numerical results show that wavelengths which are long compared with the transition layer thickness are dominantly reflected whereas short waves are dominantly transmitted, a phenomena which does not occur in the case of an infinitely thin transition layer. Furthermore the frequency dependent reflection and transmission behavior of elastodynamic waves is verified experimentally. There the interface between two vapor deposited films is graded due to intermetallic diffusion effects. These graded microstructures are analyzed with a short-pulse-laser-acoustic set-up. The corresponding frequencies of the elastodynamic waves which are filtered with these functionally graded microstructures are in the range of 0.5 THz.

  19. Symmetric discontinuous Galerkin methods for 1-D waves Fourier analysis, propagation, observability and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marica, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the propagation properties of the so-called symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (SIPG) approximations of the 1-d wave equation. This is done by means of linear approximations on uniform meshes. First, a careful Fourier analysis is constructed, highlighting the coexistence of two Fourier spectral branches or spectral diagrams (physical and spurious) related to the two components of the numerical solution (averages and jumps). Efficient filtering mechanisms are also developed by means of techniques previously proved to be appropriate for classical schemes like finite differences or P1-classical finite elements. In particular, the work presents a proof that the uniform observability property is recovered uniformly by considering initial data with null jumps and averages given by a bi-grid filtering algorithm. Finally, the book explains how these results can be extended to other more sophisticated conforming and non-conforming finite element methods, in particular to quad...

  20. A New Model of Thermal Propagation in Human Tissue by Using HIFU Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hajian, Saeed Reza; Pouladian, Majid; Hemmasi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    In outside the body HIFU treatment that focused ultrasound beams hit severely with cancer tissue layer especially the soft one, at the time of passage of the body different layers as long as they want to reach tumor, put their own way components under mechanical and even thermal influence and they can cause skin lesions. To reduce this effect a specific mechanical model can be used that means body tissue is considered as a mechanical model, it is affected when passing sound mechanical waves through it and each layer has an average heat. Gradually sound intensity decreases through every layer passage, finally in one direction a decreased intensity sound reach tumor tissue. If sound propagated directions increase, countless waves with decreased intensity are gathered upon the tumor tissue that causes a lot of heat focus on tumor tissue. Depending on the kind and mechanical properties of the tissue, intensity of each sound wave when it passes through tissue can be controlled to reduce damages outside the tumor t...

  1. Acoustic wave propagation in bovine cancellous bone: Application of the Modified Biot-Attenborough model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il; Roh, Heui-Seol; Yoon, Suk Wang

    2003-10-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in bovine cancellous bone is experimentally and theoretically investigated in the frequency range of 0.5-1 MHz. The phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) of bovine cancellous bone are measured as functions of frequency and porosity. For theoretical estimation, the Modified Biot-Attenborough (MBA) model is employed with three new phenomenological parameters: the boundary condition, phase velocity, and impedance parameters. The MBA model is based on the idealization of cancellous bone as a nonrigid porous medium with circular cylindrical pores oriented normal to the surface. It is experimentally observed that the phase velocity is approximately nondispersive and the attenuation coefficient linearly increases with frequency. The MBA model predicts a slightly negative dispersion of phase velocity linearly with frequency and the nonlinear relationships of attenuation and BUA with porosity. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results estimated with the MBA model. It is expected that the MBA model can be usefully employed in the field of clinical bone assessment for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  2. Application of digital radiography in evaluation of crack propagation rate in cast steel specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sikora

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A technology that utilizes penetrating X-rays is one of the oldest non-destructive testing methods. Digital radiography combines modern digital image processing algorithms with traditional X-ray testing method. The following paper describes the present use of digital radiograms in flaw detection, and the use of identification and classification algorithms in detection of cracks that occur under the effect of thermal fatigue process in creep-resistant steel castings operating as structural elements in heat treatment furnaces. The number and length of cracks formed in specimens of Ø37×5 mm dimensions as a result of shock heating and cooling was evaluated. The test alloy was austenitic cast steel of 30Ni-18Cr type, containing 1.75% Nb and 0.93% Ti (wt.%. It has been indicated that the applied methods of non-destructive testing using digital radiography are fully successful in evaluation of the fatigue crack propagation rate in steel castings.

  3. Improving the affinity of silicon surface for biosensor application: The interaction between multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and chitosan (CS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumaran, Thivina; Hashim, U.; Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Arshad, M. K.; Veeradasan, P.; Nordin, N. K. S.

    2017-03-01

    Previous study show the preparation, characterization and physical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and chitosan (CS). Multi-Wall CNT (MWCNT) and chitosan is utilized on the silicon surface in this studies. Functionalized of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were demonstrated using the nitric acid (HNO3) oxidation technique to remove impurities. In this studies, the interaction between CS-MWCNT was investigated and explained according to the UV-VIS result. The range of the wavelength obtained from the UV-Vis data is 200-700nm. The hybrid form of CS-MWCNT proves to be more promising as a surface for biosensing application.

  4. Uncertainty Propagation and Quantification using Constrained Coupled Adaptive Forward-Inverse Schemes: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    The success of implementation and execution of numerous subsurface energy technologies such shale gas extraction, geothermal energy, underground coal gasification rely on detailed characterization of the geology and the subsurface properties. For example, spatial variability of subsurface permeability controls multi-phase flow, and hence impacts the prediction of reservoir performance. Subsurface properties can vary significantly over several length scales making detailed subsurface characterization unfeasible if not forbidden. Therefore, in common practices, only sparse measurements of data are available to image or characterize the entire reservoir. For example pressure, P, permeability, k, and production rate, Q, measurements are only available at the monitoring and operational wells. Elsewhere, the spatial distribution of k is determined by various deterministic or stochastic interpolation techniques and P and Q are calculated from the governing forward mass balance equation assuming k is given at all locations. Several uncertainty drivers, such as PSUADE, are then used to propagate and quantify the uncertainty (UQ) of quantities (variable) of interest using forward solvers. Unfortunately, forward-solver techniques and other interpolation schemes are rarely constrained by the inverse problem itself: given P and Q at observation points determine the spatially variable map of k. The approach presented here, motivated by fluid imaging for subsurface characterization and monitoring, was developed by progressively solving increasingly complex realistic problems. The essence of this novel approach is that the forward and inverse partial differential equations are the interpolator themselves for P, k and Q rather than extraneous and sometimes ad hoc schemes. Three cases with different sparsity of data are investigated. In the simplest case, a sufficient number of passive pressure data (pre-production pressure gradients) are given. Here, only the inverse hyperbolic

  5. Propagation of Rainfall Products uncertainties in hydrological applications : Studies in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, M.; Roca, R.

    2012-04-01

    The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gages (or radar) network are generally scarce and generally degrading. The new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere will contribute to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to chose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites. Several sensitivity studies have been carried out in the Oueme Basin in Benin, West Africa, one the instrumented basin that will be used for MT products direct and hydrological validation.

  6. Affinity and enzyme-based biosensors: recent advances and emerging applications in cell analysis and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Matharu, Zimple; Howland, Michael C; Revzin, Alexander; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2012-09-01

    The applications of biosensors range from environmental testing and biowarfare agent detection to clinical testing and cell analysis. In recent years, biosensors have become increasingly prevalent in clinical testing and point-of-care testing. This is driven in part by the desire to decrease the cost of health care, to shift some of the analytical tests from centralized facilities to "frontline" physicians and nurses, and to obtain more precise information more quickly about the health status of a patient. This article gives an overview of recent advances in the field of biosensors, focusing on biosensors based on enzymes, aptamers, antibodies, and phages. In addition, this article attempts to describe efforts to apply these biosensors to clinical testing and cell analysis.

  7. Tsunami Generation and Propagation by 3D deformable Landslides and Application to Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse account for some of the most catastrophic natural disasters recorded and can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in

  8. [Prospects of application of the chitin-binding domains to isolation and purification of recombinant proteins by affinity chromatography: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, D V; Lopatin, S A; Varlamov, V P

    2009-01-01

    Properties of substrate-binding domains, some parameters of affinity sorbents, and a number of other special features that were necessary to take into account during creation of chromatographic system for isolation and purification of proteins with incorporated chitin-binding domain were discussed in this review. This method was shown to be successfully used along with metal-chelate affinity chromatography. The metal-chelate affinity chromatography with the use of polyhistidine peptides as affinity labels is successfully applied to isolation, purification, and investigation of recombinant proteins. However, this system had some disadvantages. At present, scientists attracted more and more attention to substrate-binding domains, including those chitin-binding, because they had a number of advantages being used as affinity label.

  9. The process of earthflow propagation: insights from an application of the SPH technique to a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; Pastor, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    An intense reactivation of a large earthflow (about 6 million m3 of soil debris) took place in Montaguto (Southern Apennines, Italy) between 2005 and 2006 as a consequence of the retrogression of a sliding process in the source area at the top of the slope. The earthflow run-out was approximately 2-2.5 km long, with the landslide mass thickness approximately ranging between 5 m and 30 m. Relevant damages were produced at the toe of the slope, since important infrastructures hereby located were covered by large volumes of landslide detritum. In the transition area, that is just downslope the source area, the landslide soil mass was channelized and transformed into a viscous soil flowing down through a natural depression channel, with an average displacement rate estimated to range between 3 and 7 m/day. In this work an application of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method has been carried out in order to simulate both the main features of the earthflow propagation, that is the direction and the thickness of the flowing mass, as well as to investigate some factors of the soil mechanical behavior that might have controlled the earthflow mobility. In particular, two different assumptions concerning the soil rheology, i.e. Bingham visco-plasticity and frictional-consolidating soil, the first complying more with the assumption of a flow-like behavior and the latter with a soil-like behavior of the landslide mass, have been made for comparison purposes. Based on the experiences gained from previous authors concerning the in-situ features of similar earthflow soil masses, these landslides are thought to behave more as a viscous fluid during the very first stages of propagation due to phase transition processes and, later on, to recover a soil-like behavior, therefore characterized by sliding mechanism, due to soil consolidation processes. Field evidences of consolidation processes have indeed been observed in situ in recent years based on pore water pressure monitoring

  10. The Wheeler Propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Bollini, C G

    1998-01-01

    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples that perturbative unitarity holds, whatever the mass (real or complex). Some possible applications are discussed.

  11. Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Application to Infrasounds Emitted by Meteor Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Brissaud, Quentin; Rolland, Lucie; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Spiga, Aymeric; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, Bruce

    2016-12-01

    The propagation of acoustic and gravity waves in planetary atmospheres is strongly dependent on both wind conditions and attenuation properties. This study presents a finite-difference modeling tool tailored for acoustic-gravity wave applications that takes into account the effect of background winds, attenuation phenomena (including relaxation effects specific to carbon dioxide atmospheres) and wave amplification by exponential density decrease with height. The simulation tool is implemented in 2D Cartesian coordinates and first validated by comparison with analytical solutions for benchmark problems. It is then applied to surface explosions simulating meteor impacts on Mars in various Martian atmospheric conditions inferred from global climate models. The acoustic wave travel times are validated by comparison with 2D ray tracing in a windy atmosphere. Our simulations predict that acoustic waves generated by impacts can refract back to the surface on wind ducts at high altitude. In addition, due to the strong nighttime near-surface temperature gradient on Mars, the acoustic waves are trapped in a waveguide close to the surface, which allows a night-side detection of impacts at large distances in Mars plains. Such theoretical predictions are directly applicable to future measurements by the INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission.

  12. Response of seed·propagated geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum L. H. Bailey to application of flurprimidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 and 1999 flurprimidol spray applications to seed-propagated geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum L.H.Bailey cultivars were made to evaluate efficacy and identify optimum concentration of flurprimidol. Growth retardant was applied as a single spray at O, 7,5, 15 and 22,5 mg L-1, when plants were 9-13 cm in height. The response of plants to flurprimidol application varied depending on geranium cultivar. At the time of flowering the plants sprayed with flurprimidol at concentrations of 7,5, 15 and 22,5 mg L-1 were significantly shorter than the untreated ones. The plant diameter, floret diameter, floret peduncle length and inflorescence diameter of geranium treated with flurprimidol were significantly smaller than those of the control plants. Flurprimidol hastened flowering of geranium cultivars 'Suzan Improved', 'Pinto Salmon' and 'Ringo 2000 Violet' by 5-8 days in 1999 but had no significant effect on days to flowering in 1998. The chemical name used: a-(1-methylethyl-a-[4-(trifluoromethyloxy-phenyl]-5-pyrimidine-methanol (flurprimidol.

  13. Good Modeling Practice for PAT Applications: Propagation of Input Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    (about 10) out of a total 56 were mainly responsible for the output uncertainty. Among these significant parameters, one finds parameters related to fermentation characteristics such as biomass metabolism, chemical equilibria and mass-transfer. Overall the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are found...... promising for helping to build reliable mechanistic models and to interpret the model outputs properly. These tools make part of good modeling practice, which can contribute to successful PAT applications for increased process understanding, operation and control purposes. © 2009 American Institute...

  14. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  15. Affine dynamics with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueltekin, Kemal [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schroedinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on the determinants of the Ricci tensor, the torsion tensor, the Riemann tensor, and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to the construction of the affine connection in terms of the curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that the curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor. (orig.)

  16. The mechanics and physics of fracturing: application to thermal aspects of crack propagation and to fracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, Genady P

    2015-03-28

    By way of introduction, the general invariant integral (GI) based on the energy conservation law is presented, with mention of cosmic, gravitational, mass, elastic, thermal and electromagnetic energy of matter application to demonstrate the approach, including Coulomb's Law generalized for moving electric charges, Newton's Law generalized for coupled gravitational/cosmic field, the new Archimedes' Law accounting for gravitational and surface energy, and others. Then using this approach the temperature track behind a moving crack is found, and the coupling of elastic and thermal energies is set up in fracturing. For porous materials saturated with a fluid or gas, the notion of binary continuum is used to introduce the corresponding GIs. As applied to the horizontal drilling and fracturing of boreholes, the field of pressure and flow rate as well as the fluid output from both a horizontal borehole and a fracture are derived in the fluid extraction regime. The theory of fracking in shale gas reservoirs is suggested for three basic regimes of the drill mud permeation, with calculating the shape and volume of the local region of the multiply fractured rock in terms of the pressures of rock, drill mud and shale gas.

  17. Application of bioregulators for banana cv. Williams macro-propagation under thermal chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Cedeño-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the prolific response of corms of banana cv. Williams to the application of 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BAP and a biostimulant based on algae extract, under thermal chamber conditions. The trial was carried out from November 2013 to April 2014 at “La Teodomira” experimental farm of the Technical University of Manabí in Ecuador. The treatments were 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP at concentrations of 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/l, and a biostimulant based on algae extract at doses of 0, 20, 40, and 80 ml/corm. Benzylaminopurine was applied in the corm and the biostimulant was applied in drench. The design used was a randomized complete block with A x B factorial treatment where 6-BAP and the biostimulant were the factors; the treatments were replicated four times, for a total of 64 experimental units. Significant differences (p≤0.0001 were detected for 6-BAP factor where the higher multiplication rate was obtained at the concentration of 40 mg/l with 47.28 plantlets/corm. There were no significant differences (p≥0.9167 neither for the biostimulant nor for the 6-BAP x biostimulant interaction (p≥0.3789. Callus tissue formation was evident from first generation (R1 sprouts. At the concentration of 80 mg/l of 6-BAP, the presence of abnormal plantlets, especially coming from callus tissue, was observed.

  18. Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: Actions on tensor space

    CERN Document Server

    Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar

    2012-01-01

    The affine and degenerate affine Birman-Murakami-Wenzl (BMW) algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic quantum groups and Lie algebras, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine and cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper we explain how the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras are tantalizers (tensor power centralizer algebras) by defining actions of the affine braid group and the degenerate affine braid algebra on tensor space and showing that, in important cases, these actions induce actions of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras. We then exploit the connection to quantum groups and Lie algebras to determine universal parameters for the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras. Finally, we show that the universal parameters are central elements--the higher Casimir elements for orthogonal and symplectic enveloping algebras and quantum groups.

  19. Investigation of Propagation Characteristics of Twisted Hollow Waveguides for Particle Accelerator Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Joshua Lee [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A new class of accelerating structures employing a uniformly twisted waveguide is investigated. Twisted waveguides of various cross-sectional geometries are considered and analyzed. It is shown that such a twisted waveguide can support waves that travel at a speed slower than the speed of light c. The slow-wave properties of twisted structures are of interest because these slow-wave electromagnetic fields can be used in applications such as electron traveling wave tubes and linear particle accelerators. Since there is no exact closed form solution for the electromagnetic fields within a twisted waveguide or cavity, several previously proposed approximate methods are examined, and more effcient approaches are developed. It is found that the existing perturbation theory methods yield adequate results for slowly twisted structures; however, our efforts here are geared toward analyzing rapidly twisted structures using modifed finite difference methods specially suited for twisted structures. Although the method can handle general twisted structures, three particular cross sections are selected as representative cases for careful analysis. First, a slowly twisted rectangular cavity is analyzed as a reference case. This is because its shape is simple and perturbation theory already gives a good approximate solution for such slow twists rates. Secondly, a symmetrically notched circular cross section is investigated, since its longitudinal cross section is comparable to the well known disk-loaded cavity (used in many practical accelerator designs, including SLAC). Finally, a "dumbbell" shaped cross section is analyzed because of its similarity to the well-known TESLA-type accelerating cavity, which is of great importance because of its wide acceptance as a superconducting cavity. To validate the results of the developed theory and our extensive simulations, the newly developed numerical models are compared to commercial codes. Also, several prototypes are developed

  20. Intensity moments by path integral techniques for wave propagation through random media, with application to sound in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D. R.; Dashen, R.; Flatte, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    A theory is developed which describes intensity moments for wave propagation through random media. It is shown using the path integral technique that these moments are significantly different from those of a Rayleigh distribution in certain asymptotic regions. The path integral approach is extended to inhomogeneous, anisotropic media possessing a strong deterministic velocity profile. The behavior of the corrections to Rayleigh statistics is examined, and it is shown that the important characteristics can be attributed to a local micropath focusing function. The correction factor gamma is a micropath focusing parameter defined in terms of medium fluctuations. The value of gamma is calculated for three ocean acoustic experiments, using internal waves as the medium fluctuations. It is found that all three experiments show excellent agreement as to the relative values of the intensity moments. The full curved ray is found to yield results that are significantly different from the straight-line approximations. It is noted that these methods are applicable to a variety of experimental situations, including atmospheric optics and radio waves through plasmas.

  1. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  2. Protein purification using PDZ affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-04-01

    PDZ domains function in nature as protein-binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise approximately 90 residues and undergo specific, high-affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, other PDZ domains, and/or phospholipids. We have previously shown that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. This unit provides protocols for the PDZ affinity chromatography procedure that are applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domains or PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We detail the preparation of affinity resins composed of PDZ domains or PDZ domain peptide ligands coupled to solid supports. These resins can be used to purify proteins containing endogenous or genetically introduced PDZ domains or ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands.

  3. Modification of the Farr assay using ethanol-ammonium acetate precipitation and its application to the measurement of affinity of anti-HCG produced in several species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanavala, Y M; Hay, F C

    1978-01-01

    A double isotope modified Farr assay was used to determine the total binding sites and affinity of antibodies to human chorionic gonadotrophin. Precipitation of the antigen--antibody complex at equilibrium with ammonium sulphate gave very high levels of nonspecific binding. Good discrimination over background was observed using a specific anti-immunoglobulin serum. However since we were interested in measuring the affinity of antibodies raised in several animal species it was more appropriate to use a single nonspecies precipitating reagent. We found that the use of a mixture of ethanol-ammonium acetate gave very low levels of non-specific binding in baboons, marmosets, rabbits and mice.

  4. Affine Sphere Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate spacetimes whose light cones could be anisotropic. We prove the equivalence of the structures: (a) Lorentz-Finsler manifold for which the mean Cartan torsion vanishes, (b) Lorentz-Finsler manifold for which the indicatrix (observer space) at each point is a convex hyperbolic affine sphere centered on the zero section, and (c) pair given by a spacetime volume and a sharp convex cone distribution. The equivalence suggests to describe (affine sphere) spacetimes with this structure, so that no algebraic-metrical concept enters the definition. As a result, this work shows how the metric features of spacetime emerge from elementary concepts such as measure and order. Non-relativistic spacetimes are obtained replacing proper spheres with improper spheres, so the distinction does not call for group theoretical elements. In physical terms, in affine sphere spacetimes the light cone distribution and the spacetime measure determine the motion of massive and massless particles (hence the dispersion relation). Furthermore, it is shown that, more generally, for Lorentz-Finsler theories non-differentiable at the cone, the lightlike geodesics and the transport of the particle momentum over them are well defined, though the curve parametrization could be undefined. Causality theory is also well behaved. Several results for affine sphere spacetimes are presented. Some results in Finsler geometry, for instance in the characterization of Randers spaces, are also included.

  5. Finite Difference Simulations of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Applications to INSIGHT NASA Mission and Mars Microphone Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R.; Brissaud, Q.; Martin, R.; Rolland, L. M.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    A simulation tool of acoustic and gravity wave propagation through finite differences is applied to the case of Mars atmosphere.The details of the code and its validation for Earth atmosphere are presented in session SA003.The simulations include the modeling of both acoustic and gravity waves in the same run, an effects of exponential density decrease, winds and attenuation.The application to Mars requires the inclusion of a specific attenuation effect related to the relaxation induced by vibrational modes of carbon dioxide molecules.Two different applications are presented demonstrating the ability of the simulation tool to work at very different scale length and frequencies.First the propagation of acoustic and gravity waves due to a bolide explosion in the atmosphere of Mars are simulated.This case has a direct application to the atmospheric pressure and seismic measurements that will be performed by INSIGHT NASA discovery mission next year.Then, we also present simulations of sound wave propagation on a scale of meters that can be used to infer the feasability microphone measurements for future Mars missions.

  6. Application of Advection-Diffusion Routing Model to Flood Wave Propagation:A Case Study on Big Piney River, Missouri USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A Endreny; David J Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Flood wave propagation modeling is of critical importance to advancing water re-sources management and protecting human life and property. In this study, we investigated how the advection-diffusion routing model performed in flood wave propagation on a 16 km long down-stream section of the Big Piney River, MO. Model performance was based on gaging station data at the upstream and downstream cross sections. We demonstrated with advection-diffusion theory that for small differences in watershed drainage area between the two river cross sections, inflow along the reach mainly contributes to the downstream hydrograph’s rising limb and not to the falling limb. The downstream hydrograph’s falling limb is primarily determined by the propagated flood wave originating at the upstream cross section. This research suggests the parameter for the advection-diffusion routing model can be calibrated by fitting the hydrograph falling limb. Application of the advection diffusion model to the flood wave of January 29, 2013 supports our theoretical finding that the propagated flood wave determines the downstream cross section falling limb, and the model has good performance in our test examples.

  7. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  8. On the Theory and Numerical Simulation of Cohesive Crack Propagation with Application to Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudraraju, Siva Shankar; Garikipati, Krishna; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of crack propagation is among the predominant modes of failure in many natural and engineering structures, often leading to severe loss of structural integrity and catastrophic failure. Thus, the ability to understand and a priori simulate the evolution of this failure mode has been one of the cornerstones of applied mechanics and structural engineering and is broadly referred to as "fracture mechanics." The work reported herein focuses on extending this understanding, in the context of through-thickness crack propagation in cohesive materials, through the development of a continuum-level multiscale numerical framework, which represents cracks as displacement discontinuities across a surface of zero measure. This report presents the relevant theory, mathematical framework, numerical modeling, and experimental investigations of through-thickness crack propagation in fiber-reinforced composites using the Variational Multiscale Cohesive Method (VMCM) developed by the authors.

  9. Affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras: The center

    CERN Document Server

    Daugherty, Zajj; Virk, Rahbar

    2011-01-01

    The degenerate affine and affine BMW algebras arise naturally in the context of Schur-Weyl duality for orthogonal and symplectic Lie algebras and quantum groups, respectively. Cyclotomic BMW algebras, affine Hecke algebras, cyclotomic Hecke algebras, and their degenerate versions are quotients. In this paper the theory is unified by treating the orthogonal and symplectic cases simultaneously; we make an exact parallel between the degenerate affine and affine cases via a new algebra which takes the role of the affine braid group for the degenerate setting. A main result of this paper is an identification of the centers of the affine and degenerate affine BMW algebras in terms of rings of symmetric functions which satisfy a "cancellation property" or "wheel condition" (in the degenerate case, a reformulation of a result of Nazarov). Miraculously, these same rings also arise in Schubert calculus, as the cohomology and K-theory of isotropic Grassmanians and symplectic loop Grassmanians. We also establish new inte...

  10. On the application of locally adaptive unstructured grids to the problems of blast wave propagation and attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, E.V.; Saito, T.; Takayama, K. [Tohoku Univ., Inst. of Fluid Science, Shock Wave Research Center, Sendai (Japan)]. E-mail: timo@ceres.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp; Voinovich, P.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Supercomputer Center at the A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galyukov. A.O. [Soft-Impact Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tahir, R.B.; Molder, S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The problem of blast wave propagation and attenuation have always been of considerable basic and practical interest. Due to diffraction effects, reflections and possible focusing, blast wave intensity may vary considerably even at the same distance from the explosion center. From the computational point of view, these problems deal typically with computational domains of complex geometry, often requiring the resolution of gas dynamics phenomena having characteristic scales much smaller than the scale of a computational domain. This paper presents experiences and capabilities in applying the above techniques to various practical problems involving blast wave propagation and attenuation.

  11. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  12. Predicting the effects of amino acid replacements in peptide hormones on their binding affinities for class B GPCRs and application to the design of secretin receptor antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Jerez A.; Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J.; Bordner, Andrew J.

    2012-07-01

    Computational prediction of the effects of residue changes on peptide-protein binding affinities, followed by experimental testing of the top predicted binders, is an efficient strategy for the rational structure-based design of peptide inhibitors. In this study we apply this approach to the discovery of competitive antagonists for the secretin receptor, the prototypical member of class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Proteins in this family are involved in peptide hormone-stimulated signaling and are implicated in several human diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets. We first validated our computational method by predicting changes in the binding affinities of several peptides to their cognate class B GPCRs due to alanine replacement and compared the results with previously published experimental values. Overall, the results showed a significant correlation between the predicted and experimental ΔΔG values. Next, we identified candidate inhibitors by applying this method to a homology model of the secretin receptor bound to an N-terminal truncated secretin peptide. Predictions were made for single residue replacements to each of the other nineteen naturally occurring amino acids at peptide residues within the segment binding the receptor N-terminal domain. Amino acid replacements predicted to most enhance receptor binding were then experimentally tested by competition-binding assays. We found two residue changes that improved binding affinities by almost one log unit. Furthermore, a peptide combining both of these favorable modifications resulted in an almost two log unit improvement in binding affinity, demonstrating the approximately additive effect of these changes on binding. In order to further investigate possible physical effects of these residue changes on receptor binding affinity, molecular dynamics simulations were performed on representatives of the successful peptide analogues (namely A17I, G25R, and A17I/G25R) in bound and

  13. 局部式反传网络的改进BP算法及应用%BP algorithm based on partial counter propagation network and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍爱清; 汪跃龙; 汤楠; 程为彬; 葛蕾

    2012-01-01

    针对标准BP算法收敛速度慢的缺点,分析了其产生的主要原因,提出了一种改进BP算法.在传统BP算法基础上通过对其激励函数增加陡度因子并在误差反传权值修正时增加协调器,通过对网络灵敏度的分析将全反传式网络变成局部式反传网络,从而达到提高网络学习速率及精度的目的.改进的BP算法应用于导向钻井稳定平台系统的辨识,仿真结果表明该算法收敛速度快,精度高.%According to the shortcomings of slow convergence of the standard BP (Back-Propagation) algorithm, its main causes are analyzed and the improved algorithm of BP algorithm with the partial counter propagation network is proposed. Through increasing steepness factor of activation functions and increasing coordinator to modify weights when the error is in the back propagation, a full back-propagation type network becomes local-style back-propagation network by means of the analysis of the sensitivity of the network, so as to achieve the purpose of enhancing the learning speed and accuracy. Improved BP algorithm is applied to identification of the stable platform on steerable drilling system. Simulation comparison results show that, in a given accuracy requirement and its convergence speed, this improved BP neural network is superior to traditional BP network, so it has good research and application value.

  14. Affinity driven social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  15. Purely affine Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Skirzewski, Aureliano

    2014-01-01

    We develop a topological theory of gravity with torsion where metric has a dynamical rather than a kinematical origin. This approach towards gravity resembles pre-geometrical approaches in which a fundamental metric does not exist, but the affine connection gives place to a local inertial structure. Such feature reminds us of Mach's principle, that assumes the inertial forces should have dynamical origin. Additionally, a Newtonian gravitational force is obtained in the non-relativistic limit of the theory.

  16. Nonlinear heat-transport equation beyond Fourier law: application to heat-wave propagation in isotropic thin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, A.; Tibullo, V.; Dong, Y.

    2017-03-01

    By means of a nonlinear generalization of the Maxwell-Cattaneo-Vernotte equation, on theoretical grounds we investigate how nonlinear effects may influence the propagation of heat waves in isotropic thin layers which are not laterally isolated from the external environment. A comparison with the approach of the Thermomass Theory is made as well.

  17. Application of the Theory of Wave Propagation through Random Media to Phase and Amplitude Fluctuations of Seismic P-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-18

    Mantle Boundary Inferred from Short-Period Scattered PKP Waves Recorded at the Global Digital Seismograph Network KLAUS BATAILLE AND STANILY M. F...Geophys. Res., 78, Osemov, L A., Wave Propagation in a Random Medium, Mc Graw - 6009--6020, 1973. Hill, New York, 1960. Morelli, A., and A. M

  18. Development and Application of Benchmark Examples for Mixed-Mode I/II Quasi-Static Delamination Propagation Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The development of benchmark examples for quasi-static delamination propagation prediction is presented. The example is based on a finite element model of the Mixed-Mode Bending (MMB) specimen for 50% mode II. The benchmarking is demonstrated for Abaqus/Standard, however, the example is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the automated delamination propagation prediction capability in commercial finite element codes based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). First, a quasi-static benchmark example was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate under quasi-static loading. Third, the load-displacement as well as delamination length versus applied load/displacement relationships from a propagation analysis and the benchmark results were compared, and good agreement could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. The benchmarking procedure proved valuable by highlighting the issues associated with choosing the input parameters of the particular implementation. Overall, the results are encouraging, but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination fatigue onset and growth is required.

  19. Affine morphisms at zero level

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.

  20. On the Affine Isoperimetric Inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wuyang Yu; Gangsong Leng

    2011-11-01

    We obtain an isoperimetric inequality which estimate the affine invariant -surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of $_{-p}K$.

  1. Design, synthesis, and application of a hydrazide-functionalized isotope-coded affinity tag for the quantification of oxylipid-protein conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bingnan; Stevens, Jan F; Maier, Claudia S

    2007-05-01

    An isotopically coded affinity probe was developed and evaluated for the characterization and quantification of proteins adducted by 2-alkenals derived from lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes. Lipid-derived 2-alkenals, such as acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), have the ability to react with cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues in proteins, thus causing protein damage and loss of protein function. Such modifications of proteins are difficult to characterize in biological samples by mass spectrometry due to the complexity of protein extracts and the low abundance of adducted proteins. The novel aldehyde-reactive, hydrazide-functionalized, isotope-coded affinity tag (HICAT) described in this study was found effective for the selective isolation, detection, and quantification of Michael-type adducts of 2-alkenals with proteins using a combination of affinity isolation, nanoLC, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). The chemical and mass spectrometric properties of the new probe are demonstrated on a model protein treated with HNE. The efficacy of HICAT for the analysis of complex samples was tested using preparations of mitochondrial proteins that were modified in vitro with HNE. The potential of the HICAT strategy for the identification, characterization, and quantification of in vivo oxylipid-protein conjugates is demonstrated on cardiac mitochondrial protein preparations, in which, for example, the ADP/ATP translocase 1 was found adducted to the 2-alkenals, acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, at Cys-256.

  2. Affine Patches on Positroid Varieties and Affine Pipe Dreams (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Snider, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The objects of interest in this thesis are positroid varieties in the Grassmannian, which are indexed by juggling patterns. In particular, we study affine patches on these positroid varieties. Our main result corresponds these affine patches to Kazhdan-Lusztig varieties in the affine Grassmannian. We develop a new term order and study how these spaces are related to subword complexes and Stanley-Reisner ideals. We define an extension of pipe dreams to the affine case and conclude by showing how our affine pipe dreams are generalizations of Cauchon and Le diagrams.

  3. Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    , the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example......In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if...

  4. Applicability of Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method to Simulation of Wave Propagation in Cancellous Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Yoshiki; Imaizumi, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Takashi; Matsukawa, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Otani, Takahiko

    2006-09-01

    In cancellous bone, longitudinal waves often separate into fast and slow waves depending on the alignment of bone trabeculae. This interesting phenomenon becomes an effective tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis because wave propagation behavior depends on the bone structure. We have, therefore, simulated wave propagation in such a complex medium by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, using a three-dimensional X-ray computer tomography (CT) model of an actual cancellous bone. In this simulation, experimentally observed acoustic constants of the cortical bone were adopted. As a result, the generation of fast and slow waves was confirmed. The speed of fast waves and the amplitude of slow waves showed good correlations with the bone volume fraction. The simulated results were also compared with the experimental results obtained from the identical cancellous bone.

  5. Parallel finite difference beam propagation method based on message passing interface: application to MMI couplers with two-dimensional confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaojun Yan; Wenbiao Peng; Haijun Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ The alternate-direction implicit finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) is used to analyze the two-dimensional (2D) symmetrical multimode interference (MMI) couplers. The positions of the images at the output plane and the length of multimode waveguide are accurately determined numerically. In order to reduce calculation time, the parallel processing of the arithmetic is implemented by the message passing interface and the simulation is accomplished by eight personal computers.

  6. Propagation of terawatt-femtosecond laser pulses and its application to the triggering and guiding of high-voltage discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Roland

    2006-01-01

    When an ultrashort-terawatt laser pulse is propagating through the atmosphere, long filaments may develop. Their light is confined in an area of about 100 µm over distances up to several hundred meters, and an air plasma is generated along the beam path. Moreover, filamentation leads to a significant broadening of the initial pulse spectrum. These properties open the perspective to improve classical LIDAR techniques as well as to laser lightning control.In the laboratory, we have shown that t...

  7. Numerical modelling of VLF radio wave propagation through earth-ionosphere waveguide and its application to sudden ionospheric disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we theoretically predict the normal characteristics of Very Low Frequency (3~30 kHz) radio wave propagation through Earth-ionosphere waveguide corresponding to normal behavior of the D-region ionosphere. We took the VLF narrow band data from the receivers of Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) to validate our models. Detection of sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) are common to all the measurements. We apply our theoretical models to infer the D-region characteristics and to reproduce the observed VLF signal behavior corresponding to such SIDs. We develop a code based on ray theory to simulate the diurnal behavior of VLF signals over short propagation paths (2000~3000 km). The diurnal variation from this code are comparable to the variation obtained from a more general Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code which is based on mode theory approach. We simulate the observational results obtained during the Total Solar Eclipse of July 22, 2009 in India. We also report and simulate a h...

  8. Wave propagation in a viscous fluid with a pipeline shear mean flow and application for ultrasonic flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the problem of wave propagation in a compressible viscous fluid confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline in the presence of a shear mean flow. On the assumption of isentropic and axisymmetric wave propagation, the convected acoustic equations are mathematically deduced from the conservations of continuity and momentum, leading to a set of coupled second-order differential equations with respect of the acoustic pressure and velocity components in radial and axial directions. A solution based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to transform the differential equations to an infinite set of homogeneous algebraic equations, thus the wave number can be calculated due to the existence condition of a non-trivial solution. After the discussion of the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of the wave mode is theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, wave attenuation of the first four wave modes due to fluid viscosity is numerically studied in the presence of the laminar and turbulent flow profiles. Meanwhile, the measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on the difference of downstream and upstream wave propagations is parametrically addressed.

  9. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis in the Ti-C-Ni-Mo System on Application of Powerful Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, M. M.; Khina, B. B.

    2014-03-01

    An experimental setup has been developed and a study has been made of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in a Ti-C-Ni-Mo system under the conditions of action of ultrasonic vibrations. The influence of the amplitude of ultrasonic vibrations on the combustion rate and temperature and on the phase composition and structure of the derived composite material based on titanium carbide with a metal binder has been determined. The heat-transfer coefficient on the surface of a sample for vibrations at ultrasound frequency has been evaluated. Consideration has been given to possible mechanisms of influence of ultrasonic vibrations on the process of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. It has been shown that the reduction in the synthesis temperature is due to the cooling of the sample because of the forced convection of the surrounding gas, whereas the change in the structure of the synthesized material is related to the change in the conditions of high-temperature heterogeneous interaction in the wave of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.

  10. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.

    2016-08-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  11. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schroedinger's purely affine theory [21], where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  12. Engineering of an Extremely Thermostable Alpha/Beta Barrel Scaffold to Serve as a High Affinity Molecular Recognition Element for Use in Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-23

    We took the converged sequences from three rounds of A + wt C + wt Front Half of Mutant KD = 0.8 mM ± 0.435 selection and compared their affinity...what we obtained from the limited serine/tyrosine (TMT) library, we decided to proceed with a different approach. We began to perform error prone PCR ...diversifying our library as we have gone through four rounds of selection with error prone PCR and have acquired some convergence of sequences. We also

  13. Downstream processing of polysaccharide degrading enzymes by affinity chromatography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, W.A.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of affinity matrices to isolate and purify a number of polysaccharide degrading enzymes and the application of these adsorbents in the large- scale purification of the enzymes from fermentation broths. Affinity adsorbents were developed for endo-polyga

  14. Bidirectional beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1988-05-01

    A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.

  15. Affinity Purification of Insulin by Peptide-Ligand Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The affinity heptapeptide (HWWWPAS) for insulin, selected from phage display library,was coupled to EAH Sepharose 4B gel and packed to a 1-mL column. The column was used for the affinity purification of insulin from protein mixture and commercial insulin preparation. It was observed that the minor impurity in the commercial insulin was removed by the affinity chromatography. Nearly 40 mg of insulin could be purified with the 1-mL affinity column. The results revealed the high specificity and capacity of the affinity column for insulin purification. Moreover, based on the analysis of the amino acids in the peptide sequence, shorter peptides were designed and synthesized for insulin chromatography. As a result, HWWPS was found to be a good alternative to HWWWPAS, while the other two peptides with three or four amino acids showed weak affinity for insulin. The results indicated that the peptide sequence of HWWWPAS was quite conservative for specific binding of insulin.

  16. Application of a hybrid method combining grey model and back propagation artificial neural networks to forecast hepatitis B in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Xiaojun; Yan, Yu; Huang, Daizheng

    2015-01-01

    Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease provides potentially valuable insights in its own right. It is critical for early prevention and may contribute to health services management and syndrome surveillance. This study investigates the use of a hybrid algorithm combining grey model (GM) and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) to forecast hepatitis B in China based on the yearly numbers of hepatitis B and to evaluate the method's feasibility. The results showed that the proposal method has advantages over GM (1, 1) and GM (2, 1) in all the evaluation indexes.

  17. Application of the optical flow method for the experimental analysis of turbulent flame propagation in a transparent engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Mario; Lombardi, Simone; Continillo, Gaetano; Sementa, Paolo; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper illustrates the analysis conducted on high-definition, high sampling rate image sequences collected in experiments with a single spark ignition optically accessible engine. Images are first processed to identify the reaction front, and then analyzed by an optical flow estimation technique. The results show that each velocity component of the estimated flow field has an ECDF very similar to the CDF of a Gaussian distribution, whereas the velocity magnitude has an ECDF well fitted by a Rayleigh probability distribution. The proposed non-intrusive method provides a fast statistical characterization of the flame propagation phenomenon in the engine combustion chamber.

  18. Enzyme- and affinity biomolecule-mediated polymerization systems for biological signal amplification and cell screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Klara H; Nash, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Enzyme-mediated polymerization and polymerization-based signal amplification have emerged as two closely related techniques that are broadly applicable in the nanobio sciences. We review recent progress on polymerization systems mediated by biological molecules (e.g., affinity molecules and enzymes), and highlight newly developed formats and configurations of these systems to perform such tasks as non-instrumented biodetection, synthesis of core-shell nanomaterials, isolation of rare cells, and high-throughput screening. We discuss useful features of biologically mediated polymerization systems, such as multiple mechanisms of amplification (e.g., enzymatic, radical chain propagation), and the ability to localize structures at interfaces and at cell surfaces with microscopic spatial confinement. We close with a perspective on desirable improvements that need to be addressed to adapt these molecular systems to future applications.

  19. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  20. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  1. A robust behavior of Feed Forward Back propagation algorithm of Artificial Neural Networks in the application of vertical electrical sounding data inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Srinivas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The applications of intelligent techniques have increased exponentially in recent days to study most of the non-linear parameters. In particular, the behavior of earth resembles the non-linearity applications. An efficient tool is needed for the interpretation of geophysical parameters to study the subsurface of the earth. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN perform certain tasks if the structure of the network is modified accordingly for the purpose it has been used. The three most robust networks were taken and comparatively analyzed for their performance to choose the appropriate network. The single-layer feed-forward neural network with the back propagation algorithm is chosen as one of the well-suited networks after comparing the results. Initially, certain synthetic data sets of all three-layer curves have been taken for training the network, and the network is validated by the field datasets collected from Tuticorin Coastal Region (78°7′30"E and 8°48′45"N, Tamil Nadu, India. The interpretation has been done successfully using the corresponding learning algorithm in the present study. With proper training of back propagation networks, it tends to give the resistivity and thickness of the subsurface layer model of the field resistivity data concerning the synthetic data trained earlier in the appropriate network. The network is trained with more Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES data, and this trained network is demonstrated by the field data. Groundwater table depth also has been modeled.

  2. Effect of cutting diameter and hormonal application on the propagation of Ficus roxburghii Wall. through branch cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakeshwar Singh Rana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit gathering from Ficus roxburghii Wall., a multipurpose tree,hinders its regeneration through seed. The present study was undertaken to propagate this species using branch cuttings treated with different hormones in two different seasons: rainy-July and spring-March. In both seasons (rainy and spring, large sized (1.25-2.5 cm diameter cuttings resulted in statistically higher growth of all the studied parameters than that of small sized (< 1.25 cm diameter cuttings, except the number of shoots in both the seasonsand number of lateral roots in rainy season. The effect of hormonal treatments(Indole-acetic acid, Indole-butyric acid and Naphthyl-acetic acidwas also significant on all the studied parameters in both the study seasons except in the case of number of shoots in rainy season where the influence was not-significant. The interaction large size x IBA 100 ppm resulted in significantly better growth of the studied parameters in both seasons except for the number of lateral roots, number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves in rainy season. This study implies that species is amenable to cloning with different hormonal treatments. In general, it was observed that growth and development of cuttings was better in spring than the rainy season.Therefore, for the successful propagation of Ficus roxburghii, largesized cuttings are to be treated with IBA 100 ppm and be planted in spring.

  3. [PHEMA/PEI]-Cu(II) based immobilized metal affinity chromatography cryogels: Application on the separation of IgG from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshpour, Monireh; Derazshamshir, Ali; Bereli, Nilay; Elkak, Assem; Denizli, Adil

    2016-04-01

    The immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC) has gained significant interest as a widespread separation and purification tool for therapeutic proteins, nucleic acids and other biological molecules. The enormous potential of IMAC for proteins with natural surface exposed-histidine residues and for recombinant proteins with histidine clusters. Cryogels as monolithic materials have recently been proposed as promising chromatographic adsorbents for the separation of biomolecules in downstream processing. In the present study, IMAC cryogels have been synthesized and utilized for the adsorption and separation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from IgG solution and whole human plasma. For this purpose, Cu(II)-ions were coupled to poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) PHEMA using poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as the chelating ligand. In this study the cryogels formation optimized by the varied proportion of PEI from 1% to 15% along with different amounts of Cu (II) as chelating metal. The prepared cryogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The [PHEMA/PEI]-Cu(II) cryogels were assayed for their capability to bind the human IgG from aqueous solutions. The IMAC cryogels were found to have high affinity toward human IgG. The adsorption of human IgG was investigated onto the PHEMA/PEI cryogels with (10% PEI) and the concentration of Cu (II) varied as 10, 50, 100 and 150 mg/L. The separation of human IgG was achieved in one purification step at pH7.4. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed at the [PHEMA/PEI]-Cu(II) (10% PEI) with 72.28 mg/g of human IgG. The purification efficiency and human IgG purity were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

  4. Light Propagation For Accelerated Observers

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    We show that for an observer in translational, rotational or gravitational motion, a linearly polarized plane wave has two modes of propagation in a stationary, homogeneous and isotropic medium according to Hertz's version of Maxwell's theory. The first mode is characterized by polarization at right angles to the direction of propagation and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the material constants of the medium. The second mode is characterized by polarization along the propagation direction and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the motion of the observer. We outline some applications of the second mode in emerging technologies.

  5. Particle propagation in cosmological backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum propagation of particles in cosmological backgrounds, by considering a doublet of massive scalar fields propagating in an expanding universe, possibly filled with radiation. We focus on the dissipative effects related to the expansion rate. At first order, we recover the expected result that the decay rate is determined by the local temperature. Beyond linear order, the decay rate has an additional contribution governed by the expansion parameter. This latter contribution is present even for stable particles in the vacuum. Finally, we analyze the long time behaviour of the propagator and briefly discuss applications to the trans-Planckian question.

  6. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  7. Propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-loaded anisotropic functionally graded waveguide: application to ultrasound characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Cécile; Naili, Salah

    2010-03-01

    Non-destructive evaluation of heterogeneous materials is of major interest not only in industrial but also in biomedical fields. In this work, the studied structure is a three-layered one: A laterally heterogeneous anisotropic solid layer is sandwiched between two acoustic fluids. An original method is proposed to solve the wave equation in such a structure without using a multilayered model for the plate. This method is based on an analytical solution, the matricant, explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. This approach is validated for the study of a fluid-loaded anisotropic and homogeneous plane waveguide with two different fluids on each side. Then, original results are given on the propagation of elastic waves in an asymmetrically fluid-loaded waveguide with laterally varying properties. This configuration notably corresponds to the axial transmission technique to the ultrasound characterization of cortical bone in vivo.

  8. Dictionary learning on the manifold of square root densities and application to reconstruction of diffusion propagator fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaqi; Xie, Yuchen; Ye, Wenxing; Ho, Jeffrey; Entezari, Alireza; Blackband, Stephen J; Vemuri, Baba C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel dictionary learning framework for data lying on the manifold of square root densities and apply it to the reconstruction of diffusion propagator (DP) fields given a multi-shell diffusion MRI data set. Unlike most of the existing dictionary learning algorithms which rely on the assumption that the data points are vectors in some Euclidean space, our dictionary learning algorithm is designed to incorporate the intrinsic geometric structure of manifolds and performs better than traditional dictionary learning approaches when applied to data lying on the manifold of square root densities. Non-negativity as well as smoothness across the whole field of the reconstructed DPs is guaranteed in our approach. We demonstrate the advantage of our approach by comparing it with an existing dictionary based reconstruction method on synthetic and real multi-shell MRI data.

  9. Impulse response characterization of the propagation and scattering environment in through-wall applications using an S-band noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2012-06-01

    An ultrawideband (UWB) random noise radar operating at S-Band has been developed for through-wall detection, ranging, tracking, and imaging of targets. The system transmits a bandlimited UWB noise signal and accomplishes detection by cross-correlating the reflected signal with a time-delayed replica of the transmit signal. Noise radars have been found eminently suitable for most though-wall radar applications. Yet, in such scenarios, the antennas and the barrier (i.e. the wall) cause distortions in the return signal due to their frequency-dependent radiation and loss characteristics, respectively. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of characterizing the impulse response of various barriers and obstructions via measurements with the S-Band noise radar. As is well known, the entire operation of a linear system (e.g., antenna or barrier) can be captured in its impulse response h(t), i.e. the output of the system when excited by an impulse function at its input, δ(t). Thus, impulse response testing, generally, provides a complete diagnosis of the system over its entire mode of operation. This paper will present results on our impulse response characterization of the propagation and scattering environment through a barrier by the atypical method of cross correlation of noise signals. In addition, we will introduce a simple electromagnetic forward model for wall propagation and accompanying simulations.

  10. Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....

  11. Affinity filtration coupled with capillary-based affinity purification for the isolation of protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M S; Sheikh, Q I; Hill, R; Brown, P E; Dickman, M J; Tzokov, S B; Rice, D W; Gjerde, D T; Hornby, D P

    2013-08-01

    The isolation of complex macromolecular assemblies at the concentrations required for structural analysis represents a major experimental challenge. Here we present a method that combines the genetic power of site-specific recombination in order to selectively "tag" one or more components of a protein complex with affinity-based rapid filtration and a final step of capillary-based enrichment. This modified form of tandem affinity purification produces highly purified protein complexes at high concentrations in a highly efficient manner. The application of the method is demonstrated for the yeast Arp2/3 heptameric protein complex involved in mediating reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves driven by observed photospheric motions: Application to the coronal heating and spicule formation

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    We have performed MHD simulations of Alfven wave propagation along an open flux tube in the solar atmosphere. In our numerical model, Alfven waves are generated by the photospheric granular motion. As the wave generator, we used a derived temporal spectrum of the photospheric granular motion from G-band movies of Hinode/SOT. It is shown that the total energy flux at the corona becomes larger and the transition region height becomes higher in the case when we use the observed spectrum rather than white/pink noise spectrum as the wave generator. This difference can be explained by the Alfven wave resonance between the photosphere and the transition region. After performing Fourier analysis on our numerical results, we have found that the region between the photosphere and the transition region becomes an Alfven wave resonant cavity. We have confirmed that there are at least three resonant frequencies, 1, 3 and 5 mHz, in our numerical model. Alfven wave resonance is one of the most effective mechanisms to explai...

  13. Propagation of acoustic waves in two waveguides coupled by perforations. II. Application to periodic lattices of finite length

    CERN Document Server

    Pachebat, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the generic problem of two waveguides coupled by perforations, which can be perforated tube mufflers without or with partitions, possibly with absorbing materials. Other examples are ducts with branched resonators of honeycomb cavities , which can be coupled or not, and splitter silencers. Assuming low frequencies, only one mode is considered in each guide. The propagation in the two waveguides can be very different, thanks e.g. to the presence of constrictions. The model is a discrete, periodic one, based upon 4th-order impedance matrices and their diagonalization. All the calculation is analytical, thanks to the partition of the matrices in 2nd-order matrices, and allows the treatment of a very wide types of problems. Several aspects are investigated: the local or non-local character of the reaction of one guide to the other; the definition of a coupling coefficient; the effect of finite size when a lattice with n cells in inserted into an infinite guide; the relationship between the In...

  14. Application of back-propagation artificial neural network and curve estimation in pharmacokinetics of losartan in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Lin, Gaotong; Liu, Xianyun; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianchuan; Lin, Feiyan; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop pharmacokinetic model, a well-known multilayer feed-forward algorithm back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) was applied to the pharmacokinetics of losartan in rabbit. The plasma concentrations of losartan in twelve rabbits, which were divided into two groups and given losartan 2 mg/kg by intravenous (Iv) and intragastrical (Ig) administration, were determined by LC-MS. The BP-ANN model included one input layer, hidden layers, and one output layer was constructed and compared with curve estimation based on the time-concentration data of losartan. The results showed the BP-ANN model had high goodness of fit index and good coherence (R > 0.99) between forecasted concentration and measured concentration both in Iv and Ig administration. The residuals of each concentrations generated by BP-ANN model were all smaller than Curve estimation. The pharmacokinetic result showed there was no significant difference between measured and simulated pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), MRT(0-t), MRT(0-∞), T1/2 V and Cmax (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the BP-ANN model has remarkably accurate predictions ability, which better than Curve estimation, and can be used as a utility tool in pharmacokinetic experiment.

  15. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  16. Chaotic ray propagation in corrugated layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bottiglieri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the effects of a corrugated wall on the behaviour of propagating rays. Different types of corrugation are considered, using different distributions of the corrugation heights: white Gaussian, power law, self-affine perturbation. In phase space, a prevalent chaotic behaviour of rays, and the presence of a lot of caustics, are observed. These results entail that the KAM theorem is not fulfilled.

  17. Realization of Fractal Affine Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition of fractal affine transformation and presents a specific method for its realization and its cor responding mathematical equations which are essential in fractal image construction.

  18. Artificial Affinity Proteins as Ligands of Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mouratou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural proteins are known to have affinity and specificity for immunoglobulins. Some of them are widely used as reagents for detection or capture applications, such as Protein G and Protein A. However, these natural proteins have a defined spectrum of recognition that may not fit specific needs. With the development of combinatorial protein engineering and selection techniques, it has become possible to design artificial affinity proteins with the desired properties. These proteins, termed alternative scaffold proteins, are most often chosen for their stability, ease of engineering and cost-efficient recombinant production in bacteria. In this review, we focus on alternative scaffold proteins for which immunoglobulin binders have been identified and characterized.

  19. Oriented angles in affine space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Waliszewski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a smooth oriented angle in an arbitrary affine space is introduced. This concept is based on a kinematics concept of a run. Also, a concept of an oriented angle in such a space is considered. Next, it is shown that the adequacy of these concepts holds if and only if the affine space, in question, is of dimension 2 or 1.

  20. Identification of acoustic wave propagation in a duct line and its application to detection of impact source location based on signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong Woo; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    For the detection of the impact location in a pipeline system, the correlation method has been the conventional method. For the application of the correlation method, the diameter of a duct should be small so that the acoustic wave inside the duct can propagate with nondispersive characteristics, in the form of, for example, a plane wave. This correlation method calculates the cross-correlation between acoustic waves measured at two acceleration sensors attached to a buried duct. It also gives information about the arrival time delay of an acoustic wave between two sensors. These arrival time delays are used for the estimation of the impact location. However, when the diameter of the duct is large, the acoustic waves inside the duct propagate with dispersive characteristics owing to the reflection of the acoustic wave off of the wall of the duct. This dispersive characteristic is related to the acoustic modes inside a duct. Therefore, the correlation method does not work correctly for the detection of the impact location. This paper proposes new methods of accurately measuring the arrival time delay between two sensors attached to duct line system. This method is based on the time-frequency analyses of the short time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). These methods can discriminate direct waves (non-dispersive waves) and reflective waves (dispersive waves) from the measured wave signals through the time-frequency analysis. The direct wave or the reflective wave is used to estimate the arrival time delay. This delay is used for the identification of the impact location. This systematic method can predict the impact location due to the impact forces of construction equipment with more accuracy than the correlation method

  1. Fracture mechanical modeling of brittle crack propagation and arrest of steel. 3. Application to duplex-type test; Kozai no zeisei kiretsu denpa teisi no rikigaku model. 3. Konseigata shiken eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Tsuchida, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S.; Yoshinari, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Radio frequency propagation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Propagation to a broad audience.  The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications.  The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  3. 串联亲和纯化技术及其在植物蛋白质组研究中的应用%Tandem affinity purification technology and its applications in plant proteomic research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰青; 吴为人; 陈新建; 李娟; 周艳; 张重义

    2013-01-01

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a novel technology for protein complex purification,which has been extensively utilized for the identification or verification of protein-protein interactions and the construction of protein interaction networks.Its basic principle is that the TAP tag is fused to the target protein of interest and then the TAP-tagged protein together with any associated proteins are isolated from the host organism in two sequential affinity purification steps.Initially,TAP technology was mainly used in animals and microbes.But in recent years,more and more applications of TAP technology in plants have been reported with the emergence of new TAP tags and optimized methods,providing an efficient tool for plant proteomics.This paper briefly introduced the application of the TAP method on plants,and analyzed limiting factors in its application.%串联亲和纯化(TAP)是一项新颖的蛋白质复合物纯化技术,已被广泛应用于鉴定或验证蛋白质间的相互作用以及建立蛋白质互作网络,其基本原理是,将TAP标签融合到目标蛋白上,然后经过两步亲和纯化,获得融合蛋白及其结构关联蛋白.TAP技术最初主要在动物和微生物中应用.近几年来,随着新型标签的出现和方法的改进,TAP技术在植物中的应用逐渐增多,为植物蛋白质组学的研究提供了一个有效的手段.简要介绍TAP方法在植物中的应用情况,并对TAP方法应用的限制因素进行分析.

  4. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  5. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Affine Coherent States in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    A brief summary of the application of coherent states in the examination of quantum dynamics of cosmological models is given. We discuss quantization maps, phase space probability distributions and semiclassical phase spaces. The implementation of coherent states based on the affine group resolves the hardest singularities, renders self-adjoint Hamiltonians without boundary conditions and provides a completely consistent semi-classical description of the involved quantum dynamics. We consider three examples: the closed Friedmann model, the anisotropic Bianchi Type I model and the deep quantum domain of the Bianchi Type IX model.

  7. The value distribution of the Gauss map of improper affine spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Kawakami, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We give the best possible upper bounds for the number of exceptional values and totally ramified value number of the Lagrangian Gauss map of complete improper affine maps in the affine three-space. Moreover, by applying the Fujimoto argument, we also obtain the sharp estimate for them of weakly complete improper affine maps. As an application, from the viewpoint of the value distribution of Lagrangian Gauss map, we provide a new proof of the classification of affine complete improper affine spheres. Furthermore, we get a ramification estimate for the ratio of canonical forms of weakly complete flat fronts in hyperbolic three-space.

  8. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  9. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  10. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  11. Mimicking of Arginine by Functionalized N(ω)-Carbamoylated Arginine As a New Broadly Applicable Approach to Labeled Bioactive Peptides: High Affinity Angiotensin, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide FF, and Neurotensin Receptor Ligands As Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Max; Kuhn, Kilian K; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Biselli, Sabrina; Mollereau, Catherine; Wifling, David; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Bernhardt, Günther; Cabrele, Chiara; Vanderheyden, Patrick M L; Gmeiner, Peter; Buschauer, Armin

    2016-03-10

    Derivatization of biologically active peptides by conjugation with fluorophores or radionuclide-bearing moieties is an effective and commonly used approach to prepare molecular tools and diagnostic agents. Whereas lysine, cysteine, and N-terminal amino acids have been mostly used for peptide conjugation, we describe a new, widely applicable approach to peptide conjugation based on the nonclassical bioisosteric replacement of the guanidine group in arginine by a functionalized carbamoylguanidine moiety. Four arginine-containing peptide receptor ligands (angiotensin II, neurotensin(8-13), an analogue of the C-terminal pentapeptide of neuropeptide Y, and a neuropeptide FF analogue) were subject of this proof-of-concept study. The N(ω)-carbamoylated arginines, bearing spacers with a terminal amino group, were incorporated into the peptides by standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. The synthesized chemically stable peptide derivatives showed high receptor affinities with Ki values in the low nanomolar range, even when bulky fluorophores had been attached. Two new tritiated tracers for angiotensin and neurotensin receptors are described.

  12. Modeling for the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario-generation, propagation, inundation, and currents in ports and harbors: Chapter D in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File report presents a compilation of tsunami modeling studies for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario. These modeling studies are based on an earthquake source specified by the SAFRR tsunami source working group (Kirby and others, 2013). The modeling studies in this report are organized into three groups. The first group relates to tsunami generation. The effects that source discretization and horizontal displacement have on tsunami initial conditions are examined in section 1 (Whitmore and others). In section 2 (Ryan and others), dynamic earthquake rupture models are explored in modeling tsunami generation. These models calculate slip distribution and vertical displacement of the seafloor as a result of realistic fault friction, physical properties of rocks surrounding the fault, and dynamic stresses resolved on the fault. The second group of papers relates to tsunami propagation and inundation modeling. Section 3 (Thio) presents a modeling study for the entire California coast that includes runup and inundation modeling where there is significant exposure and estimates of maximum velocity and momentum flux at the shoreline. In section 4 (Borrero and others), modeling of tsunami propagation and high-resolution inundation of critical locations in southern California is performed using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model and NOAA’s Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) modeling tool. Adjustments to the inundation line owing to fine-scale structures such as levees are described in section 5 (Wilson). The third group of papers relates to modeling of hydrodynamics in ports and harbors. Section 6 (Nicolsky and Suleimani) presents results of the model used at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, as well as synthetic time series of the modeled tsunami for other selected

  13. Propagation of Satelite Rainfall Products uncertainties in hydrological applications : Examples in West-Africa in the framework of the Megha-Tropiques Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, C.; Gosset, M.; Peugeot, C.; Boone, A.; Pedinotti, V.

    2013-12-01

    The use of satellite based rainfall in research or operational Hydrological application is becoming more and more frequent. This is specially true in the Tropics where ground based gauge (or radar) network are generally scarce and often degrading. Member of the GPM constellation, the new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere contributes to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of MT rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them in the end user models ? Another important question is how to choose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This talk will present on going investigations and perspectives on this subject, with examples from the Megha_tropiques Ground validation sites in West Africa. The CNRM model Surfex-ISBA/TRIP has been set up to simulate the hydrological behavior of the Niger River. This modeling set up is being used to study the predictability of Niger Floods events in the city of Niamey and the performances of satellite rainfall products as forcing for such predictions. One of the interesting feature of the Niger outflow in Niamey is its double peak : a first peak attributed to 'local' rainfall falling in small to medium size basins situated in the region of Niamey, and a second peak linked to the rainfall falling in the upper par of the river, and slowly propagating through the river towards Niamey. The performances of rainfall products are found to differ between the wetter/upper part of the basin, and the local/sahelian areas. Both academic tests with artificially biased or 'perturbed' rainfield and actual

  14. Perfect Derived Propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear equations both with and without coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance. This paper shows how to use variable views, previously introduced for an implementation architecture, to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and channeling are developed for several variable domains. We evaluate the massive impact of derived propagators. Without derived propagators, Gecode would require 140000 rather than 40000 ...

  15. 在仿射等价类中找具有好的密码学性质的布尔函数%Find Better Boolean Functions in the Affine Equivalence Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫红; 李娜

    2005-01-01

    The Boolean functions in an affine equivalence class are of the same algebraicdegree and nonlinearity, but may satisfy different order of correlation immunity and propa-gation criterion. A method is presented in this paper to find Boolean functions with higherorder correlation immunity or satisfying higher order propagation criterion in an affine equiv-alence class. 8 AES s-box functions are not better Boolean functions in their affine equiva-lence class.

  16. Theoretical proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Narayan C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji; Viggiano, Al A

    2010-12-23

    Proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX at all of its possible sites were calculated at the RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31G* and RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels, respectively. The protonation leads to various unique structures, with H(+) attached to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms; among which the nitrogen site possesses the highest proton affinity of -ΔE ∼ 251 kcal/mol, suggesting that this is likely to be the major product. In addition some H(2), CH(4) dissociation as well as destruction channels have been found, among which the CH(4) + [Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-S-(CH(2))(2)-N(+)(iPr)═CHMe] product and the destruction product forming Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-SMe + CH(2)═N(+)(iPr)(2) are only 9 kcal/mol less stable than the most stable N-protonated product. For fluoridization, the S-P destruction channel to give Et-O-P(═O)(Me)(F) + [S-(CH(2))(2)-N-(iPr)(2)](-) is energetically the most favorable, with a fluoride affinity of -ΔE ∼ 44 kcal. Various F(-) ion-molecule complexes are also found, with the one having F(-) interacting with two hydrogen atoms in different alkyl groups to be only 9 kcal/mol higher than the above destruction product. These results suggest VX behaves quite differently from surrogate systems.

  17. Affinity Solvents for Intensified Organics Extraction: Development Challenges and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In most organics extraction processes, the commonly used solvents employ solely physical interactions. Therefore, for the recovery and purification of products from complex mixtures, the selectivity and/or capacity of classical solvents towards the desired solutes is usually insufficient, enforcing the need for complex and thus expensive separation schemes. Significant simplification and cost-reduction can be achieved when affinity solvents would be available that are able to recognize the solutes of interest by their molecular structure. The main development challenges to establish such affinity solvents are: Selection and incorporation of molecular recognition and complexation capabilities; Evaluation of extraction capabilities; Efficient recovery and recycling of the affinity solvents; Implementation in industrial extraction equipment. This paper presents how these development challenges are addressed at the University of Twente, going all the way from affinity solvent design and synthesis, via high throughput screening and characterization up to pilot plant evaluation. Essential in the successful development of affinity solvents are structural cooperations with molecular chemists and custom synthesis companies for their design and synthesis. The various aspects are illustrated by several examples where newly developed environmentally benign affinity solvents appeared able to create major breakthroughs. The applications addressed involve oxygenates, sugars, and pharmaceutical ingredients, such as optical isomers and biomolecules.

  18. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Les roches présentent souvent un comportement élastique nettement non linéaire, entraînant des conséquences importantes sur la propagation des ondes. Cette non-linéarité élastique est surtout causée par les microdéfauts mécaniques ubiquistes (microfissures, joints de grains, macles, etc. dont la rigidité varie sous l'effet de la contrainte. Ce sujet fait l'objet d'études de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous nous proposons de présenter très sommairement les bases théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux permettant d'avoir un ordre de grandeur des effets caractéristiques observés dans les roches afin de pouvoir proposer une approche critique des possibilités d'applications en géophysique. Deux disciplines se sont développées en parallèle à partir du même principe physique et avec des formalismes très proches : - L'acousto-élasticité étudie l'effet des précontraintes statiques sur les vitesses de propagation des ondes élastiques. On dispose d'un formalisme mécanique élaboré permettant de relier quantitativement variation de contrainte et variation de vitesse élastique (par exemple pour ce qui concerne l'anisotropie acoustique induite par un état de contrainte et d'une méthode expérimentale de mesure des coefficients de non-linéarité. - L'acoustique non linéaire s'intéresse aux conséquences de la variation des modules élastiques au passage d'une onde qui ne peut plus être considérée comme une petite perturbation, mais qui induit localement des modifications mesurables du milieu de propagation ; modifications entraînant l'apparition de phénomènes inconnus en acoustique linéaire tels que la génération d'harmoniques et l'interaction onde-onde. Les applications à la sismique pétrolière semblent fort lointaines puisque, avec les méthodes classiques de surface ou de puits, il y a peu d'espoir de réussir à faire propager jusqu'aux couches profondes des ondes dont l'amplitude dépasserait le seuil de

  19. Electron affinity of chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, L.M.; Pentecost, T.; Koppenol, W.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1989-12-14

    The flowing afterglow technique was used to determine the electron affinity of chlorine dioxide. A value of 2.37 {plus minus} 0.10 eV was found by bracketing between the electron affinities of HS* and SF{sub 4} as a lower limit and that of NO{sub 2} as an upper limit. This value is in excellent agreement with 2.32 eV predicted from a simple thermodynamic cycle involving the reduction potential of the ClO{sub 2}/ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} couple and a Gibbs hydration energy identical with that of SO{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}.

  20. Affine density in wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kutyniok, Gitta

    2007-01-01

    In wavelet analysis, irregular wavelet frames have recently come to the forefront of current research due to questions concerning the robustness and stability of wavelet algorithms. A major difficulty in the study of these systems is the highly sensitive interplay between geometric properties of a sequence of time-scale indices and frame properties of the associated wavelet systems. This volume provides the first thorough and comprehensive treatment of irregular wavelet frames by introducing and employing a new notion of affine density as a highly effective tool for examining the geometry of sequences of time-scale indices. Many of the results are new and published for the first time. Topics include: qualitative and quantitative density conditions for existence of irregular wavelet frames, non-existence of irregular co-affine frames, the Nyquist phenomenon for wavelet systems, and approximation properties of irregular wavelet frames.

  1. 莲藕顶芽繁殖育苗技术应用效果研究%Application Effects of Apical Bud Propagation Technology of Lotus Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常发杰; 张锋; 王开昌

    2013-01-01

      为提升保障莲藕供给能力,节本增效,开展莲藕顶芽繁殖和整藕繁殖对产量和效益影响的对比试验。试验结果表明,自莲藕顶芽下1 cm处切下,经杀菌消毒后,移至育苗床,3周后移栽大田,通过施用有机肥和精细田间管理,其效益明显高于整身种藕常规栽培,可大幅降低种子成本,且主藕顶芽繁殖比子藕顶芽繁殖产量更高,具有较大的推广价值。%  In the paper, we studied the effects of the apical bud propagation and conventional lotus root propagation on yield and benefit of lotus root production. We cut the apical buds of lotus root 1 cm under the buds, and moved the buds to the seedling bed after sterilization and disinfection, and then transplanted the seedlings to field three weeks later. The results showed that, the yield and benefit of the apical bud propagation were obviously higher than those of the conventional lotus root propagation by applying organic fertilizers and strengthening field management, and the apical bud propagation method sharply reduced the seed cost of farmers. In addition, the propagation technology using apical buds of mother lotus root possessed higher yield than that of lateral lotus root, and the propagation technology was more worthy of wide promotion.

  2. The Wheeler Propagator

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples tha...

  3. Protein purification by aminosquarylium cyanine dye-affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M S; Graça, V C; Reis, L V; Santos, P F; Almeida, P; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2013-12-01

    The most selective purification method for proteins and other biomolecules is affinity chromatography. This method is based on the unique biological-based specificity of the biomolecule-ligand interaction and commonly uses biological ligands. However, these ligands may present some drawbacks, mainly because of their cost and lability. Dye-affinity chromatography overcomes the limitations of biological ligands and is widely used owing to the low cost of synthetic dyes and to their resistance to biological and chemical degradation. In this work, immobilized aminosquarylium cyanine dyes are used in order to exploit affinity interactions with standard proteins such as lysozyme, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. These studies evaluate the affinity interactions occurring between the immobilized ligand and the different proteins, as a reflection of the sum of several molecular interactions, namely ionic, hydrophobic and van der Waals, spread throughout the structure, in a defined spatial manner. The results show the possibility of using an aminosquarylium cyanine dye bearing a N-hexyl pendant chain, with a ligand density of 1.8 × 10(-2) mmol of dye/g of chromatographic support, to isolate lysozyme, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin from a mixture. The application of a decreasing ammonium sulfate gradient resulted in the recovery of lysozyme in the flowthrough. On the other hand, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin were retained, involving different interactions with the ligand. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential applicability of ligands such as aminosquarylium cyanine dyes for the separation and purification of proteins by affinity chromatography.

  4. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    material expressed by electric field dependent dielectric constant. Next, the concepts of spectrum interpolation (Chapter 3), higher-order incident (Chapter 4) and perfectly matched layer (Chapter 5) are introduced and applied to TMM, with detailed simulation for 1D, 2D, and 3D photonic crystal examples. Curvilinear coordinate transform is applied to the Maxwell's Equations to study waveguide bend (Chapter 6). By finding the phase difference along propagation direction at various XY plane locations, the behaviors of electromagnetic wave propagation (such as light bending, focusing etc) can be studied (Chapter 7), which can be applied to diffractive optics for new devices design. Numerical simulation tools for lasing devices are usually based on rate equations which are not accurate above the threshold and for small scale lasing cavities (such as nano-scale cavities). Recently, we extend the TMM package function to include the capacity of dealing active gain materials. Both lasing (above threshold) and spontaneous emission (below threshold) can be studied in the frame work of our Gain-TMM algorithm. Chapter 8 will illustrate the algorithm in detail and show the simulation results for 3D photonic crystal lasing devices. Then, microwave experiments (mainly resonant cavity embedded at layer-by-layer woodpile structures) are performed at Chapter 9 as an efficient practical way to study photonic crystal devices. The size of photonic crystal under microwave region is at the order of centimeter which makes the fabrication easier to realize. At the same time due to the scaling property, the result of microwave experiments can be applied directly to optical or infrared frequency regions. The systematic TMM simulations for various resonant cavities are performed and consistent results are obtained when compared with microwave experiments. Besides scaling the experimental results to much smaller wavelength, designing potential photonic crystal devices for application at microwave is

  5. The Quasi—affine Maps and Fractals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LunhaiLONG; GangCHEN

    1997-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the discretization of the affine maps in R2,that is ,we consider a class of maps in Z2,which are induced by affine maps and called the quasi-affine maps.We investigate the properties and the dynamical behaviour of such maps,and give a sort of construction of complicated fractals by using quasi-affine maps.

  6. Affine connections on involutive G-structures

    OpenAIRE

    Merkulov, Sergey A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a review of the twistor theory of irreducible G-structures and affine connections. Long ago, Berger presented a very restricted list of possible irreducibly acting holonomies of torsion-free affine connections. His list was complete in the part of metric connections, while the situation with holonomies of non-metric torsion-free affine connections was and remains rather unclear. One of the results discussed in this review asserts that any torsion-free holomorphic affine connecti...

  7. Manifolds with integrable affine shape operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Joaquín

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the conditions for the existence of vector fields with the property that theirs covariant derivative, with respect to the affine normal connection, be the affine shape operatorS in hypersurfaces. Some results are obtained from this property and, in particular, for some kind of affine decomposable hypersurfaces we explicitely get the actual vector fields.

  8. A new model for waveguide light propagation and applications: tuning light distribution in elliptical waveguide arrays and a compact deterministic 50:50 PBS

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Santiago Rojas; Naether, Uta; Xavier, Guilherme B; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Vicencio, Rodrigo A; Lima, Gustavo; Delgado, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    We study the polarization properties of elliptical femtosecond-laser-written waveguides arrays. A new analytical model is presented to explain the asymmetry of the spatial transverse profiles of linearly polarized modes in these waveguides. This asymmetry produces a polarization dependent coupling coeffcient, between adjacent waveguides, which strongly affects the propagation of light in a lattice. Our analysis explains how this effect can be exploited to tune the final intensity distribution of light propagated through the array. Then, we show how a compact, balanced, and deterministic polarizing beam splitter can be constructed in integrated circuits.

  9. Affine group representation formalism for four dimensional, Lorentzian, quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ching-Yi, Chou; Soo, Chopin

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian constraint of 4-dimensional General Relativity is recast explicitly in terms of the Chern--Simons functional and the local volume operator. In conjunction with the algebraic quantization program, application of the affine quantization concept due to Klauder facilitates the construction of solutions to all of the the quantum constraints in the Ashtekar variables and their associated Hilbert space. A physical Hilbert space is constructed for Lorentzian signature gravity with nonzero cosmological constant in the form of unitary, irreducible representations of the affine group.

  10. ZZ亲和肽-碱性磷酸酶融合蛋白的制备与初步应用%Preparation of fusion protein between ZZ affinity peptide and alkaline phosphatase and its primary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍如梦; 赵爽佳; 薛敏; 杨洪鸣; 唐金宝

    2015-01-01

    目的:构建、表达ZZ亲和肽与碱性磷酸酶( AP)融合蛋白,并研究其生物学活性。方法:将ZZ亲和肽基因与AP基因重组,构建原核表达载体pEZZ-AP并利用大肠杆菌表达,金属离子亲和层析纯化目的蛋白,Western blot鉴定ZZ-AP生物学活性并初步应用于免疫细胞化学。结果:所构建重组质粒pEZZ-AP 经E.coli DH5α表达,SDS-PAGE结果显示目的蛋白相对分子量为62 kD,与理论值相近。 Western blot结果表明ZZ-AP融合蛋白既具有兔IgG抗体结合活性,又具有碱性磷酸酶活性,在细胞免疫组化应用中与AP标记的羊抗兔二抗显色模式与效果相似。结论:ZZ-AP融合蛋白构建成功,该融合蛋白具有兔IgG 抗体结合活性和碱性磷酸酶活性,细胞免疫组化应用结果表明该融合蛋白在免疫分析中具有潜在的应用价值。%Objective:To construct and express the fusion protein between ZZ affinity peptide and alkaline phosphatase and examine its biological activities.Methods:The alkaline phosphatase gene was cloned into pEZZ 18 vector containing ZZ peptide gene resulted in the pEZZ-AP recombinant vector.Then the vector was transformed and expressed in E.coli DH5α.And HisTrap affinity chromatography was employed to separate and purify the target protein.After analyzed by Western blot , ZZ-AP fusion protein was applied to immunocytochemistry as an alterative second antibody.Results:The result of SDS-PAGE showed that the fusion protein with a relative molecular weight was consistent with the theoretical values (62 kD).The fusion protein has rabbit IgG-binding ability and en-zymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase ,those were validated in Western blot;and it produced a good signal that was comparable in its staining pattern to that generated with goat anti-rabbit IgG-AP in immunocytochemistry.Conclusion: The ZZ-AP fusion protein was constructed successfully ,it has rabbit IgG-binding ability and enzymatic

  11. Topological conjugacy classes of affine maps

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A map $f: \\ff^n \\to \\ff^n$ over a field $\\ff$ is called affine if it is of the form $f(x)=Ax+b$, where the matrix $A \\in \\ff^{n\\times n}$ is called the linear part of affine map and $b \\in \\ff^n$. The affine maps over $\\ff=\\rr$ or $\\cc$ are investigated. We prove that affine maps having fixed points are topologically conjugate if and only if their linear parts are topologically conjugate. If affine maps have no fixed points and $n=1$ or 2, then they are topologically conjugate if and only if ...

  12. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses...... our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  13. Directed HK propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Heller, Eric J.

    2015-09-01

    We offer a more formal justification for the successes of our recently communicated "directed Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay" (DHK) time propagator by examining its performance in one-dimensional bound systems which exhibit at least quasi-periodic motion. DHK is distinguished by its single one-dimensional integral—a vast simplification over the usual 2N-dimensional integral in full Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay (for an N-dimensional system). We find that DHK accurately captures particular coherent state autocorrelations when its single integral is chosen to lie along these states' fastest growing manifold, as long as it is not perpendicular to their action gradient. Moreover, the larger the action gradient, the better DHK will perform. We numerically examine DHK's accuracy in a one-dimensional quartic oscillator and illustrate that these conditions are frequently satisfied such that the method performs well. This lends some explanation for why DHK frequently seems to work so well and suggests that it may be applicable to systems exhibiting quite strong anharmonicity.

  14. Gravitational Goldstone fields from affine gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, R

    2000-01-01

    In order to facilitate the application of standard renormalization techniques, gravitation should be decribed, if possible, in pure connection formalism, as a Yang-Mills theory of a certain spacetime group, say the Poincare or the affine group. This embodies the translational as well as the linear connection. However, the coframe is not the standard Yang-Mills type gauge field of the translations, since it lacks the inhomogeneous gradient term in the gauge transformations. By explicitly restoring the "hidden" piece responsible for this behavior within the framework of nonlinear realizations, the usual geometrical interpretation of the dynamical theory becomes possible, and in addition one can avoid the metric or coframe degeneracy which would otherwise interfere with the integrations within the path integral. We claim that nonlinear realizations provide a general mathematical scheme clarifying the foundations of gauge theories of spacetime symmetries. When applied to construct the Yang-Mills theory of the aff...

  15. Beam-propagation method - Analysis and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roey, J.; van der Donk, J.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1981-07-01

    A method for the calculation of the propagation of a light beam through an inhomogeneous medium is presented. A theoretical analysis of this beam-propagation method is given, and a set of conditions necessary for the accurate application of the method is derived. The method is illustrated by the study of a number of integrated-optic structures, such as thin-film waveguides and gratings.

  16. Error Propagation in a System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegel, Kirk (Inventor); Bhatt, Devesh (Inventor); Oglesby, David V. (Inventor); Madl, Gabor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present subject matter can enable the analysis of signal value errors for system models. In an example, signal value errors can be propagated through the functional blocks of a system model to analyze possible effects as the signal value errors impact incident functional blocks. This propagation of the errors can be applicable to many models of computation including avionics models, synchronous data flow, and Kahn process networks.

  17. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  18. A quantitative method for evaluating numerical simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb wave propagation with its applications to selecting appropriate element size and time step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Tse, Peter W; Tan, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    Lamb wave technique has been widely used in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). However, due to the multi-mode characteristics and dispersive nature, Lamb wave propagation behavior is much more complex than that of bulk waves. Numerous numerical simulations on Lamb wave propagation have been conducted to study its physical principles. However, few quantitative studies on evaluating the accuracy of these numerical simulations were reported. In this paper, a method based on cross correlation analysis for quantitatively evaluating the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb waves propagation is proposed. Two kinds of error, affecting the position and shape accuracies are firstly identified. Consequently, two quantitative indices, i.e., the GVE (group velocity error) and MACCC (maximum absolute value of cross correlation coefficient) derived from cross correlation analysis between a simulated signal and a reference waveform, are proposed to assess the position and shape errors of the simulated signal. In this way, the simulation accuracy on the position and shape is quantitatively evaluated. In order to apply this proposed method to select appropriate element size and time step, a specialized 2D-FEM program combined with the proposed method is developed. Then, the proper element size considering different element types and time step considering different time integration schemes are selected. These results proved that the proposed method is feasible and effective, and can be used as an efficient tool for quantitatively evaluating and verifying the simulation accuracy of time-transient Lamb wave propagation.

  19. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  20. Near-orthogonal and adaptive affine lifting scheme on vector-valued signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Tadeusz; Voisin, Yvon; Diou, Alain

    2004-02-01

    Lifting Scheme is actually a widely used second generation multi-resolution technique in image and video processing field. It permits to easily create fast, reversible, separable or no, not necessarily linear, multi-resolution analysis for sound, image, video or even 3D graphics. An interesting feature of lifting scheme is the ability to build adaptive transforms, more easily than with other decompositions. Many works have already be done in this subject, especially in lossless or near-lossless compression framework where there is no orthogonal constraint. However, some applications as lossy compression or de-noising requires well conditioned transforms. Indeed, this is due to the use of shrinking or quantization which has not controlled propagation through inverse transform. Authors have recently presented a technique permitting to determine some lifting scheme filters in order to obtain a high level of adaptivity combined with near-orthogonal properties, useful for most of these applications. Naturly coming into the adaptive near orthogonal framework, the point of interest of this article is affine algebraic filters. Color images and video have especially been studied through point of view of compression. In this way, the treatment of the vector aspect of signal, not only by processing channels independently, becomes the focus point of the article.

  1. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  2. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Erik M. Salomons; Lohman, Walter J. A.; Han Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equation...

  3. Light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibers with α-power profiles of air hole diameter distributions and their application to fiber collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hirohisa; Higuchi, Keiichi; Imai, Yoh

    2016-08-01

    Light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with α-power profiles of air hole diameter distributions were theoretically investigated. It was clarified that the intensity peak of the beam propagating in the PCF with Gaussian beam excitation varied periodically with little power attenuation. It was found that the envelope of the periodic intensity variation depended on α. We theoretically demonstrated that the PCF with the α-power profile of the air hole diameter distribution could be applied to a collimator for a conventional PCF with uniform air holes in Gaussian beam excitation to reduce coupling loss, where a PCF of appropriate length with the α-power air hole diameter distribution was spliced to a conventional PCF. It was also found that the coupling efficiency was higher for a larger α.

  4. Lamb Waves Propagation along 3C-SiC/AlN Membranes for Application in Temperature-Compensated, High-Sensitivity Gravimetric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S0 mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes.

  5. Lamb Waves Propagation along 3C-SiC/AlN Membranes for Application in Temperature-Compensated, High-Sensitivity Gravimetric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Cinzia; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Castro, Fabio Lo

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S0 mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes. PMID:23282585

  6. Lamb waves propagation along 3C-SiC/AlN membranes for application in temperature-compensated, high-sensitivity gravimetric sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Cinzia; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Lo Castro, Fabio

    2013-01-02

    The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S(0) travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S(0) mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes.

  7. SLOWMOVE - A numerical model for the propagation of slow-moving landslides: a 1D approach and its application to the analysis of the Valoria landslide (Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehne, A.; van Asch, Th. W. J.; Corsini, A.; Spickerman, A.; Bégueria-Portuguès, S.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of landslides often starts with a numerical simulation that accurately accounts for observed physical processes. This research proposes a method for the implementation of the dynamic SLOWMOVE model to a high-mobility, moderate velocity earth flow located in the northern Apennines. The Valoria landslide is 3.5 km long earth slide- earth flow that resumed activity in 2001. Landslide materials comprised of disaggregated Flysch, Marl and Claystones are mainly transported as earth slides in the upper slope, and as earth flows in the main track. Repeated acceleration events lasting several weeks occur seasonally since 2001 reactivation. During events it can reach velocities of about 10 m per hour with a cumulative displacement of hundreds of meters. Through this intermittent activity, more than ten million cubic meters have been transferred down-slope since 2001, changing significantly and several times the morphology of the slope. The SLOWMOVE model postulates that landslide materials can be represented as a homogeneous material with rheological properties and constant density. The approach is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Under the assumptions that the inertia of the moving mass can be neglected, the behavior of the landslide depends solely on the balance between driving forces and resisting forces which contain a Coulomb-viscous component. Excess pore pressure due to undrained loading and lateral force form the main parameters that control the acceleration. The effects of lateral force and excess pore pressure allow a numerical simulation of landslide reactivation by coupling of two landslide bodies. A numerical scheme based on a finite difference solution (2D Eulerian space with Cartesian coordinates) was implemented in Microsoft Excel and used to compute propagation of the mass in 1D. The model allows coupling between mass movements having different geotechnical characteristic. In practice, it allows simulating the reactivation of

  8. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  9. Ordinary differential equations in affine geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gigena

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of qualitative analysis is used, as applied to a class of fourth order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, in order to classify, both locally and globally, two classes of hypersurfaces of decomposable type in affine geometry: those with constant unimodular affine mean curvature L , and those with constant Riemannian scalar curvature R. This allows to provide a large number of new examples of hypersurfaces in affine geometry.

  10. Ordinary differential equations in affine geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Gigena

    1996-01-01

    The method of qualitative analysis is used, as applied to a class of fourth order, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, in order to classify, both locally and globally, two classes of hypersurfaces of decomposable type in affine geometry: those with constant unimodular affine mean curvature L , and those with constant Riemannian scalar curvature R. This allows to provide a large number of new examples of hypersurfaces in affine geometry.

  11. Multipole solutions in metric-affine gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Socorro, J; Macías, A; Mielke, E W; Socorro, José; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Macías, Alfredo; Mielke, Eckehard W.

    1998-01-01

    Above Planck energies, the spacetime might become non--Riemannian, as it is known fron string theory and inflation. Then geometries arise in which nonmetricity and torsion appear as field strengths, side by side with curvature. By gauging the affine group, a metric affine gauge theory emerges as dynamical framework. Here, by using the harmonic map ansatz, a new class of multipole like solutions in the metric affine gravity theory (MAG) is obtained.

  12. Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schramm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.

  13. Fick's Law Assisted Propagation for Semisupervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Tao, Dacheng; Fu, Keren; Yang, Jie

    2015-09-01

    How to propagate the label information from labeled examples to unlabeled examples is a critical problem for graph-based semisupervised learning. Many label propagation algorithms have been developed in recent years and have obtained promising performance on various applications. However, the eigenvalues of iteration matrices in these algorithms are usually distributed irregularly, which slow down the convergence rate and impair the learning performance. This paper proposes a novel label propagation method called Fick's law assisted propagation (FLAP). Unlike the existing algorithms that are directly derived from statistical learning, FLAP is deduced on the basis of the theory of Fick's First Law of Diffusion, which is widely known as the fundamental theory in fluid-spreading. We prove that FLAP will converge with linear rate and show that FLAP makes eigenvalues of the iteration matrix distributed regularly. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on synthetic and practical datasets reveal that FLAP obtains encouraging results in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

  14. Measurement of the electron affinity of lanthanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, A.M.; Calabrese, D.; Thompson, J.S. [Department of Physics and Chemical Physics Programme, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058 (United States); Kvale, T.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States)

    1998-10-28

    The electron affinity of lanthanum has been measured using laser photoelectron energy spectroscopy. This is the first electron affinity measurement for lanthanum and one of the first measurements of an electron affinity of a rare-earth series element. The electron affinity of lanthanum was measured to be 0.47{+-}0.02 eV. At least one bound excited state of La{sup -} was also observed in the photoelectron spectra, and the binding energy relative to the ground state of lanthanum was measured as 0.17{+-}0.02 eV. The present experimental measurements are compared to a recent calculation. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  15. Affine connections, midpoint formation, and point reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We describe some differential-geometric structures in combinatorial terms: namely affine connections and their torsion and curvature, and we show that torsion free affine connections may equivalently be presented in terms of some simpler combinatorial structure: midpoint formation, and point refl...... reflection (geodesic symmetry). The method employed is that of synthetic differential geometry, which is briefly explained.......We describe some differential-geometric structures in combinatorial terms: namely affine connections and their torsion and curvature, and we show that torsion free affine connections may equivalently be presented in terms of some simpler combinatorial structure: midpoint formation, and point...

  16. Trust Propagation in Small Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of a massive, networked infrastructure of diverse entities partaking in collaborative applications with each other increases more and more with the proliferation of mobile devices and the development of ad hoc networking technologies. In this context, traditional security measures...... do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can...

  17. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2013-06-29

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  18. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Tak-Ming; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2013-09-01

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k=8∼10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/kmerHMM.

  19. Diagrama de afinidad aplicado a mejorar los servicios tecnológicos de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Application of a affinity diagram to improve the technological services of the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pons-Morera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de las técnicas de affinity diagram está cada día más en alza como método para discernir los puntos clave de una organización o los resortes que darán lugar a una mejora competitiva. El caso que nos ocupa es una primera aproximación a la identificación de qué servicios de los que ofrece la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, podrían ser mejorados con el uso de nuevas tecnologías. (Affinity diagram techniques are used to discern the key points of an organization or key factors that will lead to an improvement in competitive advantages. In this paper we do a first approximation to identify which services offered by the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia could be improved with the use of new technologies.

  20. Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Uhi Rinn, E-mail: uhrisu1@math.snu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, GwanAkRo 1, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.

  1. New Ray Tracing Method to Investigate the Various Effects on Wave Propagation in Medical Scenario: An Application of Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of technology with the increasing use of wireless network has led to the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN to continuously monitor the change of physiological data in a cost efficient manner. As numerous researches on wave propagation characterization have been done in intrabody communication, this study has given emphasis on the wave propagation characterization between the control units (CUs and wireless access point (AP in a hospital scenario. Ray tracing is a tool to predict the rays to characterize the wave propagation. It takes huge simulation time, especially when multiple transmitters are involved to transmit physiological data in a realistic hospital environment. Therefore, this study has developed an accelerated ray tracing method based on the nearest neighbor cell and prior knowledge of intersection techniques. Beside this, Red-Black tree is used to store and provide a faster retrieval mechanism of objects in the hospital environment. To prove the superiority, detailed complexity analysis and calculations of reflection and transmission coefficients are also presented in this paper. The results show that the proposed method is about 1.51, 2.1, and 2.9 times faster than the Object Distribution Technique (ODT, Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP, and Angular Z-Buffer (AZB methods, respectively. To show the various effects on received power in 60 GHz frequency, few comparisons are made and it is found that on average −9.44 dBm, −8.23 dBm, and −9.27 dBm received power attenuations should be considered when human, AP, and CU move in a given hospital scenario.

  2. Accurate Characterization of Rain Drop Size Distribution Using Meteorological Particle Spectrometer and 2D Video Disdrometer for Propagation and Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, Viswanathan; Kennedy, Patrick; Notaros, Branislav; Gatlin, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurements of rain drop size distributions (DSD), with particular emphasis on small and tiny drops, are presented. Measurements were conducted in two very different climate regions, namely Northern Colorado and Northern Alabama. Both datasets reveal a combination of (i) a drizzle mode for drop diameters less than 0.7 mm and (ii) a precipitation mode for larger diameters. Scattering calculations using the DSDs are performed at S and X bands and compared with radar observations for the first location. Our accurate DSDs will improve radar-based rain rate estimates as well as propagation predictions.

  3. Global affine differential geometry of hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Li, An-Min; Zhao, Guosong; Hu, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    This book draws a colorful and widespread picture of global affine hypersurface theory up to the most recent state. Moreover, the recent development revealed that affine differential geometry- as differential geometry in general- has an exciting intersection area with other fields of interest, like partial differential equations, global analysis, convex geometry and Riemann surfaces.

  4. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  5. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...

  6. Porosity of Self-affine Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng XI

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,it is proved that any self-affine set satisfying the strong separation condition is uniformly porous.The author constructs a self-affine set which is not porous,although the open set condition holds.Besides,the author also gives a C1 iterated function system such that its invariant set is not porous.

  7. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate...

  8. Reflectable bases for affine reflection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, Saeid; Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2011-01-01

    The notion of a "root base" together with its geometry plays a crucial role in the theory of finite and affine Lie theory. However, it is known that such a notion does not exist for the recent generalizations of finite and affine root systems such as extended affine root systems and affine reflection systems. As an alternative, we introduce the notion of a "reflectable base", a minimal subset $\\Pi$ of roots such that the non-isotropic part of the root system can be recovered by reflecting roots of $\\Pi$ relative to the hyperplanes determined by $\\Pi$. We give a full characterization of reflectable bases for tame irreducible affine reflection systems of reduced types, excluding types $E_{6,7,8}$. As a byproduct of our results, we show that if the root system under consideration is locally finite then any reflectable base is an integral base.

  9. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  10. A review of uncertainty propagation in orbital mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya-zhong; Yang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    Orbital uncertainty propagation plays an important role in space situational awareness related missions such as tracking and data association, conjunction assessment, sensor resource management and anomaly detection. Linear models and Monte Carlo simulation were primarily used to propagate uncertainties. However, due to the nonlinear nature of orbital dynamics, problems such as low precision and intensive computation have greatly hampered the application of these methods. Aiming at solving these problems, many nonlinear uncertainty propagators have been proposed in the past two decades. To motivate this research area and facilitate the development of orbital uncertainty propagation, this paper summarizes the existing linear and nonlinear uncertainty propagators and their associated applications in the field of orbital mechanics. Frameworks of methods for orbital uncertainty propagation, the advantages and drawbacks of different methods, as well as potential directions for future efforts are also discussed.

  11. Nonparaxial propagation of phase-flipped Gaussian beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zeng-Hui; Lü Bai-Da

    2008-01-01

    This paper derives the closed-form expressions for nonparaxial phase flipped Gaussian (PFG) beams propagating in free space, through a knife edge and an aperture, which enable us to study nonparaxial propagation properties of PFG beams and to compare nonparaxial results with paraxial ones. It is found that the f parameter, offsetting distance of the knife edge and truncation parameter affect the nonparaxial beam propagation properties. Only under certain conditions the paraxial approximation is applicable. The results are illustrated by numerical examples.

  12. Non-Zenoness of piecewise affine dynamical systems and affine complementarity systems with inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Quang THUAN

    2014-01-01

    In the context of continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems and affine complementarity systems with inputs, we study the existence of Zeno behavior, i.e., infinite number of mode transitions in a finite-length time interval, in this paper. The main result reveals that continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems with piecewise real-analytic inputs do not exhibit Zeno behavior. Applied the achieved result to affine complementarity systems with inputs, we also obtained a similar conclusion. A direct benefit of the main result is that one can apply smooth ordinary differential equations theory in a local manner for the analysis of continuous piecewise affine dynamical systems with inputs.

  13. DROMO propagator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutxua, Hodei; Sanjurjo-Rivo, Manuel; Peláez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    In the year 2000 an in-house orbital propagator called DROMO (Peláez et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97:131-150, 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10569-006-9056-3) was developed by the Space Dynamics Group of the Technical University of Madrid, based in a set of redundant variables including Euler-Rodrigues parameters. An original deduction of the DROMO propagator is carried out, underlining its close relation with the ideal frame concept introduced by Hansen (Abh der Math-Phys Cl der Kon Sachs Ges der Wissensch 5:41-218, 1857). Based on the very same concept, Deprit (J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect B Math Sci 79B(1-2):1-15, 1975) proposed a formulation for orbit propagation. In this paper, similarities and differences with the theory carried out by Deprit are analyzed. Simultaneously, some improvements are introduced in the formulation, that lead to a more synthetic and better performing propagator. Also, the long-term effect of the oblateness of the primary is studied in terms of DROMO variables, and new numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the method.

  14. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kinoshita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years.

  15. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years.

  16. Apparatus for measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading with application to measurement of third-order elastic constants of piezoelectric single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Kosinski, J A; Karim, Md Afzalul

    2013-05-01

    We describe an apparatus for the measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading featuring a special mechanism designed to assure a uniform mechanical load on a cube-shaped sample of piezoelectric material. We demonstrate the utility of the apparatus by determining the effects of stresses on acoustic wave speed, which forms a foundation for the final determination of the third-order elastic constants of langasite and langatate single crystals. The transit time method is used to determine changes in acoustic wave velocity as the loading is varied. In order to minimize error and improve the accuracy of the wave speed measurements, the cross correlation method is used to determine the small changes in the time of flight. Typical experimental results are presented and discussed.

  17. Application of Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model and back-propagation artificial neural network in laser diode fast axis collimator assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Rossi, Giammarco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2016-08-10

    The paper presents the development of a tool based on a back-propagation artificial neural network to assist in the accurate positioning of the lenses used to collimate the beam from semiconductor laser diodes along the so-called fast axis. After training using a Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model, the network is capable of indicating the tilt, decenter, and defocus of such lenses from the measured field distribution, so the operator can determine the errors with respect to the actual lens position and optimize the diode assembly procedure. An experimental validation using a typical configuration exploited in multi-emitter diode module assembly and fast axis collimating lenses with different focal lengths and numerical apertures is reported.

  18. Pengkajian Penerapan Teknik Budidaya Rhizophora mucronata dengan Stek Hipokotil (Study on Propagation Technique Application of Rhizophora mucronata Using Hypocotyl Cutting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mulyani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the vegetative propagation of Rhizophora mucronata using hypocotyl cutting sistem was carried out at Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University. Histological analysis of adventitous shoot was done at Biotechnology and Tree Breeding Laboratory, SEAMEO-BIOTROP. Three types of hypocotyl cutting (complete hypocotyl, top part of cut-hypocotyl and bottom part of cut-hypocotyl were induced using 6-BAP hormones at 0 and 500 ppm. Adventitous shoot of bottom part of cut-hypocotyl appeared 140 days after planting. Shoot from complete hypocotyl and top part of cut-hypocotyl grew earlier than adventitous shoot from bottom part of cut-hypocotyl. Hystologycal analysis of adventitous shoot showed the existance of primary meristem, stipule and leaf primordia. The growth of complete hipocotyl was higher than both of top part of cut-hypocotyl and bottom part of cut-hypocotyl. There was no effect of hormone induction on the shoot growth of them.

  19. Corner Transfer Matrices and Quantum Affine Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Foda, Omar; Miwa, Tetsuji

    1992-01-01

    Let H be the corner-transfer-matrix Hamiltonian for the six-vertex model in the anti-ferroelectric regime. It acts on the infinite tensor product W = V . V . V ....., where is the 2-dimensional irreducible representation of the quantum affine sl(2). We observe that H is the derivation of quantum affine sl(2), and conjecture that the eigenvectors of H form the level-1 vacuum representation of quantum affine sl(2). We report on checks in support of our conjecture.

  20. Affinization of category O for quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, C A S

    2012-01-01

    Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.

  1. 试析培养思政教育亲和力进程中教育载体的有效运用%Effective Application of Educational Carrier in the Process of Developing Ideological and Political Education Affinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任菲

    2011-01-01

    The carrier of Ideological and political education is the ideological and political education practice in the communica-tion of Ideological and political education and the education of a bridge and medium.Through the ideological education carrier ef-fectively to develop ideological and political education in the affinity.Ideological and political education the affinity of the promo-tion,can be from improving the ideological and political education of comprehensive qualities,change the ideological and political education teaching idea,respect educatees(including its ideological and political education needs) and other aspects.%思想政治教育载体是思想政治教育实践中沟通思想政治教育者和受教育者的一个桥梁和媒介。通过思想教育载体的有效运用来培养思想政治教育中的亲和力。思想政治教育者亲和力的提升,可以从提高思想政治教育者的综合素养,转变思想政治教育者的教学观念,尊重受教育者(包括其思想政治教育需要)等方面入手。

  2. Affinity-tagged phosphorylation assay by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATPA-MALDI): application to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinumi, Tomoya; Niki, Etsuo; Shigeri, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2005-12-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based kinase assay using a peptide substrate tagged with a biotinyl group has been developed. The peptide moiety was designed to serve as an efficient substrate for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, based on the in vivo phosphorylation site of phosrestin I, a Drosophila homolog of arrestin. In the assay, the quantitative relationship was determined from the ratio of the peak areas between the two peaks respectively representing the unphosphorylated and the phosphorylated substrate. Attempts to assay phosphorylated peptides directly from the reaction mixture, gave inaccurate results because of the high noise level caused by the presence of salts and detergents. In contrast, after purifying the substrate peptides with the biotin affinity tag using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, peak areas accurately represented the ratio between the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated peptide. By changing the substrate peptide to a peptide sequence that serves as a kinase substrate, it is expected that an efficient non-radioactive protein kinase assay using MALDI-TOF MS can be developed for any type of protein kinase. We call this technique "Affinity-Tagged Phosphorylation Assay by MALDI-TOF MS (ATPA-MALDI)." ATPA-MALDI should serve as a quick and efficient non-radioactive protein kinase assay by MALDI-TOF MS.

  3. Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors in Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Campuzano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety and quality are key issues of today’s food industry. Since the food chain is becoming more and more complex, powerful analytical methods are required to verify the performance of food safety and quality systems. Indeed, such methods require high sensitivity, selectivity, ability for rapid implementation and capability of automatic screening. Electroanalytical chemistry has, for decades, played a relevant role in food safety and quality assessment, taking more and more significance over time in the solution of analytical problems. At present, the implementation of electrochemical methods in the food is evident. This is in a large part due to the relevant results obtained by combining the attractive advantages of electrochemical transduction strategies (in terms of relatively simple hardware, versatility, interface with automatic logging and feasibility of application outside the laboratory environment with those from biosensors technology. Important examples of enzyme electrochemical biosensors are those dedicated to the determination of glucose, alcohol or cholesterol are important examples. In addition, other types of different electrochemical biosensing approaches have emerged strongly in the last years. Among these, the strategies involving affinity interactions have been shown to possess a large number of applications. Therefore, electrochemical immunosensors and DNA-based biosensors have been widely used to determine major and minor components in foodstuffs, providing sufficient data to evaluate food freshness, the quality of raw materials, or the origin of samples, as well as to determine a variety of compounds at trace levels related to food safety such as micotoxins, allergens, drugs residues or pathogen microorganisms. This review discusses some critical examples of the latest advances in this area, pointing out relevant methodologies related to the measurement techniques, including the use of nanostructured electrodes and

  4. Topology optimization for transient wave propagation problems in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Structures exhibiting band gap properties, i.e., having frequency ranges for which the structure attenuates propagating waves, have applications in damping of acoustic and elastic wave propagation and in optical communication. A topology optimization method for synthesis of such structures, emplo...

  5. Propagating Instabilities in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Stelios

    1998-03-01

    Instability is one of the factors which limit the extent to which solids can be loaded or deformed and plays a pivotal role in the design of many structures. Such instabilities often result in localized deformation which precipitates catastrophic failure. Some materials have the capacity to recover their stiffness following a certain amount of localized deformation. This local recovery in stiffness arrests further local deformation and spreading of the instability to neighboring material becomes preferred. Under displacement controlled loading the propagation of the transition fronts can be achieved in a steady-state manner at a constant stress level known as the propagation stress. The stresses in the transition fronts joining the highly deformed zone to the intact material overcome the instability nucleation stresses and, as a result, the propagation stress is usually much lower than the stress required to nucleate the instability. The classical example of this class of material instabilities is L/"uders bands which tend to affect mild steels and other metals. Recent work has demonstrated that propagating instabilities occur in several other materials. Experimental and analytical results from four examples will be used to illustrate this point: First the evolution of L=FCders bands in mild steel strips will be revisited. The second example involves the evolution of stress induced phase transformations (austenite to martensite phases and the reverse) in a shape memory alloy under displacement controlled stretching. The third example is the crushing behavior of cellular materials such as honeycombs and foams made from metals and polymers. The fourth example involves the axial broadening/propagation of kink bands in aligned fiber/matrix composites under compression. The microstructure and, as a result, the micromechanisms governing the onset, localization, local arrest and propagation of instabilities in each of the four materials are vastly different. Despite this

  6. Peculiarities of Thermodynamic Simulation with the Method of Bound Affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2004-01-01

    Thermodynamic simulation of chemical and metallurgical systems is the only method to predict their equilibrium composition and is the most important application of chemical thermodynamics. The conventional strategy of simulation is always to find the most probable composition of the system, corresponding to thermodynamic equilibrium. Traditional simulation methods do not account for interactions within the chemical system. The Method of Bound Affinity (MBA) is based on the theory that explicitly takes into account interactions between subsystems of a complex chemical system and leads sometimes to essential differences in simulation results. This article discusses peculiarities of MBA application, exemplified by results for a complex system with a set of subsystems.

  7. PDZ affinity chromatography: a general method for affinity purification of proteins based on PDZ domains and their ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2014-06-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, DiscsLarge, ZO1) domains function in nature as protein binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise ∼90 residues and make specific, high affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, with other PDZ domains, and with phospholipids. We hypothesized that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands would make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. Here we describe a novel affinity chromatography method applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We created a series of affinity resins comprised of PDZ domains from the scaffold protein PSD-95, or from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), coupled to solid supports. We used them to purify heterologously expressed neuronal proteins or protein domains containing endogenous PDZ domain ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands. We show that Proteins of Interest (POIs) lacking endogenous PDZ domain ligands can be engineered as fusion products containing C-terminal PDZ domain ligand peptides or internal, N- or C-terminal PDZ domains and then can be purified by the same method. Using this method, we recovered recombinant GFP fused to a PDZ domain ligand in active form as verified by fluorescence yield. Similarly, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and β-Galactosidase (LacZ) fused to a C-terminal PDZ domain ligand or an N-terminal PDZ domain were purified in active form as assessed by enzymatic assay. In general, PDZ domains and ligands derived from PSD-95 were superior to those from nNOS for this method. PDZ Domain Affinity Chromatography promises to be a versatile and effective method for purification of a wide variety of natural and recombinant proteins.

  8. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...

  9. Behavior of ultrasounds crossing perfluorocarbon liquids and random propagation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Random propagation times are able to model waves attenuation and velocity. It is true for electromagnetic waves (light, radar, guided propagation) and also for acoustics and ultrasounds (acoustics for high frequencies). About the latter, it can be shown that stable probability laws are well-fitted for frequencies up to dozens of megahertz in numerous cases. Nowadays, medical applications are performed using propagation through perfluorocarbon (PFC). Experiments were done to measure attenuations and phase changes. Using these results, this paper addresses the question to know if stable probability laws can be used to characterize the propagation of ultrasounds through PFC liquids.

  10. Hollow Gaussian Schell-model beam and its propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Li-Gang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new model, hollow Gaussian-Schell model beams (HGSMBs), to describe the practical dark hollow beams. An analytical propagation formula for HGSMBs passing through a paraxial first-order optical system is derived based on the theory of coherence. Based on the derived formula, an application example showing the influence of spatial coherence on the propagation of beams is illustrated. It is found that the beam propagating properties of HGSMBs will be greatly affected by their spatial coherence. Our model provides a very convenient way for analyzing the propagation properties of partially coherent dark hollow beams.

  11. Scaling laws in phytoplankton nutrient uptake affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Christian; Fiksen, Øyvind; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient uptake affinity affects the competitive ability of microbial organisms at low nutrient concentrations. From the theory of diffusion limitation it follows that uptake affinity scales linearly with the cell radius. This is in conflict with some observations suggesting that uptake affinity...... scales to a quantity that is closer to the square of the radius, i.e. to cell surface area. We show that this apparent conflict can be resolved by nutrient uptake theory. Pure diffusion limitation assumes that the cell is a perfect sink which means that it is able to absorb all encountered nutrients...... to volume ratio. We show that there are two reasons for this. First, because the small cells need a higher transporter density in order to maximize their affinity, and second because the relative cost of a transporter is higher for a small than for a large cell. We suggest that this might explain why...

  12. Reflection symmetry detection using locally affine invariant edge correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaozhong; Tang, Zesheng; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Reflection symmetry detection receives increasing attentions in recent years. The state-of-the-art algorithms mainly use the matching of intensity-based features (such as the SIFT) within a single image to find symmetry axes. This paper proposes a novel approach by establishing the correspondence of locally affine invariant edge-based features, which are superior to the intensity based in the aspects that it is insensitive to illumination variations, and applicable to textureless objects. The locally affine invariance is achieved by simple linear algebra for efficient and robust computations, making the algorithm suitable for detections under object distortions like perspective projection. Commonly used edge detectors and a voting process are, respectively, used before and after the edge description and matching steps to form a complete reflection detection pipeline. Experiments are performed using synthetic and real-world images with both multiple and single reflection symmetry axis. The test results are compared with existing algorithms to validate the proposed method.

  13. Nonlinear propagation of light in structured media: Generalized unidirectional pulse propagation equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, J; Kolesik, M

    2012-09-01

    Unidirectional pulse propagation equations [UPPE, Phys. Rev. E 70, 036604 (2004)] have provided a theoretical underpinning for computer-aided investigations into dynamics of high-power ultrashort laser pulses and have been successfully utilized for almost a decade. Unfortunately, they are restricted to applications in bulk media or, with additional approximations, to simple waveguide geometries in which only a few guided modes can approximate the propagating waveform. The purpose of this work is to generalize the directional pulse propagation equations to structures characterized by strong refractive index differences and material interfaces. We also outline a numerical solution framework that draws on the combination of the bulk-media UPPE method with single-frequency beam-propagation techniques.

  14. APPROXIMATE OUTPUT REGULATION FOR AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yali DONG; Daizhan CHENG; Huashu QIN

    2003-01-01

    Output regulation for affine nonlinear systems driven by an exogenous signal is investigated in this paper. In the absence of the standard exosystem hypothesis, we assume availability of the instantaneous values of the exogenous signal and its first time-derivative for use in the control law.For affine nonlinear systems, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the solvability of approximate output regulation problem are obtained. The precise form of the control law is presented under some suitable assumptions.

  15. Fan affinity laws from a collision model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated from hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this work we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour of air is incorporated. Our calculations prove the affinity laws and provide numerical estimates of the air delivery, thrust and drag on a rotating fan.

  16. Vegetative propagation of jojoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, C.B.; Hackett, W.P.

    1981-03-01

    Development of jojoba as an economically viable crop requires improved methods of propagation and culture. Rooting experiments were performed on cutting material collected from wild jojoba plants. A striking seasonal fluctuation in rooting potential was found. Jojoba plants can be successfully propagated from stem cuttings made during spring, summer, and, to some extent, fall. Variability among jojoba plants may also play a role in rooting potential, although it is not as important as season. In general, the use of auxin (4,000 ppm indolebutyric acid) on jojoba cuttings during periods of high rooting potential promotes adventitious root formation, but during periods of low rooting potential it has no effect or is even slightly inhibitory. In the greenhouse, cutting-grown plants apparently reproductively matured sooner than those grown from seed. If this observation holds true for plants transplanted into the field, earlier fruit production by cutting--grown plants would mean earlier return of initial planting and maintenance costs.

  17. A new series of emodin derivatives with bone affinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chen; Ying Wang; Ling Leng; Mao Sheng Cheng; Peng Fei Yu; Jing Ze Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A new series of bone affinity compounds were synthesized by linking emodin with 5-fluorouracil derivatives. Their bone affinities were established by hydroxyapative (HA) affinity experiment in vitro, and their cytostatic effects were shown by the MTT assay.

  18. Synthesis of a New Series of Bone Affinity Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new series of bone affinity compounds were synthesized by linking chrysophanol with 5-fluorouracil derivatives. Their bone affinity was established by hydroxyapafive (HA)affinity experiment in vitro, and their cytostatic effects were shown by the MTT assay.

  19. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Axel

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  20. Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO TengFei; YU Hong

    2009-01-01

    Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term,which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper,with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.

  1. Performance of a new protein A affinity membrane for the primary recovery of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Cristiana; Dimartino, Simone; Sarti, Giulio C

    2008-01-01

    Recovery of antibodies with Protein A affinity chromatography columns has become the standard for the biotechnology industry. Membrane affinity chromatography has not yet experienced extensive application due to the lower capacity of membrane supports compared to chromatographic beads. In this work, new affinity membranes endowed with an interesting binding capacity for human IgG are studied in view of their application in the capturing step of a monoclonal antibody production process. The membranes have been extensively tested with pure IgG solutions and with a cell culture supernatant containing IgG1. The effects of feed flow rate and IgG concentration on the separation performances have been studied in detail, considering in particular binding capacity, selectivity and recovery. These new high capacity affinity membranes appear good candidates to avoid the throughput limitations and other well-known drawbacks of traditional bead-based chromatographic columns.

  2. 裂纹扩展阻裂在边坡加固中的应用%The Application of the Crack Propagation Crack Resistance in Slope Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁月华; 胡屈强; 陈君

    2013-01-01

    Article by introducing the fracture damage mechanics crack propagation crack resistance theory, the slope before and after the prestressed anchor cable safety factor changes and changes in the sliding surface . ABAQUS software to create a two-dimensional slope model , by comparison, prestressing , an increase of the deformation energy of the surface to form a new crack surface and crack promote the process so that the crack is not easy to continue to develop , indicate that the prestressed anchor cable to prevent cracks carried out in the initial sliding surface effect is very signifcant .%  文章通过介绍断裂损伤力学中裂纹扩展阻裂理论,分析边坡在施加预应力锚索前后,边坡的安全系数变化情况及滑动面变动。通过abaqus软件建立二维边坡模型,通过对比发现,预应力施加以后,增加了形成新裂纹表面的表面能和裂纹推进过程中的形变能,使得裂纹不易继续发展,表明预应力锚索阻止裂纹在初始滑动面的开展效果是十分显著的。

  3. The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Waldron, TT; Astrof, N;

    2007-01-01

    Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric proteins that mediate cell-cell, cell-matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. Half of the known integrin alpha subunits contain inserted domains (I domains) that coordinate ligand through a metal ion. Although the importance of conformational changes within...... isolated I domains in regulating ligand binding has been reported, the relationship between metal ion binding affinity and ligand binding affinity has not been elucidated. Metal and ligand binding by several I domain mutants that are stabilized in different conformations are investigated using isothermal...... titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance studies. This work suggests an inverse relationship between metal ion affinity and ligand binding affinity (i.e. constructs with a high affinity for ligand exhibit a low affinity for metal). This trend is discussed in the context of structural studies...

  4. Systèmes de transmission sans fil multi-émetteurs, multi-récepteurs, pour des applications transports. Etude des modèles de canal de propagation

    OpenAIRE

    PARDONCHE, JF

    2004-01-01

    Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire portent sur l'utilisation des techniques Mimo pour des applications dans les transports publics (autobus urbains ou métros). Notre travail de recherche s'est tout particulièrement orienté vers la connaissance et la modélisation du canal de propagation Mimo afin de disposer des outils adaptés lors de l'analyse des performances d'une chaine de transmission mimo. Différents types de modèles de canal Mimo sont présentés dans ce mémoire : les modèles détermini...

  5. Backward Propagation of Otoacoustic Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wenxuan; REN Tianying

    2006-01-01

    Normal mammalian ears not only detect but also generate sounds. The ear-generated sounds, I.e., otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), can be measured in the external ear canal using a tiny sensitive microphone. In spite of wide applications of OAEs in diagnosis of hearing disorders and in studies of cochlear functions, the question of how the cochlea emits sounds remains unclear. The current dominating theory is that the OAE reaches the cochlear base through a backward traveling wave. However, recently published works, including experimental data on the spatial pattern ofbasilar membrane vibrations at the emission frequency, demonstrated only forward traveling waves and no signs of backward traveling waves. These new findings indicate that the cochlea emits sounds through cochlear fluids as compression waves rather than through the basilar membrane as backward traveling waves. This article reviews different mechanisms of the backward propagation of OAEs and summarizes recent experimental results.

  6. Progress in front propagation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  7. NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR GLOBAL CONTROLLABILITY OF A CLASS OF AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin SUN; Shengwei MEI; Qiang LU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global controllability of a class of n-dimensional affine nonlinear systems with n - 1 controls and constant control matrix. A necessary and sufficient condition for its global controllability has been obtained by using the methods recently developed. Furthermore,we generalize the above result to a class of affine nonlinear systems with a block-triangular-like structure.Finally, we will give three examples to show the applications of our results.

  8. Interest Rates with Long Memory: A Generalized Affine Term-Structure Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterrieder, Daniela

    We propose a model for the term structure of interest rates that is a generalization of the discrete-time, Gaussian, affine yield-curve model. Compared to standard affine models, our model allows for general linear dynamics in the vector of state variables. In an application to real yields of U.S...... forecasts that outperform several benchmark models, especially at long forecasting horizons....

  9. An Analysis of a Transport System Using Non-Affine Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ficzer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the transformation possibilities and particularly the usage of non-affine transformations of maps in order to analyse the current status and development possibilities of the Hungarian railway system. In the introduction, the authors overview the theoretical background of map transformations and then present the detailed description of the non-parameter affine transformations and their applicability to the evaluation of railway networks.

  10. Anomaly Detection for Internet of Vehicles: A Trust Management Scheme with Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly detection is critical for intelligent vehicle (IV collaboration. Forming clusters/platoons, IVs can work together to accomplish complex jobs that they are unable to perform individually. To improve security and efficiency of Internet of Vehicles, IVs’ anomaly detection has been extensively studied and a number of trust-based approaches have been proposed. However, most of these proposals either pay little attention to leader-based detection algorithm or ignore the utility of networked Roadside-Units (RSUs. In this paper, we introduce a trust-based anomaly detection scheme for IVs, where some malicious or incapable vehicles are existing on roads. The proposed scheme works by allowing IVs to detect abnormal vehicles, communicate with each other, and finally converge to some trustworthy cluster heads (CHs. Periodically, the CHs take responsibility for intracluster trust management. Moreover, the scheme is enhanced with a distributed supervising mechanism and a central reputation arbitrator to assure robustness and fairness in detecting process. The simulation results show that our scheme can achieve a low detection failure rate below 1%, demonstrating its ability to detect and filter the abnormal vehicles.

  11. Experimental study of hot electrons propagation and energy deposition in solid or laser-shock compressed targets: applications to fast igniter; Etude experimentale de la propagation et du depot d'energie d'electrons rapides dans une cible solide ou comprimee par choc laser: application a l'allumeur rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisani, F

    2000-02-15

    In the fast igniter scheme, a recent approach proposed for the inertial confinement fusion, the idea is to dissociate the fuel ignition phase from its compression. The ignition phase would be then achieved by means of an external energy source: a fast electron beam generated by the interaction with an ultra-intense laser. The main goal of this work is to study the mechanisms of the hot electron energy transfer to the compressed fuel. We intent in particular to study the role of the electric and collisional effects involved in the hot electron propagation in a medium with properties similar to the compressed fuel. We carried out two experiments, one at the Vulcan laser facility (England) and the second one at the new LULI 100 TW laser (France). During the first experiment, we obtained the first results on the hot electron propagation in a dense and hot plasma. The innovating aspect of this work was in particular the use of the laser-shock technique to generate high pressures, allowing the strongly correlated and degenerated plasma to be created. The role of the electric and magnetic effects due to the space charge associated with the fast electron beam has been investigated in the second experiment. Here we studied the propagation in materials with different electrical characteristics: an insulator and a conductor. The analysis of the results showed that only by taking into account simultaneously the two propagation mechanisms (collisions and electric effects) a correct treatment of the energy deposition is possible. We also showed the importance of taking into account the induced modifications due to the electrons beam crossing the target, especially the induced heating. (author)

  12. Liouvillian propagators, Riccati equation and differential Galois theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Humánez, Primitivo; Suazo, Erwin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a Galoisian approach to building propagators through Riccati equations is presented. The main result corresponds to the relationship between the Galois integrability of the linear Schrödinger equation and the virtual solvability of the differential Galois group of its associated characteristic equation. As the main application of this approach we solve Ince’s differential equation through the Hamiltonian algebrization procedure and the Kovacic algorithm to find the propagator for a generalized harmonic oscillator. This propagator has applications which describe the process of degenerate parametric amplification in quantum optics and light propagation in a nonlinear anisotropic waveguide. Toy models of propagators inspired by integrable Riccati equations and integrable characteristic equations are also presented.

  13. Exterior time scaling with the stiffness-free Lanczos time propagator: Formulation and application to atoms interacting with strong midinfrared lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-03-01

    Aiming at efficient numerical treatment of tunneling ionization of atoms and molecules by midinfrared (IR) lasers, exterior time-scaling (ETS) theory is formulated as a generalization of the time-scaled coordinate approach. The key idea of ETS is the division of the spatial volume into a small region around the nucleus and its outside; the radial coordinates are time scaled only in the outer region. The continuum components of photoelectron wave packets are prevented from reaching the edge of the spatial simulation volume, enabling the long-time evolution of wave packets with a relatively small number of basis functions without concerns of electron reflections. On the other hand, the bound-state components are free from shrinking toward the origin because of non-time-scaling in the inner region. Hence, the equations of motion in ETS are less stiff than the ones in the original time-scaled coordinate approach in which the shrinking bound states make the equations of motion seriously stiff. For numerical implementation of ETS, the working equations are derived in terms of finite-element discrete-variable-representation functions. Furthermore, the stiffness-free Lanczos time propagator is introduced to remove any persistent stiffness in the treatment of mid-IR lasers due to the involvement of hundreds of angular momentum states. The test calculations for atomic hydrogen interacting with linearly polarized mid-IR pulses demonstrate the accuracy and numerical efficiency of this scheme and exhibit its special capability if there is no recollision with the parent ion. Hence, ETS will show its true potential for the detailed analysis of photoelectron wave-packet dynamics in circularly or near-circularly polarized mid-IR fields.

  14. Contribution to the determination of the double angular and energy differential neutron albedo. Application to the propagation in lacunar medium; Contribution a la determination de l'albedo doublement differentiel en angle et en energie des neutrons. Application a la propagation dans les milieux lacunaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaize, O

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study the neutron propagation by reflection from lacunar medium interfaces. The most efficient method to calculate this type of propagation is to use the concept of albedo. Actual version of NARCISSE code uses a simple formulation of angular differential albedos and so, can only treat single reflections. Multiple reflections treatment needs the knowledge of neutron spectrum after reflection. This energetic information is contained in double angular and energy differential albedos. The first step of this study consists to generate these albedos for various materials. Several methods have been tested and the Monte Carlo method was retained. A new estimator has been developed and validated in the Mote Carlo transport code TRIPOLI-4. It computes, during the simulation of the neutron history, the angular and energy reflection probability at each collision site. The second step consists to generate an interpolation scheme and albedo libraries for various materials. A new version of NARCISSE was developed to use these libraries and the interpolation module. Spectrum and dose rates comparisons were made between codes to validate these albedos. The neutron propagation by multiple reflections can be studied now, by using this new version of Narcisse. (author)

  15. Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...

  16. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  17. Temporal scaling in information propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-18

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  18. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  19. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  20. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  1. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.

    2016-04-01

    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.

  2. PIV uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the propagation of the instantaneous uncertainty of PIV measurements to statistical and instantaneous quantities of interest derived from the velocity field. The expression of the uncertainty of vorticity, velocity divergence, mean value and Reynolds stresses is derived. It is shown that the uncertainty of vorticity and velocity divergence requires the knowledge of the spatial correlation between the error of the x and y particle image displacement, which depends upon the measurement spatial resolution. The uncertainty of statistical quantities is often dominated by the random uncertainty due to the finite sample size and decreases with the square root of the effective number of independent samples. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to assess the accuracy of the uncertainty propagation formulae. Furthermore, three experimental assessments are carried out. In the first experiment, a turntable is used to simulate a rigid rotation flow field. The estimated uncertainty of the vorticity is compared with the actual vorticity error root-mean-square, with differences between the two quantities within 5-10% for different interrogation window sizes and overlap factors. A turbulent jet flow is investigated in the second experimental assessment. The reference velocity, which is used to compute the reference value of the instantaneous flow properties of interest, is obtained with an auxiliary PIV system, which features a higher dynamic range than the measurement system. Finally, the uncertainty quantification of statistical quantities is assessed via PIV measurements in a cavity flow. The comparison between estimated uncertainty and actual error demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed uncertainty propagation methodology.

  3. Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige, E-mail: suzuki-y@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Display and Semiconductor Physics Department, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-07

    The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5 nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.

  4. Sequential Back—Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 刘大有; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.

  5. Ionospheric Radio Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-25

    applies Chapter 2 presents in simple form the mathe - principles which have been found to work in prac- matical theory underlying the propagation of...6.17, which was described under sec- L713 412 812.111 410.511171IS1&41&716.3 A& tion 6.5 above, and read the value of the muf for muFi .-f------ - 01...twepse, 71. mathe 1measuring virtual 6elghts, is world contour charts. 57; zero distance, 73. Se .1.. Contour chairt MCNiII, A. 0., 106 G Median value

  6. Broadband surface plasmon jets: direct observation of plasmon propagation for application to sensors and optical communications in microscale and nanoscale circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhelier, Alexandre; Wiederrecht, Gary P.

    2008-02-19

    A system and method for generating and using broadband surface plasmons in a metal film for characterization of analyte on or near the metal film. The surface plasmons interact with the analyte and generate leakage radiation which has spectral features which can be used to inspect, identify and characterize the analyte. The broadband plasmon excitation enables high-bandwidth photonic applications.

  7. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  8. Stepparents' Affinity-Seeking and Affinity-Maintaining Strategies with Stepchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Fine, Mark; Martin, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the strategies that stepparents use to develop and maintain affinity with stepchildren and the effects that these strategies have on the development of stepparent-stepchildren relationships. Thirty-one affinity-seeking strategies are identified. Results show that dyadic activities worked best, but it is important that stepchildren…

  9. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  10. New opioid affinity labels containing maleoyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, I; Orosz, G; Rónai, A Z; Makó, E; Medzihradszky, K; Borsodi, A

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor binding properties and pharmacological profiles of novel peptides containing maleoyl function were determined in order to develop new affinity labels. Based on the enkephalin structure peptide ligands were synthesized and tested. Both in in vitro receptor binding experiments and pharmacological studies, all ligands showed agonist character with relatively high affinity (Ki values in the nanomolar range) and good to moderate selectivity. Replacement of Gly2 in the enkephalin frame with D-Ala led to higher affinities with a small decrease in selectivity. The longer peptide chains resulted in compounds with high percentage (up to 86%) of irreversible binding. The selectivity pattern of the ligands is in good agreement with the data obtained from the pharmacological assays (guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens bioassays). The newly synthesized peptides could be used in further studies in order to determine more detailed characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction.

  11. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Walton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  12. Modelling and simulation of affinity membrane adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Cristiana; Dimartino, Simone; Sarti, Giulio C

    2007-08-24

    A mathematical model for the adsorption of biomolecules on affinity membranes is presented. The model considers convection, diffusion and adsorption kinetics on the membrane module as well as the influence of dead end volumes and lag times; an analysis of flow distribution on the whole system is also included. The parameters used in the simulations were obtained from equilibrium and dynamic experimental data measured for the adsorption of human IgG on A2P-Sartoepoxy affinity membranes. The identification of a bi-Langmuir kinetic mechanisms for the experimental system investigated was paramount for a correct process description and the simulated breakthrough curves were in good agreement with the experimental data. The proposed model provides a new insight into the phenomena involved in the adsorption on affinity membranes and it is a valuable tool to assess the use of membrane adsorbers in large scale processes.

  13. Understanding the Effects of Water-Column Variability on Very-High-Frequency Acoustic Propagation in Support of High-Data-Rate Acoustic Communication Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    and inaccessible environments, and opens up a wide range of applications enabled by the deployment on mobile platforms, moorings , etc. This...such as moorings or autonomous underwater vehicles. The development of this system is being pursued through the Instrument System Development...Laboratory at WHOI. The primary WHOI engineers on the project are Micheil Boesel and Keith von der Heydt. REFERENCES [1] Final project report

  14. Learn Sparse Dictionaries for Edit Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowu Chen; Jianwei Li; Dongqing Zou; Qinping Zhao

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of high-resolution images, videos, and 3D models, the demand for scalable large data processing techniques increases. We introduce a method of sparse dictionary learning for edit propagation of large input data. Previous approaches for edit propagation typically employ a global optimization over the whole set of pixels (or vertexes), incurring a prohibitively high memory and time-consumption for large input data. Rather than propagating an edit pixel by pixel, we follow the principle of sparse representation to obtain a representative and compact dictionary and perform edit propagation on the dictionary instead. The sparse dictionary provides an intrinsic basis for input data, and the coding coefficients capture the linear relationship between all pixels and the dictionary atoms. The learned dictionary is then optimized by a novel scheme, which maximizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence between each atom pair to remove redundant atoms. To enable local edit propagation for images or videos with similar appearance, a dictionary learning strategy is proposed by considering range constraint to better account for the global distribution of pixels in their feature space. We show several applications of the sparsity-based edit propagation, including video recoloring, theme editing, and seamless cloning, operating on both color and texture features. Our approach can also be applied to computer graphics tasks, such as 3D surface deformation. We demonstrate that with an atom-to-pixel ratio in the order of 0.01% signifying a significant reduction on memory consumption, our method still maintains a high degree of visual fidelity.

  15. Poisson Morphisms and Reduced Affine Poisson Group Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qi Lin

    2002-01-01

    We establish the concept of a quotient affine Poisson group, and study the reduced Poisson action of the quotient of an affine Poisson group G on the quotient of an affine Poisson G-variety V. The Poisson morphisms (including equivariant cases) between Poisson affine varieties are also discussed.

  16. Supramolecular surface immobilization of knottin derivatives for dynamic display of high affinity binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, S.; Ruiter, de M.V.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Jonkheijm, P.

    2015-01-01

    Knottins are known as a robust and versatile class of miniprotein scaffolds for the presentation of high-affinity binding peptides; however, to date their application in biomaterials, biological coatings, and surface applications have not been explored. We have developed a strategy to recombinantly

  17. Periodic cyclic homology of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Solleveld, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    This is the author's PhD-thesis, which was written in 2006. The version posted here is identical to the printed one. Instead of an abstract, the short list of contents: Preface 5 1 Introduction 9 2 K-theory and cyclic type homology theories 13 3 Affine Hecke algebras 61 4 Reductive p-adic groups 103 5 Parameter deformations in affine Hecke algebras 129 6 Examples and calculations 169 A Crossed products 223 Bibliography 227 Index 237 Samenvatting 245 Curriculum vitae 253

  18. Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are

  19. Einstein's gravity from an affine model

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    We show that the effective field equations for a recently formulated affine model of gravity, in the sector of a metric (torsion-free) connection, accept general Einstein manifolds --- with or without cosmological constant --- as solutions. Moreover, these effective field equations coincide with the ones obtained from a gravitational Yang--Mills theory known as Stephenson--Kilmister--Yang theory. Additionally, we find an equivalence between a minimally coupled massless scalar field in General Relativity with a "minimally" coupled scalar field in this affine model.

  20. Separation of Proteins by Electrophoretic Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邺韶骅; 刘铮; 丁富新; 袁乃驹

    1999-01-01

    A new kind of electrophoretic affinity chromatography (EAC) for bioseparation was proposed,Separation by EAC was conducted in a multicompartment electrolyzer in which the affinity gel media were packed in one of the central compartments.The presence of an electric field accelerated the migration of proteins inside the gel matrix during adsorption and descrption processes,This led to the increase of the overall speed of separation,The present study was focused on the effect of the strength of the electric field on adsorption and desorption processes.

  1. Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.

  2. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  3. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...... charged metal ions such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, Zr4+, and Ti4+ has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from...

  4. Evidence of multi-affinity in the Japanese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2000-04-01

    Fluctuations of the Japanese stock market (Tokyo Stock Price Index: TOPIX) are analyzed using a multi-affine analysis method. In the research to date, only some simulated self-affine models have shown multi-affinity. In most experiments using observations of self-affine fractal profiles, multi-affinity has not been found. However, we find evidence of multi-affinity in fluctuations of the Japanese stock market (TOPIX). The qth-order Hurst exponent Hq varies with changes in q. This multi-affinity indicates that there are plural mechanisms that affect the same time scale as stock market price fluctuation dynamics.

  5. Propagating Qualitative Values Through Quantitative Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    1992-01-01

    In most practical problems where traditional numeric simulation is not adequate, one need to reason about a system with both qualitative and quantitative equations. In this paper, we address the problem of propagating qualitative values represented as interval values through quantitative equations. Previous research has produced exponential-time algorithms for approximate solution of the problem. These may not meet the stringent requirements of many real time applications. This paper advances the state of art by producing a linear-time algorithm that can propagate a qualitative value through a class of complex quantitative equations exactly and through arbitrary algebraic expressions approximately. The algorithm was found applicable to Space Shuttle Reaction Control System model.

  6. Development of an aptamer-based affinity purification method for vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Lönne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since aptamers bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, they are promising alternative ligands in protein affinity purification. As aptamers are chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, they can be easily produced in large quantities regarding GMP conditions allowing their application in protein production for therapeutic purposes. Several advantages of aptamers compared to antibodies are described in general within this paper. Here, an aptamer directed against the human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF was used as affinity ligand for establishing a purification platform for VEGF in small scale. The aptamer was covalently immobilized on magnetic beads in a controlled orientation resulting in a functional active affinity matrix. Target binding was optimized by introduction of spacer molecules and variation of aptamer density. Further, salt-induced target elution was demonstrated as well as VEGF purification from a complex protein mixture proving the specificity of protein-aptamer binding.

  7. Synthesis of nonlinear discrete control systems via time-delay affine Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Jer; Chang, Wei

    2005-04-01

    The affine Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model played a more important role in nonlinear control because it can be used to approximate the nonlinear systems more than the homogeneous TS fuzzy models. Besides, it is known that the time delays exist in physical systems and the previous works did not consider the time delay effects in the analysis of affine TS fuzzy models. Hence a parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controller design issue for discrete time-delay affine TS fuzzy models is considered in this paper. The time-delay effect is considered in the discrete affine TS fuzzy models and the stabilization issue is developed for the nonlinear time-delay systems. Finally, a numerical simulation for a time-delayed nonlinear truck-trailer system is given to show the applications of the present approach.

  8. Quantifying domain-ligand affinities and specificities by high-throughput holdup assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincentelli, Renaud; Luck, Katja; Poirson, Juline; Polanowska, Jolanta; Abdat, Julie; Blémont, Marilyne; Turchetto, Jeremy; Iv, François; Ricquier, Kevin; Straub, Marie-Laure; Forster, Anne; Cassonnet, Patricia; Borg, Jean-Paul; Jacob, Yves; Masson, Murielle; Nominé, Yves; Reboul, Jérôme; Wolff, Nicolas; Charbonnier, Sebastian; Travé, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    Many protein interactions are mediated by small linear motifs interacting specifically with defined families of globular domains. Quantifying the specificity of a motif requires measuring and comparing its binding affinities to all its putative target domains. To this end, we developed the high-throughput holdup assay, a chromatographic approach that can measure up to 1,000 domain-motif equilibrium binding affinities per day. After benchmarking the approach on 210 PDZ-peptide pairs with known affinities, we determined the affinities of two viral PDZ-binding motifs derived from human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins for 209 PDZ domains covering 79% of the human 'PDZome'. We obtained sharply sequence-dependent binding profiles that quantitatively describe the PDZome recognition specificity of each motif. This approach, applicable to many categories of domain-ligand interactions, has wide potential for quantifying the specificities of interactomes.

  9. Crossing Chris: Some Markerian Affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2010-01-01

    -pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    Abstract (E: This essay creatively explores a group of artists, writers, and other special individuals whose work or life story can be described as having an intriguing affinity with the protean career of Chris Marker. Avoiding the ‘usual suspects’ (such as Godard or Sebald, it discusses gossip columnist Milt Machlin, record collector Harry Smith, painter Gianfranco Baruchello, writer-filmmaker Edgardo Cozarinsky, and several others. From this constellation, a particular view of Markerian poetics emerges, touching upon the meanings of anonymity, storytelling, history and archiving.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet essai brosse de manière créative le portrait d’un groupe d'artistes, d'écrivains et d'autres personnes particulières dont le travail ou la biographie peuvent être décrits comme montrant une étrange mais certaine connivence avec la carrière protéiforme de Chris Marker. Evitant les lieux communs (comme Godard ou Sebald, cet article trace des références moins attendues :

  10. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  11. Unidirectional propagation of designer surface acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiuyang; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-01-01

    We propose an efficient design route to generate unidirectional propagation of the designer surface acoustic waves. The whole system consists of a periodically corrugated rigid plate combining with a pair of asymmetric narrow slits. The directionality of the structure-induced surface waves stems from the destructive interference between the evanescent waves emitted from the double slits. The theoretical prediction is validated well by simulations and experiments. Promising applications can be anticipated, such as in designing compact acoustic circuits.

  12. A Wave Expansion Method for Aeroacoustic Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Hammar, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Although it is possible to directly solve an entire flow-acoustics problem in one computation, this approach remains prohibitively large in terms of the computational resource required for most practical applications. Aeroacoustic problems are therefore usually split into two parts; one consisting of the source computation and one of the source propagation. Although both these parts entail great challenges on the computational method, in terms of accuracy and efficiency, it is still better th...

  13. Light Front Boson Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    stract The scope and aim of this work is to describe the two-body interaction mediated by a particle (either the scalar or the gauge boson) within the light-front formulation. To do this, first of all we point out the importance of propagators and Green functions in Quantum Mechanics. Then we project the covariant quantum propagator onto the light front time to get the propagator for scalar particles in these coordinates. This operator propagates the wave function from x+ = 0 to x+ > O. It corresponds to the definition of the time ordering operation in the light front time x+. We calculate the light-front Green's function for 2 interacting bosons propagating forward in x+. We also show how to write down the light front Green's function from the Feynman propagator and finally make a generalization to N bosons.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of two-phases turbulent combustion: application to study of propagation and structure of flames; Simulation numerique directe de la combustion turbulente diphasique: application a l'etude de la propagation et de la structure des flammes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canneviere, K.

    2003-12-15

    This work is devoted to the study of the propagation and the structure of two-phases turbulent flames. To this end, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are used. First, numerical systems for two-phases flow simulations is presented along with a specific chemical model. Then, a study of laminar spray flames is carried out. An analytical study related to the dynamics of evaporation of droplets is first proposed where the influence on the equivalence ratio of the ratio between the heating delay of the droplet and the evaporation delay is detailed. The simulation of a propagating flame through a cloud of droplets is carried out and a pulsating behavior is highlighted. A study of these flames according to the topology of liquid fuel enabled us to characterize a double flame structure composed of a premixed flame and a diffusion flame. Our last study is devoted to spray turbulent flames. Two-phase combustion of turbulent jets has been simulated. By varying the spray injection parameters (density, equivalence ratio), a database has been generated. This database allowed us to describe local and global flame regimes appearing in the combustion of sprays. They have been categorized in four main structures: open and closed external regime, group combustion and mixed combustion. Eventually, a combustion diagram has been developed. It involves the spray vaporization time, the mean inter-space between droplets or group of droplets and eventually the injected equivalence ratio. (author)

  15. Gauge engineering and propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  16. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  17. Propagators and path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1995-08-22

    Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).

  18. Study of the Wheeler Propagator

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators.

  19. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  20. Colliding waves in metric-affine gravity

    CERN Document Server

    García, A; Macías, A; Mielke, E W; Socorro, J; García, Alberto; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Macías, Alfredo; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Socorro, José

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the formulation of the colliding gravitational waves to metric-affine theories and present an example of such kind of exact solutions. The plane waves are equipped with five symmetries and the resulting geometry after the collision possesses two spacelike Killing vectors.

  1. Propagation of shock waves through clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin Xin

    1990-10-01

    The behavior of a shock wave propagating into a cloud consisting of an inert gas, water vapor and water droplets was investigated. This has particular application to sonic bangs propagating in the atmosphere. The finite different method of MacCormack is extended to solve the one and two dimensional, two phase flow problems in which mass, momentum and energy transfers are included. The FCT (Fluid Corrected Transport) technique developed by Boris and Book was used in the basic numerical scheme as a powerful corrective procedure. The results for the transmitted shock waves propagating in a one dimensional, semi infinite cloud obtained by the finite difference approach are in good agreement with previous results by Kao using the method characteristics. The advantage of the finite difference method is its adaptability to two and three dimensional problems. Shock wave propagation through a finite cloud and into an expansion with a 90 degree corner was investigated. It was found that the transfer processes between the two phases in two dimensional flow are much more complicated than in the one dimensional flow cases. This is mainly due to the vortex and expansion wave generated at the corner. In the case considered, further complications were generated by the reflected shock wave from the floor. Good agreement with experiment was found for one phase flow but experimental data for the two phase case is not yet available to validate the two phase calculations.

  2. Generation and propagation of optical vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, David

    Optical vortices are singularities in phase fronts of laser beams. They are characterized by a dark core whose size (relative to the size of the background beam) may dramatically affect their behavior upon propagation. Previously, only large-core vortices have been extensively studied. The object of the research presented in this dissertation was to explore ways of generating small-core optical vortices (also called optical vortex filaments ), and to examine their propagation using analytical, numerical and experimental methods. Computer-generated holography enabled us to create arbitrary distributions of optical vortex filaments for experimental exploration. Hydrodynamic analogies were used to develop an heuristic model which described the dependence of vortex motion on other vortices and the background beam, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We predicted that pair of optical vortex filaments will rotate with angular rates inversely proportional to their separation distance (just like vortices in a fluid). We also reported the first experimental observation of this novel fluid-like effect. It was found, however, that upon propagation in linear media, the fluid-like rotation was not sustained owing to the overlap of diffracting vortex cores. Further numerical studies and experiments showed that rotation angle may be enhanced in nonlinear self-defocusing media. The results presented in this thesis offer us a better understanding of dynamics of propagating vortices which may result in applications in optical switching, optical data storage, manipulation of micro-particles and optical limiting for eye protection.

  3. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  4. Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cieslewicz, Maryelise [Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bhushan, Kumar R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Frangioni, John V. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wittrup, K. Dane, E-mail: wittrup@mit.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods: We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to DOTA, reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results: Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten-binding affinity of 100 pM is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nM to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2{+-}1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a {sup 111}In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions: We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity, DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals.

  5. Identifying Affinity Classes of Inorganic Materials Binding Sequences via a Graph-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nan; Knecht, Marc R; Swihart, Mark T; Tang, Zhenghua; Walsh, Tiffany R; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in bionanotechnology have recently generated growing interest in identifying peptides that bind to inorganic materials and classifying them based on their inorganic material affinities. However, there are some distinct characteristics of inorganic materials binding sequence data that limit the performance of many widely-used classification methods when applied to this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to predict the affinity classes of peptide sequences with respect to an associated inorganic material. We first generate a large set of simulated peptide sequences based on an amino acid transition matrix tailored for the specific inorganic material. Then the probability of test sequences belonging to a specific affinity class is calculated by minimizing an objective function. In addition, the objective function is minimized through iterative propagation of probability estimates among sequences and sequence clusters. Results of computational experiments on two real inorganic material binding sequence data sets show that the proposed framework is highly effective for identifying the affinity classes of inorganic material binding sequences. Moreover, the experiments on the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) data set shows that the proposed framework is general and can be applied to traditional protein sequences.

  6. Multi-Graph Matching via Affinity Optimization with Graduated Consistency Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Cho, Minsu; Zha, Hongyuan; Yang, Xiaokang; Chu, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of matching common node correspondences among multiple graphs referring to an identical or related structure. This multi-graph matching problem involves two correlated components: i) the local pairwise matching affinity across pairs of graphs; ii) the global matching consistency that measures the uniqueness of the pairwise matchings by different composition orders. Previous studies typically either enforce the matching consistency constraints in the beginning of an iterative optimization, which may propagate matching error both over iterations and across graph pairs; or separate affinity optimization and consistency enforcement into two steps. This paper is motivated by the observation that matching consistency can serve as a regularizer in the affinity objective function especially when the function is biased due to noises or inappropriate modeling. We propose composition-based multi-graph matching methods to incorporate the two aspects by optimizing the affinity score, meanwhile gradually infusing the consistency. We also propose two mechanisms to elicit the common inliers against outliers. Compelling results on synthetic and real images show the competency of our algorithms.

  7. Congophilicity (Congo red affinity) of different beta2-microglobulin conformations characterized by dye affinity capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2000-01-01

    The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red-affinities of......The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red...

  8. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Anish

    2011-07-01

    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  9. Boronic acid lectin affinity chromatography (BLAC). 2. Affinity micropartitioning-mediated comparative glycosylation profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, Alex; Olajos, Marcell; De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Rivera, Zuly; Bonn, Guenther K; Guttman, András

    2008-09-01

    As a continuation of our work on boronic acid lectin affinity chromatography (BLAC), in this paper we introduce an automated affinity micropartitioning approach using combined boronic acid and concanavalin A (BLAC/Con A) resin-filled micropipette tips to isolate and enrich human serum glycoproteins. The N-linked oligosaccharides of the partitioned glycoproteins were removed by PNGase F enzyme digestion, followed by 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid labeling. Capillary gel electrophoresis with blue LED-induced fluorescence detection was applied in a multiplexed format for comparative glycan profiling. The efficiency of BLAC affinity micropartitioning was compared with that of the individual lectin and pseudolectin affinity enrichment. Finally, we report on our findings in glycosylation differences in human serum samples from healthy and prostate cancer patients by applying BLAC/Con A micropipette tip-based enrichment and comparative multicapillary gel electrophoresis analysis of the released and labeled glycans.

  10. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  11. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which is here referred to as 'circular cosh duct'. Numerical results are presentd in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to studies of multimodal propagation as well as single mode propagation. The results are also applicable to studies of sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  12. Integrated microfluidic approach for quantitative high-throughput measurements of transcription factor binding affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Yair; Orenstein, Yaron; Chen, Dana; Avrahami, Dorit; Zor, Tsaffrir; Shamir, Ron; Gerber, Doron

    2016-04-07

    Protein binding to DNA is a fundamental process in gene regulation. Methodologies such as ChIP-Seq and mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites provide global information on this regulation in vivo In vitro methodologies provide valuable complementary information on protein-DNA specificities. However, current methods still do not measure absolute binding affinities. There is a real need for large-scale quantitative protein-DNA affinity measurements. We developed QPID, a microfluidic application for measuring protein-DNA affinities. A single run is equivalent to 4096 gel-shift experiments. Using QPID, we characterized the different affinities of ATF1, c-Jun, c-Fos and AP-1 to the CRE consensus motif and CRE half-site in two different genomic sequences on a single device. We discovered that binding of ATF1, but not of AP-1, to the CRE half-site is highly affected by its genomic context. This effect was highly correlated with ATF1 ChIP-seq and PBM experiments. Next, we characterized the affinities of ATF1 and ATF3 to 128 genomic CRE and CRE half-site sequences. Our affinity measurements explained that in vivo binding differences between ATF1 and ATF3 to CRE and CRE half-sites are partially mediated by differences in the minor groove width. We believe that QPID would become a central tool for quantitative characterization of biophysical aspects affecting protein-DNA binding.

  13. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...

  14. View-based Propagator Derivation

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2009-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear constraints both with unit and non-unit coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance than resorting to constraint decomposition. This paper shows how to use views to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and type conversion are developed. The paper introduces an implementation architecture for views that is independent of the underlying constraint programming system. A detailed evaluation of views implement...

  15. Laser absorption and electron propagation in rippled plasma targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik

    2016-10-01

    Efficient absorption of laser energy and the collimated propagation of relativistic electron beams (generated by the laser target interaction) in plasma are two issues which are of significant importance for applications such as fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It is shown with the help of 2-D Particle- In- Cell simulations that introducing density ripples transverse to the laser propagation direction enhances the efficiency of laser power absorption. Furthermore, the density ripples are also instrumental in suppressing the Weibel instability of the propagating electron beam (which is responsible for the divergence of the beam). A physical understanding of the two effects is also provided.

  16. Decomposition During Search for Propagation-Based Constraint Solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Martin; Will, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    We describe decomposition during search (DDS), an integration of and/or tree search into propagation-based constraint solvers. The presented search algorithm dynamically decomposes sub-problems of a constraint satisfaction problem into independent partial problems, avoiding redundant work. The paper discusses how DDS interacts with key features that make propagation-based solvers successful: constraint propagation, especially for global constraints, and dynamic search heuristics. We have implemented DDS for the Gecode constraint programming library. Two applications, solution counting in graph coloring and protein structure prediction, exemplify the benefits of DDS in practice.

  17. Range Information Propagation Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向荣; 朱志刚; 等

    1998-01-01

    A novel method of model-based object recognition is presented in this paper.Its novelty stems from the fact that the gray level image captured by a camera is merged with sparse range information in an active manner.By using a projective transform, which is determined by the sparse range data,festures(e.g.edge points)related to a single planar surface patch of figure in the scene can be assignew with their corresponding range values respectively.As a result,the shape of the very planar patch or figure can be recovered and various kinds of description in the Euclidean space can be calculated.Based on these descriptions values,the hypothesis about the identification of the object and its pose in space can be obtained with a high probability of success,and a high efficiency of hypothesis-verification process can be expected.Another advantage of this method is that the edge detection process can be navigated to the proper location hinted by the sparse range image.In consequence edge features can be extracted even in the regions with low contrast.In this paper the principle of range information propagation transform(RIPT)is explained,and some implementation issues,such as the algorithms using calibrated or uncalibrated gray level image for object recognition,are discussed.The preliminary experimental results are presented to indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. A database for propagation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Choung

    1993-08-01

    The NASA Propagation Program supports academic research that models various propagation phenomena in the space research frequency bands. NASA supports such research via school and institutions prominent in the field. The products of such efforts are particularly useful for researchers in the field of propagation phenomena and telecommunications systems engineers. The systems engineer usually needs a few propagation parameter values for a system design. Published literature on the subject, such as the Cunsultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) publications, may help somewhat, but often times, the parameter values given in such publications use a particular set of conditions which may not quite include the requirements of the system design. The systems engineer must resort to programming the propagation phenomena model of interest and to obtain the parameter values to be used in the project. Furthermore, the researcher in the propagation field must then program the propagation models either to substantiate the model or to generate a new model. The researcher or the systems engineer must either be a skillful computer programmer or hire a programmer, which of course increases the cost of the effort. An increase in cost due to the inevitable programming effort may seem particularly inappropriate if the data generated by the experiment is to be used to substantiate the already well-established models, or a slight variation thereof. To help researchers and the systems engineers, it was recommended by the participants of NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) 15 held in London, Ontario, Canada on 28-29 June 1991, that propagation software should be constructed which will contain models and prediction methods of most propagation phenomenon. Moreover, the software should be flexible enough for the user to make slight changes to the models without expending a substantial effort in programming.

  19. Topology optimization of vibration and wave propagation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    The method of topology optimization is a versatile method to determine optimal material layouts in mechanical structures. The method relies on, in principle, unlimited design freedom that can be used to design materials, structures and devices with significantly improved performance and sometimes...... novel functionality. This paper addresses basic issues in simulation and topology design of vibration and wave propagation problems. Steady-state and transient wave propagation problems are addressed and application examples for both cases are presented....

  20. Coherence properties of light propagated through a scattering medium

    CERN Document Server

    Aruldoss, C K; Nugent, K A; Roberts, A

    2007-01-01

    Partially-coherent, quasi-monochromatic optical fields are fully described by their Mutual Optical Intensity (MOI) or the phase-space equivalent, the Generalised Radiance (GR). This paper reports on the application of a propagation-based phase-space tomographic technique for determining both the MOI and the GR of wavefields. This method is applied to the reconstruction of the MOI and the GR of an optical wavefield propagated through a suspension of \\~10micrometre diameter polystyrene spheres.

  1. Local structure of self-affine sets

    CERN Document Server

    Bandt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a self-similar set with open set condition does not change under magnification. For self-affine sets the situation is completely different. We consider planar self-affine Cantor sets E of the type studied by Bedford, McMullen, Gatzouras and Lalley, for which the projection onto the horizontal axis is an interval. We show that within small square neighborhoods of almost each point x in E, with respect to many product measures on address space, E is well approximated by product sets of an interval and a Cantor set. Even though E is totally disconnected, the limit sets have the product structure with interval fibres, reminiscent to the view of attractors of chaotic differentiable dynamical systems.

  2. Fractional Calculus in Wave Propagation Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Fractional calculus, in allowing integrals and derivatives of any positive order (the term "fractional" kept only for historical reasons), can be considered a branch of mathematical physics which mainly deals with integro-differential equations, where integrals are of convolution form with weakly singular kernels of power law type. In recent decades fractional calculus has won more and more interest in applications in several fields of applied sciences. In this lecture we devote our attention to wave propagation problems in linear viscoelastic media. Our purpose is to outline the role of fractional calculus in providing simplest evolution processes which are intermediate between diffusion and wave propagation. The present treatment mainly reflects the research activity and style of the author in the related scientific areas during the last decades.

  3. Terahertz polariton propagation in patterned materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Nikolay S; Ward, David W; Feurer, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A

    2002-10-01

    Generation and control of pulsed terahertz-frequency radiation have received extensive attention, with applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging and ultrahigh-bandwidth electro-optic signal processing. Terahertz 'polaritonics', in which terahertz lattice waves called phonon-polaritons are generated, manipulated and visualized with femtosecond optical pulses, offers prospects for an integrated solid-state platform for terahertz signal generation and guidance. Here, we extend terahertz polaritonics methods to patterned structures. We demonstrate femtosecond laser fabrication of polaritonic waveguide structures in lithium tantalate and lithium niobate crystals, and illustrate polariton focusing into, and propagation within, the fabricated waveguide structures. We also demonstrate a 90 degrees turn within a structure consisting of two waveguides and a reflecting face, as well as a structure consisting of splitting and recombining elements that can be used as a terahertz Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The structures permit integrated terahertz signal generation, propagation through waveguide-based devices, and readout within a single solid-state platform.

  4. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  5. Improved Generalized Belief Propagation for Vision Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized belief propagation (GBP is a region-based belief propagation algorithm which can get good convergence in Markov random fields. However, the computation time is too heavy to use in practical engineering applications. This paper proposes a method to accelerate the efficiency of GBP. A caching technique and chessboard passing strategy are used to speed up algorithm. Then, the direction set method which is used to reduce the complexity of computing clique messages from quadric to cubic. With such a strategy the processing speed can be greatly increased. Besides, it is the first attempt to apply GBP for solving the stereomatching problem. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can speed up by 15+ times for typical stereo matching problem and infer a more plausible result.

  6. Inferring network topology via the propagation process

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, An

    2013-01-01

    Inferring the network topology from the dynamics is a fundamental problem with wide applications in geology, biology and even counter-terrorism. Based on the propagation process, we present a simple method to uncover the network topology. The numerical simulation on artificial networks shows that our method enjoys a high accuracy in inferring the network topology. We find the infection rate in the propagation process significantly influences the accuracy, and each network is corresponding to an optimal infection rate. Moreover, the method generally works better in large networks. These finding are confirmed in both real social and nonsocial networks. Finally, the method is extended to directed networks and a similarity measure specific for directed networks is designed.

  7. 圆盘制曲机在根霉曲生产上的应用研究%Application of Disc Rhizopus Propagation Machine in the Production of Rhizopus Starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喆; 贺友安; 汪陈平; 杨生智; 张磊; 杨强; 刘源才

    2016-01-01

    The application of disc Rhizopus propagation machine in the production of Rhizopus starter was studied. The production technical pa-rameters were determined as follows:5000 kg raw materials mixed with 150 kg yeast with the addition of 1600 L water, then the mixed raw ma-terials temperature kept at 28~31℃, and then static incubation in the disc lasted for 14~18 h at 28~31℃with the humidity of 70%~90%and room temperature between 28℃and 32℃, after the caking of hypha, starter turned over and static incubation continued for 18~20 h with product temperature maintained from 32℃ to 34℃and room humidity maintained from 60%~80%, as the temperature of the product dropped to 30℃, the incubation ended. The saccharifying power of the produced starter was 33.2g/100 g,1.4 g/100 g higher than that produced by shallow tray Rhizopus propagation machine.%研究了圆盘制曲机在根霉曲生产上的应用,确定了生产工艺参数:物料5000 kg,加水1600 L,加种曲150 kg,拌匀,入圆盘制曲机。入圆盘时物料品温28~31℃,静置培养14~18 h,室温维持在28~32℃之间,湿度维持在70%~90%,待菌丝结块后翻曲,继续通风培养18~20 h,品温维持在32~34℃之间,室内湿度维持在60%~80%,待品温降至30℃左右时结束培养,制得成品曲的糖化力为33.2 g/100 g,比浅盘培养根霉曲糖化力高1.4 g/100 g。

  8. Thermodynamics. Using Affinities to define reversible processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, Hernán A

    2016-01-01

    In this article a definition of reversible processes in terms of differences in intensive Thermodynamics properties (Affinities) is proposed. This definition makes it possible to both define reversible processes before introducing the concept of entropy and avoid the circularity problem that follows from the Clausius definition of entropy changes. The convenience of this new definition compared to those commonly found in textbooks is demonstrated with examples.

  9. Couplings in Affine Toda Field Theories

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    We present a systematic derivation for a general formula for the n-point coupling constant valid for affine Toda theories related to any simple Lie algebra {\\bf g}. All n-point couplings with $n \\geq 4$ are completely determined in terms of the masses and the three-point couplings. A general fusing rule, formulated in the root space of the Lie algebra, is derived for all n-point couplings.

  10. Mepanipyrim haptens and antibodies with nanomolar affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Turrillas, Francesc Albert; Mercader Badia, Josep Vicent; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad Somovilla, Antonio; Abad Fuentes, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Mepanipyrim is an anilinopyrimidine fungicide used worldwide for crop protection. With the aim of developing useful immunoreagents for mepanipyrim immunoanalysis, two new functionalized derivatives were prepared and antibodies were generated. Affinity and specificity were assessed by direct and indirect competitive ELISA using homologous and heterologous conjugates. Although all antibodies were selective for the target analyte, the immunizing hapten structure was revealed as a determinant for...

  11. Folding defect affine Toda field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, C

    2013-01-01

    A folding process is applied to fused a^(1)_r defects to construct defects for the non-simply laced affi?ne Toda ?field theories of c^(1)_n, d^(2)_n and a^(2)_n at the classical level. Support for the hypothesis that these defects are integrable in the folded theories is provided by the observation that transmitted solitons retain their form. Further support is given by the demonstration that energy and momentum are conserved.

  12. AFFINE TRANSFORMATION IN RANDOM ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勇; 史定华

    2001-01-01

    Random iterated function systems (IFSs) is discussed, which is one of the methods for fractal drawing. A certain figure can be reconstructed by a random IFS. One approach is presented to determine a new random IFS, that the figure reconstructed by the new random IFS is the image of the origin figure reconstructed by old IFS under a given affine transformation. Two particular examples are used to show this approach.

  13. Study on CCR5 analogs and affinity peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingping; Deng, Riqiang; Wu, Wenyan

    2012-03-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor of human chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a key target in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection process due to its major involvement in binding to the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 and facilitating virus entry into the cells. The identification of naturally occurring CCR5 mutations (especially CCR5 delta-32) has allowed us to address the CCR5 molecule as a promising target to prevent or resist HIV infection in vivo. To obtain high-affinity peptides that can be used to block CCR5, CCR5 analogs with high conformational similarity are required. In this study, two recombinant proteins named CCR5 N-Linker-E2 and CCR5 mN-E1-E2 containing the fragments of the CCR5 N-terminal, the first extracellular loop or the second extracellular loop are cloned from a full-length human CCR5 cDNA. The recombinant human CCR5 analogs with self-cleavage activity of the intein Mxe or Ssp in the vector pTwinI were then produced with a high-yield expression and purification system in Escherichia coli. Experiments of extracellular epitope-activity identification (such as immunoprecipitation and indirective/competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) confirmed the close similarity between the epitope activity of the CCR5 analogs and that of the natural CCR5, suggesting the applicability of the recombinant CCR5 analogs as antagonists of the chemokine ligands. Subsequent screening of high-affinity peptides from the phage random-peptides library acquired nine polypeptides, which could be used as CCR5 peptide antagonists. The CCR5 analogs and affinity peptides elucidated in this paper provide us with a basis for further study of the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 infection.

  14. Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pradip D

    2006-01-01

    The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field.

  15. Laser beam propagation generation and propagation of customized light

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    ""The text is easy to read and is accompanied by beautiful illustrations. It is an excellent book for anyone working in laser beam propagation and an asset for any library.""-Optics & Photonics News, July 2014

  16. Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.

  17. The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...

  18. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions.

  19. Experimental investigation of streamer affinity for dielectric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, D.J.M.; Nijdam, S.; Akkermans, G.; Plompen, I.; Christen, T.; Ebert, U.

    2015-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces using stroboscopic imaging and stereo photography. Affinity of streamers for dielectric surfaces was found to depend on a wide set of parameters, including pressure, voltage, dielectric material and di

  20. TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Marchuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

  1. Radial propagators and Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S; Leupold, Stefan; Weigert, Heribert

    1996-01-01

    We present a relation which connects the propagator in the radial (Fock-Schwinger) gauge with a gauge invariant Wilson loop. It is closely related to the well-known field strength formula and can be used to calculate the radial gauge propagator. The result is shown to diverge in four-dimensional space even for free fields, its singular nature is however naturally explained using the renormalization properties of Wilson loops with cusps and self-intersections. Using this observation we provide a consistent regularization scheme to facilitate loop calculations. Finally we compare our results with previous approaches to derive a propagator in Fock-Schwinger gauge.

  2. Visual attitude propagation for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawashdeh, Samir A.

    As electronics become smaller and more capable, it has become possible to conduct meaningful and sophisticated satellite missions in a small form factor. However, the capability of small satellites and the range of possible applications are limited by the capabilities of several technologies, including attitude determination and control systems. This dissertation evaluates the use of image-based visual attitude propagation as a compliment or alternative to other attitude determination technologies that are suitable for miniature satellites. The concept lies in using miniature cameras to track image features across frames and extracting the underlying rotation. The problem of visual attitude propagation as a small satellite attitude determination system is addressed from several aspects: related work, algorithm design, hardware and performance evaluation, possible applications, and on-orbit experimentation. These areas of consideration reflect the organization of this dissertation. A "stellar gyroscope" is developed, which is a visual star-based attitude propagator that uses relative motion of stars in an imager's field of view to infer the attitude changes. The device generates spacecraft relative attitude estimates in three degrees of freedom. Algorithms to perform the star detection, correspondence, and attitude propagation are presented. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) approach is applied to the correspondence problem to successfully pair stars across frames while mitigating falsepositive and false-negative star detections. This approach provides tolerance to the noise levels expected in using miniature optics and no baffling, and the noise caused by radiation dose on orbit. The hardware design and algorithms are validated using test images of the night sky. The application of the stellar gyroscope as part of a CubeSat attitude determination and control system is described. The stellar gyroscope is used to augment a MEMS gyroscope attitude propagation

  3. Innate immunity probed by lipopolysaccharides affinity strategy and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Chiara; Colarusso, Lucia; Lanzetta, Rosa; Molinaro, Antonio; Pucci, Piero; Amoresano, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are ubiquitous and vital components of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to play a relevant role in the induction of the immune-system response. In animal and plant cells, innate immune defenses toward microorganisms are triggered by the perception of pathogen associated molecular patterns. These are conserved and generally indispensable microbial structures such as LPSs that are fundamental in the Gram-negative immunity recognition. This paper reports the development of an integrated strategy based on lipopolysaccharide affinity methodology that represents a new starting point to elucidate the molecular mechanisms elicited by bacterial LPS and involved in the different steps of innate immunity response. Biotin-tagged LPS was immobilized on streptavidin column and used as a bait in an affinity capture procedure to identify protein partners from human serum specifically interacting with this effector. The complex proteins/lipopolysaccharide was isolated and the protein partners were fractionated by gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. This procedure proved to be very effective in specifically binding proteins functionally correlated with the biological role of LPS. Proteins specifically bound to LPS essentially gathered within two functional groups, regulation of the complement system (factor H, C4b, C4BP, and alpha 2 macroglobulin) and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation (HRG and Apolipoproteins). The reported strategy might have important applications in the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in the LPSs-mediated molecular recognition and anti-infection responses.

  4. 01-ERD-111 - The Development of Synthetic High Affinity Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Balhorn, R; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F; Zeller, L

    2004-02-05

    The aim of this project was to develop Synthetic High-Affinity Ligands (SHALs), which bind with high affinity and specificity to proteins of interest for national security and cancer therapy applications. The aim of producing synthetic ligands for sensory devices as an alternative to antibody-based detection assays and therapeutic agents is to overcome the drawbacks associated with antibody-based in next-generation sensors and systems. The focus area of the project was the chemical synthesis of the SHALs. The project concentrated on two different protein targets. (a) The C fragment of tetanus and botulinum toxin, potential biowarfare agents. A SHAL for tetanus or botulinum toxin would be incorporated into a sensory device for the toxins. (b) HLA-DR10, a protein found in high abundance on the surface of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. A SHAL specific to a tumor marker, labeled with a radionuclide, would enable the targeted delivery of radiation therapy to metastatic disease. The technical approach used to develop a SHAL for each protein target will be described in more detail below. However, in general, the development of a SHAL requires a combination of computational modeling techniques, modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and synthetic chemistry.

  5. Purification of coagulation factor VIII by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Estela S; Verinaud, Claudia I; Oliveira, Douglas S; Raw, Isaías; Lopes, Alexandre P Y; Martins, Elizabeth A L; Cheng, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein that plays an essential role in blood coagulation cascade. Purification of plasma-derived coagulation FVIII by direct application of plasma to a chromatographic column is a method of choice. Anion exchange column is a very powerful method because FVIII is strongly adsorbed, resulting in good activity recovery and high purification factor. However, vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors coelute with FVIII. In the present study, we report the separation of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation proteins from FVIII using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Cu(2+) as the metal ligand. Plasma was directly loaded to a Q Sepharose Big Beads column, and FVIII was recovered with 65% activity and a purification factor of approximately 50 times. Then, the Q Sepharose eluate was applied to the IMAC-Cu(2+) column, and FVIII was eluted with 200 mM imidazole, with up to 85% recovery of activity. The mass recovery in this fraction was less than 10% of the applied mass of protein. Vitamin-K-dependent proteins elute with imidazole concentrations of lower than 60 mM. Because of the difference in affinity, FVIII could be completely separated from the vitamin-K-dependent proteins in the IMAC column.

  6. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. Spatial model of affinity maturation in germinal centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesmir, C.; Boer, R.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Affinity maturation of humoral responses to T-cell-dependent antigens occurs in germinal centers (GC). In GCs antigen-specific B cells undergo rounds of somatic mutations that alter their affinity. High-affinity mutants take over GCs very soon after they appear; the replacement rate is as high as 4

  8. Affine Structures on a Ringed Space and Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwen AN

    2011-01-01

    The author first introduces the notion of affine structures on a ringed space and then obtains several related properties. Affine structures on a ringed space, arising from complex analytical spaces of algebraic schenes, behave like differential structures on a smooth nanifold.As one does for differential manifolds, pseudogroups of affine transformations are used to define affine atlases on a ringed space. An atlas on a space is said to be an affine structure if it is maximal. An affine structure is said to be admissible if there is a sheaf on the underlying space such that they are coincide on all affine charts, which are in deed affine open sets of a scheme. In a rigour manner, a scheme is defined to be a ringed space with a specified affine structure if the affine structures make a contribution to the cases such as analytical spaces of algebraic schemes. Particularly, by the whole of affine structures on a pace, two necessary and sufficient conditions, that two spaces are homeomorphic and that two schemes are isomorphic, coming from the main theorems of the paper, are obtained respectively. A conclusion is drawn that the whole of affine structures on a space and a scheme, as local data, encode and reflect the global properties of the space and the scheme,respectively.

  9. Glycation of the high affinity NGF-receptor and RAGE leads to reduced ligand affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennmann, Dorit; Kannicht, Christoph; Fisseau, Claudine; Jacobs, Kathleen; Navarette-Santos, Alexander; Hofmann, Britt; Horstkorte, Rüdiger

    2015-09-01

    AGEs are posttranslational modifications generated by irreversible non-enzymatic crosslinking reactions between sugars and proteins - a reaction referred to as glycation. Glycation, a feature of ageing, can lead to non-degradable and less functional proteins and enzymes and can additionally induce inflammation and further pathophysiological processes such as neurodegeneration. In this study we investigated the influence of glycation on the high affinity NGF-receptor TrkA and the AGE-receptor RAGE. We quantified the binding affinity of the TrkA-receptor and RAGE to their ligands by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and compared these to the binding affinity after glycation. At the same time, we established a glycation procedure using SPR. We found that glycation of TrkA reduced the affinity to NGF by a factor of three, which could be shown to lead to a reduction of NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Glycation of RAGE reduced binding affinity of AGEs by 10-fold.

  10. Functionalised ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) membranes for affinity protein separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Sager, W.F.C.; Wessling, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrophilic microfiltration membranes with functional groups that can be used as coupling sites for ligands are of central interest in affinity separation, especially in view of biomedical applications. In this study we investigate covalent coupling of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model ligand onto

  11. On global controllability of affine nonlinear systems with a triangular-like structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of affine nonlinear systems with a triangular-like structure and present its necessary and sufficient condition for global controllability,by using the techniques developed by Sun Yimin and Guo Lei recently.Furthermore,we will give two examples to illustrate its application.

  12. Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan

    1997-01-01

    Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.

  13. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie

    2013-04-23

    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  14. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  15. Propagation engineering in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the basic principles for understanding radio wave propagation for common frequency bands used in radio-communications. This includes achievements and developments in propagation models for wireless communication. This book is intended to bridge the gap between the theoretical calculations and approaches to the applied procedures needed for radio links design in a proper manner. The authors emphasize propagation engineering by giving fundamental information and explain the use of basic principles together with technical achievements. This new edition includes additional information on radio wave propagation in guided media and technical issues for fiber optics cable networks with several examples and problems. This book also includes a solution manual - with 90 solved examples distributed throughout the chapters - and 158 problems including practical values and assumptions.

  16. Ultra High Energy Nuclei Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ultra high energy nuclei propagation in astrophysical backgrounds. We present a new analytical computation scheme based on the hypothesis of continuos energy losses in a kinetic formulation of the particles propagation. This scheme enables the computation of the fluxes of ultra high energy nuclei as well as the fluxes of secondaries (nuclei and nucleons) produced by the process of photo-disintegration suffered by nuclei.

  17. 圆盘制曲机在制备黄酒纯种麦曲过程中的应用%Application of disk starter propagation machine in the production of rice-wine pure wheat Qu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 蒋启海; 傅勤峰; 许仁仁; 张云青; 余凡涛

    2011-01-01

    对利用圆盘制曲机制备黄酒纯种麦曲进行了研究.生产实践表明,麦片投料5000kg,接种量21.25kg,洒水量1400kg,静止培养12h,温度和湿度分别控制在30℃~37℃和100%,通风培养36h,温度和湿度分别控制在37℃~40℃和100%~95%,培养期间共翻曲3次,制得的成品纯种麦曲的糖化力稳定保持在1030mg/(g·h)以上,液化力、含水量和酸度也均符合优良标准,满足了机械化黄酒酿造的实际需要.%The application of disk starter propagation machine in the production of rice-wine pure wheat Qu was studied. The production practice suggested that the saccharification capacity of pure wheat Qu could keep above 1030mg/(g*h) when the following technology was used: 5000kg wheat, 21.25kg inoculum and 1400kg cold boiled water were mixed for 12h static incubation at 30

  18. Metric-affine gravitation theory and superpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachetta, G.; Mangiarotti, L.; Saltarelli, A. [Camerino, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Fisica

    1997-05-01

    They consider a metric-affine theory of gravity in which the dynamical fields are the Lorentzian metrics and the non-symmetric linear connections on the worked manifold X. Working with a Lagrangian density which is invariant under general covariant transformations and using standard tools of the calculus of variations, they study the corresponding currents. They find that the superpotential takes a nice form involving the torsion of the linear connection in a simple way and generalizing the well-known Komar superpotential. A feature of our approach is the use of the Poincare`-Cartan form in relation to the first variational formula of the calculus of variations.

  19. Affinity chromatography with an immobilized RNA enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Vioque, A; Altman, S

    1986-01-01

    M1 RNA, the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli RNase P, has been covalently linked at its 3' terminus to agarose beads. Unlike M1 RNA, which is active in solution in the absence of the protein component (C5) of RNase P, the RNA linked to the beads is active only in the presence of C5 protein. Affinity chromatography of crude extracts of E. coli on a column prepared from the beads to which the RNA has been crosslinked results in the purification of C5 protein in a single step. The protein h...

  20. Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi

    2007-01-01

    By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.

  1. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  2. Affine Fullerene C60 in a GS-Quasigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Volenec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It will be shown that the affine fullerene C60, which is defined as an affine image of buckminsterfullerene C60, can be obtained only by means of the golden section. The concept of the affine fullerene C60 will be constructed in a general GS-quasigroup using the statements about the relationships between affine regular pentagons and affine regular hexagons. The geometrical interpretation of all discovered relations in a general GS-quasigroup will be given in the GS-quasigroup C(1/2(1+5.

  3. Constraint Propagation for Extended First-Order Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Wittocx, Johan; Bruynooghe, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Constraint propagation is one of the basic forms of inference in many logic-based reasoning systems. In this paper, we investigate constraint propagation for first-order logic (FO), a suitable language to express a wide variety of constraints. We present an algorithm with polynomial time data-complexity for constraint propagation in the context of an FO theory and a finite structure. We show that constraint propagation in this manner can be represented by a datalog program and that the algorithm can be executed symbolically, i.e., independent of a finite structure. Next, we extend the algorithm to an extension of FO with inductive definitions and aggregates. Finally, we discuss several applications.

  4. Propagation dynamics of vortices in Helico-Conical optical beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bareza, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    We present the dynamics of optical vortices (OVs) that came from the propagation of helico-conical optical beam. This dynamics is investigated numerically by tracking the OVs at several distances using rigorous scalar diffraction theory. To ensure that our numerical calculations are correct, we compare the intensity profiles and their corresponding interferograms taken at different propagation distances between simulations and experiments. We observe that the peripheral isopolar vortices transport radially inward, toward the optical axis along the transverse spatial space as the beam propagates. When the beam has a central vortex, these vortices have significant induced angular rates of motion about the optical axis. These propagation dynamics of vortices influence the internal energy flow and the wave profile reconstruction of the beam, which can be important when deciding their applications.

  5. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  6. FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION THROUGH AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bubenko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron (ADI has a wide range of application, particularly for castings used in automotive and earth moving machinery industries. These components are usually subjected to variable dynamic loading that may promote initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks up to final fracture. Thus, it is important to determine the fatigue crack propagation behavior of ADI. Since fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN vs. stress intensity factor K data describe fatigue crack propagation resistance and fatigue durability of structural materials, da/dN vs. Ka curves of ADI 1050 are reported here. The threshold amplitude of stress intensity factor Kath is also determined. Finally, the influence of stress intensity factor amplitude to the character of fatigue crack propagation through the ADI microstructure is described.

  7. Probing the interactions between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules by affinity capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chenchen; Li, Hengye; Wang, Heye; Liu, Zhen

    2013-02-19

    The affinity of boronic acids to cis-diol-containing biomolecules has found wide applications in many fields, such as sensing, separation, drug delivery, and functional materials. A sound understanding of the binding interactions will greatly facilitate exquisite applications of this chemistry. Although a few analytical tools have been available for the characterization of the interactions, these techniques are associated with some apparent drawbacks, so they are only applicable to a limited range of boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules. Therefore, a widely applicable method is still greatly needed. In this work, an affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method was established and validated to probe the interactions between boronic acids and cis-diol-containing biomolecules. The method was proven to be applicable to almost all types of cis-diol-containing biomolecules and boronic acids. Based on this method, a quantitative, comparative study on the interactions between 14 boronic acids that have important potentials for application with 5 typical monosaccharides of biological importance was carried out. The findings provided new insights into boronate affinity interactions, particularly the relationship between the binding strength with the molecular structures of the binding species. Besides, effects of pH and temperature on the binding strength were also investigated. This method exhibited several significant advantages, including (1) possibility of simultaneous study of multiple interactions, (2) low requirement on the purity of the binding species, (3) wide applicability, and (4) high accuracy and precision.

  8. Infrared propagator corrections for constant deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T M; Miao, S P; Prokopec, T [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu

    2008-12-21

    We derive the propagator for a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a D-dimensional, spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic background with arbitrary constant deceleration parameter. Our construction uses the operator formalism by integrating the Fourier mode sum. We give special attention to infrared corrections from the nonzero lower limit associated with working on finite spatial sections. These corrections eliminate infrared divergences that would otherwise be incorrectly treated by dimensional regularization, resulting in off-coincidence divergences for those special values of the deceleration parameter at which the infrared divergence is logarithmic. As an application we compute the expectation value of the scalar stress-energy tensor.

  9. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R; Yao, J Q; Xu, D G; Wang, J L; Wang, P, E-mail: wangran19861014@163.com [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Institute of Laser and Opto-electronics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  10. Calculations on Lie Algebra of the Group of Affine Symplectomorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhier Altawallbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We find the image of the affine symplectic Lie algebra gn from the Leibniz homology HL⁎(gn to the Lie algebra homology H⁎Lie(gn. The result shows that the image is the exterior algebra ∧⁎(wn generated by the forms wn=∑i=1n(∂/∂xi∧∂/∂yi. Given the relevance of Hochschild homology to string topology and to get more interesting applications, we show that such a map is of potential interest in string topology and homological algebra by taking into account that the Hochschild homology HH⁎-1(U(gn is isomorphic to H⁎-1Lie(gn,U(gnad. Explicitly, we use the alternation of multilinear map, in our elements, to do certain calculations.

  11. Modified gravity in three dimensional metric-affine scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rubiera-Garcia, D

    2015-01-01

    We consider metric-affine scenarios where a modified gravitational action is sourced by electrovacuum fields in a three dimensional space-time. Such scenarios are supported by the physics of crystalline structures with microscopic defects and, in particular, those that can be effectively treated as bi-dimensional (like graphene). We first study the case of $f(R)$ theories, finding deviations near the center as compared to the solutions of General Relativity. We then consider Born-Infeld gravity, which has raised a lot of interest in the last few years regarding its applications in astrophysics and cosmology, and show that new features always arise at a finite distance from the center. Several properties of the resulting space-times, in particular in presence of a cosmological constant term, are discussed.

  12. Affinity sensor based on immobilized molecular imprinted synthetic recognition elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenain, Pieterjan; De Saeger, Sarah; Mattiasson, Bo; Hedström, Martin

    2015-07-15

    An affinity sensor based on capacitive transduction was developed to detect a model compound, metergoline, in a continuous flow system. This system simulates the monitoring of low-molecular weight organic compounds in natural flowing waters, i.e. rivers and streams. During operation in such scenarios, control of the experimental parameters is not possible, which poses a true analytical challenge. A two-step approach was used to produce a sensor for metergoline. Submicron spherical molecularly imprinted polymers, used as recognition elements, were obtained through emulsion polymerization and subsequently coupled to the sensor surface by electropolymerization. This way, a robust and reusable sensor was obtained that regenerated spontaneously under the natural conditions in a river. Small organic compounds could be analyzed in water without manipulating the binding or regeneration conditions, thereby offering a viable tool for on-site application.

  13. Structure-based design and synthesis of a bivalent iminobiotin analog showing strong affinity toward a low immunogenic streptavidin mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawato, Tatsuya; Mizohata, Eiichi; Shimizu, Yohei; Meshizuka, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Takasu, Noriaki; Matsuoka, Masahiro; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Kanai, Motomu; Doi, Hirofumi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The streptavidin/biotin interaction has been widely used as a useful tool in research fields. For application to a pre-targeting system, we previously developed a streptavidin mutant that binds to an iminobiotin analog while abolishing affinity for natural biocytin. Here, we design a bivalent iminobiotin analog that shows 1000-fold higher affinity than before, and determine its crystal structure complexed with the mutant protein.

  14. Extraction of haemoglobin from human blood by affinity precipitation using a haptoglobin-based stimuli-responsive affinity macroligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker-Majd, Gisela; Hilbrig, Frank; Freitag, Ruth

    2008-06-13

    Affinity precipitation was compared to affinity chromatography and batch adsorption as the final purification step in a protocol for the isolation of haemoglobin from human blood. Haptoglobin was the affinity ligand. The first steps on the process were realized by traditional methods (lyses of red blood cells followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation). For affinity chromatography (and batch adsorption) the ligand was linked to Sepharose, for affinity precipitation to a thermoresponsive polymer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Five haptoglobin-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) bioconjugates (affinity macroligands) were constructed with different polymer: haptoglobin-coupling ratios. Conjugation of haptoglobin to the soluble poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) apparently does not change the interaction thermodynamics with haemoglobin, as the haemoglobin binding constants calculated by a Scatchard analysis for the affinity macroligand were of the same order of magnitude as those described in the literature for the haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex in solution. Two elution protocols were used for haemoglobin release from the various affinity materials, one at pH 2, the other with 5 M urea at pH 11. Both affinity chromatography and affinity precipitation yielded a pure haemoglobin of high quality. Compared to the affinity chromatography, affinity precipitation showed a significantly higher ligand efficiency (ratio of the experimental capacity to the theoretical one). The method thus makes better use of the expensive affinity ligands. As affinity precipitation only requires small temperature changes to bring about precipitation/redissolution of the affinity complexes and a centrifugation step for recovery of the precipitate, the method in addition has advantages in term of scalability and simplicity.

  15. Affine Maps of the Polarization Vector for Quantum Systems of Arbitrary Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, Mark S; Ou, Yong-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The operator-sum decomposition (OS) of a mapping from one density matrix to another has many applications in quantum information science. To this mapping there corresponds an affine map which provides a geometric description of the density matrix in terms of the polarization vector representation. This has been thoroughly explored for qubits since the components of the polarization vector are measurable quantities (corresponding to expectation values of Hermitian operators) and also because it enables the description of map domains geometrically. Here we extend the OS-affine map correspondence to qudits, briefly discuss general properties of the map, the form for particular important cases, and provide several explicit results for qutrit maps. We use the affine map and a singular-value-like decomposition, to find positivity constraints that provide a symmetry for small polarization vector magnitudes (states which are closer to the maximally mixed state) which is broken as the polarization vector increases in ...

  16. Spherical functions on affine Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, P; Kirillov, A A; Pavel Etingof; Igor Frenkel; Alexander Kirillov Jr

    1994-01-01

    We show that the space of holomorphic functions of a fixed degree on an affine Lie group which take values in a finite-dimensional representation of this group and are equivariant with respect to (twisted) conjugacy coin- cides with the space of conformal blocks of the Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory on an elliptic curve with punctures, or, equivalently,with the space of states of the Chern-Simons topological field theory in genus 1. This provides a group-theoretic realization of the Segal modular functor for elliptic curves. We also show that the the radial part of the second order Laplace operator on an affine Lie group acting in the space of equivariant functions coincides with the operator defining the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection on conformal blocks on elliptic curves, and its eigenfunctions coincide with the correlation functions of conformal blocks. At the critical value of the degree (minus the dual Coxeter number of the underlying simple Lie algebra) there exist higher order Laplace op...

  17. Affine Mirkovi\\'c-Vilonen polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Pierre; Tingley, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Each integrable lowest weight representation of a symmetrizable Kac-Moody Lie algebra g has a crystal in the sense of Kashiwara, which describes its combinatorial properties. For a given g, there is a limit crystal, usually denoted by B(-\\infty), which contains all the other crystals. When g is finite dimensional, a convex polytope, called the Mirkovi\\'c-Vilonen polytope, can be associated to each element in B(-\\infty). This polytope sits in the dual space of a Cartan subalgebra of g, and its edges are parallel to the roots of g. In this paper, we generalize this construction to the case where g is a symmetric affine Kac-Moody algebra. The datum of the polytope must however be complemented by partitions attached to the edges parallel to the imaginary root \\delta. We prove that these decorated polytopes are characterized by conditions on their normal fans and on their 2-faces. In addition, we discuss how our polytopes provide an analog of the notion of Lusztig datum for affine Kac-Moody algebras. Our main tool...

  18. Affine conformal vectors in space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Tupper, B. O. J.

    1992-05-01

    All space-times admitting a proper affine conformal vector (ACV) are found. By using a theorem of Hall and da Costa, it is shown that such space-times either (i) admit a covariantly constant vector (timelike, spacelike, or null) and the ACV is the sum of a proper affine vector and a conformal Killing vector or (ii) the space-time is 2+2 decomposable, in which case it is shown that no ACV can exist (unless the space-time decomposes further). Furthermore, it is proved that all space-times admitting an ACV and a null covariantly constant vector (which are necessarily generalized pp-wave space-times) must have Ricci tensor of Segré type {2,(1,1)}. It follows that, among space-times admitting proper ACV, the Einstein static universe is the only perfect fluid space-time, there are no non-null Einstein-Maxwell space-times, and only the pp-wave space-times are representative of null Einstein-Maxwell solutions. Otherwise, the space-times can represent anisotropic fluids and viscous heat-conducting fluids, but only with restricted equations of state in each case.

  19. Cyclage, catabolism, and the affine Hecke algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Jonah

    2010-01-01

    We identify a subalgebra \\pH_n of the extended affine Hecke algebra \\eH_n of type A. The subalgebra \\pH_n is a \\u-analogue of the monoid algebra of \\S_n \\ltimes \\ZZ_{\\geq 0}^n and inherits a canonical basis from that of \\eH_n. We show that its left cells are naturally labeled by tableaux filled with positive integer entries having distinct residues mod n, which we term \\emph{positive affine tableaux} (PAT). We then exhibit a cellular subquotient \\R_{1^n} of \\pH_n that is a \\u-analogue of the ring of coinvariants \\CC[y_1,...,y_n]/(e_1,...,e_n) with left cells labeled by PAT that are essentially standard Young tableaux with cocharge labels. Multiplying canonical basis elements by a certain element \\pi \\in \\pH_n corresponds to rotations of words, and on cells corresponds to cocyclage. We further show that \\R_{1^n} has cellular quotients \\R_\\lambda that are \\u-analogues of the Garsia-Procesi modules R_\\lambda with left cells labeled by (a PAT version of) the \\lambda-catabolizable tableaux. We give a conjectural d...

  20. Computational protocol for predicting the binding affinities of zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun; Jayaram, B

    2007-06-01

    Zinc is one of the most important metal ions found in proteins performing specific functions associated with life processes. Coordination geometry of the zinc ion in the active site of the metalloprotein-ligand complexes poses a challenge in determining ligand binding affinities accurately in structure-based drug design. We report here an all atom force field based computational protocol for estimating rapidly the binding affinities of zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complexes, considering electrostatics, van der Waals, hydrophobicity, and loss in conformational entropy of protein side chains upon ligand binding along with a nonbonded approach to model the interactions of the zinc ion with all the other atoms of the complex. We examined the sensitivity of the binding affinity predictions to the choice of Lennard-Jones parameters, partial atomic charges, and dielectric treatments adopted for system preparation and scoring. The highest correlation obtained was R2 = 0.77 (r = 0.88) for the predicted binding affinity against the experiment on a heterogenous dataset of 90 zinc containing metalloprotein-ligand complexes consisting of five unique protein targets. Model validation and parameter analysis studies underscore the robustness and predictive ability of the scoring function. The high correlation obtained suggests the potential applicability of the methodology in designing novel ligands for zinc-metalloproteins. The scoring function has been web enabled for free access at www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/drugdesign/bapplz.jsp as BAPPL-Z server (Binding Affinity Prediction of Protein-Ligand complexes containing Zinc metal ions).

  1. 硼酸作为亲和色谱配基的研究进展%Boronic Acids as Ligands for Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓川

    2006-01-01

    A review on the principles and applications of boronic acids as affinity ligands for the chromatographic separation of carbohydrates, nucleic acid components, glycoproteins, and other small biomolecules.The mechanisms of interactions between boronate ligands and analytes are described. Various boronate ligands and supports are discussed. Examples of the use of boronate affinity chromatography for separation of each class of analytes are presented.

  2. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  3. Simulation of sound waves using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for fluid flow: Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-fi

  4. Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Iskender

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions R. Thimothée, C. Chauveau, F. Halter, I Gökalp Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement (ICARE), CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France This paper presents and discusses recent results on two-phase flame propagation experiments we carried out with mono-sized ethanol droplet aerosols under microgravity conditions. Fundamental studies on the flame propagation in fuel droplet clouds or sprays are essential for a better understanding of the combustion processes in many practical applications including internal combustion engines for cars, modern aircraft and liquid rocket engines. Compared to homogeneous gas phase combustion, the presence of a liquid phase considerably complicates the physico-chemical processes that make up combustion phenomena by coupling liquid atomization, droplet vaporization, mixing and heterogeneous combustion processes giving rise to various combustion regimes where ignition problems and flame instabilities become crucial to understand and control. Almost all applications of spray combustion occur under high pressure conditions. When a high pressure two-phase flame propagation is investigated under normal gravity conditions, sedimentation effects and strong buoyancy flows complicate the picture by inducing additional phenomena and obscuring the proper effect of the presence of the liquid droplets on flame propagation compared to gas phase flame propagation. Conducting such experiments under reduced gravity conditions is therefore helpful for the fundamental understanding of two-phase combustion. We are considering spherically propagating two-phase flames where the fuel aerosol is generated from a gaseous air-fuel mixture using the condensation technique of expansion cooling, based on the Wilson cloud chamber principle. This technique is widely recognized to create well-defined mono-size droplets

  5. Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.

  6. Propagation of an ultra intense laser pulse in an under dense plasma: production of quasi monoenergetic electron beams and development of applications; Propagation d'une impulsion laser ultra-intense dans un plasma sous-dense: generation de faisceaux d'electrons quasi monoenergetiques et developpement d'applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinec, Y

    2006-09-15

    This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)

  7. Survey of propagation Model in wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To implementation of mobile ad hoc network wave propagation models are necessary to determine propagation characteristic through a medium. Wireless mobile ad hoc networks are self creating and self organizing entity. Propagation study provides an estimation of signal characteristics. Accurate prediction of radio propagation behaviour for MANET is becoming a difficult task. This paper presents investigation of propagation model. Radio wave propagation mechanisms are absorption, reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering. This paper discuss free space model, two rays model, and cost 231 hata and its variants and fading model, and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these model. This study would be helpful in choosing the correct propagation model.

  8. The FLIC Overlap Quark Propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zhang, J; Kamleh, Waseem; Bowman, Patrick O.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; Zhang, Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    FLIC overlap fermions are a variant of the standard (Wilson) overlap action, with the FLIC (Fat Link Irrelevant Clover) action as the overlap kernel rather than the Wilson action. The structure of the FLIC overlap fermion propagator in momentum space is studied, and a comparison against previous studies of the Wilson overlap propagator in quenched QCD is performed. To explore the scaling properties of the propagator for the two actions, numerical calculations are performed in Landau Gauge across three lattices with different lattice spacing $a$ and similar physical volumes. We find that at light quark masses the acti ons agree in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but at heavier masses some disagreement in the ultraviolet appears. This is attributed to the two action s having different discretisation errors with the FLIC overlap providing superior performance in this regime. Both actions scale reasonably, but some scaling violations are observed.

  9. Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu

    2017-01-23

    Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively.

  10. Gluon propagator with dynamical quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2014-01-01

    We review recent work on the effects of quark loops on the gluon propagator in the Landau gauge, relying mainly on the Schwinger-Dyson equations that describe the two-point sector of QCD. Particularly important in this context is the detailed study of how the standard gluon mass generation mechanism, which is responsible for the infrared finiteness of the quenched gluon propagator, is affected by the inclusions of dynamical quarks. This issue is especially relevant and timely, given the qualitative picture that emerges from recent unquenched lattice simulations. Our results demonstrate clearly that the gluon mass generation persists, and that the corresponding saturation points of the unquenched gluon propagators are progressively suppressed, as the number of quark flavors increases.

  11. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  12. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B.W.

    1987-06-24

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation.

  13. Non-approximated numerical modeling of propagation of light in any state of spatial coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Román; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Due to analytical and numerical difficulties, the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is traditionally computed under severe approximations. The paraxial approach in the Fresnel-Fraunhofer domain is one of the most widely used. These approximations provide a rough knowledge of the actual light behavior as it propagates, which is not enough for supporting applications, such as light propagation under a high numerical aperture (NA). In this paper, a non-approximated model for the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is presented. The method is applicable in very practical cases, as high-NA propagations, because of its simplicity of implementation. This approach allows for studying unaware behaviors of light as it propagates. The light behavior close to the diffracting transmittances can also be analyzed with the aid of the proposed tool.

  14. SIS epidemic propagation on hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bodó, Ágnes; Simon, Péter L

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of epidemic propagation on networks is extended to hypergraphs in order to account for both the community structure and the nonlinear dependence of the infection pressure on the number of infected neighbours. The exact master equations of the propagation process are derived for an arbitrary hypergraph given by its incidence matrix. Based on these, moment closure approximation and mean-?eld models are introduced and compared to individual-based stochastic simulations. The simulation algorithm, developed for networks, is extended to hypergraphs. The e?ects of hypergraph structure and the model parameters are investigated via individual-based simulation results.

  15. Distributed Kalman Filter via Gaussian Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Recent result shows how to compute distributively and efficiently the linear MMSE for the multiuser detection problem, using the Gaussian BP algorithm. In the current work, we extend this construction, and show that operating this algorithm twice on the matching inputs, has several interesting interpretations. First, we show equivalence to computing one iteration of the Kalman filter. Second, we show that the Kalman filter is a special case of the Gaussian information bottleneck algorithm, when the weight parameter $\\beta = 1$. Third, we discuss the relation to the Affine-scaling interior-point method and show it is a special case of Kalman filter. Besides of the theoretical interest of this linking estimation, compression/clustering and optimization, we allow a single distributed implementation of those algorithms, which is a highly practical and important task in sensor and mobile ad-hoc networks. Application to numerous problem domains includes collaborative signal processing and distributed allocation of ...

  16. Dynamic friction of self-affine surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittbuhl, Jean; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Roux, Stéphane

    1994-02-01

    We investigate the velocity dependence of the friction between two rigid blocks limited by a self-affine surface such as the one generated by a crack. The upper solid is subjected either to gravity or to an external elastic stiffness, and is driven horizontally at constant velocity, V, while the lower solid is fixed. For low velocities, the apparent friction coefficient is constant. For high velocities, the apparent friction is shown to display a velocity weakening. The weakening can be related to the variation of the mean contact time due to the occurrence of jumps during the motions. The cross-over between these two regimes corresponds to a characteristic velocity which depends on the geometry of the surfaces and on the mean normal force. In the case of simple gravity loading, the velocity dependence of the apparent friction at high velocities is proportional to 1/V^2 where V is the imposed tangential velocity. In the case of external elastic stiffness, two velocity weakening regimes can be identified, the first is identical to the gravity case with a 1/V^2 dependence, the second appears at higher velocities and is characterized by a 1/V variation. The characteristic velocity of this second cross-over depends on the roughness and the elastic stiffness. The statistical distribution of ballistic flight distances is analysed, and is shown to reveal in all cases the self-affinity of the contacting surfaces. Nous analysons la dépendence en vitesse du frottement entre deux solides limités par une surface rugueuse auto-affine comme celle d'une surface de fracture. Le solide supérieur est soumis soit à la gravité, soit à une raideur élastique externe, et est entraîné à vitesse horizontale constante V sur le solide inférieur fixe. A faible vitesse, le coefficient de friction apparent, est constant. A forte vitesse, le coefficient de friction apparent devient inversement proportionnel à la vitesse. Cette dépendance peut être reliée à la variation du temps

  17. Affine and Projective Tree Metric Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Harel, Matan; Pachter, Lior

    2011-01-01

    The tree metric theorem provides a combinatorial four point condition that characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from pairwise compatible split systems. A similar (but weaker) four point condition characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from circular split systems (Kalmanson metrics). The tree metric theorem was first discovered in the context of phylogenetics and forms the basis of many tree reconstruction algorithms, whereas Kalmanson metrics were first considered by computer scientists, and are notable in that they are a non-trivial class of metrics for which the traveling salesman problem is tractable. We present a unifying framework for these theorems based on combinatorial structures that are used for graph planarity testing. These are (projective) PC-trees, and their affine analogs, PQ-trees. In the projective case, we generalize a number of concepts from clustering theory, including hierarchies, pyramids, ultrametrics and Robinsonian matrices, and the theorems that relate them. As with tree metric...

  18. Automatic gesture analysis using constant affine velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Jenny; Boulanger, Pierre; Pham, Minh Tu; Moreau, Richard; Prieto, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Hand human gesture recognition has been an important research topic widely studied around the world, as this field offers the ability to identify, recognize, and analyze human gestures in order to control devices or to interact with computer interfaces. In particular, in medical training, this approach is an important tool that can be used to obtain an objective evaluation of a procedure performance. In this paper, some obstetrical gestures, acquired by a forceps, were studied with the hypothesis that, as the scribbling and drawing movements, they obey the one-sixth power law, an empirical relationship which connects path curvature, torsion, and euclidean velocity. Our results show that obstetrical gestures have a constant affine velocity, which is different for each type of gesture and based on this idea this quantity is proposed as an appropriate classification feature in the hand human gesture recognition field.

  19. Affine trajectory correction for nonholonomic mobile robots

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, Quang-Cuong

    2011-01-01

    Planning trajectories for nonholonomic systems is difficult and computationally expensive. When facing unexpected events, it may therefore be preferable to deform in some way the initially planned trajectory rather than to re-plan entirely a new one. We suggest here a method based on affine transformations to make such deformations. This method is exact and fast: the deformations and the resulting trajectories can be computed algebraically, in one step, and without any trajectory re-integration. To demonstrate the possibilities offered by this new method, we use it to derive position correction, orientation correction, obstacle avoidance and feedback control algorithms for the general class of planar wheeled robots and for a tridimensional underwater vehicle.

  20. Self-affinity and nonextensivity of sunspots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, M.A., E-mail: mamoret@gmail.com [Programa de Modelagem Computacional, SENAI, Cimatec, Av. Orlando Gomes, 1845, Piatã, 41650-010 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); UNEB, Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, Cabula, 41150-000 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2014-01-24

    In this paper we study the time series of sunspots by using two different approaches, analyzing its self-affine behavior and studying its distribution. The long-range correlation exponent α has been calculated via Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and the power law vanishes to values greater than 11 years. On the other hand, the distribution of the sunspots obeys a q-exponential decay that suggests a non-extensive behavior. This observed characteristic seems to take an alternative interpretation of the sunspots dynamics. The present findings suggest us to propose a dynamic model of sunspots formation based on a nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation. Therefore its dynamic process follows the generalized thermostatistical formalism.

  1. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Khatsymovsky, V M

    2015-01-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the 3-simplices which play a role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4,R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w. r. t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4,R) transformations in...

  2. Cell behavior on gallium nitride surfaces: peptide affinity attachment versus covalent functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Corey M; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-02

    Gallium nitride is a wide band gap semiconductor that demonstrates a unique set of optical and electrical properties as well as aqueous stability and biocompatibility. This combination of properties makes gallium nitride a strong candidate for use in chemical and biological applications such as sensors and neural interfaces. Molecular modification can be used to enhance the functionality and properties of the gallium nitride surface. Here, gallium nitride surfaces were functionalized with a PC12 cell adhesion promoting peptide using covalent and affinity driven attachment methods. The covalent scheme proceeded by Grignard reaction and olefin metathesis while the affinity driven scheme utilized the recognition peptide isolated through phage display. This study shows that the method of attaching the adhesion peptide influences PC12 cell adhesion and differentiation as measured by cell density and morphological analysis. Covalent attachment promoted monolayer and dispersed cell adhesion while affinity driven attachment promoted multilayer cell agglomeration. Higher cell density was observed on surfaces modified using the recognition peptide. The results suggest that the covalent and affinity driven attachment methods are both suitable for promoting PC12 cell adhesion to the gallium nitride surface, though each method may be preferentially suited for distinct applications.

  3. Indefinite Affine Hyperspheres Admitting a Pointwise Symmetry. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Scharlach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An affine hypersurface M is said to admit a pointwise symmetry, if there exists a subgroup G of Aut(T_pM for all p in M, which preserves (pointwise the affine metric h, the difference tensor K and the affine shape operator S. Here, we consider 3-dimensional indefinite affine hyperspheres, i.e. S = HId (and thus S is trivially preserved. In Part 1 we found the possible symmetry groups G and gave for each G a canonical form of K. We started a classification by showing that hyperspheres admitting a pointwise Z_2 × Z_2 resp. R-symmetry are well-known, they have constant sectional curvature and Pick invariant J < 0 resp. J = 0. Here, we continue with affine hyperspheres admitting a pointwise Z_3- or SO(2-symmetry. They turn out to be warped products of affine spheres (Z_3 or quadrics (SO(2 with a curve.

  4. Classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Uhi Rinn, E-mail: uhrisu1@math.snu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, GwanAkRo 1, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we prove classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras (W-superalgebras), which can be constructed in two different ways: via affine classical Hamiltonian reductions and via taking quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-superalgebras. Also, we show that a classical finite W-superalgebra can be obtained by a Zhu algebra of a classical affine W-superalgebra. Using the definition by Hamiltonian reductions, we find free generators of a classical W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent. Moreover, we compute generators of the classical W-algebra associated to spo(2|3) and its principal nilpotent. In the last part of this paper, we introduce a generalization of classical affine W-superalgebras called classical affine fractional W-superalgebras. We show these have Poisson vertex algebra structures and find generators of a fractional W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent.

  5. Finite element modeling of impulsive excitation and shear wave propagation in an incompressible, transversely isotropic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouze, Ned C; Wang, Michael H; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathy R

    2013-11-15

    Elastic properties of materials can be measured by observing shear wave propagation following localized, impulsive excitations and relating the propagation velocity to a model of the material. However, characterization of anisotropic materials is difficult because of the number of elasticity constants in the material model and the complex dependence of propagation velocity relative to the excitation axis, material symmetries, and propagation directions. In this study, we develop a model of wave propagation following impulsive excitation in an incompressible, transversely isotropic (TI) material such as muscle. Wave motion is described in terms of three propagation modes identified by their polarization relative to the material symmetry axis and propagation direction. Phase velocities for these propagation modes are expressed in terms of five elasticity constants needed to describe a general TI material, and also in terms of three constants after the application of two constraints that hold in the limit of an incompressible material. Group propagation velocities are derived from the phase velocities to describe the propagation of wave packets away from the excitation region following localized excitation. The theoretical model is compared to the results of finite element (FE) simulations performed using a nearly incompressible material model with the five elasticity constants chosen to preserve the essential properties of the material in the incompressible limit. Propagation velocities calculated from the FE displacement data show complex structure that agrees quantitatively with the theoretical model and demonstrates the possibility of measuring all three elasticity constants needed to characterize an incompressible, TI material.

  6. PREDICTING RETINOID RECEPTOR BINDING AFFINITY: COREPA-M APPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoic acid and associated vitamin A derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that activate different retinoic acid receptors RARs). Transcriptional events subsequent to this activation are key to controlling several aspects of vertebrate development. As such, identi...

  7. Abacus models for parabolic quotients of affine Weyl groups

    CERN Document Server

    Hanusa, Christopher R H

    2011-01-01

    We introduce abacus diagrams that describe minimal length coset representatives in affine Weyl groups of types B, C, and D. These abacus diagrams use a realization of the affine Weyl group of type C due to Eriksson to generalize a construction of James for the symmetric group. We also describe several combinatorial models for these parabolic quotients that generalize classical results in affine type A related to core partitions.

  8. Surfaces in 4-space from the affine differential geometry viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Florial Espinoza Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we study locally strictly convex surfaces from the affine differential viewpoint and generalize some tools for locally strictly submanifolds of codimension 2. We introduce a family of affine metrics on a locally strictly convex surface M in affine 4-space. Then, we define the symmetric and antisymmetric equiaffine planes associated with each metric. We show that if M is immersed in a locally atrictly convex hyperquadric, then the symmetric and the antisymmetric planes coincid...

  9. Sound propagation through nonuniform ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of determining the transmission and attenuation of sound propagating in nonuniform ducts with and without mean flows are discussed. The approaches reviewed include purely numerical techniques, quasi-one-dimensional approximations, solutions for slowly varying cross sections, solutions for weak wall undulations, approximation of the duct by a series of stepped uniform cross sections, variational methods and solutions for the mode envelopes.

  10. Expectation Propagation for Exponential Families

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This is a tutorial describing the Expectation Propagation (EP) algorithm for a general exponential family. Our focus is on simplicity of exposition. Although the overhead of translating a specific model into its exponential family representation can be considerable, many apparent complications of EP can simply be sidestepped by working in this canonical representation.

  11. Light Front Fermion Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider the propagation of two fermion fields interacting with each other by the exchange of intermediate scalar bosons in the light front.We obtain the corrections up to fourth order in the coupling constant using hierarchical equations in order to obtain the bound state equation (Bethe-Salpeter equation).

  12. Overseas propagation of kiwifruit pollinator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ One year after granting to the Italian firm Kiwigold Consortium the world-wide propagation and commercialization rights of Jintao,a female cultivar plant from the novel variety of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch), the CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG) reached a new agreement with the firm on the similar right of a male plant cultivar Moshan-4.

  13. Propagators in Polymer Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-González, Ernesto; Reyes, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    Polymer Quantum Mechanics is based on some of the techniques used in the loop quantization of gravity that are adapted to describe systems possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom. It has been used in two ways: on one hand it has been used to represent some aspects of the loop quantization in a simpler context, and, on the other, it has been applied to each of the infinite mechanical modes of other systems. Indeed, this polymer approach was recently implemented for the free scalar field propagator. In this work we compute the polymer propagators of the free particle and a particle in a box; amusingly, just as in the non polymeric case, the one of the particle in a box may be computed also from that of the free particle using the method of images. We verify the propagators hereby obtained satisfy standard properties such as: consistency with initial conditions, composition and Green's function character. Furthermore they are also shown to reduce to the usual Schr\\"odinger propagators in the limit of sm...

  14. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, B. W.

    1987-06-01

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity.

  15. Self-Averaging Expectation Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    We investigate the problem of approximate inference using Expectation Propagation (EP) for large systems under some statistical assumptions. Our approach tries to overcome the numerical bottleneck of EP caused by the inversion of large matrices. Assuming that the measurement matrices are realizat...... on a signal recovery problem of compressed sensing and compare with standard EP....

  16. Interactive Sound Propagation using Precomputation and Statistical Approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antani, Lakulish

    Acoustic phenomena such as early reflections, diffraction, and reverberation have been shown to improve the user experience in interactive virtual environments and video games. These effects arise due to repeated interactions between sound waves and objects in the environment. In interactive applications, these effects must be simulated within a prescribed time budget. We present two complementary approaches for computing such acoustic effects in real time, with plausible variation in the sound field throughout the scene. The first approach, Precomputed Acoustic Radiance Transfer, precomputes a matrix that accounts for multiple acoustic interactions between all scene objects. The matrix is used at run time to provide sound propagation effects that vary smoothly as sources and listeners move. The second approach couples two techniques---Ambient Reverberance, and Aural Proxies---to provide approximate sound propagation effects in real time, based on only the portion of the environment immediately visible to the listener. These approaches lie at different ends of a space of interactive sound propagation techniques for modeling sound propagation effects in interactive applications. The first approach emphasizes accuracy by modeling acoustic interactions between all parts of the scene; the second approach emphasizes efficiency by only taking the local environment of the listener into account. These methods have been used to efficiently generate acoustic walkthroughs of architectural models. They have also been integrated into a modern game engine, and can enable realistic, interactive sound propagation on commodity desktop PCs.

  17. Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase Activity by Gnaphalium Affine Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-qing Lin; Jian-xiang Xie; Xiao-mu Wu; Lin Yang; Hai-dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the inhibitory effect of Gnaphalium affine extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vitro and to analyze the mechanism of this effect. Methods In this in vitro study, Kinetic measurements were performed in 4 different inhibitor concentrations and 5 different xanthine concentrations (60, 100, 200, 300, 400 μmol/L). Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis were used to determine Ki values and the inhibition mode for the compounds isolated from Gnaphalium affine extract. Results Four potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors were found in 95% ethanolic (v/v) Gnaphalium affine extract. Among them, the flavone Eupatilin exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on XO with a inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.37μmol/L, lower than the Ki of allopurinol (4.56 mol/L), a known synthetic XO inhibitor. Apigenin (Ki of 0.56μmol/L, a proportion of 0.0053‰in Gnaphalium affine), luteolin (Ki of 2.63 μmol/L, 0.0032‰ in Gnaphalium affine) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone (Ki of 3.15μmol/L, 0.0043‰ in Gnaphalium affine) also contributed to the inhibitory effect of Gnaphalium affine extract on XO activity. Conclusions These results suggest that the use of Gnaphalium affine in the treatment of gout could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on XO. This study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of Gnaphalium affine against gout.

  18. Quantifying high-affinity binding of hydrophobic ligands by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Broecker, Jana; Vargas, Carolyn; Fanghänel, Jörg; Keller, Sandro

    2012-12-18

    A fast and reliable quantification of the binding thermodynamics of hydrophobic high-affinity ligands employing a new calorimetric competition experiment is described. Although isothermal titration calorimetry is the method of choice for a quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions in solution, a reliable determination of a dissociation constant (K(D)) is typically limited to the range 100 μM > K(D) > 1 nM. Interactions displaying higher or lower K(D) values can be assessed indirectly, provided that a suitable competing ligand is available whose K(D) falls within the directly accessible affinity window. This established displacement assay, however, requires the high-affinity ligand to be soluble at high concentrations in aqueous buffer and, consequently, poses serious problems in the study of protein binding involving small-molecule ligands dissolved in organic solvents--a familiar case in many drug-discovery projects relying on compound libraries. The calorimetric competition assay introduced here overcomes this limitation, thus allowing for a detailed thermodynamic description of high-affinity receptor-ligand interactions involving poorly water-soluble compounds. Based on a single titration of receptor into a dilute mixture of the two competing ligands, this competition assay provides accurate and precise values for the dissociation constants and binding enthalpies of both high- and moderate-affinity ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation and high-affinity protein-inhibitor interactions, and explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses.

  19. PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN GRADIENT TRANSMISSION LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterov Iurii Gavriilovitch; Silin Nikolay Vitalievich

    2015-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of transmission lines with smooth continuous spatial distribution of capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of recently developed mathematical model. Strong heterogeneity-induced artificial dispersion is described by means of this model. Reflectance and transmittance spectra are shown on example of different gradient transmission lines. In conclusion, applicability of gradient transmission lines in areas o...

  20. On the development of approximate models for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1998-01-01

    The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound propagation depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive method such as Parabolic Equation methods, FFP methods and Boundary Element Methods all have advantages in certain situations. None of these approaches are at present...