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Sample records for affects water relations

  1. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the w

  2. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  3. Root suberin forms an extracellular barrier that affects water relations and mineral nutrition in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Though central to our understanding of how roots perform their vital function of scavenging water and solutes from the soil, no direct genetic evidence currently exists to support the foundational model that suberin acts to form a chemical barrier limiting the extracellular, or apoplastic, transport of water and solutes in plant roots. Using the newly characterized enhanced suberin1 (esb1 mutant, we established a connection in Arabidopsis thaliana between suberin in the root and both water movement through the plant and solute accumulation in the shoot. Esb1 mutants, characterized by increased root suberin, were found to have reduced day time transpiration rates and increased water-use efficiency during their vegetative growth period. Furthermore, these changes in suberin and water transport were associated with decreases in the accumulation of Ca, Mn, and Zn and increases in the accumulation of Na, S, K, As, Se, and Mo in the shoot. Here, we present direct genetic evidence establishing that suberin in the roots plays a critical role in controlling both water and mineral ion uptake and transport to the leaves. The changes observed in the elemental accumulation in leaves are also interpreted as evidence that a significant component of the radial root transport of Ca, Mn, and Zn occurs in the apoplast.

  4. Water Deficits Affect Caffeate O-Methyltransferase, Lignification, and Related Enzymes in Maize Leaves. A Proteomic Investigation1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Delphine; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Cornic, Gabriel; Negroni, Luc; Zivy, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress affecting all levels of plant organization and, in particular, leaf elongation. Several experiments were designed to study the effect of water deficits on maize (Zea mays) leaves at the protein level by taking into account the reduction of leaf elongation. Proteomic analyses of growing maize leaves allowed us to show that two isoforms of caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) accumulated mostly at 10 to 20 cm from the leaf point of insertion and that drought resulted in a shift of this region of maximal accumulation toward basal regions. We showed that this shift was due to the combined effect of reductions in growth and in total amounts of COMT. Several other enzymes involved in lignin and/or flavonoid synthesis (caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and several isoforms of S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthase and methionine synthase) were highly correlated with COMT, reinforcing the hypothesis that the zone of maximal accumulation corresponds to a zone of lignification. According to the accumulation profiles of the enzymes, lignification increases in leaves of control plants when their growth decreases before reaching their final size. Lignin levels analyzed by thioacidolysis confirmed that lignin is synthesized in the region where we observed the maximal accumulation of these enzymes. Consistent with the levels of these enzymes, we found that the lignin level was lower in leaves of plants subjected to water deficit than in those of well-watered plants. PMID:15728345

  5. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation affects water and carbon relations of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rivera, Laura N; King, John S; Peszlen, Ilona; Hain, Fred; Smith, Benjamin; Frampton, John

    2013-07-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an exotic insect pest causing severe decimation of native hemlock trees. Extensive research has been conducted on the ecological impacts of HWA, but the exact physiological mechanisms that cause mortality are not known. Water relations, anatomy and gas exchange measurements were assessed on healthy and infested eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina (Tsuga caroliniana) hemlock trees. These data were then used in a mechanistic model to test whether the physiological responses to HWA infestation were sufficiently significant to induce changes in whole-plant water use and carbon uptake. The results indicated coordinated responses of functional traits governing water relations in infested relative to healthy trees. In response to HWA, leaf water potential, carbon isotope ratios, plant hydraulic properties and stomatal conductance were affected, inducing a reduction in tree water use by > 40% and gross primary productivity by 25%. Anatomical changes also appeared, including the activation of traumatic cells. HWA infestation had a direct effect on plant water relations. Despite some leaf compensatory mechanisms, such as an increase in leaf hydraulic conductance and nitrogen content, tree water use and carbon assimilation were diminished significantly in infested trees, which could contribute to tree mortality.

  6. Evaluation of the surface-water sampling design in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages in relation to environmental factors affecting water quality at base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight stream sites (Fixed Sites) were chosen to describe the variability in the water quality of the Western Lake Michigan Drainages (WMIC) Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. These sites were chosen in areas (Relatively Homogeneous Units) dominated by unique combinations of the environmental factors thought to be most important in influencing water quality; namely, land use, surficial deposits, and bedrock type. A study was designed to determine (1) the applicability of streamflow, nutrient, and suspended sediment data regularly collected at these eight sites describing the variability in these characteristics throughout the Study Unit during base-flow conditions and (2) the applicability of the interpretive results made from data collected at these few sites to streams throughout the Study Unit. This was done by sampling the Fixed Sites and an additional 83 sites in Relatively Homogeneous Units throughout the Study Unit during summer base-flow conditions.

  7. Water hardness affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease can cause tremendous losses of freshwater fish. While it has been studied exhaustively, little is known about its affinity to specific water chemistries that affects attachment. Recent studies in our labs have illuminated this subject. In the first experiment, two waters were ...

  8. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  9. How Some Sense Relations Affect Language Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2002-01-01

    Language must make contact with the outside world. This contact is what we call meaning. The meaning of words forms part of human linguistic knowledge and therefore part of grammar. For foreign language teachers and learners, it is necessary to distinguish some lexical meanings in English,for it is these different sense relations that affect language use. This article analyzes the possible reasons which cause these changes in language use and aims at providing linguistic assistance for foreign language teaching and learning.

  10. Relative contribution of food and water to 27 metals and metalloids accumulated by caged Hyalella azteca in two rivers affected by metal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, U. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: uwe.borgmann@ec.gc.ca; Couillard, Y. [Existing Substances Division, Environment Canada, 351 Saint-Joseph Boulevard, Gatineau, QC, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Grapentine, L.C. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Hyalella were caged at three sites in each of the two rivers for 17 days. Food added to the cages consisted of plant and detrital material collected from the same, or other, sites. Concentrations of some metals in Hyalella (e.g., Cd and Cu), but not others (e.g., Se), appeared to reach steady-state within 5 days in one of the rivers. Metal accumulation was minimal by day 5 in the other river, possibly due to the very low temperatures in this river for the first part of the exposure period. Both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance, using site as a categorical variable and metal in food as either a categorical or continuous variable, indicated that Cd, Cu and Se were the only metals for which concentration in food had a significant effect on concentration in Hyalella. Nevertheless, water was still a major source for these metals as well. Other metals which varied by over fivefold in food but for which concentration in food had no effect on concentration in Hyalella included Ag, As, Bi, Sb, U and Zn. Concentrations of the remaining metals varied less than fourfold in food, making it difficult to determine if these were accumulated from food. - Cadmium, copper and selenium were the only metals in food that correlated with increased body concentrations of metals in Hyalella, but even these metals were accumulated largely from water.

  11. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  12. Factors affecting relative humidity during wood vacuum drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hui; CAI Ying-chun

    2009-01-01

    Effects of pressure and temperature in the chamber during vacuum drying on the relative humidity and evaporation of wood surface were investigated by using the vacuum chamber. The setting temperature during vacuum drying included dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the cooling water in the condenser. Results indicated that relative humidity during vacuum drying was affected by the dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the water in the condenser. Relative humidity of wood decreased with the increase in temperature at the given temperature of the water in the condenser. The relative humidity was affected slightly by pressure in the vacuum chamber pA, and it decreased from 70% to 65% with pA increased from 50 kPa to 101 kPa. Moreover, there was nearly no evaporation under the vacuum without external heating.

  13. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  14. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  15. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.; Masaki, Y.; Schewe, J.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  16. Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Florke, M.F.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  17. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  18. Water Bouncing Balls: how material stiffness affects water entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that one can skip a stone across the water surface, but less well known that a ball can also be skipped on water. Even though 17th century ship gunners were aware that cannonballs could be skipped on the water surface, they did not know that using elastic spheres rather than rigid ones could greatly improve skipping performance (yet would have made for more peaceful volleys). The water bouncing ball (Waboba®) is an elastic ball used in a game of aquatic keep away in which players pass the ball by skipping it along the water surface. The ball skips easily along the surface creating a sense that breaking the world record for number of skips could easily be achieved (51 rock skips Russell Byers 2007). We investigate the physics of skipping elastic balls to elucidate the mechanisms by which they bounce off of the water. High-speed video reveals that, upon impact with the water, the balls create a cavity and deform significantly due to the extreme elasticity; the flattened spheres resemble skipping stones. With an increased wetted surface area, a large hydrodynamic lift force is generated causing the ball to launch back into the air. Unlike stone skipping, the elasticity of the ball plays an important roll in determining the success of the skip. Through experimentation, we demonstrate that the deformation timescale during impact must be longer than the collision time in order to achieve a successful skip. Further, several material deformation modes can be excited upon free surface impact. The effect of impact velocity and angle on the two governing timescales and material wave modes are also experimentally investigated. Scaling for the deformation and collision times are derived and used to establish criteria for skipping in terms of relevant physical parameters.

  19. Factors Affecting Water Permeability of Aleurone Layer in Soybean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the immersion condition of soybean seeds on the water permeability in aleurone layer was investigated to clarify the water permeability at the initial stage of water sorption. The amounts of water absorbed in seeds coated with only aleurone layer (embryos uncovered with seed coat) and untreated seeds (embryos covered with seed coat and aleurone layer; intact seeds) were compared under several conditions of temperature, pH, ion species, and salt concentration. The relative weight...

  20. Contextualizing Mathematics Related Affect: Significance of Students' Individual and Social Level Affect in Finland and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohilampi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics related affect turn from positive to negative during comprehensive school years worldwide. There is a clear need to find solutions to the problem. However, some gaps and problems appear in the methodologies and the common approaches used in the field. This article discusses five studies addressing affective development, challenges some…

  1. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  2. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-04

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.

  3. Ozone exposure affects leaf wettability and tree water balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.D.J.; Hove, van L.W.A.; Brewer, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the influences of growing-season background ozone (O3) concentrations on leaf cuticles and foliar water loss. Using fumigation chambers, leaf wettability and foliar water loss were studied in two poplar species, Populus nigra and P. euramericana, and a conifer, Pseud

  4. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  5. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  6. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  7. Motivational Influences on Computer-Related Affective States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, R. J.; MacIntyre, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    This study of college students examined the effects of motivation to learn to use computers, and previous experience with computers, on three computer-related affective states: anxiety, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Discusses gender differences, path analysis, effects on academic performance, and intrinsic versus extrinsic reasons for taking the…

  8. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  9. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  10. Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

  11. Does consideration of water routing affect simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is closely coupled with the cycling of water. An important mechanism connecting ecological and hydrological processes in terrestrial ecosystems is lateral flow of water along landscapes. Few studies, however, have examined explicitly how consideration of water routing affects simulated water and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study is to explore how consideration of water routing in a process-based hydroecological model affects simulated water and carbon dynamics. To achieve that end, we rasterized the regional hydroecological simulation systems (RHESSys and employed the rasterized RHESSys (R-RHESSys in a forested watershed. We performed and compared two contrasting simulations, one with and another without water routing. We found that R-RHESSys is able to correctly simulate major hydrological and ecological variables regardless of whether water routing is considered. When water routing was neglected, however, soil water table depth and saturation deficit were simulated to be smaller and spatially more homogeneous. As a result, evaporation, forest productivity and soil heterotrophic respiration also were simulated to be spatially more homogeneous compared to simulation with water routing. When averaged for the entire watershed, however, differences in simulated water and carbon fluxes are not significant between the two simulations. Overall, the study demonstrated that consideration of water routing enabled R-RHESSys to better capture our preconception of the spatial patterns of water table depth and saturation deficit across the watershed. Because the spatial pattern of soil moisture is fundamental to water efflux from land to the atmosphere, forest productivity and soil microbial activity, ecosystem and carbon cycle models, therefore, need to explicitly represent water routing in order to accurately quantify the magnitudes and patterns of water and carbon fluxes

  12. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized.

  13. Water-related planning and design at energy firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Lucero, F

    1980-11-01

    Water related planning and design at energy firms are examined. By identifying production alternatives and specifying the cost of these alternatives under a variety of conditions, one gains insight into the future pattern of water use in the energy industry and the response of industry to water-related regulation. In Part II, the three principal decisions of industry that affect water allocation are reviewed: where to build plants, where to get water, and how much water to use. The cost of water use alternatives is reviewed. Part III presents empirical data to substantiate the inferences derived from engineering/economic analysis. The source of water, type of cooling system, and pattern of discharge for electric plants constructed during the 1970s or projected to come on line in this decade are reported. In the 1970s in the US, there was a trend away from once-through cooling toward use of evaporative cooling. Freshwater, as a source of supply, and discharge of effluent were standard practice. In the 1980s, almost all new capacity in the states and basins surveyed will use evaporative cooling. It is pointed out that a thorough understanding of industrial water use economics and water markets is a precursor to successful regulation.

  14. Relations between affective music and speech: Evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoluan eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory distance are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics, with fear in the middle. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory distance interacts with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  15. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  16. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types. PMID:28129405

  17. Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is controlled by the properties of the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the rhizosphere. In particular, the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere are altered by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by the roots. In this paper we present experimental results and a conceptual model of water flow in unsaturated soils mixed with mucilage. A central hypothesis of the model is that the different drying/wetting rate of mucilage compared to the bulk soil results in nonequilibrium relations between water content and water potential in the rhizosphere. We coupled this nonequilibrium relation with the Richards equation and obtained a constitutive equation for water flow in soil and mucilage. To test the model assumptions, we measured the water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil mixed with mucilage from chia seeds. Additionally, we used neutron radiography to image water content in a layer of soil mixed with mucilage during drying and wetting cycles. The radiographs demonstrated the occurrence of nonequilibrium water dynamics in the soil-mucilage mixture. The experiments were simulated by numerically solving the nonequilibrium model. Our study provides conceptual and experimental evidences that mucilage has a strong impact on soil water dynamics. During drying, mucilage maintains a greater soil water content for an extended time, while during irrigation it delays the soil rewetting. We postulate that mucilage exudation by roots attenuates plant water stress by modulating water content dynamics in the rhizosphere.

  18. Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, K F; Thomas, D Rh; Salmon, R L; Wyn-Jones, A P; Kay, D

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme water-related weather events such as excessive precipitation, floods, and drought. We conducted a systematic review to examine waterborne outbreaks following such events and explored their distribution between the different types of extreme water-related weather events. Four medical and meteorological databases (Medline, Embase, GeoRef, PubMed) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched, from 1910 to 2010. Eighty-seven waterborne outbreaks involving extreme water-related weather events were identified and included, alongside 235 ProMED reports. Heavy rainfall and flooding were the most common events preceding outbreaks associated with extreme weather and were reported in 55·2% and 52·9% of accounts, respectively. The most common pathogens reported in these outbreaks were Vibrio spp. (21·6%) and Leptospira spp. (12·7%). Outbreaks following extreme water-related weather events were often the result of contamination of the drinking-water supply (53·7%). Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Extreme water-related weather events represent a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities.

  19. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  20. Salt—Water Dynamics in Highly Salinized Topsoil of Salt—Affected Soil During Water Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXUE-FENG; YOUWEN-RUI; 等

    1991-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of salt and water movement in the soil profile of highly salinized topsoil under steadystate infiltration was conducted.It gives that salt and water dynamics during convection-diffusion period can be divided into three stages:1.formation of a salt peak,2.the salt peak moving downwards till the appearance of the summit of the salt peak,3.the salt peak moving further downwards with the peak value decreasing.Results show that the maximum salt peak appears at the same depth if soil texture and outflow condition are the same.Factors affecting salt and water movement and ion components in the outflow solution underinfiltration are discussed.

  1. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  2. Coagulation-flocculation pretreatment of oil sands process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrezaei, P.; El-Din, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of water use in the oil sands industry and efforts to use this limited resource more efficiently. Three wastewater treatment schemes for oil sands tailings ponds were proposed, notably primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment involves the removal of suspended solids using physical-chemical treatments. Secondary treatment involves the removal of dissolved solids and organics using chemical oxidation, ultrafiltration or nanofiltration. Tertiary treatment involves removal of residual organics/solids using biological activated carbon filtration, sand filtration or reverse osmosis. The composition of oil sands process water (OSPW) was also discussed with reference to suspended solids, salts, hydrocarbons, other dissolved organics (such as naphthenic acids and phenols), ammonia, inorganic compounds and trace elements. The conventional coagulation/flocculation process is essential in industrial wastewater treatment. It is cost effective, easy to operate and energy efficient. The process is used because small suspended and colloidal particles and dissolved constituents cannot be removed quickly by sedimentation. A chemical method must be used. Coagulation/flocculation brings small suspended and colloidal particles into contact so that they collide, stick and grow to a size that settles readily. Alum is the predominant and least expensive water treatment coagulant used for the coagulation/flocculation process. It provides positively charged ions to neutralize the negative charge of colloidal particles resulting in aggregation. It creates big settling flocs that enmesh colloids as it settles. The factors affecting the process include pH, chemical type, chemical concentration, rapid mixing intensity, slow mixing intensity and time. tabs., figs.

  3. Prediction of disease-related mutations affecting protein localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurila Kirsti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells contain numerous compartments, which have different protein constituents. Proteins are typically directed to compartments by short peptide sequences that act as targeting signals. Translocation to the proper compartment allows a protein to form the necessary interactions with its partners and take part in biological networks such as signalling and metabolic pathways. If a protein is not transported to the correct intracellular compartment either the reaction performed or information carried by the protein does not reach the proper site, causing either inactivation of central reactions or misregulation of signalling cascades, or the mislocalized active protein has harmful effects by acting in the wrong place. Results Numerous methods have been developed to predict protein subcellular localization with quite high accuracy. We applied bioinformatics methods to investigate the effects of known disease-related mutations on protein targeting and localization by analyzing over 22,000 missense mutations in more than 1,500 proteins with two complementary prediction approaches. Several hundred putative localization affecting mutations were identified and investigated statistically. Conclusion Although alterations to localization signals are rare, these effects should be taken into account when analyzing the consequences of disease-related mutations.

  4. Relative Efficiency Evaluation on Water Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying

    2011-01-01

    Water resource allocation was defined as an input-output question in this paper, and a preliminary input-output index system was set up. Then GEM (group eigenvalue method)-MAUE (multi-attribute utility theory) model was applied to evaluate relative efficiency of water resource allocation plans. This model determined weights of indicators by GEM, and assessed the allocation schemes by MAUE. Compared with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) or ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), the mode was more applicable in some cases where decision-makers had preference for certain indicators

  5. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  6. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  7. The neural mechanisms of pain-related affect and memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pain experience includes a sensory-discriminative and an emotional-affective components. The affective dimension refers to the unpleasantness or aversion of sensation. The great progress at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and systemic levels on the study of the sensory dimension of pain has been made over past four decades. However, "to consider only the sensory features of pain, and ignore its motivational and affective properties, is to look at only part of the problem and not even the most important part of that". A line of clinic observations indicate that the patients with chronic pain suffer from much more affective disturbance than pain itself. Obviously,physiological arousal and hypervigilance to pain cause negative affect, such as anxiety, anger, worry, aversion, even tendency of suicide,these negative affective states in turn enhance pain sensation. Today, more and more attention has been paid to the study on mechanisms underlying affective dimension of pain. In order to deepen and expand our understanding of the nature of pain, this review summarizes the main progress and recent findings from our laboratory regarding affective component of pain in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and cell biochemistry.

  8. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time...

  9. Water stable aggregates of Japanese Andisol as affected by hydrophobicity and drying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity is a property of soils that reduces their affinity for water, which may help impeding the pressure build-up within aggregates, and reducing aggregate disruption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of soil hydrophobicity and drying temperature to water stability of aggregates while preventing the floating of dry aggregates using unhydrophobized and hydrophobized surface Andisol. Soil was hydrophobized using stearic acid into different hydrophobicities. Hydrophobicity was determined using sessile drop contact angle and water drop penetration time (WDPT. Water stability of aggregates (%WSA was determined using artificially prepared model aggregates. The %WSA increased as the contact angle and WDPT increased. Contact angle and WDPT, which provided maximum %WSA showing less than 1 s of floating, was around 100° and 5 s, respectively. Although the %WSA gradually increased with increasing contact angle and WDPT above this level, high levels of hydrophobicity initiated aggregate floating, which would cause undesirable effects of water repellency. Heating at 50°C for 5 h d-1 significantly affected %WSA and hydrophobicity in hydrophobized samples, but did not in unhydrophobized samples. The results indicate that the contact angle and wetting rate (WDPT are closely related with the water stability of aggregates. The results further confirm that high levels of hydrophobicities induce aggregate floating, and the drying temperature has differential effects on hydrophobicity and aggregate stability depending on the hydrophobic materials present in the soil.

  10. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  11. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  12. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  13. Decreased summer water table depth affects peatland vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change can be expected to increase the frequency of summer droughts and associated low water tables in ombrotrophic peatlands. We studied the effects of periodic water table drawdown in a mesocosm experiment. Mesocosms were collected in Southern Sweden, and subsequently brought to an experim

  14. Factors affecting survival of Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, was studied in water, to assess the risks for dissemination of Cms via surface water and infection of potato crops by irrigation. Cms was able to survive for a maximum period of 7

  15. DO AUTOCHTHONOUS BACTERIA AFFECT GIARDIA CYST SURVIVAL IN NATURAL WATERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  16. Evaporation of water between two microspheres: how wetting affects drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kun; Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Jun; Kim, Joon Heon; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-11-01

    When a small volume of water is confined between microparticles or nanoparticles, its evaporation behavior can be influenced by wettability of particles. This situation frequently appears in coating or printing of colloidal drops in which colloidal particles are uniformly dispersed into a liquid. To explore water evaporation between particles, here we study on evaporation dynamics of water between two microspheres by utilizing high-resolution X-ray microscopy for side views and optical microscopy for bottom views. We find that evaporating water gets pinned on microsphere surfaces, due to a force balance among air, water, and microspheres. Side and bottom views of evaporating water enable us to evaluate water curvature evolution around microspheres before and after pinning. Interestingly curvature evolution is controlled by cooperation of evaporation and wetting dynamics. This study would be useful in identifying and controlling of coating or printing for colloidal drops. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B01007133).

  17. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Methods Three typical water treatment plants in a northern city (City T) of China and their corresponding distribution systems were investigated. Some parameters of the water samples, such as heterotrophic plate content (HPC), AOC, CODMn, TOC, and phosphate were measured. Results The AOC in most water samples were more than 100 μg/L, or even more than 200 μg/L in some cases. The HPC in distribution systems increased significantly with the decrease of residual chlorine. When the residual chlorine was less than 0.1 mg/L, the magnitude order of HPC was 104 CFU/mL; when it was 0.5-0.7 mg/L, the HPC was about 500 CFU/mL. Conclusion For controlling the biostability of drinking water, the controlling of AOC and residual chlorine should be considered simultaneously. The influence of phosphors on the AOC tests of water is not significant. Phosphors may not be the limiting nutrient in the water distribution systems.

  18. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  19. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  20. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  1. Internet and Facebook related images affect the perception of time

    OpenAIRE

    Gonidis, Lazaros; Sharma, Dinkar

    2017-01-01

    Even though there is a wealth of research on addiction and implicit measures, the effects of addiction on time perception are still unclear. Internal clock models separate the effects of attention and arousal which could have important implications for addiction research. The present study investigated whether Internet related stimuli can lead to distorted time perception. We found evidence that Internet and Facebook related stimuli can distort time perception due to attention and arousal rel...

  2. Increasing water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Brunella; Losciale, Pasquale; Manfrini, Luigi; Zibordi, Marco; Anconelli, Stefano; Galli, Fabio; Pierpaoli, Emanuele; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2014-10-15

    Drought stress negatively affects many physiological parameters and determines lower yields and fruit size. This paper investigates on the effects of prolonged water restriction on leaf gas exchanges, water relations and fruit growth on a 24-h time-scale in order to understand how different physiological processes interact to each other to face increasing drought stress and affect pear productive performances during the season. The diurnal patterns of tree water relations, leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth, fruit vascular and transpiration flows were monitored at about 50, 95 and 145 days after full bloom (DAFB) on pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fétel, subjected to two irrigation regimes, corresponding to a water restitution of 100% and 25% of the estimated Etc, respectively. Drought stress progressively increased during the season due to lower soil tensions and higher daily vapour pressure deficits (VPDs). Stem water potential was the first parameter to be negatively affected by stress and determined the simultaneous reduction of fruit xylem flow, which at 95 DAFB was reflected by a decrease in fruit daily growth. Leaf photosynthesis was reduced only from 95 DAFB on, but was not immediately reflected by a decrease in fruit phloem flow, which instead was reduced only at 145 DAFB. This work shows how water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow. This determines a progressive increase in the phloem relative contribution to growth, which lead to the typical higher dry matter percentages of stressed fruit.

  3. Ground-water flow related to streamflow and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voast, W. A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1968-01-01

    A ground-water flow system in southwestern Minnesota illustrates water movement between geologic units and between the land surface and the subsurface. The flow patterns indicate numerous zones of ground-water recharge and discharge controlled by topography, varying thicknesses of geologic units, variation in permeabilities, and the configuration of the basement rock surface. Variations in streamflow along a reach of the Yellow Medicine River agree with the subsurface flow system. Increases and decreases in runoff per square mile correspond, apparently, to ground-water discharge and recharge zones. Ground-water quality variations between calcium sulfate waters typical of the Quaternary drift and sodium chloride waters typical of the Cretaceous rocks are caused by mixing of the two water types. The zones of mixing are in agreement with ground-water flow patterns along the hydrologic section.

  4. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Panksepp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1 It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB; these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2 These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3 All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4 Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5 Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1, which are regulated by

  5. Using Gypsum to Affect Soil Erosion Processes and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A driving force in soil erosion is the low electrolyte content of rain water. Various electrolyte sources have proven useful in serving as electrolyte sources such as phosphogypsum, lime and various salts, however, each has other potential problems. We performed a number of studies on low cost gypsu...

  6. Problematic Issues Related to the Systematic Teaching of Affective Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Frances K.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

    This paper presents a discussion of three problem areas that were delineated during the course of a field test designed to assess the effects of the "Heartsmart Adventures," an interpersonal skills curriculum developed from the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Theory as described by William C. Schutz. Students and teachers…

  7. Water molecules inside protein structure affect binding of monosaccharides with HIV-1 antibody 2G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno-Noto, Kaori; Takano, Keiko

    2016-10-05

    Water molecules inside biomolecules constitute integral parts of their structure and participate in the functions of the proteins. Some of the X-ray crystallographic data are insufficient for analyzing a series of ligand-protein complexes in the same condition. We theoretically investigated antibody binding abilities of saccharide ligands and the effects of the inner water molecules of ligand-antibody complexes. Classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical simulations using a model with possible water molecules inside the protein were performed with saccharide ligands and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 neutralizing antibody 2G12 complexes to estimate how inner water molecules of the protein affect the dynamics of the complexes as well as the ligand-antibody interaction. Our results indicate the fact that d-fructose's strong affinity to the antibody was partly due to the good retentiveness of solvent water molecules of the ligand and its stability of the ligand's conformation and relative position in the active site. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, or if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S. and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.

  9. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro

    2006-02-01

    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  10. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  11. Second-order relational manipulations affect both humans and monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph D Dahl

    Full Text Available Recognition and individuation of conspecifics by their face is essential for primate social cognition. This ability is driven by a mechanism that integrates the appearance of facial features with subtle variations in their configuration (i.e., second-order relational properties into a holistic representation. So far, there is little evidence of whether our evolutionary ancestors show sensitivity to featural spatial relations and hence holistic processing of faces as shown in humans. Here, we directly compared macaques with humans in their sensitivity to configurally altered faces in upright and inverted orientations using a habituation paradigm and eye tracking technologies. In addition, we tested for differences in processing of conspecific faces (human faces for humans, macaque faces for macaques and non-conspecific faces, addressing aspects of perceptual expertise. In both species, we found sensitivity to second-order relational properties for conspecific (expert faces, when presented in upright, not in inverted, orientation. This shows that macaques possess the requirements for holistic processing, and thus show similar face processing to that of humans.

  12. Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Su, Tao; He, Yingge; Lu, Jihui; Mo, Weichuan; Wei, Yan; He, Rongqiao

    2016-01-01

    A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease. PMID:27699080

  13. Influences affecting the soil-water characteristic curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; YU Jian-lin

    2005-01-01

    The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the primary partially saturated soil information as its behavior and properties can be derived from it. Although there have been many studies of unsaturated soils and the SWCC, there is still no combined constitutive model that can simulate soil characteristics accurately. In cases when hydraulic hysteresis is dominant (e.g.under cyclic loading) it is particularly important to use the SWCC. In the past decades, several mathematical expressions have been proposed to model the curve. There are various influences on the SWCC as a source of information, so the curves obtained from conventional tests often cannot be directly applied;and the mathematical expressions from one scenario cannot be used to simulate another situation. The effects of void ratio, initial water content, stress state and high suction were studied in this work revealing that water content and stress state are more important than the other effects;but that the influences tend to decrease when suction increases. The van Genuchten model was modified to simulate better the changes in the degree of saturation at low values of suction. Predictions were compared with experimental results to determine the simulation capability of the model.

  14. Exploring New Dimensions of Mathematics-Related Affect: Embodied and Social Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Markku S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical approaches for research on mathematics-related affect from the 1990s until today. In order to organise this field, a metatheory of the affective domain is developed, based on distinctions along three dimensions: 1) cognitive, motivational and emotional aspects of affect; 2) rapidly changing affective states…

  15. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  16. Microparticulation of whey protein: related factors affecting the solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, B; Konrad, G

    1994-10-01

    Solubility of Simplesse 100, the only whey-based fat substitute, was found to be good, considering the fact that technology for preparation of Simplesse 100 is a sequence of thermal steps. To characterize this phenomen, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100, Sephacryl S-1000 and SDS-PAGE were used, supported by high-speed separation, UV studies and analytical procedures. Results show that the unusual solubility characteristic of microparticulated whey protein is related to two molecular effects: (1) optimal defolding of protein molecules and (2) stabilization of the defolded status by carbohydrate. Both effects were considered to favour non-covalent bonds, which contribute to the outstanding physico-functional and nutritive properties of microparticles.

  17. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.

  18. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  19. On the biases affecting water ages inferred from isotopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F J; Deleersnijder, E

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater age has become a fundamental concept in groundwater hydrology, but ages originating from isotopic analyses are still identified with a lack of clarity and using models that occasionally are unrealistic. If the effect of advection and dispersion on water ages has already been extensively identified, very few studies address the reliability of using radiometric ages as derived from isotopic data to estimate aquifer properties such as average velocities. Using simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions for single-site and two-sites mobile-immobile systems, we compare the radiometric ages to the mean ages (or residence times) as deduced from a direct, physically-based simulation approach (using the mean age equation), and show that the competition between isotope decay rate and dispersion coefficient can generate important discrepancies between the two types of ages. A correction for the average apparent velocity originating from apparent isotopic ages is additionally provided. Th...

  20. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxin Fan

    Full Text Available Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use and cultural backgrounds (age, education.

  1. Water security of nations: how international trade affects national water scarcity and dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Jones, J. Anthony A.; Vardanian, Trahel G.; Hakopian, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Import of water in virtual form, i.e. in the form of agricultural and industrial commodities, can be an effective means for water-scarce countries to preserve their domestic water resources. On the other hand, export of water-intensive commodities will increase the use and thus the scarcity of water

  2. How does the cladoceran Daphnia pulex affect the fate of Escherichia coli in water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Faraj, Tarek; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    The faecal indicator Escherichia coli plays a central role in water quality assessment and monitoring. It is therefore essential to understand its fate under various environmental constraints such as predation by bacterivorous zooplankton. Whereas most studies have examined how protozooplankton communities (heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates) affect the fate of E. coli in water, the capacity of metazooplankton to control the faecal indicator remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how the common filter-feeding cladoceran, Daphnia pulex, affects the fate of E. coli under different experimental conditions. Daphnia ingested E. coli and increased its loss rates in water, but the latter rates decreased from 1.65 d-1 to 0.62 d-1 after a 1,000-fold reduction in E. coli initial concentrations, due to lower probability of encounter between Daphnia and E. coli. The combined use of culture and PMA qPCR (viability-qPCR) demonstrated that exposure to Daphnia did not result into the formation of viable but non-culturable E. coli cells. In lake water, a significant part of E. coli population loss was associated with matrix-related factors, most likely due to predation by other bacterivorous biota and/or bacterial competition. However, when exposing E. coli to a D. pulex gradient (from 0 to 65 ind.L-1), we observed an increasing impact of Daphnia on E. coli loss rates, which reached 0.47 d-1 in presence of 65 ind.L-1. Our results suggest that the filter-feeder can exert a non-negligible predation pressure on E. coli, especially during seasonal Daphnia population peaks. Similar trials using other Daphnia species as well as stressed E. coli cells will increase our knowledge on the capacity of this widespread zooplankter to control E. coli in freshwater resources. Based on our results, we strongly advocate the use of natural matrices to study these biotic interactions in order to avoid overestimation of Daphnia impact. PMID:28178322

  3. Experimental research on the characteristics of methane/air explosion affected by ultrafine water mist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Bi, Mingshu; Zhou, Yihui; Li, Yiming

    2017-02-15

    The inhibition effects of ultrafine water mists on 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% methane explosions were experimentally studied in a sealed visual vessel. The mist (10μm) produced by a mist generation system in the vessel was measured by a phase doppler particle analyzer. A high-speed camera was used to record the explosion flame affected by spraying concentration and a high frequency pressure sensor was used to acquire the explosion pressure. Meanwhile, the relationship between flame propagation and pressure rising with time was analyzed. The appearance height of "tulip" flame was increased and appearance moment was delayed obviously with the mist amount increased. The variation trend was illustrated from the viewpoint of the interactions among the flame front, the flame-induced reverse flow and the vortices. Moreover, cellular structure appeared in the burned zone and experienced four developing stages, and its formation indicates that water vapor can cause the intrinsic flame instability and absorb heat on the burned zone further. The pressure underwent two accelerating rises, which was affected by mist amount. The accelerating rise processes were related to the accelerating propagation of combustion wave. Furthermore, methane explosion can be absolutely suppressed by the mist.

  4. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  5. Simulation of water and nitrogen dynamics as affected by drip fertigation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-jun; LI Jiu-sheng; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Yan-ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of drip fertigation is synchronising the application of water and nutrients with crop requirements, and maintaining the proper concentration and distribution of nutrient and water in the soil. The wetting patterns and nutrient distributions under drip fertigation have been proved to be closely related to the fertigation strategies. In order to ifnd out the critical factors that affect the nutrient distribution under different drip fertigaiton strategies, a computer simulation model HYDRUS2D/3D was used to simulate the water and nitrate distribution for various fertigation strategies from a surface point source. Simulation results were compared with the observed ones from our previous studies. A 15° wedge-shaped plexiglass container was used in our experiment to represent one-twenty-fourth of the complete cylinder. The height of container is 40 cm, and the radius is 41 cm. The ammonium nitrate solution was added through a no. 7 needle connected to a Mariotte tube with a lfexible hose. The soil water content, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured. The comparison of simulated and observed data demonstrated that the model performed reliably. The numerical analysis for various fertigation strategies from a surface point source showed that: (1) The total amount of irrigation water, the concentration of the fertilizer solution and the amount of pure water used to lfush the pipeline after fertilizer solution application are the three critical factors inlfu-encing the distribution of water and fertilizer nitrogen in the soil. (2) The fresh water irrigation duration prior to fertigation has no obvious effect on nitrate distribution. The longer lfushing time period after fertigation resulted in nitrate accumulation closer to the wetting front. From the point of avoiding the possibility of nitrate loss from the root zone, we recommended that the lfushing time period should be as shorter as possible. (3) For a given amount of fertilizer, higher

  6. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  7. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-05-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters (+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  8. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  9. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Özarallı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being

  10. Microbiology of broiler carcasses and chemistry of chiller water as affected by water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, J K; Smith, D; Huezo, R I; Ingram, K D

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management System to recycle water in sections 2 and 3 of two 3-compartment chillers. In this system, reused water is blended with fresh water to maintain the chiller volume. Carcasses were sampled prechill and postchill (final exit), and chiller water was sampled from the beginning and end of each of the 3 sections. Carcasses were subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 0.1% peptone. Numbers of Escherichia coli (EC), coliforms (CF), and Campylobacter (CPY) were determined from the WCR and chiller water samples. Prevalence of Salmonella (SAL) was also determined on the WCR and chiller water samples. On average, prechill levels of bacteria recovered from rinses were 2.6, 2.9, and 2.6 log10 cfu/mL for EC, CF, and CPY, respectively. Ten out of 40 (25%) prechill carcasses were positive for SAL. After chilling, numbers of EC, CF, and CPY recovered from carcass rinses decreased by 1.5, 1.5, and 2.0 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. However, 9 out of 40 (22%) postchill carcasses were positive for SAL. When the chiller water samples were tested, counts of EC, CF, and CPY were found only in water collected from the first section of the chiller (inlet and outlet). Two of 4 water samples collected from the inlet of the first section tested positive for SAL. This study shows that fresh and reused water can be used to cool poultry in chiller systems to achieve a reduction in numbers of bacteria (EC, CF, and CPY) or equivalent prevalence (SAL) of bacteria recovered from broiler carcasses.

  11. Soil Properties and Wheat Growth and Nutrients as Affected by Compost Amendment Under Saline Water Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. M. MAHDY

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to test and compare the suitability of saline compost and saline irrigation water for nutrient status amendment of a slightly productive sandy clay loam soil,to study the macronutrient utilization and dry matter production of wheat (Triticum aestivum c.v.Gemmiza 7) grown in a modified soil environment and to determine the effects of compost and saline irrigation water on soil productivity.The sandy clay loam soil was treated with compost of five rates (0,24,36,48,and 60 m3 ha-1,equivalent to 0,3,4.5,and 6 g kg-1 soil,respectively) and irrigation water of four salinity levels (0.50 (tap water),4.9,6.3,and 8.7 dS m-1).The results indicated that at harvest,the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was significantly (P < 0.05) changed by the compost application as compared to thecontrol.In general,the soil salinity significantly increased with increasing application rates of compost.Soluble salts,K,C1,HCO3,Na,Ca,and Mg,were significantly increased by the compost treatment.Soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was significantly affected by the salinity levels of the irrigation water,and showed a slight response to the compost application.The soil organic carbon content was also significantly (P < 0.05) affected by application of compost,with a maximum value of 31.03 g kg-1 recorded at the compost rate of 60 m3 ha-1 and the irrigation water salinity level of 8.7 dS m-1 and a minimum value of 12.05 g kg-1 observed in the control.The compost application produced remarkable increases in wheat shoot dry matter production.The maximum dry matter production (75.11 g pot-1) occurred with 60 m3 ha-1 compost and normal irrigation water,with a minimum of 19.83 g pot-1 with no addition of compost and irrigation water at a salinity level of 8.70 dS m-1.Significant increases in wheat shoot contents of K,N,P,Na,and C1 were observed with addition of compost.The relatively high shoot N values may be attributed to increases in N availability in

  12. COSMOS soil water sensing affected by crop biomass and water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize water content in the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of sensing soil volumes larger than a few hundred liters. Scientists with the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, evaluated: a) the Cos...

  13. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water... for the delivery of project water for authorized uses in newspapers of general circulation in...

  14. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water... for the delivery of project water for authorized uses in newspapers of general circulation in...

  15. Non-Fickian Diffusion Affects the Relation between the Salinity and Hydrate Capacity Profiles in Marine Sediments

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2012-01-01

    On-site measurements of water salinity (which can be directly evaluated from the electrical conductivity) in deep-sea sediments is technically the primary source of indirect information on the capacity of the marine deposits of methane hydrates. We show the relation between the salinity (chlorinity) profile and the hydrate volume in pores to be significantly affected by non-Fickian contributions to the diffusion flux---the thermal diffusion and the gravitational segregation---which have been previously ignored in the literature on the subject and the analysis of surveys data. We provide amended relations and utilize them for an analysis of field measurements for a real hydrate deposit.

  16. Maternal emotion dysregulation is related to heightened mother-infant synchrony of facial affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Schiborr, Julia; Barkmann, Claus; Romer, Georg; Ramsauer, Brigitte

    2016-05-01

    A heightened synchrony between the mother's and infant's facial affect predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal psychopathology is related to mother-infant facial affect synchrony, but it is unclear how maternal psychopathology is transmitted to mother-infant synchrony. One pathway might be maternal emotion dysregulation. We examined (a) whether maternal emotion dysregulation is positively related to facial affect synchrony and (b) whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the effect of maternal psychopathology on mother-infant facial affect synchrony. We observed 68 mothers with mood disorders and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions. The mother's and infant's facial affect were rated from high negative to high positive, and the degree of synchrony between the mother's and infant's facial affect was computed with a time-series analysis. Emotion dysregulation was measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and psychopathology was assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Higher maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly associated with higher facial affect synchrony; emotion dysregulation fully mediated the effect of maternal psychopathology on facial affect synchrony. Our findings demonstrate that maternal emotion dysregulation rather than maternal psychopathology per se places mothers and infants at risk for heightened facial affect synchrony.

  17. A water-budget approach to restoring a sedge fen affected by diking and ditching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Sweat, Michael J.; Carlson, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2006-04-01

    A vast, ground-water-supported sedge fen in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA was ditched in the early 1900 s in a failed attempt to promote agriculture. Dikes were later constructed to impound seasonal sheet surface flows for waterfowl management. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, which now manages the wetland as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, sought to redirect water flows from impounded C-3 Pool to reduce erosion in downstream Walsh Ditch, reduce ground-water losses into the ditch, and restore sheet flows of surface water to the peatland. A water budget was developed for C-3 Pool, which serves as the central receiving and distribution body for water in the affected wetland. Surface-water inflows and outflows were measured in associated ditches and natural creeks, ground-water flows were estimated using a network of wells and piezometers, and precipitation and evaporation/evapotranspiration components were estimated using local meteorological data. Water budgets for the 1999 springtime peak flow period and the 1999 water year were used to estimate required releases of water from C-3 Pool via outlets other than Walsh Ditch and to guide other restoration activities. Refuge managers subsequently used these results to guide restoration efforts, including construction of earthen dams in Walsh Ditch upslope from the pool to stop surface flow, installation of new water-control structures to redirect surface water to sheet flow and natural creek channels, planning seasonal releases from C-3 Pool to avoid erosion in natural channels, stopping flow in downslope Walsh Ditch to reduce erosion, and using constructed earthen dams and natural beaver dams to flood the ditch channel below C-3 Pool. Interactions between ground water and surface water are critical for maintaining ecosystem processes in many wetlands, and management actions directed at restoring either ground- or surface-water flow patterns often affect both of these components of the water budget. This

  18. Household rainwater tanks: mediating changing relations with water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Farbotko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater tanks have become commonplace in Australia's urban landscape, and have become the physical embodiment of the changing relations between householders, water, and water authorities. The aim of our research was to understand these changing relations by examining how domestic rainwater tanks are inscribed with meanings and assumptions and thus mediate a relationship between households and government. In particular, we considered how domestic rainwater tanks are implicated in various understandings of entitlements to water collected or used in private domains. We examined how tanks can render visible the contestation over rights and obligations of state and citizen as to what is considered private and public water collection, management, and use at the scale of the household. Our exploration of these issues was conducted through a case study of changing water relations in South East Queensland, Australia, where there has been recent widespread installation of domestic rainwater tanks.

  19. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  20. Aquaporins: highly regulated channels controlling plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, François; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-04-01

    Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key "gatekeeper" cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations.

  1. Factor affecting the properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Prichapan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct fortification of minerals and vitamins into food may induce chemical degradation, change the level of bioavailability or decrease the sensory quality of food products. The strategy to solve these problems is encapsulation technology. Numerous investigations described the use of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W emulsions as encapsulation system. The properties and encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsions are influenced by emulsion components, the emulsification processes, and environmental conditions. The recently published results of research done on the factors affecting the properties of W/O/W emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins including form and concentration of core materials, concentration of inner water phase and lipophilic emulsifier, type and concentration of oil phase, type and concentration of hydrophilic emulsifier and stabilizer and the pH of the outer water phase have been reviewed in this article.

  2. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Water relations of cucumber, tomato and sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behboudian, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ever increasing importance of water as a critical resource for agricultural production has encouraged more research on water relations in recent years. Most attention has been paid to field crops and less information is available for horticultural crops, especially vegetables. The results of stu

  4. How Hypertext Reading Sequences Affect Understanding of Causal and Temporal Relations in Story Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Jacqueline; Krems, Josef F.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the comprehension of global causal and temporal relations between events that are represented in single hypertext documents. In two experiments we examined how reading sequences of hypertext nodes affects the establishment of event relations and how this process can be supported by advanced organizers that…

  5. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.;

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event......; oxic, stratified period; anoxic and under shallow perennially oxic conditions. The cores were sliced in an oxygen-free atmosphere, after which pore water was extracted by centrifugation and analyzed. A sequential extraction was then applied to the sediments to extract the water-soluble, monosulfide......, low crystallinity Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, organic, pyrite and residual phases. The results showed that, despite the acidic chemistry of the water column (pH

  6. Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, B.

    2008-01-01

    Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to si

  7. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  8. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  9. 76 FR 44948 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-18980] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... Kelly, Water and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007,...

  10. Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bescansa, P.; Imaz, M.J.; Virto, I.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation tillage preserves soil water and this has been the main reason for its rapid dissemination in rainfed agriculture in semiarid climates. We determined the effects of conservation versus conventional tillage on available soil water capacity (AWC) and related properties at the end of 5 yea

  11. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  12. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  13. The Inverse Relation Between Risks and Benefits: The Role of Affect and Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, Joanna; Sleboda, Patrycja

    2015-07-01

    Although risk and benefits of risky activities are positively correlated in the real world, empirical results indicate that people perceive them as negatively correlated. The common explanation is that confounding benefits and losses stems from affect. In this article, we address the issue that has not been clearly established in studies on the affect heuristic: to what extent boundary conditions, such as judgments' generality and expertise, influence the presence of the inverse relation in judgments of hazards. These conditions were examined in four studies in which respondents evaluated general or specific benefits and risks of "affect-rich" and "affect-poor" hazards (ranging from investments to applications of stem cell research). In line with previous research, affect is defined as good or bad feelings integral to a stimulus. In contrast to previous research, affect is considered as related both to personal feelings and to social controversies associated with a hazard. Expertise is related to personal knowledge (laypersons vs. experts) as well as to objective knowledge (targets well vs. poorly known to science). The direct comparison of the input from personal and objective ignorance into the inverse relation has not been investigated previously. It was found that affect invoked by a hazard guides general but not specific judgments of its benefits and risks. Technical expertise helps to avoid simplified evaluations of consequences as long as they are well known to science. For new, poorly understood hazards (e.g., stem cell research), expertise does not protect from the perception of the inverse relation between benefits and risks.

  14. The wandering mood: psychological and neural determinants of rest-related negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eGruberger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rest related negative affect (RRNA has gained scientific interest in the past decade. However, it is mostly studied within the context of mind-wandering (MW, and the relevance of other psychological and neural aspects of the resting state to its' occurrence has never been studied. Several indications associate RRNA with internally directed attention, yet the nature of this relation remains largely unknown. Moreover, the role of neural networks associated with rest related phenomenology - the default mode (DMN, executive (EXE and salience (SAL networks, has not been studied in this context. To this end, we explored two 5- (baseline and 15-minute resting-state simultaneous fMRI-EEG scans of 29 participants. As vigilance has been shown to affect attention, and thus its availability for inward allocation, EEG-based vigilance levels were computed for each participant. Questionnaires for affective assessment were administered before and after scans, and retrospective reports of MW were additionally collected. Results revealed increased negative affect following rest, but only among participants who retained high vigilance levels. Among low-vigilance participants, changes in negative affect were negligible, despite reports of MW occurrence in both groups. In addition, in the high-vigilance group only, a significant increase in functional connectivity (FC levels was found between the DMN-related ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC,associated with emotional processing, and the EXE-related dorsal ACC, associated with monitoring of self and other's behavior. These heightened FC levels further correlated with reported negative affect among this group. Taken together, these results demonstrate that, rather than an unavoidable outcome of the resting state, RRNA depends on internal allocation of attention at rest. Results are discussed in terms of two rest-related possible scenarios which defer in mental and neural processing, and subsequently, in the

  15. Oil sands process-affected water impairs feeding by Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Steinkey, Dylan; Morandi, Garrett; Rasmussen, Joseph B; Giesy, John P; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Growth in extraction of bitumen from oil sands has raised concerns about influences of this industry on surrounding environments. Water clearance rate (a surrogate of feeding rate by Daphnia magna) in water containing D. magna exposed to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and its principal components, dissolved component (DC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM), was reduced to 72, 29, and 59% of controls, respectively. This study also examined several possible mechanisms for the observed changes algal cell density (i.e., feeding rate). There was no change in the digestive enzymes trypsin or amylase when D. magna were exposed to DC or SPM; however, exposure to total OSPW reduced trypsin activity. Mandible rolling or post-abdominal rejections, which are indicators of feeding and palatability of food, were not affected by any exposures to OSPW. Beating of thoracic limbs, which provides water flow toward the feeding groove, was reduced by exposure to SPM or total OSPW. Peristaltic activity was reduced by exposure to DC, which then might result in reduced digestion time in D. magna exposed to DC, SPM or whole OSPW. All treatments caused an increase in numbers of intact algae cells in the hindgut and excreted material. These results suggest that both DC and SPM affect feeding of D. magna by impairing actions of the digestive system, but most probably not by reducing rates of ingestion.

  16. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  17. Soil Erosion as Affected by Polyacrylamide Application Under Simulated Furrow Irrigation with Saline Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Chao-Yin; LI Fa-Hu; L. S.WU

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of soil and water losses under furrow.irrigation with saline water is important to environnental protection and agricultural production.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polyacrylamide (pAM) application on soil infiltration and erosion under simulated furrow irrigation with saline water.Polyacrylamide was applied by dissolving it in irrigation water at the rates of 1.5,7.5,and 15.0 mg L-1 or spreading it as a powder on soil surface at the rates of 0.3,15,3.0,and 6.0 g m-2,respectively.The electrolyte concentration of tested irrigation water was 10 and 30 mmolc L-1 and its sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was 0.5,10.0,and 20.0 (mmol(c) L-1)0.5.Distilled water was used as a control for irrigation water quality.Results indicated that the electrolyte concentration and SAR generally did not significantly affect soil and water losses after PAM application.Infiltration rate and total infiltration volume decreased with the increase of PAM application rate.Polyacrylamide application in both methods significantly reduced soil erosion,but PAM application rate did not significantly affect it.The solution PAM application was more effective in controlling soil erosion than the powdered PAM application,but the former exerted a greater adverse influence on soil infiltration than the latter.Under the same total amounts,the powdered PAM application resulted in a 38.2%-139.6% granter infiltration volume but a soil mass loss of 1.3-3.4 times greater than the solution PAM apllication.

  18. Water Relation Parameters of Embryogenic Cultures and Seedlings of Larch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nigel J.; von Aderkas, Patrick; Fuchs, Edgar E.; Reaney, Martin J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the water relations parameters of developing somatic embryogenic and xygotic European larch (Larix decidua) were studied. Water release curves were generated by suspending tissue samples over unsaturated NaCl solutions until they reached vapor equilibration with the surrounding air. Twenty solutions were used whose water potentials ranged from −0.05 to −10 MPa. Water release curves were obtained by plotting paired values of tissue relative water content (RWC) and solution potential. Curves were derived for embryonic larch at various stages of development and for hypocotyls and roots from germinated zygotic and somatic embryos. The ability to resist dehydration increased markedly with development. Stage 1 tissue, which consisted of clusters of loosely associated nonchlorophyllous cells, had extremely low bulk elastic modulus (ε) (1.91 MPa) and apoplastic water content (A) (0.023), relatively high osmotic potential (Ψπ) (−0.53 MPa), and lost turgor at 0.56 RWC. In contrast, mature embryoids with primary roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledons (stage 3) had an almost 4-fold increase in A (0.089), significantly higher ε (3.49 MPa), and lower Ψπ (−0.88 MPa) and lost turgor at 0.66 RWC. Hypocotyl tissue from germinated somatic embryos lost turgor at 0.74 RWC and had higher ε, A, and solute accumulation than pregerminated tissue. Hypocotyl tissue resisted dehydration more strongly than root tissue, and differences between root and hypocotyl water relation parameters were more pronounced in xygotic than in somatic seedlings. Highest dehydration resistance was in zygotic hypocotyls. The characterization of the water relations of tissue cultures should allow the development of more consistent and reliable desiccation protocols to induce maturation of embryos and produce synchronously germinating seed. PMID:16653121

  19. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  20. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  1. Adaptation of Leaf Water Relations to Climatic and Habitat Water Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Mitchell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful management of forest systems requires a deeper understanding of the role of ecophysiological traits in enabling adaptation to high temperature and water deficit under current and anticipated changes in climate. A key attribute of leaf water relations is the water potential at zero turgor (πtlp, because it defines the operating water potentials over which plants actively control growth and gas exchange. This study examines the drivers of variation in πtlp with respect to species climate of origin and habitat water availability. We compiled a water relations database for 174 woody species occupying clearly delineated gradients in temperature and precipitation across the Australian continent. A significant proportion of the variability in πtlp (~35% could be explained by climatic water deficit and its interaction with summertime maximum temperature, demonstrating the strong selective pressure of aridity and high temperature in shaping leaf water relations among Australian species. Habitat water availability (midday leaf water potential, was also a significant predictor of πtlp (R2 = 0.43, highlighting the importance of species ecohydrologic niche under a set of climatic conditions. Shifts in πtlp in response to both climatic and site-based drivers of water availability emphasises its adaptive significance and its suitability as a predictor of plant performance under future climatic change.

  2. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  3. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  4. Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

    2013-05-21

    Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region.

  5. Water-related disasters: A review and commentary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter M. Grayman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of water-related disasters,look at the trends in water-related disasters,categorize water-related disasters in several dimensions,provide insights on the impacts of such disasters and discuss the predictability of disasters.Disasters may be succinctly defined as natural or human events,usually unexpected,that result in significant impacts in terms of a variety of metrics.Metrics for evaluating the impacts of disasters include economic damage,environmental damage,fatalities,reconstruction cost,aesthetic damage,disruption of normal activities,destruction of irreplaceable objects,and long-term or permanent loss of species.Disasters may be categorized in terms of causes (natural events,human induced,or a combination).Water-related disasters may be further categorized as floods,storms,waves,slides,droughts,epidemics,contamination and climate change.The temporal and spatial scale of water-related disasters vary by many orders of magnitude ranging from seconds to centuries and from a few square kilometers to the entire earth.

  6. Relation between man and water: the awareness of living water for sustainable design

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero, Silvia; Pallaro, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Water is the most precious and one of the most threatened resources on earth: environmental, economic, social and management factors are posing at risk this precious resource. The roots of these problems can be traced in the loss of relation between man and water: from being a vital element with a spiritual character, water has become seen as just a commodity over which to make profit. Through the analysis of how the changing relation between man and water in history has been translated in th...

  7. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system.

  8. Ectomycorrhizas and water relations of trees: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Tarja; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2011-02-01

    There is plenty of evidence for improved nutrient acquisition by ectomycorrhizas in trees; however, their role in water uptake is much less clear. In addition to experiments showing improved performance during drought by mycorrhizal plants, there are several studies showing reduced root hydraulic conductivity and reduced water uptake in mycorrhizal roots. The clearest direct mechanism for increased water uptake is the increased extension growth and absorbing surface area, particularly in fungal species with external mycelium of the long-distance exploration type. Some studies have found increased aquaporin function and, consequently, increased root hydraulic conductivity in ectomycorrhizal plants while other studies showed no effect of ectomycorrhizal associations on root water flow properties. The aquaporin function of the fungal hyphae is also likely to be important for the uptake of water by the ectomycorrhizal plant, but more work needs to be done in this area. The best-known indirect mechanism for mycorrhizal effects on water relations is improved nutrient status of the host. Others include altered carbohydrate assimilation via stomatal function, possibly mediated by changes in growth regulator balance; increased sink strength in mycorrhizal roots; antioxidant metabolism; and changes in osmotic adjustment. None of these possibilities has been sufficiently explored. The mycorrhizal structure may also reduce water movement because of different fine root architecture (thickness), cell wall hydrophobicity or the larger number of membranes that water has to cross on the way from the soil to the xylem. In future studies, pot experiments comparing mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants will still be useful in studying well-defined physiological details. However, the quantitative importance of ectomycorrhizas for tree water uptake and water relations can only be assessed by field studies using innovative approaches. Hydraulic redistribution can support nutrient uptake

  9. Weathering the Preschool Environment: Affect Moderates the Relations between Meteorology and Preschool Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relations among various meteorological conditions, affective states and behavior in young children. Results from past research have revealed many weather effects on behavior and emotions with adult samples. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence to support this link with children. Thirty-three…

  10. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    cognitive dysfunction seem to be core predictors of affective illness. It is possible to identify a cluster of prodromal symptoms encompassing subclinical anxiety and depressive symptoms, higher neuroticism and cognitive problems. The cognitive problems may further be related to the cross-sectional finding...

  11. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2015-01-01

    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on processes or…

  12. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  13. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  14. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  15. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great problem during vase-life of cut Gerbera flowers is ',stem break", a sudden bending of the stem. As described in part 1, this phenomenon was caused by a water shortage in the flower. The water-stress ...

  16. Performance of Hevea brasiliensis on Haplic Ferralsol as Affected by Different Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafar J. Mokhatar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rubber has been grown more than a century in South East Asia, who has been the largest producer of natural rubber. Demand of natural rubber increases steadily due to increasing demand particularly from developing countries. Water has been a limited and invaluable resource especially in agriculture. This resource has to be used wisely and there is a need for a detailed study pertaining to water requirement of rubber plants. This study provides details about rubber plants growth in relation to water stress. Approach: Two new latex timber clones from Malaysia Rubber Board (MRB, RRIM 2005 and RRIM 3001 were used in this study with soil from Haplic Ferralsol used as planting media. Five levels of treatment were used; plants irrigated for every 2, 5, 10 and 15days and everyday which acted as control. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD with four replications. Results: Results showed treatment well watered for clone RRIM 2025 (T6 had most the turgidity with high mean value in stomata conductance and chlorophyll content. RRIM 2025 also more resist to water stress compared to RRIM 3001. All plants in treatments with extreme different in water regimes cannot survive and dead due to severe stress. Conclusion: This study found rubber clones RRIM 2025 and RRIM 3001 cannot survive with acute deficiency of water. Rubber cannot be planted in dry areas with low water regimes which will retard the plant growth and plant will die under severe water stress.

  17. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  18. Factors affecting continued use of ceramic water purifiers distributed to Tsunami-affected Communities in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  There is little information about continued use of point-of-use technologies after disaster relief efforts. After the 2004 tsunami, the Red Cross distributed ceramic water filters in Sri Lanka. This study determined factors associated with filter disuse and evaluate the quality of household drinking water. Methods  A cross-sectional survey of water sources and treatment, filter use and household characteristics was administered by in-person oral interview, and household water qual...

  19. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems.

  20. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  1. Water consumption related to different diets in Mediterranean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Del Pozo, S; Pekcan, A G; Keinan-Boker, L; Trichopoulou, A; Gawlik, B M

    2016-12-15

    Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. Here we quantify the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept. These WFs amount from 3277l per capita per day (l/cap/d) to 5789l/cap/d. These amounts are about thirty times higher than their direct urban water use. We additionally analyse the WF of three diet scenarios, based upon a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Many authors identify the Mediterranean diet as cultural heritage, being beneficial for human health and a model for a sustainable food system. The first diet scenario, a healthy Mediterranean diet including meat, leads to WF reductions of -19% to -43%. The second diet scenario (pesco-vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -28% to -52%. The third diet scenario (vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -30% to -53%. In other words, if urban citizens want to save water, they need to look at their diets.

  2. Specifying the relations between affect and heavy alcohol use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, A M; Hicks, R E; Levy, S A; Curran, P J

    2001-08-01

    Current reformulations of the tension reduction hypothesis posit that only a subset of vulnerable individuals are at risk for drinking in response to negative affect. To further specify this model, this study examined the types of mood and social contexts under which affect and alcohol use are associated. Participants were 74 college students who completed repeated assessments of mood, alcohol use, friendship quality, and social support. A complex pattern of findings supported the moderating influences of gender, friendship factors, and the timing of behavior (i.e., weekends vs. weekdays) on the relation between affect and alcohol use. Young adults with less intimate and supportive friendships, as compared with their peers, showed risk for greater drinking following relative elevations in sadness and hostility. Such drinking episodes, in turn, predicted subsequent elevations in these same negative moods the following week. Gender differences in such a cyclical pattern of affect and alcohol use were found to vary across differing emotional experiences. Recommendations for a more refined theory of affect and alcohol use are discussed.

  3. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  4. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  5. Water-induced finger wrinkles do not affect touch acuity or dexterity in handling wet objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Haseleu

    Full Text Available Human non-hairy (glabrous skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n = 40 in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects.

  6. Forms of Affect, Relationality, and Periodical Encounters, or ‘Pine-Apple for the Million’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Dillane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The social, economic, intellectual, cultural, and material relations that comprise periodical encounters have been attended to in analyses that invoke the concept of the network, what Nathan Hensley has described as a ‘chain of visible or material interactions among human and nonhuman entities’. The affective dimensions of these relations, however, are neither material nor always visible, yet they are fundamental to all such interactions. This article argues that the periodical’s capacity to communicate, the contours, scope, and effects of that capacity, and in particular its genre traction, are everywhere underscored by a relationality that is charged with affect and emotions, shaped by what Raymond Williams famously described as ‘structures of feeling’. My focus on the haptic currents that drive periodical exchanges (taking examples from George Eliot at the Cornhill Magazine, Joseph Conrad in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, and James Joyce in the Irish Homestead follows from important theorizations of the unique affordances of this ‘most time-oriented of print forms’ (Beetham. Affect, feelings, and emotive responses are messy and cannot be pressed into a discrete methodology, but when considering the open-ended, multi-textured, serial form that is the periodical, there is something to be gained, I suggest, from trying to understand the operations of affect, its openness, its aleatoric potential, and its emotion-based effects.

  7. CO2-induced shift in microbial activity affects carbon trapping and water quality in anoxic bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Santillan, Eugenio F. U.; Sanford, Robert A.; Altman, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity is a potentially important yet poorly understood control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. In this study we examine how variation in CO2 abundance affected competition between Fe(III) and SO42--reducers in anoxic bioreactors inoculated with a mixed-microbial community from a freshwater aquifer. We performed two sets of experiments: one with low CO2 partial pressure (∼0.02 atm) in the headspace of the reactors and one with high CO2 partial pressure (∼1 atm). A fluid residence time of 35 days was maintained in the reactors by replacing one-fifth of the aqueous volume with fresh medium every seven days. The aqueous medium was composed of groundwater amended with small amounts of acetate (250 μM), phosphate (1 μM), and ammonium (50 μM) to stimulate microbial activity. Synthetic goethite (1 mmol) and SO42- (500 μM influent concentration) were also available in each reactor to serve as electron acceptors. Results of this study show that higher CO2 abundance increased the ability of Fe(III) reducers to compete with SO42- reducers, leading to significant shifts in CO2 trapping and water quality. Mass-balance calculations and pyrosequencing results demonstrate that SO42- reducers were dominant in reactors with low CO2 content. They consumed 85% of the acetate after acetate consumption reached steady state while Fe(III) reducers consumed only 15% on average. In contrast, Fe(III) reducers were dominant during that same interval in reactors with high CO2 content, consuming at least 90% of the acetate while SO42- reducers consumed a negligible amount (bioreactors enhanced CO2 solubility trapping relative to the low-CO2 bioreactors by increasing alkalinity generation (6X). Hence, the shift in microbial activity we observed was a positive feedback on CO2 trapping. More rapid Fe(III) reduction degraded water quality, however, by leading to high Fe(II) concentration.

  8. Reprint of "How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  9. How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  10. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...

  11. Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-11-16

    Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included.

  12. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  13. Narcissistic disorder and the failure of symbolisation: a Relational Affective Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizen, C S

    2014-09-01

    The psychoanalytic concept of narcissistic disorder is broader than that of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (DSM-5 [1]), underlying a range of Personality Disorders (PD) and their co-morbidities. Existing Mentalisation, Psychoanalytic and Cognitive models, fail to account fully for the emerging evidence of biological, developmental, relational and defensive contributions to narcissistic disorder, nor do they account for the common and variant features of co-morbidities namely Anorexia Nervosa, Somatisation, Substance Misuse and Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Alexithymia and concrete modes of relating are common findings in narcissistic disorder and these co-morbid conditions. Current models do not provide a comprehensive account, on the basis of neuro-scientific and developmental evidence, of how affective feelings come to be represented in words and the association between narcissistic disorders and failures of symbolisation. In this paper I propose an empirically based Relational Affective Hypothesis that narcissistic disorder and its comorbidities represent failures at specific points on a representational function pathway through which subcortical affect and visceral feeling in a relational context become the basis for abstraction and language. The elucidation of this pathway allows investigation of the contribution of biological, social and psychogenic factors in narcissistic disorders. It also brings a new understanding of the neurological underpinning of psychodynamic defences in narcissistic disorders. Research and novel treatment implications are briefly considered.

  14. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great pr

  15. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure

  16. Relation of cognitive appraisal to cardiovascular reactivity, affect, and task engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Karl J; Waldstein, Shari R; Synowski, Stephen J

    2003-08-01

    The relation of primary cognitive appraisals to cardiovascular reactivity, affect, task engagement, and perceived stress was examined in 56 men (ages 18-29). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, preejection period, stroke index, cardiac index, and total peripheral resistance were assessed at rest and during performance of a computerized mental arithmetic task. Extending on prior investigations, threat and challenge appraisals were assessed independently from one another and from secondary appraisals. Positive and negative affect, task engagement, and levels of perceived stress were also assessed. Results indicated that threat (R2 =.08, p =.01), challenge (R2 =.14, p =.003), and their interaction (R2 =.11, p =.006) independently predicted DBP reactivity; DBP responses were greatest among participants with a high threat/low challenge pattern of appraisal. Threat appraisals predicted greater negative affect (R2 =.32) and perceived stress (R2 =.48), whereas challenge appraisals were related to greater positive affect (R2 =.44) and task engagement (R2 =.40, ps task engagement with increased DBP response (ps task engagement than cardiovascular reactivity.

  17. Concurrent and prospective relations between attention to emotion and affect intensity: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-12-01

    Theorists contend that emotional awareness is vital to being able to use emotional information adaptively. The extent to which individuals attend to and value their feelings, or attention to emotion, is a facet of emotional awareness. Little research, however, has examined whether attention to emotion affects the magnitude or intensity of emotional experiences. In the present study we examined the relations between attention to emotion and levels of affect in 53 healthy adults. Participants carried hand-held electronic devices for approximately 7 days and were randomly prompted eight times per day to answer a series of questions. At each prompt, participants reported attention to emotion, current negative affect (NA), and positive affect (PA). All findings presented were computed using multilevel modeling. Replicating findings obtained using trait-level measures, we found that attention to emotion was associated concurrently with higher levels of both NA and PA. We also found prospectively that attention to emotion at one prompt predicted a decrease in levels of NA, but no change in levels of PA, at the subsequent prompt. These findings suggest that emotional processes serve different functions over time and highlight the role of attention to emotion in affect regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Growth, leaf morphology, water use and tissue water relations of Eucalyptus globulus clones in response to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, P; Pardos, J A

    2001-06-01

    Changes in leaf size, specific leaf area (SLA), transpiration and tissue water relations were studied in leaves of rooted cuttings of selected clones of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. subjected to well-watered or drought conditions in a greenhouse. Significant differences between clones were found in leaf expansion and transpiration. There was a significant clone x treatment interaction on SLA. Water stress significantly reduced osmotic potential at the turgor loss point (Pi0) and at full turgor (Pi100), and significantly increased relative water content at the turgor loss point and maximum bulk elastic modulus. Differences in tissue water relations between clones were significant only in the mild drought treatment. Among clones in the drought treatments, the highest leaf expansion and the highest increase in transpiration during the experiment were measured in those clones that showed an early and large decrease in Pi0 and Pi100.

  19. Effect of Altitude and Aspect on Wood-Water Relations of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Topaloğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of altitude and aspect on wood-water relations in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. were studied. Study area divided into five altitude steps and two aspect groups, total of 20 trees were cut off. In order to determine the wood-water relations; volume density value, fiber saturation point, maximum moisture content, and shrinkage and swelling percentages were determined. According to results, with 95% significance level (p<0,05, altitude affects volume density value, shrinkage and swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content; aspect affects volume density value, tangential and radial shrinkage percentages, volumetric shrinkage percentage, tangential and longitudinal swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content while it has no effect on longitudinal shrinkage percentage, radial and volumetric swelling percentages. Results demonstrated that northern aspect and first altitude step has the lowest values, thus, this aspect and altitude step making a suitable place for this tree species to be used as solid wood.

  20. Plant water use affects competition for nitrogen: why drought favors invasive species in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Katherine; Seabloom, Eric W; Harpole, W Stanley; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Classic resource competition theory typically treats resource supply rates as independent; however, nutrient supplies can be affected by plants indirectly, with important consequences for model predictions. We demonstrate this general phenomenon by using a model in which competition for nitrogen is mediated by soil moisture, with competitive outcomes including coexistence and multiple stable states as well as competitive exclusion. In the model, soil moisture regulates nitrogen availability through soil moisture dependence of microbial processes, leaching, and plant uptake. By affecting water availability, plants also indirectly affect nitrogen availability and may therefore alter the competitive outcome. Exotic annual species from the Mediterranean have displaced much of the native perennial grasses in California. Nitrogen and water have been shown to be potentially limiting in this system. We parameterize the model for a Californian grassland and show that soil moisture-mediated competition for nitrogen can explain the annual species' dominance in drier areas, with coexistence expected in wetter regions. These results are concordant with larger biogeographic patterns of grassland invasion in the Pacific states of the United States, in which annual grasses have invaded most of the hot, dry grasslands in California but perennial grasses dominate the moister prairies of northern California, Oregon, and Washington.

  1. On the relation between water pools and water holding capacity in cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Jørgensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    measures of water holding capacity (WHC) in a way that WHC related to the original water content could be predicted well for the whole and the minced muscle. The centrifuged samples gave optimal predictions of WHC related to the dry matter content, probably because the centrifuged samples are similar......Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations were measured on muscle, minced muscle and centrifuged mince from cod that had been treated under various frozen and chill storage conditions. By using multi-way chemometrics, uni-exponential profiles were obtained, from which the transverse...... relaxation times (T2-values) and the water pool sizes (m- values) were determined. Three pools of water were identified with the different relaxation times and m-values in the centrifuged samples reflecting the removal of loosely bound water. The m-values and the full NMR-signal decays were correlated to two...

  2. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies.

  3. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  4. Water relations in culture media influence maturation of avocado somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Sesmero, Rafael; Quesada, Miguel A; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Sánchez-Romero, Carolina

    2011-11-15

    Application of transformation and other biotechnological tools in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is hampered by difficulties in obtaining mature somatic embryos capable of germination at an acceptable rate. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affecting medium water relations on maturation of avocado somatic embryos. Culture media were characterized with respect to gel strength, water potential and osmotic potential. Improved production of mature somatic embryos was achieved with gelling agent concentrations higher than those considered standard. The osmotic agents such as sorbitol and PEG did not have positive effects on embryo maturation. The number of w-o mature somatic embryos per culture was positively correlated with medium gel strength. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent type as well as by gelling agent and PEG concentration. Medium water potential was influenced by sorbitol concentration; incorporation of PEG to a culture medium did not affect medium water potential. The highest maturation results were achieved on a medium gelled with 10 gl(-1) agar. Moreover, these somatic embryos had improved germination rates. These results corroborate the role of water restriction as a key factor controlling maturation of somatic embryos.

  5. Relations between information, time, and value of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, S. V.; Galindo, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    This research uses with stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) as a tool to reveal economic information about managed water resources. An application to the operation of an example hydropower reservoir is presented. SDP explicitly balances the marginal value of water for immediate use and its expected opportunity cost of not having more water available for future use. The result of an SDP analysis is a steady state policy, which gives the optimal decision as a function of the state. A commonly applied form gives the optimal release as a function of the month, current reservoir level and current inflow to the reservoir. The steady state policy can be complemented with a real-time management strategy, that can depend on more real-time information. An information-theoretical perspective is given on how this information influences the value of water, and how to deal with that influence in hydropower reservoir optimization. This results in some conjectures about how the information gain from real-time operation could affect the optimal long term policy. Another issue is the sharing of increased benefits that result from this information gain in a multi-objective setting. It is argued that this should be accounted for in negotiations about an operation policy.

  6. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper.

  7. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In t

  8. The impact of extreme precipitation on plant growth and water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, M.; Lehmann, C.; Lewis, J. D.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Background The global hydrological cycle is predicted to become more intense, or extreme in future climates, with both larger precipitation events and longer times between events. The resulting wide fluctuations in soil water content (long droughts followed by flooding) may dramatically affect terrestrial ecosystems. Although effects of drought are well studied, tree responses to changed timing of precipitation are mostly unknown. Further, in future extreme precipitation is likely to occur in conjunction with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2]. We tested the impact of extreme precipitation and elevated [CO2] on plant growth and water relations. Methods/results Ten Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus tetradonta saplings were grown in glasshouses, with ambient (380 p.p.m.) and elevated (600 p.p.m.) [CO2] and subject to ambient (1L weekly) and extreme (2L fortnightly) watering conditions (four treatments). We tested whether: (1) plants would show differential water stress and growth under extreme precipitation compared with ambient water treatments; and (2) plants would show differential water stress and growth responses under elevated compared with ambient [CO2] treatments. We found that the extreme precipitation, compared to ambient precipitation, lead to more water stressed plants, with more negative leaf water potential and lower stomatal conductance in both species. Further, plants experiencing extreme precipitation had a higher proportion of root volume at depth within the Eucalyptus. In contrast, the root depth of Acacia was similar across all treatments. Leaf area was smaller in extreme precipitation compared with ambient for Acacias, whereas leaf area was comparable across watering treatments in Eucalypts. Elevated CO2 had no impact on leaf water potential, stomatal conductance during the day or proportion of root depth. The Acacia, from tropical dry forest ecosystems, showed more signs of water stress (more negative leaf water potential and lower

  9. Chemical speciation in mining affected waters: the case study of Asarel-Medet mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadjieva, Diana; Tepavitcharova, Stefka; Todorov, Tihomir; Dassenakis, Manos; Paraskevopoulou, Vasiliki; Petrov, Mihail

    2009-12-01

    The inorganic chemical species in Maresh and Luda Yana rivers affected by the Cu- Mo Asarel-Medet mine, Bulgaria were determined during a low-flow and a high-flow period. The mining activities, the weathering and the oxidation processes strongly influenced the physicochemical processes in the whole water system. The main pollution source was a small lake receiving the acid effluents of the mining activities. High levels of SO4(2-), Cu, Mg, Al, Mn and Fe were determined at the mining polluted and affected stations. Cu(2+) and CuCO3(0) species (1:1) were present in the reference waters and Cu(2+) and CuSO4(0) species (1:1) in the polluted and affected waters; Cu(2+) species was dominating downstream. Me(2+) followed by MeSO4(0) (Me = Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb), PbCO3(0) and PbHCO3(+) species as well as Fe(OH)2(+), Al(OH)4(-), Al(OH)2(+), Al(OH)3(0) were prevailing in the system. MeSO4(+) and Me(SO4)2(-) (Me = Fe, Al), Me(SO4)2(2-) (Me = Zn, Cd and Pb), Me(SO4)3(4-) (Me = Zn, Cd) and Cd(SO4)4(6-) species polluted and affected waters. The major elements K and Na were mainly Me(+) species, whereas Ca and Mg were Me(2+) and MeSO4(0) species in different ratios. The concentration of concentration of NO2(-), NO3(-) and NO4(+) species as well as complex phosphorous species such as H2PO4(-), FeHPO4(+), HPO4(2-), CaPO4(-), CaHPO4(0) and MgHPO4(0) were also calculated. The trace element concentrations decreased downstream due to dilution, sorption processes and precipitation, but the percentage of free metal species, which are more toxic, increased. An exception was iron and aluminum of which the dominant hydroxy colloidal and sulphate species were easily incorporated into the suspended phase.

  10. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  11. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  12. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely eFisk Green

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs. Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (risk genotypes and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017. We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential

  13. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  14. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  15. Health-related stress, affect, and depressive symptoms experienced by caregiving mothers of adults with a developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Meeks, Suzanne

    2004-09-01

    The interrelationships among health-related stress, positive and negative affect, and depressive symptoms patterned in the dynamic model of affect (J. Reich, A. Zautra, & M. Davis, 2003) were examined using data from 932 women having an adult child with a developmental disability. Results indicate that women experience a moderate inverse correlation between positive and negative affect under conditions of low levels of health-related stress, whereas at high levels of stress, positive and negative affect become more strongly inversely correlated. Under high-stress conditions, both negative affect and positive affect have a stronger relationship to depressive symptoms than they do under low-stress conditions.

  16. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    ) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  17. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for

  18. Water relations in tree physiology: where to from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Joe; Waring, Richard

    2016-12-14

    We look back over 50 years of research into the water relations of trees, with the objective of assessing the maturity of the topic in terms of the idea of a paradigm, put forward by Kuhn in 1962. Our brief review indicates that the physical processes underlying the calculation of transpiration are well understood and accepted, and knowledge of those processes can be applied if information about the leaf area of trees, and stomatal conductance, is available. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors governing stomatal responses to environment, with insights into how the hydraulic conducting system of trees determines the maximum aperture of stomata. Knowledge about the maximum stomatal conductance values likely to be reached by different species, and recognition that stomatal responses to increasing atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are in fact responses to water loss from leaves, provides the basis for linking these responses to information about hydraulic conductance through soil-root-stem-branch systems. Improved understanding in these areas is being incorporated into modern models of stomatal conductance and responses to environmental conditions. There have been significant advances in understanding hydraulic pathways, including cavitation and its implications. A few studies suggest that the major resistances to water flux within trees are not in the stem but in the branches. This insight may have implications for productivity: it may be advantageous to select trees with the genetic propensity to produce short branches in stands with open canopies. Studies on the storage of water in stems have provided improved understanding of fluxes from sapwood at different levels. Water stored in the stems of large trees may provide up to 20-30% daily sap flow, but this water is likely to be replaced by inflows at night. In dry conditions transpiration by large trees may be maintained from stored water for up to a week, but flows from storage may be

  19. Water relations of baobab trees (Adansonia spp. L.) during the rainy season: does stem water buffer daily water deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Razanameharizaka, Juvet H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-06-01

    Baobab trees are often cited in the literature as water-storing trees, yet few studies have examined this assumption. We assessed the role of stored water in buffering daily water deficits in two species of baobabs (Adansonia rubrostipa Jum. and H. Perrier and Adansonia za Baill.) in a tropical dry forest in Madagascar. We found no lag in the daily onset of sap flow between the base and the crown of the tree. Some night-time sap flow occurred, but this was more consistent with a pattern of seasonal stem water replenishment than with diurnal usage. Intrinsic capacitance of both leaf and stem tissue (0.07-0.08 and 1.1-1.43 MPa(-1), respectively) was high, yet the amount of water that could be withdrawn before turgor loss was small because midday leaf and stem water potentials (WPs) were near the turgor-loss points. Stomatal conductance was high in the daytime but then declined rapidly, suggesting an embolism-avoidance strategy. Although the xylem of distal branches was relatively vulnerable to cavitation (P50: 1.1-1.7 MPa), tight stomatal control and minimum WPs near--1.0 MPa maintained native embolism levels at 30-65%. Stem morphology and anatomy restrict water movement between storage tissues and the conductive pathway, making stored-water usage more appropriate to longer-term water deficits than as a buffer against daily water deficits.

  20. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern leaf tissue. Isotherms were constructed at 5, 25, and 45 degrees C and analysed using different physicochemical models in order to quantify chemical affinity and heat (enthalpy) of sorption of water in fern spores. Fern spores hydrate slowly but dry rapidly at ambient relative humidity. Low Brunauer-Emmet-Teller monolayer values, few water-binding sites according to the D'Arcy-Watt model, and limited solute-solvent compatibility according to the Flory-Huggins model suggest that fern spores have low affinity for water. Despite the low water affinity, fern spores demonstrate relatively high values of sorption enthalpy (DeltaH(sorp)). Parameters associated with binding sites and DeltaH(sorp) decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting temperature- and hydration-dependent changes in volume of spore macromolecules. Collectively, these data may relate to the degree to which cellular structures within fern spores are stabilized during drying and cooling. Water sorption properties within fern spores suggest that storage at subfreezing temperatures will give longevities comparable with those achieved with seeds. However, the window of optimum water contents for fern spores is very narrow and much lower than that measured in seeds, making precise manipulation of water content imperative for achieving maximum longevity.

  1. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Kinner, D.A.; Ubeda, X.

    2009-01-01

    Heat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kf and (2) sorptivity, S(??i), as a function of initial soil moisture content, ??i, ranging from extremely dry conditions (??i capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of Kf and S(??i) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall-runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These modified models can be used to predict floods from burned watersheds under these initial conditions.

  2. How geomorphology and groundwater level affect the spatio-temporal variability of riverine cold water patches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Vincent; Piégay, Hervé; Allemand, Pascal; Vaudor, Lise; Goma, Régis; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Temperature is a key factor for river ecosystems. In summer, patches of cold water are formed in the river by groundwater seepage. These patches have strong ecological significance and extend to the surface water in a well-mixed riverine system. These patches can serve as thermal refuges for some fish species during summer. In this study, the temporal variability and spatial distribution of cold water patches were explored along a 50 km river reach (the lower Ain River, France) using thermal infrared airborne remote sensing. This study examines a new range of processes acting on cold water patches at different scales that have not previously been touched upon in the literature. Three airborne campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2010, 2011 and 2014. Based on these images, a large number of cold water patches were identified using an automated method. Four types of patches were observed: tributary plumes, cold side channels (former channels or point-bar backwater channels), side seeps (located directly in the river channel) and gravel bar seeps (occurring at the downstream end of gravel bars). Logistic regression was used to analyse the longitudinal distribution of cold water patches according to geomorphologic indicators reflecting current or past fluvial process. Side seeps were found to be related to the local geology. Cold side channels were correlated to contemporary and past lateral river mobility. Gravel bar seeps were related to the current development of bars and are more prevalent in wandering reaches than in single-bed incised and paved reaches. The logistic model was subsequently used to evaluate gravel bar seep variability in the past. The model suggests larger numbers of seeps in the mid-20th century when bar surface area was higher. Interannual variability in the occurrence and spatial extent of side seeps and gravel bar seeps appear to be related to groundwater level fluctuations. Cold side channels exhibited greater interannual stability

  3. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  4. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  5. Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil's last agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Stephanie A; Galford, Gillian L; Coe, Michael T; Macedo, Marcia N; Mustard, John F

    2016-10-01

    Historically, conservation-oriented research and policy in Brazil have focused on Amazon deforestation, but a majority of Brazil's deforestation and agricultural expansion has occurred in the neighboring Cerrado biome, a biodiversity hotspot comprised of dry forests, woodland savannas, and grasslands. Resilience of rainfed agriculture in both biomes likely depends on water recycling in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation; yet little is known about how changes in land-use and land-cover affect regional climate feedbacks in the Cerrado. We used remote sensing techniques to map land-use change across the Cerrado from 2003 to 2013. During this period, cropland agriculture more than doubled in area from 1.2 to 2.5 million ha, with 74% of new croplands sourced from previously intact Cerrado vegetation. We find that these changes have decreased the amount of water recycled to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) each year. In 2013 alone, cropland areas recycled 14 km(3) less (-3%) water than if the land cover had been native Cerrado vegetation. ET from single-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans) is less than from natural vegetation in all years, except in the months of January and February, the height of the growing season. In double-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans followed by corn), ET is similar to or greater than natural vegetation throughout a majority of the wet season (December-May). As intensification and extensification of agricultural production continue in the region, the impacts on the water cycle and opportunities for mitigation warrant consideration. For example, if an environmental goal is to minimize impacts on the water cycle, double cropping (intensification) might be emphasized over extensification to maintain a landscape that behaves more akin to the natural system.

  6. Carbon Allocation in Mojave Desert Plant-Soil Systems as Affected by Nitrogen and Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, P. S.; Kapitzke, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Changes in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased urbanization and precipitation due to climate change are likely to affect carbon (C) allocation in plants and soils in arid ecosystems in the Southwestern United States where net primary production is often limited by N and water availability. We conducted a greenhouse study to determine the effects of N and water availability on one year old creosote (Larrea tridentata) plants, the dominant shrub in the Mojave Desert. In our greenhouse study we employed two N levels (0 and 40 kg ha-1) and two soil moisture levels (7% and 15%). We grew creosote seedlings in PVC columns filled with topsoil from the Mojave Global Change Facility at the Nevada Test Site. The columns were covered and sealed at the base of the plant to separate the above- from belowground plant compartment. Plants were distributed over two growth chambers receiving ambient light while day/night temperatures were set at 25° C/15° C. In one chamber plants were labeled once a week with 13C-enriched CO2 while a second chamber acted as an unlabeled control. Throughout the six month study we measured soil CO2 concentrations, respired CO2 as well as their isotopic signatures. At the end of the study plants were harvested and we measured plant above- and belowground biomass and isotopic composition of the vegetation. In addition, we measured isotopic composition of soil organic and inorganic C. Increased N availability stimulated stem weight and decreased total C losses through soil respiration. Other plant and soil parameters including isotopic composition were not affected by changes in N availability. Increased soil moisture stimulated plant biomass mainly due to an increase in leaf weight while root biomass tended to decrease. Soil CO2 concentrations increased with increasing water availability despite a reduction in root biomass. The isotopic data showed that net new C uptake increased mostly in leaves, soil organic matter and soil

  7. Historical development of crop-related water footprints and inter-regional virtual water flows within China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-04-01

    China is facing water-related challenges, including an uneven distribution of water resources, both temporally and spatially, and an increasing competition over the limited water resources among different sectors. This issue has been widely researched and was finally included into the National Plan 2011 (the 2011 No. 1 Document by the State Council of China). However, there is still lack of information on how population growth and rapid urbanization have affected the water resources in China over the last decades. The current study aims at investigating (i) the intra-annual variation of green and blue water footprints (WFs) of crop production in China over the period 1978-2009 at a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc-minute; (ii) the yearly virtual water (VW) balances of 31 provinces within China, related water savings for the country, as well as the VW flows among eight economic regions resulting from inter-regional crop trade over the same period; and (iii) the development of the WF related to crop consumption by Chinese consumers. Results show that, over the period 1978-2009, the total WF related to crop production within China increased by only 4%), but regional changes were significant. From the 1980s to the 2000s, the shift of the cropping centre from the South to the North resulted in an increase of about 16% in the blue WF and 19% in the green WF in the North and a reduction of the blue and green WF in the South by 11% and 3%, respectively. China as a whole was a net virtual water importer related to crop trade, thus saving domestic water resources. China's inter-regional crop trade generated a blue water 'loss' annually by transferring crops from provinces with relatively low crop water productivity to provinces with relatively high productivity. Over the decades, the original VW flow from the South coastal region to the Northeast was reversed. Rice was the all-time dominant crop in the inter-regional VW flows (accounting for 34% in 2009), followed by wheat

  8. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes. In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. Results In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593. The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change

  9. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  10. The role of illness perceptions in the attachment-related process of affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Dekel, Rachel; Asher, Zvia; Leibowitz, Morton; Mosseri, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Based on the predictions of the attachment theory and the Common Sense Model of illness perceptions, the current study focused on the role played by illness perceptions in explaining the path linking attachment orientations to negative affect during recovery from cardiac illness. We predicted two putative mechanisms: (1) illness perceptions would mediate the direct association between attachment-related insecurity (especially attachment anxiety) and levels of distress at follow-up and (2) illness perceptions would interact with attachment orientations (attachment avoidance in particular) in explaining patients' distress. The sample consisted of 111 male patients admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit of the Meir Medical Center, located in the central region of Israel. Patients completed a measure of attachment orientations during hospitalization (baseline). One month later, patients' illness perceptions were measured. Patients' depression and anxiety symptoms were measured at baseline and at the six-month follow-up. The associations between attachment-related anxiety and anxiety symptoms at follow-up were fully mediated by illness perceptions. Attachment-related avoidance was found to interact with illness perceptions in the prediction of depressive symptoms at follow-up. The findings shed light on the possible dynamics among personality, cognitive appraisals, and affect regulation efforts when coping with illness.

  11. Lycopene Accumulation Affects the Biosynthesis of Some Carotenoid-related Volatiles Independent of Ethylene in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Gao; Hongliang Zhu; Yi Shao; Anjun Chen; Chengwen Lu; Benzhong Zhu; Yunbo Luo

    2008-01-01

    For elucidating the regulatory mechanism of ethylene on carotenoid-related volatiles (open chain) compounds and the relationship between lycopene and carotenoid-related volatiles,transgenic tomato fruits in which ACC synthase was suppressed were used.The transgenic tomato fruit showed a significant reduction of lycopene and aroma volatiles with low ethylene production.6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and geranylacetone,which were suspected to be lycopene degradation products,were lower than those in wild type tomato fruits.In order to identify whether lycopene accumulation effects the biosynthesis of some carotenoid-related volatiles independent of ethylene in tomato or not,the capability of both wild type and transgenic tomato fruits discs to convert lycopene into carotenoid-related volatiles was evaluated.The data showed that external lycopene could convert into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol in vivo,Indicating that the strong inhibition of ethylene production had no effect on enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of some carotenoid-related volatiles.Therefore,in ACS-suppression transgenic tomato fruits,the low levels of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol was due to decreased lycopene accumulation,not ethylene production.Ethylene only affected the accumulation of lycopene,and then indirectly influenceed the level of lycopene-related volatiles.

  12. Event-related theta synchronization predicts deficit in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2014-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that abnormalities in the synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons in schizophrenia may lead to impaired neural activation and temporal coding and thus lead to neurocognitive dysfunctions, such as deficits in facial affect recognition. To gain an insight into the neurobiological processes linked to facial affect recognition, we investigated both induced and evoked oscillatory activity by calculating the Event Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP) and the Inter Trial Coherence (ITC) during facial affect recognition. Fearful and neutral faces as well as nonface patches were presented to 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls while EEG was recorded. The participants' task was to recognize facial expressions. Because previous findings with healthy controls showed that facial feature decoding was associated primarily with oscillatory activity in the theta band, we analyzed ERSP and ITC in this frequency band in the time interval of 140-200 ms, which corresponds to the N170 component. Event-related theta activity and phase-locking to facial expressions, but not to nonface patches, predicted emotion recognition performance in both controls and patients. Event-related changes in theta amplitude and phase-locking were found to be significantly weaker in patients compared with healthy controls, which is in line with previous investigations showing decreased neural synchronization in the low frequency bands in patients with schizophrenia. Neural synchrony is thought to underlie distributed information processing. Our results indicate a less effective functioning in the recognition process of facial features, which may contribute to a less effective social cognition in schizophrenia.

  13. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  14. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (< 1.4 mm) were more. With the development of soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64.

  15. Evidence that emotional intelligence is related to job performance and affect and attitudes at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo N; Grewal, Daisy; Kadis, Jessica; Gall, Michelle; Salovey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The relation between emotional intelligence, assessed with a performance measure, and positive workplace outcomes was examined in 44 analysts and clerical employees from the finance department of a Fortune 400 insurance company. Emotionally intelligent individuals received greater merit increases and held higher company rank than their counterparts. They also received better peer and/or supervisor ratings of interpersonal facilitation and stress tolerance than their counterparts. With few exceptions, these associations remained statistically significant after controlling for other predictors, one at a time, including age, gender, education, verbal ability, the Big Five personality traits, and trait affect.

  16. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    these variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through...... and the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....

  17. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  18. Ground water discharge and the related nutrient and trace metal fluxes into Quincy Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Moffett, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the rate and direction of ground water flow beneath Wollaston Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts by use of a heat-pulsing flowmeter shows a mean velocity in the bulk sediment of 40 cm d-1. The estimated total discharge of ground water into Quincy Bay during October 1990 was 1324-2177 m3 d-1, a relatively low ground Water discharge rate. The tides have only a moderate effect on the rate and direction of this flow. Other important controls on the rate and volume of ground water flow are the limited thickness, geographic extent, and permeability of the aquifer. Comparisons of published streamflow data and estimates of ground water discharge indicate that ground water makes up between 7.4-12.1% of the gaged freshwater input into Quincy Bay. The data from this study suggest the ground water discharge is a less important recharge component to Quincy Bay than predicted by National Urban Runoff Program (NURP) models. The high nitrate and low nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the ground water at the backshore we]l sites and low nitrate and high nitrite and ammonia concentrations in the water flowing from the foreshore suggests that denitrification is active in the sediments. The low ground water flow rates and low nitrate concentrations in the foreshore samples suggest that little or no nitrate is surviving the denitrification process to affect the planktonic community. Similarly, oxidizing conditions in the aquifer and low trace metal concentrations in the ground water samples suggest that the metals may be precipitating and binding to sedimentary phases before impacting the bay.

  19. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    dissolved solids and selenium increased between the north and middle transects but generally decreased between the middle and south transects. By contrast, uranium loads generally decreased between the north and middle transects but increased between the middle and south transects. In-stream load differences between transects appear primarily to be related to differences in streamflow. However, because groundwater typically flows to Fountain Creek under low-flow conditions, and groundwater has greater concentrations of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium than surface water in Fountain Creek, increases in loads between transects likely are affected by inflow of groundwater to the stream, which can account for a substantial proportion of the in-stream load difference between transects. When loads decreased between transects, the primary cause likely was decreased streamflow as a result of losses to groundwater and flow through the hyporheic zone. However, localized groundwater inflow likely attenuated the magnitude by which the in-stream loads decreased.The combination of localized soluble geologic sources and oxic conditions likely is the primary reason for the occurrence of high concentrations of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in groundwater on the east side of the north monitoring well transect. To evaluate conditions potentially responsible for differences in water quality and redox conditions, physical characteristics such as depth to water, saturated thickness, screen depth below the water table, screen height above bedrock, and aquifer hydraulic conductivity were compared by using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results indicated no significant difference between depth to water, screen height above bedrock, and hydraulic conductivity for groundwater samples collected from wells on the east side of the north transect and groundwater samples from all other wells. However, saturated thickness and screen depth below the water table both were significantly smaller for

  20. Information from familiar and related conspecifics affects foraging in a solitary wolf spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Catherine R; Sitvarin, Michael I; Rypstra, Ann L

    2016-06-01

    As neighbours become familiar with one another, they can divert attention away from one another and focus on other activities. Since familiarity is a likely mechanism by which animals recognise relatives, both kinship and prior association with conspecifics should allow individuals to increase foraging. We attempted to determine if the interference observed among conspecific foragers could be mitigated by familiarity and/or kinship. Because Pardosa milvina wolf spiders are sensitive to chemotactile cues deposited on substrates by other spiders, we used cues to manipulate the information available to focal spiders. We first verified that animals could use these cues to differentiate relatives and familiar conspecifics. We then documented foraging in the presence of all combinations of related and familiar animal cues. Test spiders were slower foragers, less likely to capture prey, and consumed less of each prey item when on cues from unfamiliar kin, but were faster and more effective foragers on cues from familiar non-kin. Their reactions to familiar kin and unfamiliar non-kin were intermediate. High foraging intensity on familiar cues is consistent with the idea that animals pay less attention to neighbours after some prior association. Lower foraging effort in the presence of cues from relatives may be an attempt to reduce kin competition by shifting attention toward dispersal or to provide increased access to prey for hungry relatives nearby. These findings reveal that information from conspecifics mediates social interactions among individuals and affects foraging in ways that can influence their role in the food web.

  1. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity.

  2. Water relations of climbing ivy in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, S; Hartmann, A; Körner, C

    2011-06-01

    Ivy (Hedera helix) is the most important liana in temperate European forests. We studied water relations of adult ivy in a natural, 35 m tall mixed deciduous forest in Switzerland using a construction crane to access the canopy. Predawn leaf water potential at the top of climbing ivy ranged from -0.4 to -0.6 MPa, daily minima ranged from -1.3 to -1.7 MPa. Leaf water potentials as well as relative sap flow were held surprisingly constant throughout different weather conditions, suggesting a tendency to isohydric behaviour. Maximum stomatal conductance was 200 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The use of a potometer experiment allowed us to measure absolute transpiration rates integrated over a whole plant of 0.23 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Nightly sap flow of ivy during warm, dry nights accounted for up to 20% of the seasonal maximum. Maximum sap flow rates were reached at ca. 0.5 kPa vpd. On the other hand, the host trees showed a less conservative stomatal regulation, maximum sap flow rates were reached at vpd values of ca. 1 kPa. Sap flow rates of ivy decreased by ca. 20% in spring after bud break of trees, suggesting that ivy profits strongly from warm sunny days in early spring before budbreak of the host trees and from mild winter days. This species may benefit from rising winter temperatures in Europe and thus become a stronger competitor against its host trees.

  3. Affect of school related factors in the student's choices of the high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Cengiz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied that to determine the school related factors which affects the students’ choices of the high school, according to the type of the schools. This is a survey study. The participants are 523 9 th grade students in 21 secondary schools in Adapazarı. SPSS is used for analyzing data. Kay-Kare Test is used to determine the demografic differences due to the type of the school. To analyze the data for the school related factors, Kruskal Wallis is used. As a result, it is expressed that in the choices of the schools, similar factors are important. On the other hand, the most important factors are; the fame of the school due to its succesful education, the easiness of entering the university after completing the school and the teachers of the school, who are talented and famous with their success

  4. Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Zhi; Yang, Baomei; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin

    2010-04-01

    Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While an animal is fed with ROX, the As compounds in the manure primarily occur as ROX and its metabolites, including arsenate (As[V]), arsenite (As[III]), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous fertilizers in China. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), with the soil amended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 g PO(4)/kg, respectively, plus 2% (w/w manure/soil) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results indicate that this species of water spinach cannot accumulate ROX and MMA at detectable levels, but As(V), As(III), and DMA were present in all plant samples. Increased phosphorous decreased the shoot As(V) and As(III) in water spinach but did not affect the root As(V). The shoot DMA and root As(III) and DMA were decreased/increased and then increased/decreased by elevated phosphorous. The total phosphorous content (P) in plant tissue did not correlate with the total As or the three As species in tissues. Arsenate, As(III), and DMA were more easily accumulated in the roots, and phosphate considerably inhibited their upward transport. Dimethylarsinic acid had higher transport efficiency than As(V) and As(III), but As(III) was dominant in tissues. Conclusively, phosphate had multiple effects on the accumulation and transport of ROX metabolites, which depended on their levels. However, proper utilization of phosphate fertilizer can decrease the accumulation of ROX metabolites in water spinach when treated with CM containing ROX and its metabolites.

  5. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. How Do Severe Constraints Affect the Search Ability of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms in Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, T. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Raseman, W. J.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study contributes a diagnostic assessment of multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search on a set of water resources problem formulations with different configurations of constraints. Unlike constraints in classical optimization modeling, constraints within MOEA simulation-optimization represent limits on acceptable performance that delineate whether solutions within the search problem are feasible. Constraints are relevant because of the emergent pressures on water resources systems: increasing public awareness of their sustainability, coupled with regulatory pressures on water management agencies. In this study, we test several state-of-the-art MOEAs that utilize restricted tournament selection for constraint handling on varying configurations of water resources planning problems. For example, a problem that has no constraints on performance levels will be compared with a problem with several severe constraints, and a problem with constraints that have less severe values on the constraint thresholds. One such problem, Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) portfolio planning, has been solved with a suite of constraints that ensure high reliability, low cost variability, and acceptable performance in a single year severe drought. But to date, it is unclear whether or not the constraints are negatively affecting MOEAs' ability to solve the problem effectively. Two categories of results are explored. The first category uses control maps of algorithm performance to determine if the algorithm's performance is sensitive to user-defined parameters. The second category uses run-time performance metrics to determine the time required for the algorithm to reach sufficient levels of convergence and diversity on the solution sets. Our work exploring the effect of constraints will better enable practitioners to define MOEA problem formulations for real-world systems, especially when stakeholders are concerned with achieving fixed levels of performance according to one or

  7. Simulation of water resource and its relation to urban activity in Dalian City, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T.; Sun, Y.; Geng, Y.

    2010-09-01

    The NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model was applied to the Biliu River catchment, northern China, to estimate the carrying capacity of the water resource there. The model reproduced well the water and heat budgets after the construction of a reservoir in the middle reach of the river. It also correctly backcasted the degradation of water resources such as river discharge and groundwater after the completion of the reservoir. Calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from satellite data clearly showed vegetation degradation downstream of the reservoir. Statistical analysis of a decoupling indicator based on the simulated water carrying capacity and on the satellite data of vegetation index indicated that water-related stress in Dalian city, where the economy has grown rapidly after the completement of the reservoir, has increased in accordance with the environmental degradation below the reservoir. The results indicate a close relationship between water resource and economic growth, which has greatly affected ecosystem degradation and its serious burden on the environment in the catchment. The simulated results highlight the linkage between urban development in Dalian and sustainable water resource management.

  8. A positive affect intervention for people experiencing health-related stress: development and non-randomized pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R; Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.

  9. A Wider Notion of the Scope of Water Services in EU Water LawBoosting Payment for Water-Related Ecosystem Services to Ensure Sustainable Water Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E. Lindhout

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The services ecosystems on the Earth providing for mankind, like the provision of (clean water for drinking and other purposes, are under pressure. Payment for (water-related ecosystem services, incentive pricing policies and the recovery of service costs are instruments to attain a sustainable use of scarce environmental resources and ecosystems. Although the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, whose purpose explicitly includes striving for sustainable water use, includes an obligation to recover the costs of water services, the scope of application of this obligation depends on the width of the interpretation of 'water services' in the WFD. If 'water services' are interpreted broadly, the WFD embraces the concept of payment for water-related ecosystem services, but raises a number of questions that need to be addressed.

  10. Identifying Major Factors Affecting Groundwater Change in the North China Plain with Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is facing a water crisis under the dual impact of natural and anthropogenic factors. Groundwater levels have declined continuously since 1960, causing a series of environmental problems that have restricted sustainable development in the region. In the present study, we first utilized a previously developed 3D groundwater model to determine changes in groundwater level in the region over the past 50 years (1961–2010. We then applied grey relational analysis (GRA to identify and ordinate major factors that have contributed to these changes. The results show an overall decreasing trend in groundwater levels in this region over the past 50 years and an increase in the water table depth at a rate of approximately 0.36 m/a. Groundwater exploitation showed the most significant correlation with the groundwater table decline, when compared with other factors including precipitation and river leakage. Therefore, human activities should be considered the primary force driving the groundwater level down. The results of this study have implications for developing criteria that consider changes in both climate and socio-economics. Furthermore, since the NCP is one of the most water-scarce and densely populated regions in the world, the analytical approach used in and the insights gained from this study are of international interest.

  11. European water policy and research on water-related topics - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    European water policy developments are essentially linked to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and parent legislation, which is built upon the principle of river basin management planning with the objective of achieving good status for all European water bodies. Recent policy developments in the climate change area call for ‘climate proofing' of EU actions through mainstreaming of adaptation measures into policies and programmes. These policy trends are very closely related to the capacity to get access to supporting scientific information and to bridge the knowledge gap. This paper is about these features, serving as an introduction to the special issue of Journal of Hydrology on climatic change impact on water: overcoming data and science gaps.

  12. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...... and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during...... a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between...

  13. Effects of soil water depletion on the water relations in tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth., Leguminosae: Faboideae is native to the humid Southeastern Asia. Tropical kudzu has potential as a cover crop in regions subjected to dryness. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of soil water depletion on leaflet relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g and temperature (T L in tropical kudzu. RWC of waterstressed plants dropped from 96 to 78%, following a reduction in SWC from 0.25 to 0.17 g (H2O.g (dry soil-1.Stomatal conductance of stressed plants decreased from 221 to 98 mmol.m-2.s-1, following the reduction in soil water content (SWC. The day after re-irrigation, g of water stressed plants was 15% lower than g of unstressed plants. Differences in T L between waterstressed and unstressed plants (deltaT L rose linearly from 0.1 to 2.2ºC following progressive water deficit. RWC and T L of waterstressed plants paralled RWC and T L of unstressed plants the day after reirrigation. The strong decrease in SWC found in this study only induced moderate water stress in tropical kudzu. In addition, tropical kudzu recover rapidly from the induced water stress after the re-irrigation.

  14. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  15. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed.

  16. Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misund, Ole Arve; Heggland, Kristin; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Falck, Eva; Gjøsæter, Harald; Sundet, Jan; Watne, Jens; Lønne, Ole Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the Svalbard zone (approximately ICES area IIb). The large fishery for capelin in summer yielding annual catches up to 737 000 tons was closed by a Norwegian fishery regulation in the mid nineteen nineties. Demersal fisheries have been continuous, and the results clearly indicate a northward trend in landings of Northeast Arctic cod, haddock, ling and Atlantic halibut. Fisheries of Northern shrimp have been more variable and shown no clear geographic trends. A "gold rush" fishery for scallops north of Svalbard lasted for about 10 years (1986-1995) only, and ended due to low profitably. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of further northward extension of fisheries subjected to climate change.

  17. Climatic Versus Biotic Constraints on Carbon and Water Fluxes in Seasonally Drought-affected Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (50%), and intermediate at the YS (<20%). In the young, developing stand, interannual variation in leaf area has larger effects on fluxes than climate, although leaf area is a function of climate in that climate can interact with age-related shifts in carbon allocation and affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance. Older forests, with well-established root systems, appear to be better buffered from effects of seasonal drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.

  18. Does personality affect health-related quality of life? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chan; Lee, Joy L.; Ketheeswaran, Pavinarmatha; Jones, Conor M.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Wu, Albert W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly measured as an outcome for clinical and health services research. However, relatively little is known about how non-health factors affect HRQOL. Personality is a potentially important factor, yet evidence regarding the effects of personality on HRQOL measures is unclear. Methods This systematic review examined the relationships among aspects of personality and HRQOL. Eligible studies were identified from Medline and PsycINFO. The review included 76 English-language studies with HRQOL as a primary outcome and that assessed personality from the psychological perspective. Individuals with various health states, including ill (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disorders), aging, and healthy, were included in this review study. Results Some personality characteristics were consistently related to psychosocial aspects more often than physical aspects of HRQOL. Personality characteristics, especially neuroticism, mastery, optimism, and sense of coherence were most likely to be associated with psychosocial HRQOL. Personality explained varying proportions of variance in different domains of HRQOL. The range of variance explained in psychosocial HRQOL was 0 to 45% and the range of explained variance in physical HRQOL was 0 to 39%. Conclusions Personality characteristics are related to HRQOL. Systematic collection and analysis of personality data alongside HRQOL measures may be helpful in medical research, clinical practice, and health policy evaluation. PMID:28355244

  19. Relative importance of parameters affecting wind speed prediction using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; Hosseini, B.; Bilgili, M.

    2013-10-01

    In traditional artificial neural networks (ANN) models, the relative importance of the individual meteorological input variables is often overlooked. A case study is presented in this paper to model monthly wind speed values using meteorological data (air pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation), where the study also includes an estimate of the relative importance of these variables. Recorded monthly mean data are available at a gauging site in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran, for the period from 2000 to 2005, gauged in the city at the outskirt of alluvial funneling mountains with an established microclimatic conditions and a diurnal wind regime. This provides a sufficiently severe test for the ANN model with a good predictive capability of 1 year of lead time but without any direct approach to refer the predicted results to local microclimatic conditions. A method is used in this paper to calculate the relative importance of each meteorological input parameters affecting wind speed, showing that air pressure and precipitation are the most and least influential parameters with approximate values of 40 and 10 %, respectively. This gained knowledge corresponds to the local knowledge of the microclimatic and geomorphologic conditions surrounding Tabriz.

  20. Affecting Factors of Arterial Stiffness in Living Related Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Ergülü EŞMEN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness might be affected by several factors including recipient as well as donors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate arterial stiffness in living related kidney transplant recipients before and after transplantation. We enrolled 47 living related kidney recipients and pulse wave velocity (PWV was determined before and after transplantation. Donor renal arterial biopsy, recipient iliac artery samples were taken during the operation and PWV was also determined for the donors. Forty-seven patients completed the study. Post-transplantation follow-up duration was 18.5±5.7 months. Before transplantation, the mean PWV 8.1±1.4 m/sec and it was 7.5±2.0 m/sec after the transplantation (p=0.014. The patients were divided into two groups as with (30 patients and without (17 patients a PWV decrease. Recipient age, gender, CRP, PTH, lipids, and blood pressures were not significantly different between the groups. The recipient body mass index was higher in patients with a PWV decrease. Donor-related factors were not different between the groups. We found that blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels in recipients were associated with a decrease in PWV after the transplantation. In conclusion, donor-related factors do not seem to have an impact on arterial stiffness in recipients. Pretransplant BMI and posttransplant blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels were associated with a decrease in PWV.

  1. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  2. Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huijding (Jorg); P.J. de Jong (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. Th

  3. Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijdlng, J; de Jong, PJ; Huijding, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. The EAST and t

  4. Ozonation of oil sands process-affected water accelerates microbial bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan W; Barri, Thaer; Han, Xiumei; Fedorak, Phillip M; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Perez, Leonidas; Scott, Angela C; Jiang, Jason Tiange

    2010-11-01

    Ozonation can degrade toxic naphthenic acids (NAs) in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but even after extensive treatment a residual NA fraction remains. Here we hypothesized that mild ozonation would selectively oxidize the most biopersistent NA fraction, thereby accelerating subsequent NA biodegradation and toxicity removal by indigenous microbes. OSPW was ozonated to achieve approximately 50% and 75% NA degradation, and the major ozonation byproducts included oxidized NAs (i.e., hydroxy- or keto-NAs). However, oxidized NAs are already present in untreated OSPW and were shown to be formed during the microbial biodegradation of NAs. Ozonation alone did not affect OSPW toxicity, based on Microtox; however, there was a significant acceleration of toxicity removal in ozonated OSPW following inoculation with native microbes. Furthermore, all residual NAs biodegraded significantly faster in ozonated OSPW. The opposite trend was found for ozonated commercial NAs, which are known to contain no significant biopersistent fraction. Thus, we suggest that ozonation preferentially degraded the most biopersistent OSPW NA fraction, and that ozonation is complementary to the biodegradation capacity of microbial populations in OSPW. The toxicity of ozonated OSPW to higher organisms needs to be assessed, but there is promise that this technique could be applied to accelerate the bioremediation of large volumes of OSPW in Northern Alberta, Canada.

  5. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW.

  6. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  7. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P

    2015-02-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate.

  8. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P.

    2015-01-01

    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate. PMID:25504656

  9. Reconnaissance Assessment of the Potential for Roadside Dry Wells to Affect Water Quality on the Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Senter, Craig A.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    The County of Hawai'i Department of Public Works (DPW) uses dry wells to dispose of stormwater runoff from roads. Recently, concern has been raised that water entering the dry wells may transport contaminants to groundwater and affect the quality of receiving waters. The DPW operates 2,052 dry wells. Compiling an inventory of these dry wells and sorting it on the basis of presence or absence of urbanization in the drainage area, distance between the bottom of the dry well and the water table, and proximity to receiving waters helps identify the dry wells having greatest potential to affect the quality of receiving waters so that future studies or mitigation efforts can focus on a smaller number of dry wells. The drainage areas of some DPW dry wells encompass urbanized areas, which could be a source of contaminants. Some dry wells penetrate close to or through the water table, eliminating or substantially reducing opportunities for contaminant attenuation between the ground surface and water table. Dry wells that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, penetrate to near the water table, and are near the coast have the highest potential to affect the quality of coastal waters (this study did not consider specific sections of coastline that may be of greater concern than others). Some DPW dry wells, including a few that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, lie within the areas contributing recharge (ACR) to drinking-water wells. Numerical groundwater modeling studies by previous investigators indicate that water infiltrating those dry wells could eventually be pumped at drinking-water wells. Dry wells that have a high potential for affecting coastal receiving waters or drinking-water wells can be the focus of studies to further understand the effect of the dry wells on the quality of receiving waters. Possible study approaches include sampling for contaminants at the dry well and receiving water, injecting and monitoring the movement of tracers

  10. Viscosity affected by nanoparticle aggregation in Al2O3-water nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fei; Kwek, Dingtian; Crivoi, Alexandru

    2011-03-22

    An investigation on viscosity was conducted 2 weeks after the Al2O3-water nanofluids having dispersants were prepared at the volume concentration of 1-5%. The shear stress was observed with a non-Newtonian behavior. On further ultrasonic agitation treatment, the nanofluids resumed as a Newtonian fluids. The relative viscosity increases as the volume concentrations increases. At 5% volume concentration, an increment was about 60% in the re-ultrasonication nanofluids in comparison with the base fluid. The microstructure analysis indicates that a higher nanoparticle aggregation had been observed in the nanofluids before re-ultrasonication.

  11. Personal Encounter and Affective Links: "Pilot Guidance" and the Relational Nurturing Process in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Vaquer Chiva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions represent the special setting for teenagers´ socialization and development in Spain. The concern for some disruptive phenomenon which take place within the educational setting draws the attention to investigate the aspects of the educational relationship that contribute positively to students´ development and learning. From a qualitative research design, according to the criteria of theoretical sampling proposed in the methodology of qualitative data analysis of the «Grounded Theory», twenty-three individual interviews were done to secondary school parents, teachers and students. The achieved results allow to suggest the «encounter» between student and teacher, with its respective acceptance and mutual appreciation, as a central issue that enables affective link and the practice of "pilot guidance". The emergence of the basic social process referred as «relational nurturing» implies that affective support and an instructional guide empower educational and personal growth. The "pilot guidance" function, both with individuals and in class, constitutes the center of the educational relationship fostering the students´ full growth.

  12. Factors affecting health-related quality of life in patients after femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavičienė, Rasa; Smailys, Alfredas; Macijauskienė, Jūratė; Hommel, Ami

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life in patients with femoral neck fracture is an issue frequently discussed in the literature. There is ongoing research on identifying factors that have an impact on quality of life in this particular group of patients. A great variety of factors affecting quality of life and lack of information on their importance encouraged us to perform a systematic literature review analyzing quality of life of patients who sustained femoral neck fracture. The search was performed in the PubMed and Medline databases according to the selected key words. In our systematic review, we included clinical and clinical randomized trials investigating patients with femoral neck fracture and their quality of life. Our analysis showed that treatment of femoral neck fracture with hip replacement was superior to osteosynthesis with regard to patients' quality of life. The data regarding the impact of different rehabilitation programs on quality of life were controversial; a few reports showed that special rehabilitation programs were associated with better health-related quality life. However, other studies did not report any differences in patients' quality of life when different rehabilitation programs were applied. Patient's nutrition may be an important factor affecting the quality of life in patients with femoral neck fractures; however, data supporting this fact are insufficient.

  13. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  15. Book of Abstracts of the XII Portuguese-Spanish Symposium on Plant Water Relations (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Renato R. P.; Vaz, Margarida M.

    2014-01-01

    Contents PLENARY CONFERENCES AND THEMATIC CONFERENCES Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Adaptation to Drought Water Relations in the Irrigation Scheduling of Olive Orchards Physiological Limits for Plant-Based Water Stress Indicators Water Use in Montado Ecosystems Hydrological, Engineering and Physiological Approaches to Water Conservation From Leaf to Whole Plant Water Use Efficiency: Solving the Gaps Efficient Use of Water Under Mediterranean Conditions: Agronomic Too...

  16. Ammonium in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: processes affecting speciation and isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Böhlke, J.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Ball, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen, largely in reduced form (NH4(T)≈NH4(aq)++NH3(aq)o), has been documented in thermal waters throughout Yellowstone National Park, with concentrations ranging from a few micromolar along the Firehole River to millimolar concentrations at Washburn Hot Springs. Indirect evidence from rock nitrogen analyses and previous work on organic compounds associated with Washburn Hot Springs and the Mirror Plateau indicate multiple sources for thermal water NH4(T), including Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks, Eocene lacustrine deposits, and glacial deposits. A positive correlation between NH4(T) concentration and δ18O of thermal water indicates that boiling is an important mechanism for increasing concentrations of NH4(T) and other solutes in some areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved NH4(T) is highly variable (δ15N = −6‰ to +30‰) and is positively correlated with pH values. In comparison to likely δ15N values of nitrogen source materials (+1‰ to +7‰), high δ15N values in hot springs with pH >5 are attributed to isotope fractionation associated with NH3(aq)o loss by volatilization. NH4(T) in springs with low pH typically is relatively unfractionated, except for some acid springs with negative δ15N values that are attributed to NH3(g)o condensation. NH4(T) concentration and isotopic variations were evident spatially (between springs) and temporally (in individual springs). These variations are likely to be reflected in biomass and sediments associated with the hot springs and outflows. Elevated NH4(T) concentrations can persist for 10s to 1000s of meters in surface waters draining hot spring areas before being completely assimilated or oxidized.

  17. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  18. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  19. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  20. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  1. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions as Affected by Water, Soil and Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zheng-Qin; XING Guang-Xi; ZHU Zhao-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Specific management of water regimes,soil and N in China might play an important role in regulating N2O and CH4 emissions in rice fields.Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from alternate non-flooded/flooded paddies were monitored simultaneously during a 516-day incubation with lysimeter experiments.Two N sources (15N-(NH4)2SO4 and 15N-labeled milk vetch)were applied to two contrasting paddies:one derived from Xiashu loess(Loess)and one from Quaternary red clay(Clay).Both N2O and CH4 emissions were significantly higher in soil Clay than in soil Loess during the flooded period.For both soil,N2O emissions peaked at the transition periods shortly after the beginning of the flooded and non-flooded seasons.Soil type affected N2O emission patterns.In soil Clay,the emission peak during the transition period from non-flooded to flooded conditions was much higher than the peak during the transition period from flooded to non-flooded conditions.In soil Loess,the emission peak during the transition period from flooded to non-flooded conditions was obviously higher than the peak during the transition period from non-flooded to flooded conditions except for milk vetch treatment.Soil type also had a significant effect on CH4 emissions during the flooded season,over which the weighted average flux was 111 mg C m-2 h-1 and 2.2 mg C m-2 h-1 from Clay and Loess,respectively.Results indicated that it was the transition in the water regime that dominated N2O emissions while it was the soil type that dominated CH4 emissions during the flooded season.Anaerobic oxidation of methane possibly existed in soil Loess during the flooded season.

  3. Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Snježana; Radić, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Garić, Rade; Mihaljević, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

    2011-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin.

  4. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  5. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  6. Deficit irrigation and rootstock: their effects on water relations, vegetative development, yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition of Clemenules mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, P; Navarro, J M; Pérez-Pérez, J; García-Sánchez, F; Gómez-Gómez, A; Porras, I; Martinez, V; Botía, P

    2006-12-01

    Differences between rootstocks, 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Carrizo' citrange, in soil-plant water relations and the influence of these factors on vigor, crop yield, fruit quality and mineral nutrition were evaluated in field-grown Clemenules mandarin trees irrigated at 100% of potential seasonal evaporation (ET(c)) (control treatment), or irrigated at 100% ET(c), except during Phases I and III of fruit growth and post-harvest when no irrigation was applied (deficit irrigation (DI) treatment), for 3 years. Differences between rootstocks in plant-soil water relations were the primary cause of differences among trees in vegetative development and fruit yield. After 3 years of DI treatment, trees on 'Cleopatra' showed more efficient soil water extraction than trees on 'Carrizo', and maintained a higher plant water status, a higher gas exchange rate during periods of water stress and achieved faster recovery in gas exchange following irrigation after water stress. The DI treatment reduced vegetative development more in trees on 'Carrizo' than in trees on 'Cleopatra'. Cumulative fruit yield decreased more in DI trees on 'Carrizo' (40%) than on 'Cleopatra' (27%). The yield component most affected by DI in 'Cleopatra' was the number of fruit, whereas in 'Carrizo' it depended on the severity of water stress reached in each phase (severe water stress in Phase I affected mainly the number of fruit, whereas it affected fruit size the most in Phase III). In the third year of DI treatment, water-use efficiency decreased sharply in trees on 'Carrizo' (70%) compared to trees on 'Cleopatra' (30%). Thus, trees on 'Cleopatra' were able to tolerate moderate water stress, whereas trees on 'Carrizo' were more sensitive to changes in soil water content.

  7. Review: mechanisms for boron deficiency-mediated changes in plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Monika A; Eichert, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for plants and is constantly needed throughout the plant life due to its function as a structural element of the plant cell wall. B deficiency is a wide-spread problem in agricultural areas world-wide, and management of B nutrition is challenged by sudden occurrences of B deficiency or inconsistent effects of foliar B application. The effects of insufficient B supply on different structures relevant for the plant water status have been heavily researched, but the resulting conclusions are contradictory and no clear picture has so far emerged that fully explains the inconsistencies. B deficiency can affect water uptake by inhibition of root and shoot growth and by upregulation of water channels. Structural damage to xylem vessels can limit water transport to arial plant parts, while water loss can be altered by impaired barrier functions of leaf surfaces and reduced photosynthesis. In consequence of all these effects, transpiration is reduced in B-deficient plants under well-watered conditions. Under drought conditions, the responsiveness of stomata is impaired. Possible consequences of damaged vasculature for plant B nutrition include the reduced effectiveness of foliar B fertilization, especially in species with high B phloem mobility. Changes in leaf surface properties can further reduce B uptake after foliar application. In species with low B phloem mobility, weakened xylem vessels may not be able to supply sufficient B to arial parts under conditions of increased B demand, such as during bud development of trees. Since structural damage to vessels is hardly reversible, these effects could be permanent, even if B deficiency was only transient. Another consequence of reduced water status is the higher susceptibility of B-deficient plants to other abiotic stresses, which also impair water relations, especially drought. Since damage to vasculature can occur before visible symptoms of B deficiency appear in shoots, the

  8. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina seedlings exposed to flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Polanco Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi K. Koch produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack

  9. A Positive Affect Intervention for People Experiencing Health-Related Stress: Development and Non-randomized Pilot Test

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Cohn, Michael A.; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect...

  10. Membrane fouling mechanism transition in relation to feed water composition

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2014-12-01

    The impact of secondary effluent wastewater from the Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP), Melbourne, Australia, before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, on hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) and hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fouling was studied. Laboratory fouling tests were operated over 3-5 days with regular, intermittent backwash. During the filtration with PP membranes, organic rejection data indicated that humic adsorption on hydrophobic PP membrane occurred during the first 24h of filtration and contributed to fouling for both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. However, after the first 24h of filtration the contribution of humic substances to fouling diminished and biopolymers that contribute to cake layer development became more prominent in their contribution to the fouling rate. For PVDF membranes, the per cent removal of humic substances from both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters was very small as indicated by no change in UV254 from the feed to the permeate over the filtration period, even during the early stages of filtration. This suggested that the hydrophobic PP membrane adsorbed humic substances while the hydrophilic PVDF membrane did not. The highest mass of biopolymer removal by each PVDF membrane was from ETP water followed by PACl and IX treated water respectively. This was possibly due to differences in the backwashing efficiency linked to the filter cake contributed by biopolymers. Hydraulic backwashing was more effective during the later stages of filtration for the ETP water compared to IX and PACl treated waters, indicating that the filter cake contributed by ETP biopolymers was more extensively removed by hydraulic backwashing. It was proposed that humic substances may act to stabilise biopolymers in solution and that removing humics substances by coagulation or IX results in greater adhesive forces between the biopolymers and membrane/filter cake

  11. Pseudomonads biodegradation of aromatic compounds in oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic naphthenic acids (NAs) have been shown to be more toxic than the classical NAs found in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). To reduce this toxicity, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida were used to determine their ability to biodegrade aromatic compounds including treatments considering the impacts of external carbon and iron addition. Results showed that with added carbon P. fluorescens and P. putida have the capability of biodegrading these aromatics. In the presence of external carbon, gene expression of a functional PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) was determined through reverse transcription real-time PCR, suggesting active degradation of OSPW aromatic compounds. Although no significant classical NAs removal was observed during this process, toxicity was reduced by 49.3% under optimal conditions. OSPW toxicity was eliminated with the combination of ozonation at a dose of 80 mg/L followed by biodegradation, indicating that it is a promising combined OSPW treatment approach for the safe discharge to the aquatic environment.

  12. Dissolved organic matter conformation and its interaction with pyrene as affected by water chemistry and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Ghosh, Saikat; Xing, Baoshan

    2008-03-01

    Water chemistry and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been reported to affect DOM conformation and binding properties with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, relationship between DOM conformation and its binding properties remains unclear. We designed a multibag equilibration system (MBES) to investigate the variation of carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(DOC)) of pyrene at different DOM concentrations based on an identical free solute concentration at different pHs and in the presence of Al ions. In addition, we studied the conformation of DOM under different conditions via atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. Zeta potential measurements indicated that intra- and intermolecular interaction was facilitated at low pH or with the presence of Al ions, and a more organized molecular aggregate (such as a micelle-like structure) could form, thus, enhancing K(DOC). As DOM concentration increased, DOM molecular aggregation was promoted in a way reducing K(DOC). This research is a first attempt to correlate DOM conformation with K(DOC). Aggregation of DOM molecules resulting from increased zeta potential (less negative) generally led to an increased K(DOC). Further study in this area will provide valuable information on HOC-DOM interactions, thus, leading to more accurate predictions of K(DOC).

  13. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment.

  14. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time.  The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.

  15. Mercury Photolytic Transformation Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Natural Organics in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Feng [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms by which dissolved organic matter (DOM) mediates the photochemical reduction of Hg(II) in aquatic ecosystems are not fully understood, owing to the heterogeneous nature and complex structural properties of DOM. In this work, naturally occurring aromatic compounds including salicylic, 4-hydrobenzoic, anthranilic, 4-aminobenzoic, and phthalic acid were systematically studied as surrogates for DOM in order to gain an improved mechanistic understanding of these compounds in the photoreduction of Hg(II) in water. We show that the photoreduction rates of Hg(II) are influenced not only by the substituent functional groups such as OH, NH2 and COOH on the benzene ring, but also the positioning of these functional groups on the ring structure. The Hg(II) photoreduction rate decreases in the order anthranilic acid > salicylic acid > phthalic acid according to the presence of the NH2, OH, COOH functional groups on benzoic acid. The substitution position of the functional groups affects reduction rates in the order anthranilic acid > 4-aminobenzoic acid and salicylic acid > 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Reduction rates correlate strongly with ultraviolet (UV) absorption of these compounds and their concentrations, suggesting that the formation of organic free radicals during photolysis of these compounds is responsible for Hg(II) photoreduction. These results provide insight into the role of low-molecular-weight organic compounds and possibly DOM in Hg photoredox transformation and may thus have important implications for understanding Hg geochemical cycling in the environment.

  16. How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Galey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how labor-management relations between school districts and teacher associations seem to affect teacher contract provisions regarding the role of seniority in teacher assignment and how contract provisions and teacher assignment policies seem to affect beginning teachers' perceptions about their work environments.…

  17. Evaluating public participation in Denmark’s water councils: How policy design and boundary judgements affect water governance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversgaard, Morten; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Kjeldsen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Under the Water Framework Directive, public participation was identified as a key part of water planning. This caused a paradigm shift in Danish water planning. Water councils in River Basin Districts were established to provide public input on how to improve the physical conditions in streams....... A study of the water councils found that Denmark has complied with the requirements of making background information available to the public and ensuring consultation. The facilitation of the councils’ processes has worked well. However, while they are presented as the ‘new governance option’ in Danish...... water planning, this does not accord with reality. The water council processes are limited in scope and controlled by the central government. Their process can be better characterized as expanded stakeholder consultation, officially part of the policy process but involving very little active public...

  18. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Silerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Skanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  19. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  20. Rapunzel’s complex: Social relations, and sexuality affectivity of adolescents with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana França Cescon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to reflect on the influence of HIV / AIDS on social relations, sexuality and adolescent affectivity. We conducted a literature review and subsequent theoretical discussion on the topic, with the methodology of qualitative analysis of texts and scientific articles. The findings of the study demonstrated that it is necessary to fully consider the various psychosocial aspects of this dynamic, since the psychological aspects significantly influence disease progression and quality of life of HIV patient. For adolescents, this influence becomes even greater, because puberty is a specific stage of biological development, emotional and social, where social interaction plays an important role for the construction of the subject's personality. It is hoped that this study may contribute to the reflection on the importance of creating themselves coping strategies and health care interventions geared to this particular group, especially with regard to the psychologist, who should seek to accommodate these demands subjects, contributing to a healthy psychosocial development, considering its specific features.

  1. Water sorption in wood and modified wood at high values of relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Engelund, Emil Tang; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2010-01-01

    Desorption isotherms at 208C for untreated, acetylated, and furfurylated Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. sapwood were established in the 91.9–99.9% relative humidity (RH) range. Three methods were employed to secure various constant RH levels: saturated salt solutions, climate chambers......, and the pressure plate technique. The curve form for the untreated samples did not show an upward bend, except perhaps above 99.5% RH, indicating that – contrary to what has hitherto been assumed – capillary condensation does not play a significant role for water sorption in wood below fiber saturation. Three...... time domain nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that only the relaxation curves from the furfurylated samples were affected systematically by freezing, indicating that neither untreated nor acetylated wood contained significant amounts of capillary condensed water....

  2. Water dynamics as affected by interaction with biomolecules and change of thermodynamic state: a neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchini, A.; Paciaroni, A.; Petrillo, C.; Sebastiani, F.; De Francesco, A.; Sacchetti, F.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of water as subtly perturbed by both the interaction with biomolecules and the variation of temperature and pressure has been investigated via neutron scattering spectroscopy. A measurement of inelastic neutron scattering devoted to the study of the coherent THz dynamics of water in a water-rich mixture with DNA (hydration level of 1 g DNA/15 g D2O) at room temperature is reported. The DNA hydration water coherent dynamics is characterised by the presence of collective modes, whose dispersion relations are similar to those observed in bulk water. These dispersion relations are well described by the interaction model developed in the case of bulk water, and the existence of a fast sound is experimentally demonstrated. The behaviour of the collective water dynamics was complemented by studying the single-particle dynamics of bulk water along the isotherm T = 298 K in the pressure range 0.1-350 MPa by means of incoherent scattering. This experiment is an attempt to simulate the change of the water molecular arrangement due to the interaction with DNA, by increasing the pressure as the presence of the biomolecule produces an increase in the density. An anomaly is found in the behaviour of the relaxation time derived from the quasi-elastic scattering signal, which can be related to the hypothetical second critical point in water. This anomaly and the transition from slow to fast sound take place in the same Q range, thus suggesting that the two phenomena could be related at some microscopic level.

  3. Changes in infants' affect related to the onset of independent locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Pamela G; Green, James A

    2011-06-01

    Previous research suggests that after gaining several weeks of independent locomotor experience, infants may show both more negative and more positive affect toward parents. However, this prior work has been based largely on parent report, and no studies have used longitudinal or naturalistic methods to chart changes in infants' affective expressions as they gain locomotor ability. Fifteen infants were observed at home before, during, and after learning to crawl in two naturalistic contexts, free play and dyadic play. Expressions of negative affect during free play decreased after the onset of crawling, but there was no change in expressions of positive affect. At the same time, however, mothers reported an increase in both negative and positive reactivity. These results are discussed in terms of the contexts typically assessed during observations and the different sensitivities of mothers to infants' expressions of affect. Several lines of evidence point to a potential role for independent locomotion in the reorganization of affective expressions.

  4. Follow up of water use in a tin mining area affected with arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Lim, A; Dueravee, M; Geater, A; Ritsamitchai, S; Oshikawa, S

    2000-12-01

    Ron Phibun district in southern Thailand has been known as an endemic area for arsenic contamination. The government has been trying to improve the situation by encouraging the use of rainwater and piped water. This study aimed to document the change of water use and to identify factors associated with safe water use in 1997 compared to that in 1994. Home visits and face-to-face questionnaire interviews were undertaken. Information on water use for drinking, cooking, washing food and washing utensils in 1994 and 1997 was obtained. Among 3,849 households from which data could be obtained (estimated 79% of total households), the percentages of using safe water (including water from bottled rain water, piped and artesian well water) for drinking and cooking rose from 72.5 and 57.9 in 1994 to 93.6 and 80.9 in 1997, respectively. The percentages for washing foods and for washing utensils rose from 28.6 and 20.5 to 59.1 and 53.8, respectively. In 1997, percentage of households using piped water for drinking and cooking was still low (3.6 and 12.3) compared to those using piped water for washing food and utensils (39.1 and 43.6). Multivariate analysis shows that independent factors of the household predicting safe water use are: high arsenic area, near main road and having piped water installed. The influence of these factors (as judged by the level of odds ratio) operates more or less equally on water use for all purposes, except that installation of piped water has more influence on washing water than drinking and cooking water. We conclude that safe water supply in the area is still inadequate. Even if piped water is installed, it is often not used for drinking and cooking. The reasons for not using piped water for drinking and cooking need to be identified.

  5. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  6. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], paffect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], pfatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect.

  7. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Booij, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water

  8. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  9. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  10. Hazardous waste: Abandoned disposal sites may be affecting Guam's water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1978 Anderson Air Force Base in Guam discovered that the base's drinking water was contaminated with the cleaning solvent trichloroethylene, a suspected carcinogen. The sources of the contamination were old, abandoned landfills where the solvents had been disposed. Testing of the drinking water has been sporadic and has not included water consumed by portions of the installation populace. Anderson officials established procedures to test water samples monthly at different points in the water distribution system and if the test results indicate contamination, corrective action will be taken to make the drinking water safe, or the wells will be shut down.

  11. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R(2) = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community.

  12. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu eÜnal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  13. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  14. Processing of hand-related verbs specifically affects the planning and execution of arm reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mirabella

    Full Text Available Even though a growing body of research has shown that the processing of action language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, several aspects of this interaction are still hotly debated. The directionality (i.e. does understanding action-related language induce a facilitation or an interference with the corresponding action?, the time course, and the nature of the interaction (i.e. under what conditions does the phenomenon occur? are largely unclear. To further explore this topic we exploited a go/no-go paradigm in which healthy participants were required to perform arm reaching movements toward a target when verbs expressing either hand or foot actions were shown, and to refrain from moving when abstract verbs were presented. We found that reaction times (RT and percentages of errors increased when the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. This interference occurred very early, when the interval between verb presentation and the delivery of the go signal was 50 ms, and could be elicited until this delay was about 600 ms. In addition, RTs were faster when subjects used the right arm than when they used the left arm, suggesting that action-verb understanding is left-lateralized. Furthermore, when the color of the printed verb and not its meaning was the cue for movement execution the differences between RTs and error percentages between verb categories disappeared, unequivocally indicating that the phenomenon occurs only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved. These results are compatible with the theory of embodied language, which hypothesizes that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the sensory-motor experience of the action, and provide a new and detailed view of the interplay between action language and motor acts.

  15. Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

    OpenAIRE

    Misund, Ole Arve; Heggland, Kristin; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Falck, Eva; Gjøsæter, Harald; Sundet, Jan Henry; Watne, Jens; Lønne, Ole Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the...

  16. Water relations, nutrient content and developmental responses of Euonymus plants irrigated with water of different degrees of salinity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Alvarez, Sara; Castillo, Marco; Bañón, Sebastián; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2013-07-01

    For 20 weeks, the physiological responses of Euonymus japonica plants to different irrigation sources were studied. Four irrigation treatments were applied at 100 % water holding capacity: control (electrical conductivity (EC) plants were rewatered with the same amount and quality of irrigation water as the control plants. Despite the differences in the chemical properties of the water used, the plants irrigated with NaCl and WW showed similar alterations in growth and size compared with the control even at the end of the recovery period. Leaf number was affected even when the EC of the irrigation water was of 1.7 dS m(-1) (IW), indicating the salt sensitivity of this parameter. Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn), as well as stem water potential (Ψstem), were most affected in plants irrigated with the most saline waters (NaCl and WW). At the end of the experiment the above parameters recovered, while IW plants showed similar values to the control. The higher Na(+) and Cl(+) uptake by NaCl and WW plants led them to show osmotic adjustment throughout the experiment. The highest amount of boron found in WW plants did not affect root growth. Wastewater can be used as a water management strategy for ornamental plant production, as long as the water quality is not too saline, since the negative effect of salt on the aesthetic value of plants need to be taken into consideration.

  17. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bulsink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a "green" and "grey water accounts", (b accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is relieving the water scarcity on this island. Trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java.

  18. Waste storage in the vadose zone affected by water vapor condensation and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J.W.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1990-08-01

    One of the major concerns associated with waste storage in the vadose zone is that toxic materials may somehow be leached and transported by advecting water down to the water table and reach the accessible environment through either a well or discharge to a river. Consequently, care is taken to provide barriers over and around the storage sites to reduce contact between infiltrating water and the buried waste form. In some cases, it is important to consider the intrusion of water vapor as well as water in the liquid phase. Water vapor diffuses through porous material along vapor pressure gradients. A slightly low temperature, or the presence of water-soluble components in the waste, favors water condensation resulting in leaching of the waste form and advection of water-soluble components to the water table. A simple analysis is presented that allows one to estimate the rate of vapor condensation as a function of waste composition and backfill materials. An example using a waste form surrounded by concrete and gravel layers is presented. The use of thermal gradients to offset condensation effects of water-soluble components in the waste form is discussed. Thermal gradients may be controlled by design factors that alter the atmospheric energy exchange across the soil surface or that interrupt the geothermal heat field. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Study on water loss of the surface stream affected by longwall mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S.Peng

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the effect of longwalI mining on suface stream water,monitoring stations of water flow rate was established.A lot of water flowing data were collected before,during and after longwall mining.Based on monitoring data,the effects of longwall mining on surface stream water were analyzed.The results demonstrate that longwall mining has effects on the surface stream water:and the stream water would be lost and decrease due to longwall mining but never go into underground through fractured zone.Also.the mechanism of water loss due to longwall mining was presented.The stream water can go into the surface cracks in the intersection of stream and surface cracks.longwall mining subsidence can change the surface stream slope and the downstream water flowing status.The results also show the effects of longwall mining on stream water are temporary and about one or two years later,surface stream water can be recovered.

  20. Microclimate in ski boots--temperature, relative humidity, and water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick; Hasler, Michael; Fauland, Gulnara; Bechtold, Thomas; Nachbauer, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Ski boot quality is determined by mechanical properties and comfort. Comfort is strongly affected by cold feet. The purpose of this study was to determine the microclimate in ski boots. Climate chamber tests with five male subjects and field tests with two male subjects were conducted. Temperature and relative humidity were measured using four sensors placed on the foot and one on the liner. Absorbed water in liners and socks was measured with a precision balance. The subjects gave subjective ratings for comfort. The toe sensor temperature dropped below 20 °C at an ambient temperature of 0 °C, -10 °C, and -20 °C. Relative humidity values at the foot were as high as 78% in the climate chamber and 93% in the field. Water absorption in socks and liners ranged from 4 to 10 g in the climate chamber and 19 to 45.5 g in the field. The results reveal the importance of keeping the feet and in particular the toes warm during skiing. One possible improvement may be to construct the liner so that sweat and melted snow are kept as far away as possible from the foot. Liner material with high water absorption capacity and hydrophobic socks were suggested to prevent wet feet.

  1. Profiles of relative permittivity and electrical conductivity from unsaturated soil water content models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Porretta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of water diffusion in the vadose zone has been implemented for different types of soil textures in order to determine the soil water content (SWC profiles in dependence of depth and time. From these profiles, obtained for different soils, we derived the characteristic electrical parameters, such as relative permittivity (epsilonr and electrical conductivity (sigma, and their variation in time, employing empirical relations available in the scientific literature. The simulation through mathematical models has been performed taking into account different types of soils characterized by the percentage composition of sand, clay and silt in the textural triangle, which provides some physical and chemical properties that affect the water retention in the soil. The resulting simulated profiles of SWC and consequently permittivity and conductivity profiles, span over a certain range of values suggesting the best techniques and the limits in geophysical investigation. Moreover this a-prior knowledge helps in the elaboration and interpretation of permittivity and conductivity data obtained by the measurements. Permittivity and conductivity profiles are particularly useful in some environmental applications when the soil textures are (or supposed to be known as in the typical case of landfill leachate dispersion. Since the soil textures beneath or nearby a disposal waste are characterized by a SWC, the values of (epsilonr and (sigma at various depth can be directly inferred.

  2. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Designing the Monitoring of Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals Based on Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to collective action and targeted interventions at global, regional, and national scales. Existing monitoring and data infrastructures are inadequate for producing the variety of environmental and socioeconomic information needed to ensure efficient and effective outcomes across the range of interlinked SDGs and targets. The scientific community needs to take a lead in developing new tools and approaches that, at reasonable cost, provide monitoring data of sufficient quality and spatial and temporal coverage to support informed decision making by diverse stakeholders. The expanded SDGs related to water offer the opportunity to explore potential new monitoring approaches and data system architectures in a key sector, building on existing water monitoring capabilities and incorporating new technologies and methods. Since additional investments in monitoring will undoubtedly be limited, it is important to assess carefully the value of information produced by different options and their associated risks and tradeoffs. We review here the existing set of water monitoring systems, known gaps and limitations, stakeholder inputs on data needs, and the potential value of information in light of alternative water sector interventions. Of particular interest are opportunities to share investments in monitoring across sectors and stakeholders (e.g., public and private entities) and to identify where incremental improvements in water monitoring could have significant benefits for other SDGs (e.g., related to health, energy, agriculture, and climate change). Value of information is also driven by the numbers of people affected by decisions or able to take advantage of improved data, which implies the need not only to collect and archive data, but also to invest in making data accessible and usable to diverse and geographically dispersed users.

  4. Water Flow Affects Zooplankton Feeding by the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis on a Polyp and Colony Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may affect heterotrophic feeding of benthic marine invertebrates, including water flow rate and polyp context (i.e., the presence of neighbouring polyps. We tested the interactive effects of water flow rate and polyp context on zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Single polyps and colonies were incubated in a flow cell for 30 minutes with an ambient Artemia nauplii concentration of 10,000 L−1 and water flow rates ranging from 1.25 to 40 cm s−1. Water flow rate and polyp context showed significant main and interactive effects on feeding rates of G. fascicularis polyps. More specifically, feeding rates were optimal at flow rates of 1.25 cm s−1 for single polyps and 5 to 10 cm s−1 for polyps inhabiting colonies. The presence of epizoic acoelomorph flatworms may have negatively affected the observed feeding rates, especially at high flow. Our results demonstrate that water flow affects coral feeding and thus heterotrophic nutrient input at both a polyp and colony level. These findings are of relevance to our understanding of how biotic and abiotic factors interact on coral heterotrophy and may serve to optimise coral aquaculture.

  5. How can climate, soil, and monitoring schedule affect temporal stability of soil water contents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Temporal stability (TS) of soil water content (SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of soil water. The TS SWC was originally recognized as a phenomenon that can be used to provide temporal average SWC of an area of interest from observations at a representative location(s). Currently application fields of TS SWC are numerous, e.g. up- and downscaling SWC, SWC monitoring and data assimilation, precision farming, and sensor network design and optimization. However, the factors that control the SWC organization and TS SWC are not completely understood. Among these factors are soil hydraulic properties that are considered as local controls, weather patterns, and the monitoring schedule. The objective of this work was to use modeling to assess the effect of these factors on the spatio-temporal patterns of SWC. We ran the HYDRUS6 code to simulate four years of SWC in 4-m long soil columns. The columns were assumed homogeneous, soil hydraulic conductivity was drawn from lognormal distributions. Sets of columns were generated separately for sandy loam and loamy soils, soil water retention was set to typical values for those soil textures. Simulations were carried out for four climates present at the continental US. The climate-specific weather patterns were obtained with the CLIGEN code using climate-specific weather observation locations that were humid subtropical from College Station (TX), humid continental from Indianapolis (IN), cold semiarid from Moscow (ID) and hot semiarid from Tucson (AZ). We evaluated the TS and representative location (RL) selections by comparing i) different climates; ii) for the same climates different years; iii) different time intervals between samplings; iv) one year duration surveys vs. one month summer campaigns; and v) different seasons of the same year. Spatial variability of the mean relative differences (MRD) differed among climates for both soils, as the probability of observing the same variance in the MRD was lower than

  6. Assessment of Water and Nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes in soil as affected by irrigation and nutrient management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehaye, Habte; Ceglie, Francesco; Mimiola, Giancarlo; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Many farming practices can result in contamination of groundwater, due to the downward migration of fertilizers and pesticides through the soil profile. The detrimental effects of this contamination are not limited to deterioration of chemical and physical properties of soils and waters, but also constitute a real risk to human and ecosystem health. Groundwater contamination may come from a very large array of chemicals. Nevertheless, on a global scale the main cause of pollution is a high nitrate concentration in the aquifer water. Nitrate concentrations of groundwater have constantly increased during the last decades, and the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers has been implicated as the main causative factor. It is often claimed that nutrient management in organic farming is more environmentally sustainable than its conventional counterpart. It is commonly presumed that organic agriculture causes only minimal environmental pollution. There is scientific evidence that organic management may enhance some soil physical and biological properties. In particular, soil fertility management strategies can affect soil properties and the related hydrological processes. It is thus crucial to quantify and predict management effects on soil properties in order to evaluate the effects of soil type, natural processes such as decomposition of organic matter, irrigation applications and preferential flow on the deep percolation fluxes of water and nitrates to the groundwater. In this study, we measured the water fluxes and the quality of water percolating below the root zone, underlying organic agriculture systems in greenhouse. Specifically, the aim was to examine the effects of application time and type of organic matter in the soil on the nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes under the following three organic soil fertility strategies in greenhouse tomato experiment: i. Organic input Substitution (which will be hereafter denoted SUBST) is represented as typical

  7. How do light and water acquisition strategies affect species selection during secondary succession in moist tropical forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Lohbeck, Madelon; Bongers, Frans; Ramos, Miguel Martínez; Sterck, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pioneer tree species have acquisitive leaf characteristics associated with high demand of light and water, and are expected to be shade and drought intolerant. Using leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, relative water content and stomatal conductance) and tree performa

  8. Analysis on mechanism and key factors of surrounding rock instability in deeply inclined roadway affected by argillation and water seepage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Rui; Li Guichen; Zhang Nong; Liu Cong; Wei Yinghao; Zhang Ming

    2015-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of surrounding rocks for deeply inclined roadway affected by argillation and water seepage, a structure model of layer crack plate was established to analyze the shear sliding insta-bility mechanism. Through solid mechanics analysis of anchored surrounding rock with defect from water seepage, combined with numerical analysis for instability mechanism under water seepage in deeply inclined roadway, key factors were proposed. Results show that with increasing height of layer crack plate, lateral buckling critical load value for high wall of the roadway decreases;there is a multi-stage distribution for tensile stress along the anchor bolt with defect under pulling state condition;groundwater seepage seriously affects the strength of surrounding rock of the roadway, to some extent the plastic zone of the high side rises up to 8 m. Finally some support strategies were proposed for the inclined roadway and successfully applied to Haoyuan coal mine in Tiela mining area, western China.

  9. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  10. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  11. Ecology, Religious Practices and Identities Related to Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia García, Ángeles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts arising around the management of water are frequently resolved through a continuous process of symbolic or material appropriation of those places where the control, distribution and selection of water poses problems. The case of hermitages devoted to the Virgin Mary which serve as a crucial axis for the symbolic resolution of earthly conflicts, as is the case of those related to the administrative borders between neighbouring villages, is a constant. The link between the cult of the Virgin Mary and water shows the existence of more or less explicit interests of a part of the population in using symbolic control to achieve real and material domination through the construction of identity models, both locally and on a wider scale. A certain kind of knowledge is used to generate a social practice which, in turn, is transformed into ideology. Beliefs are thus linked to both economic and ecological factors, as well as to other referents of social organization. The religious practices associated with miraculous springs promote a certain way of thinking: springs, rivers and wells are not exclusively natural objects, rather they are fundamental mental maps of the social and environmental context.

    Los conflictos generados a partir de la gestión sobre el agua se han resuelto mediante un continuado proceso de apropiación simbólica o material de los lugares en los que el control, distribución y selección de las aguas planteaba problemas. La situación de las ermitas marianas como eje de resolución simbólica de conflictos terrenales, como los derivados de los litigios por límites entre pueblos, es una constante reiterada. La vinculación entre culto mariano y agua pone de manifiesto la existencia de intereses más o menos implícitos de una parte de la población que utiliza el dominio de los símbolos como instrumento de dominación real a través de la construcción de modelos identitarios locales o microcomarcales. Un cierto tipo

  12. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann

    2015-04-01

    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  13. The fluidity of boulder debris flows is affected by fine sediment in the pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Norifumi; Kaneko, Takahiro; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Nishimoto, Haruo

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations for debris flows are frequently derived using the simple assumption of monogranular particles. However, actual debris flows include a great diversity of grain sizes, resulting in inherent features such as inverse grading, particle size segregation, and liquefaction of fine sediment. The liquefaction of fine sediment affects the fluidity of debris flows, although the behavior and influence of fine sediment in debris flows have not been examined sufficiently. This study used flume tests to detect the effect of fine sediment on the characteristics of laboratory debris flows consisting of particles with two diameters: one diameter was fixed at a large particle size, while the small diameters were varied with the experimental conditions. From the experiments, the greatest sediment concentration and flow depth were observed in the debris flows mixed with finer sediment, indicating increased flow resistance. Then, the experimental friction coefficient was compared with the theoretical friction coefficient derived by substituting the experimental values into the constitutive equations for debris flow. The theoretical friction coefficient was obtained from two models with different fine-sediment treatments: one assuming that all of the fine sediments were solid particles and the other that the particles consisted of a fluid phase involving pore water liquefaction. A discriminant index was introduced to clarify which contribution from the two models could better explain the experimental results. The comparison of the friction coefficients detected a fully liquefied state for the finest particle mixture with sediment. However, even with the same particle size, the debris flows could be regarded as a liquefied state, a solid state, or a partially liquefied transition state depending on the experimental conditions other than the sediment particle size. These results infer that the liquefaction of fine sediment in debris flows was induced not only by the

  14. Formation and Water Stability of Aggregates in Red Soils as Affected by Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMINGKUI等; M.J.WILSON; 等

    1996-01-01

    The water stability of aggregates in various size classes separated from 18 samples of red soils under different managements,and the mechanisms responsible for the formation of waer-stable soil aggregates were studied.The results showed that the water stbility of soil aggregates declined with increasing size,especially for the low organic matter soils.Organic matter plays a key role in the formation of water-stable soil aggregates.The larger the soil aggregate size.the greater the impact of organic matter on the water stability of soil aggregates.Removal of organic matter markedly disintegrated the large water-stable aggregates(>2.0mm)and increased the small ones(2.0mm)were mainly glued up by organic mater,Both free oxides and organic matter contribute to the formation and water stability of aggregates in red soils.

  15. A CBO Paper. How Federal Policies Affect the Allocation of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    or ex- change—are constrained by the way states define prop- erty rights in water use. In the national economy, markets generally use prices to...water to municipal areas in the southern and coastal por- tions of the state. See Marca Weinberg, “Assessing a Policy Grab- Bag: Federal Water Policy...der the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982, for instance, ir- rigation districts select their own conservation goals— which can be broadly defined and

  16. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c) water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces - i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java).

  17. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bulsink

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a "green" and "grey water accounts", (b accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces – i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java.

  18. How does tree density affect water loss of peatlands? A mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Holmgren, Milena; Jacobs, Cor M J; Van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Karofeld, Edgar; Berendse, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree evapotranspiration could potentially deepen water tables, thus stimulating peat decomposition and carbon release. Bridging the gap between modelling and field studies, we conducted a three-year mesocosm experiment subjecting natural bog vegetation to three birch tree densities, and studied the changes in subsurface temperature, water balance components, leaf area index and vegetation composition. We found the deepest water table in mesocosms with low tree density. Mesocosms with high tree density remained wettest (i.e. highest water tables) whereas the control treatment without trees had intermediate water tables. These differences are attributed mostly to differences in evapotranspiration. Although our mesocosm results cannot be directly scaled up to ecosystem level, the systematic effect of tree density suggests that as bogs become colonized by trees, the effect of trees on ecosystem water loss changes with time, with tree transpiration effects of drying becoming increasingly offset by shading effects during the later phases of tree encroachment. These density-dependent effects of trees on water loss have important implications for the structure and functioning of peatbogs.

  19. ESTABLISHMENT OF YOUNG “DWARF GREEN” COCONUT PLANTS IN SOIL AFFECTED BY SALTS AND UNDER WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE REUBER ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to analyze the establishment of young “Green Dwarf” coconut plants in soils affected by salts and under water stress, by evaluating leaf area, biomass production and allocation. In the experiment, conducted in protected environment in Fortaleza, CE, in statistical design of randomized blocks in a split plot arrangement, the effects of different water deficit levels (plots were evaluated, by imposing different percentages of replacement of water losses by potential crop evapotranspiration - ETpc (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, associated with subplots consisting of increasing soil salinity levels (1.72, 6.25, 25.80 and 40.70 dS m-1 provided by soil collected at different parts of the Morada Nova Irrigated Perimeter - PIMN. Leaf area and biomass production were sharply reduced by the conditions of water stress and high soil salinity, apparently being more critical to the crop under water restriction condition. The degree of water stress can increase the susceptibility to salinity and plants can be considered, in general terms, as moderately tolerant to the effects of salinity, when combined with water deficiency. Coconut seedlings show full capacity of establishment in PIMN saline soils, corresponding to the level of electrical conductivity of 6.50 dS m-1, but only when the water supply remains adequate. For higher salinity levels, plants survive, but their size is reduced by around 50%, even when fully irrigated.

  20. Developmental Coordination Disorder Affects the Processing of Action-Related Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Giovanni; Del Signore, Sara; Lakens, Daniel; Averna, Roberto; Penge, Roberta; Capozzi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Processing action-language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, which suggests that the motor system might be involved in action-language understanding. However, this claim is hotly debated. For the first time, we compared the processing of action-verbs in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disease that specifically affects the motor system, with children with a typical development (TD). We administered two versions of a go/no-go task in which verbs expressing either hand, foot or abstract actions were presented. We found that only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved, TD children showed an increase in reaction times if the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. In contrast, DCD patients did not show any difference between verb categories irrespective of the task. These findings suggest that the pathological functioning of the motor system in individuals with DCD also affects language processing. PMID:28119585

  1. Lake-Atmosphere Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Relation to Atmospheric Forcing and Water Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, J. J.; Ojala, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Even though lakes cover only 2 % of the world's land surface, it has been estimated that lakes release about 10 % of the carbon fixed annually by the terrestrial ecosystems back to the atmosphere. A critical parameter in the gas exchange estimates is the gas transfer velocity (k), which is governed by turbulence. The aim of our study was to assess the current global CO2 evasion estimates from lakes to the atmosphere by comparing parameterizations for kand the significance of wind and heat flux to the gas transfer in small lakes. To improve future predictions of gas evasion from lakes, we focused on the changes in water clarity and how they affect water column physics and processes in the air-water interface. We studied a small boreal lake and used the eddy covariance (EC) method for the high precision data needed, and therefore also aimed to improve the EC methodology on lakes. The air-water gas transfer was related to both wind and heat loss during times of seasonal stratification, but only to wind during autumn overturn. When wind-induced thermocline tilting and resulting spatial variability in surface water CO2 concentrations was accounted for, average k derived from the measurements dropped from 6.0 cm h-1 to 5.2 cm h-1. This was still over twice the estimate (2.2 cm h-1) calculated with a widely used model for kin lakes suggesting that the global estimates of gas evasion from lakes might be underestimations. Water clarity was a significant parameter defining the thermal stratification of the lake: a change from clear to dark water would lead to shorter stratification period and lower water column temperatures in small lakes and therefore have significant impact on the lake-atmosphere exchange processes. Figure 1. The isotherms of Lake Kuivajärvi throughout the open-water period 2013. The top left are the measured temperatures and the others are modeled with LAKE model using fixed light extinction coefficient, Kd. The horizontal dashed black line represents

  2. Does output market development affect irrigation water institutions? Insights from a case study in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of changing external conditions on irrigation water institutions in northern China. To this end, we perform a case study analysis of the impact of output market development on irrigation water transactions, using survey data collected among 315 hou

  3. Does magnesium hardness in hatching waters affect the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on egg development and embryo survival. Ca2+ and Mg2+ contribute to water har...

  4. Soil water infiltration affected by biofuel and grain crop production systems in claypan landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of soil management systems on water infiltration is very crucial within claypan landscapes to maximize production as well as minimize environmental risks. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and biofuel...

  5. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 t

  6. Regulatory Issues Affecting Management of Produced Water from Coal Bed Methane Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, John A.

    2003-03-03

    This paper describes the existing national discharge regulations, the ways in which CBM produced water is currently being managed, the current CBM discharge permitting practices, and how these options might change as the volume of produced water increases because of the many new wells being developed.

  7. Technologies for Safe Water Supply in Arsenic Affected Villages of Bangladesh Utilizing a Pedal Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Wahidul K.; Leslie, Greg

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents information on the socio-techno-economic aspects of a water purification system for the arsenic contaminated villages of Bangladesh. The proposed system which is based on hollow fiber membranes and granular activated carbon columns can be used to harvest potable water from ponds without many of the problems inherent in the conventional pond sand filters. This paper also examines the possible application of human operated pedal pump, instead of diesel or electricity driven pump, for pumping water from ponds to overcome limitations in existing water technologies in the arsenic-contaminated villages in Bangladesh. A market model of this technology has been suggested that allows the rural poor to access to safe water at affordable monthly rate.

  8. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discusse

  9. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources... Principles and Requirements. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L... Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies'' (Principles and Guidelines),...

  10. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  11. Conceptions of Ability and Related Affects in Task Involvement and Ego Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Five studies were conducted to determine if college students employ different conceptions of ability in self-referenced (task-involving) and interpersonally competitive (ego-involving) situations. Competence and positive affects were associated with higher effort in task-involving situations but negatively associated with higher effort in…

  12. Redefining a Bizarre Situation: Relative Concept Stability in Affect Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    I analyze the process by which we react cognitively to information that contradicts our culturally held sentiments in the context of affect control theory. When bizarre, unanticipated events come to our attention and we have no opportunity to act so as to alter them, we must reidentify at least one event component: the actor, the behavior, or the…

  13. Performed or observed keyboard actions affect pianists' judgements of relative pitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repp, B.H.; Knoblich, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Action can affect visual perception if the action's expected sensory effects resemble a concurrent unstable or deviant event. To determine whether action can also change auditory perception, participants were required to play pairs of octave-ambiguous tones by pressing successive keys on a piano or

  14. The Relation of Facial Affect Recognition and Empathy to Delinquency in Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Mary B.; Lutjemeier, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Associations among facial affect recognition, empathy, and self-reported delinquency were studied in a sample of 29 male youth offenders at a probation placement facility. Youth offenders were asked to recognize facial expressions of emotions from adult faces, child faces, and cartoon faces. Youth offenders also responded to a series of statements…

  15. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  16. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Gat, Joel R.

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in δD and δ18O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished: 1) on rain days, snail water becomes isotopically depleted approximately in the direction of the rain isotope values, but always less depleted in D as is atmospheric water vapor; 2) during the 1-3 days following a rain, the snail water becomes isotopically enriched along a line with slope persists until the next rain event. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in 18O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in 18O by ca. 1-2%. relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate 18O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall 18O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  17. The Violation of Stokes-Einstein Relation in Supercooled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Mallamace, Francesco; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Broccio, Matteo; Corsaro, Carmelo; Faraone, Antonio; Liu, Li

    2006-01-01

    By confining water in nanopores, so narrow that the liquid cannot freeze, it is possible to explore its properties well below its homogeneous nucleation temperature TH ~ 235 K. In particular, the dynamical parameters of water can be measured down to 180 K approaching the suggested glass transition temperature Tg ~ 165 K. Here we present experimental evidence, obtained from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering spectroscopies, of a well defined decoupling of transport...

  18. Uptake of dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co by the clam, Macoma balthica: relative importance of overlying water, oxic pore water, and burrow water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, Sarah B; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2002-06-01

    The facultative deposit-feeding clam Macoma balthica is used as a bioindicator organism for assessing coastal metal contamination. Previous work has evaluated the assimilation of metals from different possible food sources for this clam, but no studies have measured the uptake rates of metals from different dissolved sources. This study specifically compares three different dissolved sources: overlying water (SW), oxic pore water (OPW) from a depth of deposit feeding), and burrow water (BW) (a mixture of anoxic pore water and overlying water). Uptake rates of dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co in M. balthica were measured in short-term laboratory experiments using radiotracers. Clams were exposed to metals in water only for SW and surface OPW treatments. In the BW treatment, metal uptake was compared in clams placed in radiolabeled organic-poor or organic-rich sediment under conditions in which feeding was inhibited. Uptake rate constantsfrom SW for Ag, Cd, and Co were 0.35, 0.033, and 0.035 L g(-1) day(-1), respectively. Lower uptake of dissolved metals from OPW was noted but was only significant for Co. Metal uptake from BW and SW were also comparable; however, the trend showed lower Ag and higher Co uptake from BW. Metal distributions and concentrations in the two radiolabeled sediments were affected by active irrigation of SW into the burrows; dissolved metal concentrations in BW were approximately 30% lower than that in the bulk pore water concentrations. In the organic-rich sediment, Cd and Ag partitioned more in the dissolved phase (sensitivity analysis using measured rate constants for uptake and a range of metal concentrations from field studies suggested that, under most conditions, uptake of dissolved Ag is primarily from OPW, Co is mostly from BW, and Cd uptake varies depending on its concentration in each compartment. Little Co or Ag is likely to be taken up from SW, whereas 20-50% of Cd may be accumulated from this source. Thus, SW, OPW, and BW are all

  19. The Chemical Composition of Surface Waters of Technogenically Affected Geo-Systems in the Eastern Donbas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Reshetnyak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of literary data and the author’s own research findings, the paper assesses the factors in the formation of the chemical composition of surface and subterranean waters and the variability of the chemical composition and quality of river waters in the eastern Donbas region. The author illustrates that the major negative effect of the impact of technogenic waters on river waters is salinization. The paper points up a high level of pollution in river waters with a broad spectrum of metal compounds, among which the biggest threat comes from Fegen, Al, Mn, Cu, and Sr, which is of a steady nature. The quality of water in the majority of rivers in the eastern Donbas region is evaluated as Quality Class 4 – dirty and/or very dirty. The findings can be used in resolving a whole array of scientific and applied objectives related to assessing the migration of chemical substances and the level of pollution in surface and subterranean waters and forecasting the condition of water sites and the quality of water, as well as in carrying out water-protection activities in the region.

  20. Corn Leaf Water Retention as Affected by Organic Fer—tilizations and Effective Microbes Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUHUILIAN; N.AJIKI; 等

    1998-01-01

    Effects of organic fertilizers and effective microbes on lef water retention of sweet corn (Zea mays L.cv. Honey-Bantam) were studied.Sweet corns were grown with organic or chemical fertilzers with or without effective microbes (EM).A water retention urve was obtained by drying the excised leaves under a light of 500μmol(m2.s)-1,The cure shows two distinct phases.The initial steep slope indicates the water loss speed by stomatal transpiration (Est) and the gentle slope of the second phase indicates water loss speed by cuticular transpiration(Ecu).Both Est and Ecu were lower for leaves of plants grown with organic materials than fro thoe with chemical fertilizers.Addition of EM to both organic and chemical fertilizers decreased Est but showed no effect on Ecu.The water retention ability of the excised leaves was proportional to pho-tosynthetic maintenance ability under soil water deficit conditions as well as the solte concentration in leaves ,The results suggested that organic fertilization and EM appication increased water stress resistance both under in situ conditions and in excised leaves of sweet corn plants.

  1. Water relations of cacti during desiccation: distribution of water in tissues. [Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Opuntia basilaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcikowski, W.; Nobel, P.S.

    1984-03-01

    Three species of cacti survived an average stem water loss of 81%. Fractional water loss was greater from water-storage tissue than from the chlorenchyma, as documented at the cellular level by determining changes in cell volume and at the tissue level by determining relative water content of chlorenchyma and storage tissues. For Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus acanthodes, this differential loss of water resulted from a decrease in the moles of solute per cell for storage tissue; hence, less water was retained at a given osmotic pressure than for the chlorenchyma. Opuntia basilaris lost less water from the chlorenchyma during drought because of a greater initial osmotic pressure in the chlorenchyma than in the storage tissue. Greater retention of water in the chlorenchyma would result in less disruption of photosynthetic activity in these cacti during drought.

  2. Do Public Relations and Journalism’s Converging Roles Affect How They Perceive Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Media relations is historically a core activity qualifying public relations from other communication-related professions and is widely practiced in many organizations. Despite the increasing use of digital media to directly communicate with publics, journalists are still key stakeholders...... for organizations. Also communications by organizations have become more and more mediatized and at the same time more and more journalists are switching to a public relations career. Yet, if more journalists are becoming public relations practitioners and more public relations practitioners are adopting...... journalistic working practices, does this change the way these communicators perceive themselves and the other profession? The aim of this study is to provide some insights from a southern, Latin country, Italy, on how Italian public relations practitioners and journalists perceive their and the other...

  3. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  4. Canals vs. Streams: To What Extent Do Water Quality and Proximity Affect Real Estate Values? A Hedonic Approach Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bonetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of and proximity to water influences human settlement decisions, because water has been able to characterize the environment and affect human health since prehistoric times. Many scholars have studied the effects of environmental amenities on the real estate market; however, only a few of them have explored the effects of water. This study stresses the role of water with a focus on the dichotomy between artificial and natural waterways (canals vs. streams, which involves managerial and qualitative differences. A hedonic approach, based on a large web scraped and geo-referenced dataset of 10,530 observations, is used to analyze the effect of water proximity and quality on residential housing prices in the province of Milan (Italy. Our main results show a significant but conflicting impact of water proximity on real estate value: reducing the canal distance, we observe an increase in the residential housing sale price, in urban more than peri-urban environments; in contrast, reducing the stream distance, our results show decreases in property value. Moreover, a significant moderating effect of water quality on distance from streams is identifiable.

  5. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  6. Heavy Metal Concentration in Drinking Water Sources Affected by Dredge Mine Operations of a Gold Mining Company in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apori Ntiforo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses concentration of certain heavy metals in water sources affected by the operations of defunct dredged gold mine operations more than a decade to evaluate its quality as a source of drinking water. The concentration of heavy metals were determined from nine (9 surface water sampling points and three (3 boreholes in the Awusu-River basin in comparison with their maximum contaminant levels to assess their suitability as drinking water sources. Results obtained from the analysis of water samples indicated that the concentrations of four heavy metals (Fe, 0.01-14.93 mg/L; Cd, <0.002-0.01 mg/L; As, <0.002-0.003 mg/L and Pb, <0.005-0.05 mg/L analyzed in surface water samples were above WHO threshold values (Fe 300, Cd 3, As 10 and Pb 10 ug/L for drinking water and two (Cu, <0.002-0.05 mg/L and Zc, <0.005-0.03 mg/L were below (Cu 2000 ug/L and Zc 3000 ug/L. Dissolved iron registered the highest concentrations with the Slime Retention Area (SRA dominating with a mean concentration of 4.979 mg/L. All the sampling points were being used as drinking water sources by the two communities. An integrated approach to management of sources of drinking water quality in the mining areas is needed and should involve not only the mining companies and regulatory agencies but also the local communities to enable the latter understand and appreciate post mining issues of water quality.

  7. Reconnaissance Study of Water Quality in the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  8. Water Availability for Winter Wheat Affected by Summer Fallow Tillage Practices in Slope Dryland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; YANG Bo; Roger Hartmann; Donald Gabriels; CAI Dian-xiong; JIN Ke; WU Hui-jun; BAI Zhan-guo; ZHANG Can-jun; YAO Yu-qing; LU Jun-jie; WANG Yu-hong

    2003-01-01

    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage (CT)were compared to determine the effects of tillage methods on soil water conservation, water availability, andwheat yields in a search for better farming systems in the areas. The NT and SS showed good effects on waterconservation. The soil water storage increased 12 - 33 mm with NT and 9 - 24 mm with SS at the end of sum-mer fallow periods. The soil evaporation with NT and SS decreased 7 - 8 mm and 34 - 36 mm during the fallowperiods of 1999 and 2001, respectively. Evapotranspiration (ET) with NT and SS increased about 47 mm dur-ing wheat growth periods of 2000 to 2001. Treatment RT and 2C had low water storage and high water lossesduring the fallow periods. The winter wheat yields with conservation tillage practices were improved in the 2ndyear, increased by 3, 5 and 8 % with RT, NT and SS, respectively, compared with CT. The highest wheatyields were obtained with subsoiling, and the maximum economic benefits from no-till. All conservation tillagepractices provided great benefits to saving energy and labors, reducing operation inputs, and increasing eco-nomic returns. No-till and subsoiling have shown promise in increasing water storage, reducing water loss, en-hancing water availability, and saving energy, as well as increasing wheat yield.

  9. Performed or observed keyboard actions affect pianists' judgements of relative pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H; Knoblich, Gunther

    2009-11-01

    Action can affect visual perception if the action's expected sensory effects resemble a concurrent unstable or deviant event. To determine whether action can also change auditory perception, participants were required to play pairs of octave-ambiguous tones by pressing successive keys on a piano or computer keyboard and to judge whether each pitch interval was rising or falling. Both pianists and nonpianist musicians gave significantly more "rising" responses when the order of key presses was left-to-right than when it was right-to-left, in accord with the pitch mapping of the piano. However, the effect was much larger in pianists. Pianists showed a similarly large effect when they passively observed the experimenter pressing keys on a piano keyboard, as long as the keyboard faced the participant. The results suggest that acquired action-effect associations can affect auditory perceptual judgement.

  10. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  11. Soil water and transpirable soil water fraction variability within vineyards of the Penedès DO (NE Spain) affected by management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work investigated the variability in soil water recorded within the vineyard plots related to soil properties and management practices and its influence on the transpirable sol water fraction. The study was carried out in vineyards in the Penedès Designation of Origin, planted with Chardonnay, with different disturbance degree and with compost treated and untreated areas within the plots. The response in years with different rainfall distributions, included years with extreme situations were evaluated. The main soil types are Typic Xerorthent and Calcixerollic Xerorthent and soil is bare most of the time. Soil water content was measured at different depths using TDR probes. The transpirable soil water fraction was estimated as the ratio between available soil water (ASW) at a given date and the total transpirable soil water (TTSW). TTSW was estimated as the soil water reserve held between an upper and lower limit (respectively, the soil water content near field capacity and soil water content at the end of a dry summer) and integrated over the estimated effective rooting depth. Both minimum and maximum soil water values varied within the plot at all depths. On the surface the minimum values ranged between 4.45 to about 10%, while on deeper layers it ranged between 7.8 and 17.8%. Regarding the maximum value varied between 17.45 and 24.8%. The transpirable soil water fraction for a given year varied significantly within the plot, with differences greater than 20% between the treated and untreated areas. The results were more exacerbated in the driest years an in those with more irregular distribution. Water available has a significant effect on yield. The results indicate the need of using different strategies for water management within the plots.

  12. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-04-06

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  13. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  14. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  15. Spatial Analysis of Soil and Water Quality in Tsunami AffectedAreas of Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayudha Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In India, the natural disasters, especially the Tsunami in 2004 having exposed our unpreparedness, variability, diverse scientific, engineering, financial and also social processes. Vedaranyamtalukof Nagapattinam coastal region of Tamilnadu, India,was severely affected by Tsunami-2004. Due to its unique geological nature and climate conditions, the quality of soil and water resources was subjected to natural and synthetic changes. The recent efforts of prawn culture and saltpan in these areas also affect the natural resources. This study has revealed the present scenario of soil and water resources by analyzing their chemical parameters in the Tsunami affected areas after ten years of Tsunami-2004. For this study, soil samples (less than 30cm depth from land surface and groundwater samples (from existing hand/bore pumps were collected in the study area. It was observed from the analysis that the pH of soil was improved well and EC was lowered significantly except few places. Regarding the available N, P, K of soil, N was low, P and Kwere low to medium range. Further thepH,DO, Turbidity, Hardness,Cl and Mgof groundwater were within the permissible limit;EC and TDS were slight to moderate range for irrigation and drinking.The SAR is within the maximum allowable limit which inferred that groundwater can be used for irrigation without any risk.Thisspatial-temporal variability of soil and water parameters were mapped in GIS environment (Surfer ver. 9 and compared with pretsunami-2004 as well as ground truth scenario. Keeping these results, the soil is suitable for agriculture production. The natural flash flood has helped to reduce contamination of soil and water due to Tsunami-2004. However,due to alkaline in nature the quality of groundwater is not fit for drinking in some places but suitable for irrigation. Among the affected villages, Vedaranyam village has worst quality. This study also recommends suitable management strategies for sustainable

  16. Wave-induced mass transport affects daily Escherichia coli fluctuations in nearshore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhongfu; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Phanikumar, Mantha S.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of diel variability of fecal indicator bacteria concentration in nearshore waters is of particular importance for development of water sampling standards and protection of public health. Significant nighttime increase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration in beach water, previously observed at marine sites, has also been identified in summer 2000 from fixed locations in waist- and knee-deep waters at Chicago 63rd Street Beach, an embayed, tideless, freshwater beach with low currents at night (approximately 0.015 m s–1). A theoretical model using wave-induced mass transport velocity for advection was developed to assess the contribution of surface waves to the observed nighttime E. coli replenishment in the nearshore water. Using average wave conditions for the summer season of year 2000, the model predicted an amount of E. coli transported from water of intermediate depth, where sediment resuspension occurred intermittently, that would be sufficient to have elevated E. coli concentration in the surf and swash zones as observed. The nighttime replenishment of E. coli in the surf and swash zones revealed here is an important phase in the cycle of diel variations of E. coli concentration in nearshore water. According to previous findings in Ge et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 6731–6737), enhanced current circulation in the embayment during the day tends to displace and deposit material offshore, which partially sets up the system by the early evening for a new period of nighttime onshore movement. This wave-induced mass transport effect, although facilitating a significant base supply of material shoreward, can be perturbed or significantly influenced by high currents (orders of magnitude larger than a typical wave-induced mass transport velocity), current-induced turbulence, and tidal forcing.

  17. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  18. The Complex Relation between Bullying, Victimization, Acceptance, and Rejection: Giving Special Attention to Status, Affection, and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Munniksma, Anke; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2010-01-01

    To understand the complex nature of bullies' acceptance and rejection, this article considered goal-framing effects of status and affection as they relate to the gender of the bully (male vs. female bullies), the target (male vs. female victims), and the evaluator (acceptance and rejection from male vs. female classmates). The hypotheses were…

  19. RESPONSE TO THE RICHARD ERSKINES ARTICLE RELATIONAL HEALING OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 3 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides four responses from senior psychotherapists and supervisors to Erskine’s articleRelational Healing of Early Affect-Confusion. The authors approach the third part of case study trilogy from their particular perspective and provide both challenge and respect for the author’s work.

  20. Influences of Selected Cognitive, Affective and Educational Variables on Sex-related Differences in Mathematics Learning and Studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    This paper offers a detailed review of the literature concerning sex differences in the learning of mathematics. It identifies cognitive, affective and educational variables which have been either shown or hypothesized to contribute to sex-related differences in mathematics learning. The author analyzes each study in detail. One important finding…

  1. Descriptive and numeric estimation of risk for psychotic disorders among affected individuals and relatives: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jehannine C; Hippman, Catriona; Honer, William G

    2012-03-30

    Studies show that individuals with psychotic illnesses and their families want information about psychosis risks for other relatives. However, deriving accurate numeric probabilities for psychosis risk is challenging, and people have difficulty interpreting probabilistic information; thus, some have suggested that clinicians should use risk descriptors, such as "moderate" or "quite high", rather than numbers. Little is known about how individuals with psychosis and their family members use quantitative and qualitative descriptors of risk in the specific context of chance for an individual to develop psychosis. We explored numeric and descriptive estimations of psychosis risk among individuals with psychotic disorders and unaffected first-degree relatives. In an online survey, respondents numerically and descriptively estimated risk for an individual to develop psychosis in scenarios where they had: A) no affected family members; and B) an affected sibling. Participants comprised 219 affected individuals and 211 first-degree relatives participated. Affected individuals estimated significantly higher risks than relatives. Participants attributed all descriptors between "very low" and "very high" to probabilities of 1%, 10%, 25% and 50%+. For a given numeric probability, different risk descriptors were attributed in different scenarios. Clinically, brief interventions around risk (using either probabilities or descriptors alone) are vulnerable to miscommunication and potentially negative consequences-interventions around risk are best suited to in-depth discussion.

  2. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  3. A new capture fraction method to map how pumpage affects surface water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, S.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Dickinson, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    All groundwater pumped is balanced by removal of water somewhere, initially from storage in the aquifer and later from capture in the form of increase in recharge and decrease in discharge. Capture that results in a loss of water in streams, rivers, and wetlands now is a concern in many parts of the United States. Hydrologists commonly use analytical and numerical approaches to study temporal variations in sources of water to wells for select points of interest. Much can be learned about coupled surface/groundwater systems, however, by looking at the spatial distribution of theoretical capture for select times of interest. Development of maps of capture requires (1) a reasonably well-constructed transient or steady state model of an aquifer with head-dependent flow boundaries representing surface water features or evapotranspiration and (2) an automated procedure to run the model repeatedly and extract results, each time with a well in a different location. This paper presents new methods for simulating and mapping capture using three-dimensional groundwater flow models and presents examples from Arizona, Oregon, and Michigan. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  4. Rice Yield and Water Use as Affected by Soil Management Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; XIE Hong-Tu; LIANG Wen-Ju; WEN Da-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,to study the effects of soil management practices on water use and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in an aquic brown soil during 2001 and 2002. A completely random experimental design with three replications was employed, having four soil management practices as treatments, namely: an undisturbed plow layer (CK), a thin plastic film (TN), a thick plastic film (TI) and subsoil compacting (CP). Results indicated no significant differences arong all treatments for rice biomass and grain yields. Also, water consumption was about the same for treatments TN and CK, however the treatments TI and CP were much lower with more than 45% and 40% of the irrigation water in the treatments TI and CP, respectively,saved each year compared to CK. Therefore, water use efficiency was higher in the treatments TI and CP. These results will provide a scientific basis for the water-saving rice cultivation.

  5. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China

  6. Globalisation of water resources: Global virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between nation

  7. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  8. Assessing the relative efficiency of water companies in the English and Welsh water industry: a metafrontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of relative efficiency of water companies is essential for managers and authorities. This is evident in the UK water sector where there are companies with different services such as water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and water-only companies (WoCs). Therefore, it is a critical limitation to estimate a common production frontier for both types of companies, as it might lead to biased efficiency estimates. In this paper, a robust and reliable methodology, the metafrontier model, is applied to compare the efficiency of water companies providing different services. The results illustrate the superior performance of WaSCs compared to WoCs. It also confirms the presence of economies of scope in the UK water industry. The methodology and results of this study are of great interest for both regulators and water utility managers to make informed decisions.

  9. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito

  10. Environmental microbiology as related to planetary quarantine. [water activity and temperature effects on bacterial spore survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The survival of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores suspended in solutions of sucrose and glycerol at calculated water activities and varying temperatures was studied. The overall results indicated that as the water activity of the liquid decreased from .99 to .85, the heat resistance of the spores increased. The nature of the substance controlling the water activity, and the history of the spores prior to treatment also had an affect on their heat resistance.

  11. Detecting oil sands process-affected waters in the Alberta oil sands region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Burnison, B Kent; Frank, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2009-06-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. There are approximately 10(9) m(3) of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil sands mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study was conducted in order to determine if synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) could detect OSPW contamination in water systems. Water samples collected from ponds containing OSPW and selected sites in the Alberta oil sands region were evaluated using SFS with an offset value of 18 nm. OSPW ponds consistently displayed a minor peak at 282.5 nm and a broad major peak ranging between 320 and 340 nm. Water from reference sites within the oil sands region had little fluorescence at 282.5 nm but greater fluorescence beyond 345 nm. Naphthenic acids are the major toxic component of OSPW. Both a commercial naphthenic acid and a naphthenic acid extract prepared from OSPW had similar fluorescent spectra with peaks at 280 nm and 320 nm and minor shoulders at approximately 303 and 331 nm. The presence of aromatic acids closely associated with the naphthenic acids may be responsible for unique fluorescence at 320-340 nm. SFS is proposed to be a simple and fast method to monitor the release of OSPW into ground and surface waters in the oil sands region.

  12. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  13. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Salm, A L; Spanings, F A T; Gresnigt, R; Bonga, S E Wendelaar; Flik, G

    2005-10-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a low pH, in addition to its role in skin colouration. In the current study, we investigated the responses of this fish to these two environmental challenges when it is exposed to both simultaneously. The skin darkening of tilapia on a black background and the lightening on grey and white backgrounds are compromised in water with a low pH, indicating that the two vastly different processes both rely on alphaMSH-regulatory mechanisms. If the water is acidified after 25 days of undisturbed background adaptation, fish showed a transient pigmentation change but recovered after two days and continued the adaptation of their skin darkness to match the background. Black backgrounds are experienced by tilapia as more stressful than grey or white backgrounds both in neutral and in low pH water. A decrease of water pH from 7.8 to 4.5 applied over a two-day period was not experienced as stressful when combined with background adaptation, based on unchanged plasma pH and plasma alphaMSH, and Na levels. However, when water pH was lowered after 25 days of undisturbed background adaptation, particularly alphaMSH levels increased chronically. In these fish, plasma pH and Na levels had decreased, indicating a reduced capacity to maintain ion-homeostasis, implicating that the fish indeed experience stress. We conclude that simultaneous exposure to these two types of stressor has a lower impact on the physiology of tilapia than subsequent exposure to the stressors.

  14. How Seasonal Drought Affect Carbon and Water Fluxes of Alternative Energy Crops in the US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zeri, M.; Masters, M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The cellulosic biomass of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and native prairie are considered candidate second-generation biofuels, potentially resulting in partial replacement annual row crops within the Midwestern US. There is an increasing focus to study the environmental impact of agricultural crops, however not much is known on the influence on the energy, carbon and water cycles of energy crops, especially under drought conditions. This study compares the impact of drought episodes (in 2011 and 2012) on evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE; equals to NEP/ET) for Switchgrass (SW), Miscanthus (MXG), Maize (MZ) and native prairie (NP) grown in Central Illinois using the eddy covariance technique. Due to the prolonged drought and the rapid growth development with increasing ET of MXG in 2012, large water deficit (precipitation-ET) was observed for each species up to the highest deficit of -360 mm for this species. The gross primary production (GPP) of MZ was radically decreased by the drought in 2011 and 2012, while SW and NP were not influenced. MXG increased NEP throughout the typically wet and drought years, mainly due to the decrease in respiration and by the largest GPP upon the drought in 2012. Despite having the largest water deficit, MXG showed an enhanced WUE of 12.8 and 11.4 Kg C ha-1mm-1 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, in comparison to years typical to the region with WUE of 3.7-7.3 Kg C ha-1mm-1. Other species did not show a significant enhancement of WUE. Therefore we conclude that out of the studied species, MXG has more access to water, and uses this water the most efficiently to store carbon, under drought conditions.

  15. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community. This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water: Multifactorial determination of significant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshuk, Tim; de Oliveira Livera, Diogo; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Vijayaraghavan, Sucharita; Wong, Timothy; Gu, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated as a byproduct of bitumen extraction in Canada's oil sands. Due to the water's toxicity, associated with dissolved acid extractable organics (AEO), especially naphthenic acids (NAs), along with base-neutral organics, OSPW may require treatment to enable safe discharge to the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW remediation, however, predicting treatment efficacy can be challenging due to the unique water chemistry of OSPW from different tailings ponds. The objective of this work was to study various factors affecting the kinetics of photocatalytic AEO degradation in OSPW. The rate of photocatalytic treatment varied significantly in two different OSPW sources, which could not be accounted for by differences in AEO composition, as studied by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The effects of inorganic water constituents were investigated using factorial and response surface experiments, which revealed that hydroxyl (HO) radical scavenging by iron (Fe(3+)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) inhibited the NA degradation rate. The effects of NA concentration and temperature on the treatment kinetics were also evaluated in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Arrhenius models; pH and temperature were identified as weak factors, while dissolved oxygen (DO) was critical to the photo-oxidation reaction. Accounting for all of these variables, a general empirical kinetic expression is proposed, enabling prediction of photocatalytic treatment performance in diverse sources of OSPW.

  17. Analysis of Treatment-Related Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients with Severe Necrotizing Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praznik Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to determine the factors related to the initial therapy that may contribute to death from severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis and to analyze their clinical importance as well as possible additive effects.

  18. On the interdisciplinary nature of water-related programs in American public universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Du, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a research on the interdisciplinary nature of 167 water-related programs in 46 selected American public universities. Using keyword coding and Classification method, and the results show that water-related disciplines largely focus on environment, natural resources, engineering, ocean and agricultural studies, which are all applied disciplines. Moreover, water-related disciplines lay great emphasis on the interdisciplinary research and research platforms construction with the research fields of environment, natural resources and agricultural.

  19. Phosphogypsum amendments and irrigation with acidulated water affect tomato nutrition in reclaimed marsh soils from SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Quintero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (PG is a by-product of the P fertilizer industry usually valorised as amendment for acidic and sodic soils. This work was aimed to study the effects of PG on nutrient uptake by industrial tomato plants in an originally sodic soil. A completely randomized experiment was performed involving two factors: (i acidification with nitric acid (mimics cleaning techniques in drip irrigation, and (ii PG rate (equivalents to 0, 20, 60, and 200 Mg ha–1. The highest PG rate resulted in an increased dry matter yield, which can be ascribed at least in part to an increased water use efficiency. PG decreased K, Mg and P concentrations in shoots, and P and Cu concentrations in fruits. At the highest rate, PG increased B concentration in shoots and total B content in the aerial parts of plants when acid was applied. The highest PG rate also increased Ca concentration in fruits, which can be considered positive in view of reducing the incidence of blossom end rot. The total content of Ni and Mo in aerial parts increased with PG, probably related to a decreased adsorption of these nutrients in soils. Acid application increased the concentration of all micronutrients in shoots and the concentration of Fe, Cu and B in fruits. In conclusion, PG promoted positive effects on B, Ni, Mo, and Ca nutrition, and some negative nutritional effects through antagonisms or affecting nutrient cycling in the soils, which however did not result in decreasing yields, even at a large dose which mimics the cumulative application during 20-30 years. Acid treatments resulted in improved micronutrient nutrition of tomato plants.

  20. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity...... temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations...... values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low...

  1. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of water table lowering and nitrogen deposition in affecting greenhouse gas emissions from a Tibetan alpine wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Lingfei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Litong; Cao, Guangmin; Yue, Haowei; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Tang, Yanhong; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Rapid climate change and intensified human activities have resulted in water table lowering (WTL) and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition in Tibetan alpine wetlands. These changes may alter the magnitude and direction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, affecting the climate impact of these fragile ecosystems. We conducted a mesocosm experiment combined with a metagenomics approach (GeoChip 5.0) to elucidate the effects of WTL (-20 cm relative to control) and N deposition (30 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) on carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes as well as the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that WTL reduced CH4 emissions by 57.4% averaged over three growing seasons compared with no-WTL plots, but had no significant effect on net CO2 uptake or N2 O flux. N deposition increased net CO2 uptake by 25.2% in comparison with no-N deposition plots and turned the mesocosms from N2 O sinks to N2 O sources, but had little influence on CH4 emissions. The interactions between WTL and N deposition were not detected in all GHG emissions. As a result, WTL and N deposition both reduced the global warming potential (GWP) of growing season GHG budgets on a 100-year time horizon, but via different mechanisms. WTL reduced GWP from 337.3 to -480.1 g CO2 -eq m(-2) mostly because of decreased CH4 emissions, while N deposition reduced GWP from 21.0 to -163.8 g CO2 -eq m(-2) , mainly owing to increased net CO2 uptake. GeoChip analysis revealed that decreased CH4 production potential, rather than increased CH4 oxidation potential, may lead to the reduction in net CH4 emissions, and decreased nitrification potential and increased denitrification potential affected N2 O fluxes under WTL conditions. Our study highlights the importance of microbial mechanisms in regulating ecosystem-scale GHG responses to environmental changes.

  3. Mid-IR water and silicate relation in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, S.; Bremer, J.; Kamp, I.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Lahuis, F.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Mid-IR water lines from protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars have a detection rate of 50%. Models have identified multiple physical properties of disks such as dust-to-gas mass ratio, dust size power law distribution, disk gas mass, disk inner radius, and disk scale height as potential explanations for the current detection rate. Aims: In this study, we aim to break degeneracies through constraints obtained from observations. We search for a connection between mid-IR water line fluxes and the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. Methods: We analyze observed water line fluxes from three blends at 15.17, 17.22 and 29.85 μm published earlier and compute the 10 μm silicate feature strength from Spitzer spectra to search for possible trends. We use a series of published ProDiMo thermo-chemical models, to explore disk dust and gas properties, and also the effects of different central stars. In addition, we produced two standard models with different dust opacity functions, and one with a parametric prescription for the dust settling. Results: Our series of models that vary properties of the grain size distribution suggest that mid-IR water emission anticorrelates with the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. The models also show that the increasing stellar bolometric luminosity simultaneously enhance the strength of this dust feature and the water lines fluxes. No correlation is found between the observed mid-IR water lines and the 10 μm silicate strength. Two-thirds of the targets in our sample show crystalline dust features, and the disks are mainly flaring. Our sample shows the same difference in the peak strength between amorphous and crystalline silicates that was noted in earlier studies, but our models do not support this intrinsic difference in silicate peak strength. Individual properties of our models are not able to reproduce the most extreme observations, suggesting that more complex dust properties (e.g., vertically changing) are

  4. Competition between conceptual relations affects compound recognition: the role of entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Kuperman, Victor; Gagné, Christina L; Spalding, Thomas L

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the conceptual representation of a compound is based on a relational structure linking the compound's constituents. Existing accounts of the visual recognition of modifier-head or noun-noun compounds posit that the process involves the selection of a relational structure out of a set of competing relational structures associated with the same compound. In this article, we employ the information-theoretic metric of entropy to gauge relational competition and investigate its effect on the visual identification of established English compounds. The data from two lexical decision megastudies indicates that greater entropy (i.e., increased competition) in a set of conceptual relations associated with a compound is associated with longer lexical decision latencies. This finding indicates that there exists competition between potential meanings associated with the same complex word form. We provide empirical support for conceptual composition during compound word processing in a model that incorporates the effect of the integration of co-activated and competing relational information.

  5. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  6. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the "Pampa del Tamarugal", Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ(13)C and δ(18)O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  7. Water relations and foliar isotopic composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil. an endemic tree of the Atacama Desert growing under three levels of water table depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGarrido

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the Pampa del Tamarugal, Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference were selected and groups of 4 individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and midday water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ13C and δ18O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behaviour and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P

  8. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the “Pampa del Tamarugal”, Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ13C and δ18O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  9. Desalination of oil sands process-affected water and basal depressurization water in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada: application of electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Sik; Dong, Shimiao; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The high content of inorganic species in water used to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands and in the groundwater below the oil sands is an increasing environmental concern. These water matrices require treatment before they can be reused or safely discharged. Desalination of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and groundwater, or basal depressurization water (BDW), can be accomplished with deionization techniques such as electrodialysis (ED). In order to achieve the effective ED treatment, OSPW and BDW were pretreated with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation to remove solid species and turbidity. We demonstrated that a conductivity range for industrial reuse of OSPW and BDW can be achieved with the ED treatment and showed the possibility of applying ED in the oil sands industry. A continuous ED system that reuses the diluate stream as a source for the concentrate stream was designed. The cost of a hypothetical ED water treatment plant in Fort McMurray, Alberta, was estimated to be C$10.71 per cubic meter of treated water.

  10. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  11. Factors affecting metal exchange between sediment and water in an estuarine reservoir: a spatial and seasonal observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Young Geun; Lee, Keun-Young; Cha, Sung Min; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Yun Seok; Ki, Seo Jin; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-11-01

    Water quality response in a reservoir has often been assessed using relatively restricted datasets that cannot provide sufficient information, thereby giving rise to a dramatic over- or underestimate of actual figures. In this paper we discuss how the levels of metallic elements between the sediment and overlying water in an estuarine reservoir can be influenced by aquatic parameters in response to spatial and seasonal conditions. To better elucidate the interfacial exchange between sediment and water, statistical analyses are employed to intensive data sets collected from the Yeongsan Reservoir (YSR), Korea, which has undergone widespread deterioration in water quality due to the continuous growth of anthropogenic sources. During three seasonal sampling campaigns, we found that oxygen deficiency at the bottom water layer promotes Fe and Ni accumulation in sediment, likely due to the formation of sulfide and oxide complexes under anoxic and suboxic environments, respectively. In addition, salinity levels as high as 11 per thousand in the bottom water layer during autumn substantially increase the release of Mn, restricting the use of YSR as a primary source of agricultural irrigation water. Although most dissolved metals are at acceptable levels for sustaining aquatic life, it is recommended that for long-term planning the elevated Fe and Mn levels in sediment should be controlled with oxygen deficiency during dry weather to ensure a sustainable water supply or, at a minimum, better coordinated operation of YSR.

  12. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Spanings, F.A.T.; Gresnigt, R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a lo

  13. Factors affecting the removal of geosmin and MIB in drinking water biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadi, S.L.N.; Huck, P.M.; Slawson, R.M. [Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. for Biology

    2006-08-15

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted using four parallel dual-media filter columns containing biologically active anthracite or granular activated carbon media and sand. The factors under investigation were low-(8{sup o}C) and high-(20{sup o}C) temperature operations, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) concentration, media type, and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) level. Source water consisted of dechlorinated tap water to which geosmin and MIB were added, as well as a cocktail of easily biodegradable organic matter (i.e., typical ozonation by-products). Phase 1 experiments used a high BOM level (280 {mu} g/L carbon) to simulate water that had been subjected to ozonation before filtration. Phase 2 experiments used a low BOM level (28 {mu} g/L C) to simulate nonozonated water. Factorial design experiments showed that all four main factors (temperature, concentration, media, and BOM level) were important to both geosmin and MIB removal. Temperature and media interaction and concentration and BOM level interaction were significant for geosmin removal only. Temperature and BOM level interaction as well as media and BOM level interaction were significant for the removal of both geosmin and MIB. Overall, removals of geosmin and MIB were lower in phase 2 (low BOM level), in particular in the anthracite media filters. Biomass levels in the filters appeared to have a significant effect upon the removal efficiencies of both odor compounds.

  14. Factors affecting alcohol-water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite-silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of ZSM-5 zeolite particles dispersed in silicone rubber exhibited ethanol-water pervaporation permselectivities up to 5 times that of silicone rubber alone and 3 times higher than simple vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). A number of conditi...

  15. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Alexander; B. Mueller; M.J.A. Vermeij; H.H.G. van der Geest; J.M. de Goeij

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presenc

  16. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  17. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...

  18. Instability mechanism and control technology of soft rock roadway affected by mining and high confined water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guichen; Jiang Zuohan; Lv Chuangxin; Huang Chao; Chen Gui; Li Mingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Based on deformation and failure characteristics of the second belt conveyor roadway at level II of Zhuxianzhuang coal mine, laboratory experiments, numerical calculation and field test were adopted to analyze the composition and microstructure of mudstone, the law of mudstone hydration and its strength weakening induced by water, the characteristics of surrounding rock deformation and failure under the action of confined water. Results showed that montmorillonite clay minerals accounted for as much as 76% of mudstone, with a large number of pores existing in the microstructure. Besides, as the molecular structure of montmorillonite changed, mudstone microstructure damage occurred with the macroscopic manifestation of its rheological instability. Weakening degree of confined water on residual strength of mudstone was almost 50%. The instability mechanism of soft rock roadway caused by high confined water is that surrounding rock circulates the process of ‘fracture-seepage-mud ding-closed’ twice, which weakens its strength and leads to roadway instability. A combined support technology, namely the, ‘high-toughness sealing layer+hollow grouting cables+full-length anchoring bolts with deep borehole’ was proposed. Based on field observation, the soft rock roadway was controlled effectively, which also verified the effectiveness of new control technology for surrounding rock.

  19. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  20. Does access to open water affect the health of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Broom, D M

    2011-02-01

    Access to open water is considered good for the welfare of Pekin ducks. These studies investigated the effect that the type of water resource, provided over either straw bedding or a rubber mesh, had on measures of duck health. Pekin strain ducklings (n = 2,600) were managed in pens of 100 on straw over a solid concrete floor. In study 1, one of two water resources (nipple, n = 5 pens; wide-lip bell drinker, n = 5 pens), was located directly over the straw. In study 2, one of three water resources (narrow-lip bell drinker, n = 6 pens; trough, n = 5 pens; and bath, n = 5 pens) was located over a rubber mesh. On d 16, 24, 29, 35, and 43, (study 1) or d 21, 29, 35, and 43 posthatch (study 2), 10 birds were selected from each pen and weighed, and then feather hygiene, footpad dermatitis, eye health, gait score, and nostril condition scores were taken. Treatment had no effect on BW in either study, but in study 2, ducks in the open water treatments had higher scores (P < 0.001) than those in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment by d 43. In study 1, treatment had no effect on hygiene scores, but scores increased over time (P < 0.001). In study 2, ducks in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment were dirtier than those in the bath treatment (P = 0.01), with those in the trough treatment being intermediate. In both studies, ducks with bell drinkers had worse gait scores than those in the other treatments (study 1, P < 0.01; study 2, P < 0.05). Treatment had no effect on eye health scores. However, ducks were less likely to have dirty nostrils when provided with more open water resources in both studies (P < 0.01), or were less likely to have blocked nostrils in the trough and bath treatments than in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment in study 2 (P = 0.01). Provision of open water, particularly over a properly constructed drainage area, improved some aspects of duck health (improved feather hygiene and BW, and fewer dirty and blocked nostrils). However, further work is

  1. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  2. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  3. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H S

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed.

  4. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  5. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2015-09-15

    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources.

  6. Subjective disturbance of perception is related to facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Corigliano, Valentina; Romano, Silvia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Campana, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    To examine the relationship between facial affect recognition (FAR) and subjective perceptual disturbances (SPDs), we assessed SPDs in 82 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (44 with first-episode psychosis [FEP] and 38 with multiple episodes [ME]) using two subscales of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), WAS (simple perception) and WAK (complex perception). Emotional judgment ability was assessed using Ekman and Friesen's FAR task. Impaired recognition of emotion correlated with scores on the WAS but not on the WAK. The association was significant in the entire group and in the ME group. FAR was more impaired in the ME than in the FEP group. Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between SPDs and FAR impairment in schizophrenia, particularly in multiple-episode patients.

  7. Analysis of related factors affecting prognosis of shunt surgery in patients with secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; DU Hang-gen; YIN Li-chun; HE Min; ZHANG Guo-jun; TIAN Yong; HAO Bi-lie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The management of secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH) is controversial.Many factors may affect the surgery effect.The purpose of this study was to identify the possible factors influencing prognosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of sNPH.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the results of 31 patients with sNPH who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery from January 2007 to December 2011.We processed the potential influencing factors by univariate analysis and the result further by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results:Factors including age,disease duration and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score before surgery significantly influenced the prognosis of sNPH (P<0.05).Further logistic regression analysis showed that all the three factors are independent influencing factors.Conclusion:Age,disease duration and GCS score before surgery have positive predictive value in estimating favorable response to surgical treatment for sNPH.

  8. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in four different municipalities in Greenland. The recipients were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Approximately 9% of the respondents met the criteria for SAD, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. The prevalence of SAD was particularly high in northern municipalities. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of SAD between Greenlanders and Danes. The results are comparable with other population studies that have reported a high prevalence of SAD in arctic areas. The clinical implications of our findings and the possibilities for introducing light therapy should be assessed in future studies.

  9. [Spatial distribution pattern of soil nitrogen in Huanghuadianzi watershed and related affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Yao, Yun-feng; Qin, Fu-cang; Gao, Yu-han; Zhang, Mei-li

    2015-05-01

    This research was conducted in Huanghuadianzi watershed in Aohan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. Geostatistic was used to study the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen and their affecting factors. The results showed that the soil nitrogen contents in all layers distributed as an island shape, and the high value areas were mainly distributed in the northwest of the watershed as an obvious fertile island shape, while the low value areas were mainly distributed in the south of the watershed. Nitrogen was mainly concentrated in the surface soil, and its content decreased with the increase of soil depth. The soil nitrogen content at first increased then decreased with the altitude, decreased with the slope, and showed the order of shady slope>semi-shady slope>semi-sunny slope> sunny slope in different aspects. The average soil nitrogen contents in different land use types ranked as cropland >woodland > grassland.

  10. Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel U. ONWEREMADU

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated selected properties of soils affected by wastewater and its relationship with some heavy metals. A free survey technique involving target sampling was used in siting soil profile pits. Soil samples were collected based on horizon differentiation and analyzed using routine and special analytical techniques. Soil data were subjected to correlation analysis using SAS program. Results show that all heavy metals studied had values above critical limits in the polluted soils using known standards and that these biotoxic metals decreased with soil depths. Highly significant (P=0.01 and 0.05) relationships were established between investigated heavy metals and some soil properties, especially soil pH and organic matter. Further studies involving more edaphic properties, biotoxic metals and their bioaccessibility in crops growing on wastewater soils will surely enhance knowledge and management of these highly anthropogenically influenced soils of the study site.

  11. Affective judgement about information relating to competence and warmth: an embodied perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Tessier, Marie; Lacrampe, Rémy; Dru, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown that social judgement may be defined by two dimensions, competence and warmth. From a functional perspective, embodied theories have proposed that warmth may be associated with physical distance, whereas competence may be connected to a vertical motion (UPWARD/DOWNWARD). Two main studies were conducted to examine if approach-avoidance and vertical motion could influence affective judgements about traits representing these two social dimensions. Valence judgements about warmth traits that were moving towards the subject resulted in more positive judgement than when they were moving away (approach/avoidance). Furthermore, competence traits were judged more positively when they moved in an UPWARD direction, compared with when they moved DOWNWARD. A metacognitive account of confidence is offered to explain how cognitions about warmth and competence are connected to the physical world.

  12. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development of civilian guidelines.

  14. How perceptions of HIV-related stigma affect decision-making regarding childbirth in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S Medema-Wijnveen

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Kenya is high. Furthermore, there is a high risk of maternal mortality, as many women do not give birth with a skilled healthcare provider. Previous research suggests that fears of HIV testing and unwanted disclosure of HIV status may be important barriers to utilizing maternity services. We explored relationships between women's perceptions of HIV-related stigma and their attitudes and intentions regarding facility-based childbirth.1,777 pregnant women were interviewed at their first antenatal care visit. We included socio-demographic characteristics, stigma scales, HIV knowledge measures, and an 11-item scale measuring health facility birth attitudes (HFBA. HFBA includes items on cost, transport, comfort, interpersonal relations, and services during delivery at a health facility versus at home. A higher mean HFBA score indicates a more positive attitude towards facility-based childbirth. The mean HFBA score was dichotomized at the median and analyses were conducted with this dichotomized HFBA score using mixed effects logit models.Women who anticipated HIV-related stigma from their male partner had lower adjusted odds of having positive attitudes about giving birth at the health facility (adjusted OR = .63, 95% CI 0.50-0.78 and less positive attitudes about health facility birth were strongly related to women's intention to give birth outside a health facility (adjusted OR = 5.56, 95% CI 2.69-11.51.In this sample of pregnant women in rural Kenya, those who anticipated HIV-related stigma were less likely to have positive attitudes towards facility-based childbirth. Furthermore, negative attitudes about facility-based childbirth were associated with the intention to deliver outside a health facility. Thus, HIV-related stigma reduction efforts might result in more positive attitudes towards facility-based childbirth, and thereby lead to an increased level of skilled birth attendance, and reductions

  15. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  16. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential (low organic soils with n > 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  17. Species sorting and patch dynamics in harlequin metacommunities affect the relative importance of environment and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Mathew A; Loeuille, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Metacommunity theory indicates that variation in local community structure can be partitioned into components including those related to local environmental conditions vs. spatial effects and that these can be quantified using statistical methods based on variation partitioning. It has been hypothesized that joint associations of community composition with environment and space could be due to patch dynamics involving colonization-extinction processes in environmentally heterogeneous landscapes but this has yet to be theoretically shown. We develop a two-patch, type-two, species competition model in such a "harlequin" landscape (where different patches have different environments) to evaluate how composition is related to environmental and spatial effects as a function of background extinction rate. Using spatially implicit analytical models, we find that the environmental association of community composition declines with extinction rate as expected. Using spatially explicit simulation models, we further find that there is an increase in the spatial structure with extinction due to spatial patterning into clusters that are not related to environmental conditions but that this increase is limited. Natural metacommunities often show both environment and spatial determination even under conditions of relatively high isolation and these could be more easily explained by our model than alternative metacommunity models.

  18. Relative - not absolute - judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Lauren; Garry, Maryanne; Mori, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    People remember different details about the same events, and when they discuss events they exchange new - and misleading - information. Discussion can change memory, especially when the source of new information is highly credible. But we do not know whether the effects of credibility are based on absolute judgments - judging a source's credibility independently from our own credibility - or relative judgments - judging a source's credibility only in relation to our own credibility. We addressed this question by manipulating subjects' expectations, leading them to believe that they either had the same, higher or lower "visual acuity" than their partner while they watched a movie together. To create ample opportunities for the pairs to mention misleading details to one another, each member unknowingly saw a different version of the movie. The pairs then discussed some of the critical differences, but not others. Later, everyone took an independent recognition test. Subjects' susceptibility to misinformation depended on their own credibility relative to their partner's, supporting the idea that susceptibility to misinformation depends on relative differences in credibility.

  19. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  20. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state, civil society and market.

  1. Preferred pre-stimulus EEG states affect cognitive event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Current views of the genesis of the event-related potential (ERP) emphasize the contribution of ongoing oscillations - the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) is recognized as much more than "background noise" to be removed by response averaging to find the ERP. Early work from Başar's group noted that repetitive stimuli led to selective phase re-ordering of activity in the delta and alpha bands, such that enhanced brain negativity occurred at the time of the regular stimulus. Other work related negativity in alpha activity at stimulus onset to improved reaction times and ERP enhancements. These findings led us to begin a program of brain dynamics studies exploring pre-stimulus EEG phase states, their preferential occurrence in paradigms with regularly presented stimuli, and their relation to ERP outcomes. In particular, with very narrow EEG bands, we have repeatedly found that certain phase states preferentially occur at stimulus onset, implying ongoing phase re-ordering driven by stimulus occurrence. Effects are weakened with slightly varying inter-stimulus intervals, but still occur reliably. Further, these preferential phase states are functionally effective in relation to the ERP correlates of efficient stimulus processing. Preferential phase occurrence and their effects were originally reported in auditory oddball tasks, using narrow EEG bands derived by digital filtering. A recent study is presented illustrating generalization of the phenomenon in the auditory Go/NoGo task, using narrow bands derived by FFT techniques. Our current work is extending this research in normal children (to provide a comparative context for research in children with AD/HD), and well-functioning elderly (to provide a context for future work in relation to Alzheimer's disease).

  2. THE CHANGE OF CHEMICAL QUALITY OF CARP POUNDS OUTGOING WATER IN RELATION TO INFLOW WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Carp pounds are considered one of the contaminators of open waters. Such situation was the motive for carrying out the research of changes in the outgoing water from a pond compared to the water flowing into ponds on the fish-farming »Jelas« near Slavonski Brod. The research was carried out in the period 1989-1995, in spring, summer and autumn on the fish production of 500-1000 kg/ha-1 and fish nutrition with cereals. Following chemical parameters were researched: 02, unbound C02, alkalinity (CaC03, CaHC03, pH, permanganat number (KMn04. BPK5, total dry waste, suspended substance, NH4+, N03- and PO43-. On the basis of received analytic values, it was concluded that the water may be categorized in I-II quality class according to the quantity if 02, consumption of KMn04, NH4+, N03-, PO43- and dry waste in the feeding and drainage canal and in the III-IV quality class according to the BPK5 and suspended substance. An occasional marked decrease of the quantity of 02, NH4+, N03- and PO43- and alkalinity of water was stated in the outgoding water compared to the inflow water. The BPK5 and suspended substance increased in the outgoing water compared to the inflow water. After the variant of the most important inflow and outgoing chemical parameters in the water was analyzed, it was stated that there emerged no significant changes (P>O.Ol, P>0.05. The changes of outgoing water from fish-farming “Jelas” were not significant in the research period and they had no significant influence on the change of the recipient water.

  3. Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogels: The Key Role of Water in Affecting Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barbucci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different hydrogels were prepared starting from natural or semi-synthetic polysaccharides (carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronic acid and chitosan which were cross-linked by the addition of a cross-linking agent chosen according to the chemical groups present along the polymer chains. The cross-linking reaction allows for the formation of a three-dimensional network made of covalent bonds between the polymer chains, which is stable under physiological conditions. The presence of a substantial amount of water within the polysaccharide matrices makes such systems unique among hydrophilic gels. Water itself is responsible for some of their peculiar characteristics, one of which is their injectability which makes these hydrogels suitable for using as matrices for mini-invasive surgery and localized therapy.

  4. Key parameters and processes affecting the re-establishment of eelgrass in estuaries and coastal water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula

    of field activities and laboratory experiments around seed and seedling survival fitting and success rates were planned. Initially, there were performed pre-screening activities, in a pre-selected study area, Odense fjord (Fyn, Denmark). From the pre-screening basic data on fauna, benthic vegetation...... and sediment trapping. In the last decades seagrass, in general and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in particular, have been heavily reduced, primarily due to a generalized euthrophication of the coastal waters. In Denmark, a numerous efforts on nutrient reduction and improvement on coastal water quality have been...... of the objectives were to gain a further and deeper understanding on eelgrass recolonization processes and to gather all the collected data into a modelling tool which allowing to predict eelgrass reestablishment. Eelgrass re-establishment in Denmark has to be based on seed and seedling success, therefore a series...

  5. Soil water availability in rainfed cultivation affects more than cultivar some nutraceutical components and the sensory profile of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucelli, Pierluigi; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Barbetti, Roberto; Franchini, Elena

    2011-08-10

    This research considered the varieties 'Frantoio' and 'Moraiolo' growing in rainfed olive trees (Olea europaea) and took place in Tuscany, central Italy. Soil moisture was monitored during the very meteorologically contrasting years 2002 and 2003 in two nearby olive groves. The plots had the same morphological and climatic conditions, but different soil types. Monocultivar oil samples were analyzed to determine fatty acids, minor polar compounds, and tocopherols content and were submitted to organoleptic analysis by a panel of trained tasters. The results highlighted that soil water regimen affects some nutraceutical components and the sensory evaluation of olive oil. Cultivar also affected yield components, polyphenols, and tocopherols content, but less than soil water availability. The plants on the soil inducing a relatively more intense and longer water deficit during summer (a Skeleti Calcaric Regosol) had an early ripening and gave the best results in terms of phenolic compounds and, consequently, antioxidant properties of the olive oil. The sensorial properties of the oil obtained from both cultivars on the Regosol were superior in both years of the trial.

  6. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    OpenAIRE

    Salm, A.L. van der; Spanings, F.A.T.; Gresnigt, R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a low pH, in addition to its role in skin colouration. In the current study, we investigated the responses of this fish to these two environmental challenges when it is exposed to both simultaneously. ...

  7. Soil penetration resistance in a rhodic eutrudox affected by machinery traffic and soil water content.

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Moacir T. de; Debiasi,Henrique; Julio C. Franchini; Silva,Vanderlei R. da

    2013-01-01

    Soil compaction caused by machinery traffic reduces crop yields. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intensive traffic, and the soil water content, on the soil penetration resistance (PR) of a Rhodic Eutrudox (Distroferric Red Latosol, Brazilian Classification), managed under no-tillage (NT). The experiment consisted of six treatments: NT with recent chiseling, NT without additional compaction, and NT with additional compaction by 4, 8, 10 and 20 passes of a harvester with a weight of...

  8. Randomized clinical trial comparing affect regulation and supportive group therapies for victimization-related PTSD with incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D; Chang, Rocío; Levine, Joan; Zhang, Wanli

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic victimization and associated problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and affect dysregulation are prevalent among incarcerated women, but there is limited evidence to support psychotherapeutic interventions for these problems in this underserved population. A group psychotherapy designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing-Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)-was compared to a supportive group therapy (SGT) in a randomized clinical trial with 72 incarcerated women with full or partial PTSD. Both interventions achieved statistically significant reductions in PTSD and associated symptom severity and increased self-efficacy. Dropout rates for both interventions were low (PTSD and associated symptoms. Experiential-focused supportive group therapy also may reduce victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Both group therapy approaches warrant further study with this vulnerable population.

  9. Mastering style – Effects of explicit style-related information, art knowledge and affective state on appreciation of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENNO BELKE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004 have proposed a model of aesthetic experience in which stylistic processing is central for aesthetic experiences of art. Here we present an empirical study which investigates predictions derived from the model. Using modern and contemporary abstract paintings we investigated how their appreciation is affected by style information generalized onto new exemplars of paintings by the same artists. In accordance with the model’s predictions, effects of style processing depend on the affective states of the viewers as well as their ability for cognitive mastery, measured by amount of expertise. The experiment reveals that the examination of style-related cognitive processes is important to psychologically understand the affective, cognitive and presumably self-rewarding aspects of aesthetic experiences.

  10. 76 FR 57740 - Program Requirement Revisions Related to the Public Water System Supervision Programs for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY Program Requirement Revisions Related to the Public Water System Supervision Programs for the... the process of revising their respective approved Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) programs to meet the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The State of Rhode Island has...

  11. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The...

  12. Potential Environmental Factors Affecting Oil-Degrading Bacterial Populations in Deep and Surface Waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding bacterial community dynamics as a result of an oil spill is important for predicting the fate of oil released to the environment and developing bioremediation strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the roles of temperature, water chemistry (nutrients), and initial bacterial community in selecting oil degraders through a series of incubation experiments. Surface (2 m) and bottom (1537 m) waters, collected near the Deepwater Horizon site, were amended with 200 ppm light Louisiana sweet crude oil and bacterial inoculums from surface or bottom water, and incubated at 4 or 24°C for 50 days. Bacterial community and residual oil were analyzed by pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results showed that temperature played a key role in selecting oil-degrading bacteria. Incubation at 4°C favored the development of Cycloclasticus, Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, and Reinekea, while 24°C incubations enhanced Oleibacter, Thalassobius, Phaeobacter, and Roseobacter. Water chemistry and the initial community also had potential roles in the development of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities. Pseudoalteromonas, Oleibacter, and Winogradskyella developed well in the nutrient-enriched bottom water, while Reinekea and Thalassobius were favored by low-nutrient surface water. We revealed that the combination of 4°C, crude oil and bottom inoculum was a key factor for the growth of Cycloclasticus, while the combination of surface inoculum and bottom water chemistry was important for the growth of Pseudoalteromonas. Moreover, regardless of the source of inoculum, bottom water at 24°C was a favorable condition for Oleibacter. Redundancy analysis further showed that temperature and initial community explained 57 and 19% of the variation observed, while oil and water chemistry contributed 14 and 10%, respectively. Overall, this study revealed the relative roles of temperature, water

  13. Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Paddy Soil Quality as Affected by Different Nutrient and Water Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang-Ming; YANG Lin-Zhang; YAN Ting-Mei

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted from 1999 to 2002 to compare and evaluate the effects of nutrient and water regimes on paddy soil quality by investigating soil chemical and microbiological parameters. Four nutrient regimes, a control, chemical fertilizers only (CF), chemical fertilizers with swine manure (SM), and chemical fertilizers with wheat straw (WS), and two soil moisture regimes, continuous waterlogging (CWL) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD),were investigated. With SM and WS total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the paddy soil were significantly higher (P <0.05) than those with CF. A similar effect for organic amendments was observed in the soil light fraction organic C (LFOC), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and water-soluble organic C (WSOC). CWL, in particular when swine manure was incorporated into the paddy soil, markedly decreased soil redox potential (Eh) and increased total active reducing substances (ARS). Meanwhile, as compared to CF, SM and WS significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and mineralizable carbon, with differences in AWD being higher than CWL. In addition, SM and WS treatments significantly (P < 0.05) improved rice above-ground biomass and grain yield, with AWD being greater than CWL. Thus, for ecologically sustainable agricultural management of paddy soils, long-term waterlogging should be avoided when organic manure was incorporated into paddy soil.

  14. Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

    1984-01-01

    The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

  15. Species-specific accumulation of dioxin related compounds in cetaceans collected from Japanese coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime Univ. (Japan); Amano, M. [Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Iwate (Japan); Yamada, T. [National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are extremely hazardous and persistent chemicals identified as contaminants in chlorophenols, herbicides, fly ash and other incineration products. Dioxin-like PCBs including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs are referred to as dioxin related compounds and are evaluated on par with PCDD/Fs in environmental risks since they have a high toxicity, similar to that of PCDD/Fs. These congeners have a range of physicochemical characteristics, which profoundly affect their persistence, environmental distribution, and bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains. Fish-eating wildlife such as marine mammals are particularly vulnerable to such contamination given their long lives, high trophic level, relative inability to metabolize many persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the biomagnification of these contaminants in aquatic food chains. However, most studies dealing with PCDDs and PCDFs in marine mammals have been carried out on pinnipeds, and data on PCDD/Fs levels in cetaceans are scarce. The present study is aimed at understanding the recent pattern of contamination by dioxin related compounds including non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in three cetacean species collected from Japanese coastal waters during 1998-2001, and also to discuss the factors determining the accumulation.

  16. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Ware, Arthur Gates; Atwood, Corwin Lee; Sattison, Martin Blaine; Hartley, Robert Scott; Hsu, C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number of rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  17. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. G. Ware; C. Hsu (USNRC); C. L. Atwood; M. B. Sattison; R. S. Hartley (INEEL); V. N. Shah

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number and rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  18. A cholinergic receptor gene (CHRM2) affects event-related oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin A; Porjesz, Bernice; Almasy, Laura; Bierut, Laura; Dick, Danielle; Goate, Alison; Hinrichs, Anthony; Rice, John P; Wang, Jen C; Bauer, Lance O; Crowe, Raymond; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John; O'Connor, Sean J; Rohrbaugh, John; Schuckit, Marc A; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J; Begleiter, Henri

    2006-09-01

    We report genetic linkage and association findings which implicate the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) in the modulation of a scalp-recorded electrophysiological phenotype. The P3 (P300) response was evoked using a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm and a phenotype that relates to the energy in the theta band (4-5 Hz) was analyzed. Studies have shown that similar electrophysiological measures represent cognitive correlates of attention, working memory, and response selection; a role has been suggested for the ascending cholinergic pathway in the same functions. The results of our genetic association tests, combined with knowledge regarding the presence of presynaptic cholinergic M2 autoreceptors in the basal forebrain, indicate that the cognitive processes required by the experiment may in part be mediated by inhibitory neural networks. These findings underscore the utility of electrophysiology and neurogenetics in the understanding of cognitive function and the study of brain-related disorders.

  19. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N, but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics,the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage. A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates (PNR, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids

  20. Analysis of related factors affecting prognosis of shunt surgery in patients with secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The management of se-condary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH is controversial. Many factors may affect the surgery effect. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible fac-tors influencing prognosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of sNPH. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the results of 31 patients with sNPH who under-went ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery from January 2007 to December 2011. We processed the potential influencing factors by univariate analysis and the result further by mul-tivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Factors including age, disease duration and Glasgow coma scale (GCS score before surgery significantly influenced the prognosis of sNPH (P<0.05. Further logistic regression analysis showed that all the three factors are independent influencing factors. Conclusion: Age, disease duration and GCS score before surgery have positive predictive value in estimating favorable response to surgical treatment for sNPH. Key words: Hydrocephalus, normal pressure; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Regression analysis

  1. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  2. How Do Differences in Relating Mathematics to Science Affect Eighth Graders' Learning?(Applied Field Research)

    OpenAIRE

    湯澤, 正通; 山本, 泰昌

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined whether instructions emphasizing the relations between science and mathematics would improve students' learning of science. Students in 2 public junior high school classes received 1 of 2 types of instruction concerning the physical law predicting that the weight of oxidized metal is proportionate to the weight of the metal before oxidation. Students in the experimental class first deduced the physical law from an atomic model, and then, in order to obtain the propo...

  3. Cutis Verticis Gyrata in Men Affected by HIV-Related Lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Khanijow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of cutis verticis gyrata (CVG, a disfiguring dermatological condition, in four patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy (HIVLD. These four patients had abnormal metabolic and hormonal lab values which we compare with metabolic and hormonal perturbations cited in previous HIVLD cohorts. In addition, we describe the sole use of poly-L-lactic acid as a potential treatment for decreasing the appearance of CVG-associated ridges.

  4. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study

  5. Cell-free propagation of Coxiella burnetii does not affect its relative virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Kuley

    Full Text Available Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. In vitro growth of the bacterium is usually limited to viable eukaryotic host cells imposing experimental constraints for molecular studies, such as the identification and characterisation of major virulence factors. Studies of pathogenicity may benefit from the recent development of an extracellular growth medium for C. burnetii. However, it is crucial to investigate the consistency of the virulence phenotype of strains propagated by the two fundamentally different culturing systems. In the present study, we assessed the viability of C. burnetii and the lipopolysaccaride (LPS encoding region of the bacteria in both culture systems as indirect but key parameters to the infection potential of C. burnetii. Propidium monoazide (PMA treatment-based real-time PCR was used for enumeration of viable C. burnetii which were validated by fluorescent infectious focus forming unit counting assays. Furthermore, RNA isolated from C. burnetiipropagated in both the culture systems was examined for LPS-related gene expression. All thus far known LPS-related genes were found to be expressed in early passages in both culturing systems indicating the presence of predominantly the phase I form of C. burnetii. Finally, we used immune-competent mice to provide direct evidence, that the relative virulence of different C. burnetii strains is essentially the same for both axenic and cell-based methods of propagation.

  6. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  7. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rubao; An, Daizhi; Lu, Wei; Shi, Yun; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Hongjuan; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  8. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  9. Hydrologic Modeling of Urbanizing Oregon Basins for Water-Related Ecosystem Service Assessment using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaris, A. M.; Chang, H.; Winfield, T.; Lambrinos, J.

    2012-12-01

    Since humans rely on nature for certain goods and services, there should be accurate economic representations for them. These goods and services are commonly called ecosystem services. Our research seeks to investigate how water-related ecosystem services - water yield, sediment retention, and nutrient retention, can be measured and quantified spatially, and explores how the issue of scale affects these measurements. The water model of the ecosystem service evaluation tool Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoff (InVEST) is being tested against the well-known, physically based model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in the Yamhill and Tualatin basins, located in Oregon, USA. Both models are being used to assess the potential hydrologic changes that may result from climate and land use changes in the middle of the 21st century. We build a total of five sub-basin models representing an urban-rural gradient, and use SWAT-CUP for calibration. Our study area contains a mixture of forested, agricultural, and developed land, and the Tualatin River is a regulated river with one dam and four wastewater treatment plants. Fanno Creek is a highly developed subwatershed of Tualatin and has the best model results with an NSE = 0.87 and a % BIAS = -1.15 after calibration for simulating monthly hydrograph. Dairy Creek is a forested sub-basin of the Tualatin and has an NSE = 0.72 and a % BIAS = 0.29. The upstream Tualatin gage (Dilley) has good results with an NSE = 0.77 and a % BIAS = 2.50 after calibration. While the Dilley results are acceptable, the monthly hydrograph shows clear problems during the summer due to water releases from Hagg Lake and Barney reservoirs which are not included in the model at this time. Yamhill basin has an NSE = 0.80 and a % BIAS = -13.0. This basin is mostly agricultural land which utilizes water withdrawls for irrigation. This may account for the consistent over estimation of flow. Finally, the whole Tualatin River basin has an

  10. Management of a toxic cyanobacterium bloom (Planktothrix rubescens) affecting an Italian drinking water basin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; Nigro di Gregorio, Federica; Lucentini, Luca; Ferretti, Emanuele; Ottaviani, Massimo; Ungaro, Nicola; Abis, Pier Paolo; Cannarozzi de Grazia, Matteo

    2013-01-02

    An extraordinary bloom of Planktothrix rubescens, which can produce microcystins (MCs), was observed in early 2009 in the Occhito basin, used even as a source of drinking water in Southern Italy. Several activities, coordinated by a task force, were implemented to assess and manage the risk associated to drinking water contaminated by cyanobacteria. Main actions were: evaluation of analytical protocols for screening and confirmatory purpose, monitoring the drinking water supply chain, training of operators, a dedicated web site for risk communication. ELISA assay was considered suitable for health authorities as screening method for MCs and to optimize frequency of sampling according to alert levels, and as internal control for the water supplier. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method able to quantify 9 MCs was optimized with the aim of supporting health authorities in a comprehensive risk evaluation based on the relative toxicity of different congeners. Short, medium, and long-term corrective actions were implemented to mitigate the health risk. Preoxidation with chlorine dioxide followed by flocculation and settling have been shown to be effective in removing MCs in the water treatment plant. Over two years, despite the high levels of cyanobacteria (up to 160 × 10(6) cells/L) and MCs (28.4 μg/L) initially reached in surface waters, the drinking water distribution was never limited.

  11. Paying for water-related forest services: a survey on Italian payment mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secco L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the state of implementation of one of the most relevant mechanisms of payments for environmental services (PES in the forestry sector: the systems of payments for water-related forest services. Three water services with economic relevance are analyzed with reference to the Italian context: hydropower generation, tap-water supply and mineral water use by industry. Using the consolidated definition of PES as a basis for the analysis and considering the regulatory framework on water, we compared the three water-related services to describe the strengths and weaknesses in environmental services provision. From the analysis we deduced that pure PES schemes do not exist in the water sector in Italy, while PES-like schemes driven by public authorities have a relatively long and consolidated tradition, but need to be better oriented and more widely implemented in order to compensate the providers of the services.

  12. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  13. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  14. Determination of traces of Sb(III) using ASV in Sb-rich water samples affected by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cidu, Rosa, E-mail: cidur@unica.it; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Antimony speciation affects the toxicity of this element. • A simple method for Sb(III) analyses in Sb-rich waters was developed. • Sb(III) was determined by ASV in water stabilized with tartaric and nitric acids. • Pre-concentration and/or separation of Sb(III) prior to analysis are not required. - Abstract: Chemical speciation [Sb(V) and Sb(III)] affects the mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of antimony. In oxygenated environments Sb(V) dominates whereas thermodynamically unstable Sb(III) may occur. In this study, a simple method for the determination of Sb(III) in non acidic, oxygenated water contaminated with antimony is proposed. The determination of Sb(III) was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV, 1–20 μg L{sup −1} working range), the total antimony, Sb(tot), was determined either by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 1–100 μg L{sup −1} working range) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, 100–10,000 μg L{sup −1} working range) depending on concentration. Water samples were filtered on site through 0.45 μm pore size filters. The aliquot for determination of Sb(tot) was acidified with 1% (v/v) HNO{sub 3}. Different preservatives, namely HCl, L(+) ascorbic acid or L(+) tartaric acid plus HNO{sub 3}, were used to assess the stability of Sb(III) in synthetic solutions. The method was tested on groundwater and surface water draining the abandoned mine of Su Suergiu (Sardinia, Italy), an area heavily contaminated with Sb. The waters interacting with Sb-rich mining residues were non acidic, oxygenated, and showed extreme concentrations of Sb(tot) (up to 13,000 μg L{sup −1}), with Sb(III) <10% of total antimony. The stabilization with L(+) tartaric acid plus HNO{sub 3} appears useful for the determination of Sb(III) in oxygenated, Sb-rich waters. Due to the instability of Sb(III), analyses should be carried out within 7 days upon the water collection. The main

  15. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level.

  16. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  17. Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Annie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Russell, Ailsa; Murray, Robin

    2002-06-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits.One-hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SR) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic patients (APR) completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism; they were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The male relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives of affective psychotic patients. In the SR group, there were significant correlations between the TMT performance and the extraversion scores and, between the IQ scores and the psychoticism scores. However, when logistical regression analyses were performed, none of the three personality scores predicted any of the neuropsychological performance in either the SR or the APR group. These results indicate some specificity as well as sex differences in the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to psychosis whereas extraversion decreases it.

  18. Biomass production, photosynthesis, and leaf water relations of Spartina alterniflora under moderate water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Kamel; Ghandour, Mohamed; Albouchi, Ali; Soltani, Abdelaziz; Werner, Koyro Hans; Abdelly, Chedly

    2008-05-01

    The perennial smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, has been successfully introduced in salty ecosystems for revegetation or agricultural use. However, it remains unclear whether it can be introduced in arid ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological response of this species to water deficiency in a climate-controlled greenhouse. The experiment consisted of two levels of irrigation modes, 100 and 50% field capacities (FC). Although growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance of plants with 50% FC were reduced at 90 days from the start of the experiment, all of the plants survived. The water-stressed plants exhibited osmotic adjustment and an increase in the maximum elastic modulus that is assumed to be effective to enhance the driving force for water extraction from the soil with small leaf water loss. An increase in the water use efficiency was also found in the water-stressed plants, which could contribute to the maintenance of leaf water status under drought conditions. It can be concluded that S. alterniflora has the capacity to maintain leaf water status and thus survive in arid environment.

  19. Long-term effect of salinity on plant quality, water relations, photosynthetic parameters and ion distribution in Callistemon citrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, S; Sánchez-Blanco, M J

    2014-07-01

    The effect of saline stress on physiological and morphological parameters in Callistemon citrinus plants was studied to evaluate their adaptability to irrigation with saline water. C. citrinus plants, grown under greenhouse conditions, were subjected to two irrigation treatments lasting 56 weeks: control (0.8 dS·m(-1)) and saline (4 dS·m(-1)). The use of saline water in C. citrinus plants decreased aerial growth, increased the root/shoot ratio and improved the root system (increased root diameter and root density), but flowering and leaf colour were not affected. Salinity caused a decrease in stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration, which may prevent toxic levels being reached in the shoot. Net photosynthesis was reduced in plants subjected to salinity, although this response was evident much later than the decrease in stomatal conductance. Stem water potential was a good indicator of salt stress in C. citrinus. The relative salt tolerance of Callistemon was related to storage of higher levels of Na+ and Cl- in the roots compared with the leaves, especially in the case of Na+, which could have helped to maintain the quality of plants. The results show that saline water (around 4 dS·m(-1)) could be used for growing C. citrinus commercially. However, the cumulative effect of irrigating with saline water for 11 months was a decrease in photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency, meaning that the interaction of the salinity level and the time of exposure to the salt stress should be considered important in this species.

  20. Water relations in untreated and modified wood under brown-rot and white-rot decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund

    2017-01-01

    One key requisite for fungal decay of wood is water within cell walls. While several reviews have focused on the mechanistic relationship between water and decay of wood, this study is the first review of water relations of decayed wood material. Based on a vast compilation of experimental data...... from several literature sources, the water relations of untreated and modified wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi are examined. The aim is to investigate to what extent observations and assumptions regarding brown-rot and white-rot decay can explain changes in water relations observed during...... and after decay. Although the available experimental data for modified wood is scarce, it indicates that brown-rot and white-rot decay of non-resistant modified wood occurs by similar degradation mechanisms with similar effects on water relations as for untreated wood. From simplistic, mathematical...

  1. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  2. Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Hooe, Eric S

    2003-06-01

    The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has been studied with adults; however, support is still emerging with children concerning measurement and relations between positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect and psychopathology. In this longitudinal study of 270 4th- to 11th-grade children (mean age = 12.9 years, SD = 2.23). confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor orthogonal model of children's self-reported affect and revealed that the concurrent relations of NA and PA to anxiety and depression symptoms were consistent with the tripartite model. Structural equation modeling demonstrated moderate cross-time stability of trait PA and NA, consistent with a temperament view of these factors, as well as partial support for the role of NA and PA in the development of anxiety and depression symptoms in children.

  3. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  4. Ammonia concentration and relative humidity in poultry houses affect the immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F X; Hu, X F; Xu, B; Zhang, M H; Li, S Y; Sun, Q Y; Lin, P

    2015-04-10

    To investigate the effect of ammonia (NH3) and humidity on the immune response of broilers, broilers were exposed to 30 or 70 mg/kg atmospheric NH3 for 21 days. Additionally, birds were exposed to 35, 60, and 85% relative humidity (RH). The relative weights of lymphoid organs, serum total protein, serum globulin, serum albumin, serum lysozyme, proliferation index of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and splenic cytokine gene expression were determined. Exposure to 70 mg/kg NH3 decreased the relative weight of the spleen during the experimental period, serum lysozyme concentration in the first and second weeks, and serum globulin concentration in the third week. The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was reduced. High levels of NH3 caused increase in IL-1β gene expression in the experimental period and IL-4 gene expression in the first week. Birds exposed to 85% RH had lower thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights in the third week and serum lysozyme concentration in the first week; IL-1β and IL-4 expressions were higher in the second and third weeks and first and second weeks, respectively, than in birds exposed to 60% RH. IL-4 expression was lower during the first week, and IL-1β expression was higher during the second week with 35% RH than with 60% RH. In conclusion, high NH3 level in the poultry house suppressed the immune response of broiler chickens. Neither high nor low RH benefited the immune response of broilers. Furthermore, there was an interactive effect between NH3 and RH on the immune response of broilers.

  5. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  6. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at energy cost during migration.

  7. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and...

  8. Pollen production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is affected by air temperature and relative humidity during early reproductive growth

    OpenAIRE

    Astiz, V.; Hernández, Luis Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During microsporogenesis, sunflower florets might be exposed to episodes of day- and night-time temperatures exceeding 30 and 20 °C, respectively, that can affect pollen availability and consequently plant’s yield. The relationship between air temperature and relative humidity during the meiotic phase of microsporogenesis, and the quantity and quality of pollen produced by the flowers, were studied in two sunflower hybrids during two years. The hybrids were grown on irrigated plots in Bahía B...

  9. How does age-related macular degeneration affect real-world visual ability and quality of life? A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Deanna J; Hobby, Angharad E; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, ass...

  10. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  11. A near-null magnetic field affects cryptochrome-related hypocotyl growth and flowering in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yin, Xiao; Lv, Yan; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Yuxia; Song, Tao

    2012-03-01

    The blue light receptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to act as a magnetoreceptor based on the proposition that photochemical reactions are involved in sensing the geomagnetic field. But the effects of the geomagnetic field on cryptochrome remain unclear. Although the functions of cryptochrome have been well demonstrated for Arabidopsis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the growth of Arabidopsis and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. We eliminated the local geomagnetic field to grow Arabidopsis in a near-null magnetic field and found that the inhibition of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by white light was weakened, and flowering time was delayed. The expressions of three cryptochrome-signaling-related genes, PHYB, CO and FT also changed; the transcript level of PHYB was elevated ca. 40%, and that of CO and FT was reduced ca. 40% and 50%, respectively. These data suggest that the effects of a near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis are cryptochrome-related, which may be revealed by a modification of the active state of cryptochrome and the subsequent signaling cascade.

  12. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  13. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  14. New Relations of Water Saturation’s Calculus from Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malureanu Ion

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The saturation in water or hydrocarbon is an important petrophysical parameter used for the evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. It represents the amount of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. There are many relations to determine the water saturation from well logs by using the physical properties of rocks. The accurate determination of the hydrocarbon formation or the water saturation is given by the accuracy of the parameters used for calculating and by the relations used.

  15. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terre...

  16. Effect of Geogenic Factors on Water Quality and Its Relation to Human Health around Mount Ida, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Baba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water–rock interactions strongly influence water quality. Waters originating from highly altered zones affect human health. Mount Ida region in western Anatolia is an example for such geogenic interactions and additional anthropogenic impacts. A water quality monitoring study was held and a total of 189 samples were collected from 63 monitoring stations to characterize the quality of water resources and its relation with human health. The results indicated that waters originating from altered volcanic rocks that are mainly used for drinking purposes have low pH, high conductivity and elevated trace element levels. In addition, a number of acidic mining lakes were formed in the open pits of abandoned mine sites in the study area and pyrite oxidation in altered volcanic rocks resulted in extremely acidic, high mineral content and toxic waters that demonstrate an eminent threat for the environmental health in the area. Overall, the water quality constituents in Mount Ida region had a spatially variable pattern and were locally found to exceed the national and international standards, mainly due to geogenic alteration zones and anthropogenic intervention.

  17. Challenging empowerment: AIDS-affected South African children and the need for a multi-level relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Critics of empowerment have highlighted the concept's mutability, focus on individual transformation, one-dimensionality and challenges of operationalisation. Relating these critiques to children's empowerment raises new challenges. Drawing on scholarship on children's subjecthood and exercise of power, alongside empirical research with children affected by AIDS, I argue that empowerment envisaged as individual self-transformation and increased capacity to act independently offers little basis for progressive change. Rather it is essential to adopt a relational approach that recognises the need to transform power relationships at multiple levels. This analysis has implications for our wider understanding of empowerment in the 21st century.

  18. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused...... by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing...... system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation...

  19. The Key Factors Affecting Tuber Development of Potato in vitro and the Relation with Protein Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Da-yong; LIAN Yong; ZHU De-wei

    2002-01-01

    According to previous analysis, some properties bounding up with tuber yield were investigated.The results showed that tuber average weight, plastid Mg2+ -ATPase activity, plastid Ca2+ -ATPase activity,mitochondria Mg2+-ATPase activity, total soluble protein content, tuber average diameter, and Q-enzyme activity were important factors determining the tuber yield. The linear regression equation was:Y = 0.5211 +0.0595X(1) + 0.8389X(2) + 0.0882X(3) - 0. 0073X(4) + 0. 1449X(5) + 0. 3510X(6) + 0. 0031X(7) -0.00003X(8) + 0.3412X(9)+ 0.0127X(10) + 0.2904X(11) + 0.0570X(12) + 0.0159X(13) + 0.3585X(14)+ 0.0134X(15) -0.1012X(16). At the same time, the relation between several important properties and soluble protein fractions were analyzed.

  20. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra;

    2016-01-01

    of heat stress, Pi accumulated in barley shoots but not in the roots, and transcriptomic data analysis as well as RT-qPCR led us to propose an explanation for this phenomenon. Pi transport inhibition from soil to roots is balanced by lower Pi efflux from roots to shoots directed by the PHO1 transporter....... In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression....... accumulation in shoots. In contrast, the pho1 mutant shows a decreased level of Pi concentration in shoots. Finally, Pi starvation leads to decreased Pi concentration in all plant tissues. Little is known about plant Pi homeostasis in other abiotic stress conditions. We found that, during the first hour...

  1. Relative floral density of an invasive plant affects pollinator foraging behaviour on a native plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Marie Iler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between invasive and native plants for pollinators vary from competition to facilitation of pollination of native plants. Theory predicts that relative floral densities should account for some of this variation in outcomes, with facilitation at low floral densities and competition at high floral densities of the invader. We tested this prediction by quantifying pollination and female reproductive success of a native herb, Geranium maculatum, in three experimental arrays that varied in floral density of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii: control (no L. maackii, low floral density of L. maackii, and high floral density of L. maackii. A low density of L. maackii flowers was associated with an increase in pollinator visitation rate to G. maculatum flowers and an increase in conspecific pollen deposition compared to controls and high density arrays. Increased visitation rates were not associated with an increase in the number of visitors to low density arrays, suggesting instead that a behavioural switch in visitation within the array accounted for increased pollen deposition. In contrast, the only evidence of competition in high density arrays was a shorter duration of visits to G. maculatum flowers relative to the other treatments. The number of seeds per flower did not vary among treatments, although trends in seeds per flower were consistent with patterns of pollinator foraging behaviour. Given increased pollinator visits and pollen deposition at a low density of the invader, our study indicates that complete eradication of invasives as a management or restoration technique may have unintended negative consequences for pollination of native plants.

  2. Energy Reliability Related to Water Availability under Climate Extremes in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Duncan, I.; Young, M.; Wolaver, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding linkages between water and energy is critical during climate extremes, particularly droughts. With 40% reduction in per capita water storage since the 1980s, Texas is much more vulnerable to droughts now than in the past. Texas experienced the most extreme one year drought on record in 2011, with 60% reduction in precipitation and 40% reduction in reservoir storage relative to the long term mean. Power plants in Texas rely almost entirely on surface water for cooling. We evaluated water requirements for power plants based on fuel types and cooling technologies to assess their vulnerability to future droughts. Water demand was estimated for electricity generation using multiple sources, including Energy Information Agency, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and Texas Water Development Board. The following analysis reflects 2010 data; however, 2011 data will be analyzed as soon as they are made available. Analysis of 2010 data showed that Texas generated 411 million MWHr of electricity, mostly from natural gas (46%), coal (37%), nuclear (10%), and renewables (7%). Approximately 70% of net electricity generation in 2010 required water for cooling. Water consumption for electricity generation totaled 0.6 km3, which represents 3% of the states total water consumption in 2010 (22 km3). Water withdrawals totaled 28 km3; however, 97% of this water is returned to the system. Water consumption varies with fuel source (coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and cooling system technology (once-through, pond, and recirculating tower). Coal plants accounted for the majority of water consumption in 2010, followed by natural gas, nuclear, and other. Water consumption varied by cooling system technology, with ponds accounting for most water consumption, followed by recirculating towers, and once-through cooling systems. The vulnerability of the different systems to drought was examined with water requirements for withdrawal and consumption relative to water

  3. How do Light and Water Acquisition Strategies Affect Species Selection during Secondary Succession in Moist Tropical Forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Schönbeck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pioneer tree species have acquisitive leaf characteristics associated with high demand of light and water, and are expected to be shade and drought intolerant. Using leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, relative water content and stomatal conductance and tree performance (mortality rate in the field, we assessed how shade and drought tolerance of leaves are related to the species’ positions along a successional gradient in moist tropical forest in Chiapas, Mexico. We quantified morphological and physiological leaf shade and drought tolerance indicators for 25 dominant species that characterize different successional stages. We found that light demand decreases with succession, confirming the importance of light availability for species filtering during early stages of succession. In addition, water transport levels in the leaves decreased with succession, but high water transport did not increase the leaf’s vulnerability to drought. In fact, late successional species showed higher mortality in dry years than early successional ones, against suggestions from leaf drought tolerance traits. It is likely that pioneer species have other drought-avoiding strategies, like deep rooting systems and water storage in roots and stems. More research on belowground plant physiology is needed to understand how plants adapt to changing environments, which is crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on secondary forests.

  4. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer.

  5. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  6. How do alternative root water uptake models affect the inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and the prediction of evapotranspiration?

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    Gayler, Sebastian; Salima-Sultana, Daisy; Selle, Benny; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Högy, Petra; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Soil water extraction by roots affects the dynamics and distribution of soil moisture and controls transpiration, which influences soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes. Consequently, root water uptake requires close attention when predicting water fluxes across the land surface, e.g., in agricultural crop models or in land surface schemes of weather and climate models. The key parameters for a successful simultaneous simulation of soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration in Richards equation-based models are the soil hydraulic parameters, which describe the shapes of the soil water retention curve and the soil hydraulic conductivity curve. As measurements of these parameters are expensive and their estimation from basic soil data via pedotransfer functions is rather inaccurate, the values of the soil hydraulic parameters are frequently inversely estimated by fitting the model to measured time series of soil water content and evapotranspiration. It is common to simulate root water uptake and transpiration by simple stress functions, which describe from which soil layer water is absorbed by roots and predict when total crop transpiration is decreased in case of soil water limitations. As for most of the biogeophysical processes simulated in crop and land surface models, there exist several alternative functional relationships for simulating root water uptake and there is no clear reason for preferring one process representation over another. The error associated with alternative representations of root water uptake, however, contributes to structural model uncertainty and the choice of the root water uptake model may have a significant impact on the values of the soil hydraulic parameters estimated inversely. In this study, we use the agroecosystem model system Expert-N to simulate soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration at three agricultural field sites located in two contrasting regions in Southwest Germany (Kraichgau, Swabian Alb). The Richards

  7. Occurrence and spatial distribution of EDCs and related compounds in waters and sediments of Iberian rivers.

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    Gorga, Marina; Insa, Sara; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    The environmental presence of chemicals capable of affecting the endocrine system has become a matter of scientific and public concern after certain endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) have been detected in the aquatic environment. In this work, 31 different EDCs and related compounds (suspect EDCs) belonging to different contaminant classes were studied: 10 estrogens, natural and synthetic, 8 alkylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A, triclosan and triclorocaraban, 4 parabens, 2 benzotriazoles, 3 organophosphorous flame retardants and the chemical marker caffeine, in river water and sediment of four Iberian rivers (Ebro, Llobregat, Júcar and Guadalquivir). An extensive sampling has been undertaken in two monitoring campaigns (2010 and 2011). A total of 77 samples of water and 75 sediments were collected. For this propose two different multiresidue analytical methods were applied, using the automated online EQuan/TurboFlow™ liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection in tandem. In terms of concentrations the compounds found at the highest average concentrations were: nonylphenol monocarboxylate (NP1EC), tolyltriazole (TT), tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP) found at average concentrations above 100 ng/L, followed by 1H-benzotriazole and tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) found at average concentration higher than 50 ng/L. Natural and synthetic hormones were found at low levels not exceeding 16 ng/L and 7 ng/g for water and sediment, respectively, however they contributed to more than 80% of the total estrogenicity of the samples (expressed as the equivalents of estradiol EEQ, ng/L). Regarding the spatial distribution of these contaminants, the Llobregat river was found to be the most contaminated river basin, having sites near the mouth of the river the ones with the highest contaminant load. In the Ebro river basin several hot spots were identified and Júcar showed to be the least contaminated. Overall, the study confirmed the presence of

  8. Determination of traces of Sb(III) using ASV in Sb-rich water samples affected by mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta

    2015-01-07

    Chemical speciation [Sb(V) and Sb(III)] affects the mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of antimony. In oxygenated environments Sb(V) dominates whereas thermodynamically unstable Sb(III) may occur. In this study, a simple method for the determination of Sb(III) in non acidic, oxygenated water contaminated with antimony is proposed. The determination of Sb(III) was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV, 1-20 μg L(-1) working range), the total antimony, Sb(tot), was determined either by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 1-100μgL(-1) working range) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, 100-10,000 μg L(-1) working range) depending on concentration. Water samples were filtered on site through 0.45 μm pore size filters. The aliquot for determination of Sb(tot) was acidified with 1% (v/v) HNO3. Different preservatives, namely HCl, L(+) ascorbic acid or L(+) tartaric acid plus HNO3, were used to assess the stability of Sb(III) in synthetic solutions. The method was tested on groundwater and surface water draining the abandoned mine of Su Suergiu (Sardinia, Italy), an area heavily contaminated with Sb. The waters interacting with Sb-rich mining residues were non acidic, oxygenated, and showed extreme concentrations of Sb(tot) (up to 13,000 μg L(-1)), with Sb(III) Sb(III) in oxygenated, Sb-rich waters. Due to the instability of Sb(III), analyses should be carried out within 7 days upon the water collection. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require time-consuming preparation steps prior to analysis of Sb(III).

  9. Sea Water Acidification Affects Osmotic Swelling, Regulatory Volume Decrease and Discharge in Nematocytes of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

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    Rossana Morabito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP, regulatory volume decrease (RVD and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy, was assessed. Methods: Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. Results: At normal pH (7.65, nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Conclusion: Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment.

  10. Age-related compaction of lens fibers affects the structure and optical properties of rabbit lenses

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    Al-Ghoul Walid M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this investigation was to correlate particular age-related structural changes (compaction to the amount of scatter in rabbit lenses and to determine if significant fiber compaction occurred in the nuclear and inner cortical regions. Methods New Zealand White rabbits at 16–20 months old (adult; n = 10 and at 3.5–4 years old (aged; n = 10 were utilized for this study. Immediately after euthanising, scatter was assessed in fresh lenses by low power helium-neon laser scan analysis. Scatter data was analyzed both for whole lenses and regionally, to facilitate correlation with morphometric data. After functional analysis, lenses were fixed and processed for scanning electron microcopy (SEM; right eyes and light microscopy (LM; left eyes. Morphometric analysis of SEM images was utilized to evaluate compaction of nuclear fibers. Similarly, measurements from LM images were used to assess compaction of inner cortical fibers. Results Scatter was significantly greater in aged lenses as compared to adult lenses in all regions analyzed, however the difference in the mean was slightly more pronounced in the inner cortical region. The anterior and posterior elliptical angles at 1 mm (inner fetal nucleus were significantly decreased in aged vs. adult lenses (anterior, p = 0.040; posterior, p = 0.036. However, the average elliptical angles at 2.5 mm (outer fetal nucleus were not significantly different in adult and aged lenses since all lenses examined had comparable angles to inner fetal fibers of aged lenses, i.e. they were all compacted. In cortical fibers, measures of average cross-sectional fiber area were significantly different at diameters of both 6 and 7 mm as a function of age (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively. Accordingly, the estimated fiber volume was significantly decreased in aged as compared to adult lenses at both 6 mm diameter (p = 0.016 and 7 mm diameter (p = 0.010. Conclusion Morphometric data indicates

  11. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

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    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  12. Meteorological factors affecting the sudden decline in Lake Urmia's water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkian, Foroozan; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Ziaie, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    Lake Urmia, in northwest Iran, is the second most saline lake in the world. During the past two decades, the level of water has markedly decreased. In this paper, climate of the lake region is investigated by using data from four meteorological stations near the lake. The data include climatic parameters such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours, number of rain days, and evaporation. Climate around the lake is examined by way of climate classification in the periods before and after the reduction in water level. Rainfall in the lake catchment is also evaluated using both gauge and satellite data. The results show a significant decreasing trend in mean annual precipitation and wind speed and an increasing trend in annual average temperature and sunshine hours at the four stations. Precipitation and wind speed have decreased by 37 mm and 2.7 m/s, respectively, and the mean annual temperature and sunshine hours have increased by 1.4 °C and 41.6 days, respectively, over these six decades. Only the climate of the Tabriz region is seen to have significantly changed, going from semiarid to arid. Gauge records and satellite data show a large-scale decreasing trend in rainfall since 1995. The correlation between rainfall and year-to-year changes in lake level is 0.69 over the period 1965 to 2010. The relationship is particularly strong from the early 1990s to 2005. This suggests that precipitation has played an important role in the documented decline of the lake.

  13. Club position relative to the golfer's swing plane meaningfully affects swing dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Sasho J

    2012-06-01

    Previous research indicates that the motion of the golf club is not planar and that the plane traced out by the club is different than that of the golfer's hands. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the position of the club, relative to the golfer's swing plane, influences the motion of the club by using a four-segment (torso, upper arm, forearm, and club), three-dimensional forward dynamics model. A genetic algorithm optimized the coordination of the model's four muscular torque generators to produce the best golf swings possible under six different conditions. The series of simulations were designed to demonstrate the effect of positioning the club above, and below, the golfer's swing plane as well as the effect of changing the steepness of the golfer's swing plane. The simulation results suggest that positioning the club below the golfer's swing plane, early in the downswing, will facilitate the squaring of the clubface for impact, while positioning the club above the plane will have the opposite effect. It was also demonstrated that changing the steepness of the golfer's swing plane by 10 degrees can have little effect on the delivery of the clubhead to the ball.

  14. The rice FISH BONE gene encodes a tryptophan aminotransferase, which affects pleiotropic auxin-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Ito, Momoyo; Sumikura, Tsuyoshi; Nakayama, Akira; Nishimura, Takeshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Nagato, Yasuo; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Auxin is a fundamental plant hormone and its localization within organs plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development. Analysis of many Arabidopsis mutants that were defective in auxin biosynthesis revealed that the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) pathway, catalyzed by the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) families, is the major biosynthetic pathway of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In contrast, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms of auxin biosynthesis in rice. In this study, we identified a auxin-related rice mutant, fish bone (fib). FIB encodes an orthologue of TAA genes and loss of FIB function resulted in pleiotropic abnormal phenotypes, such as small leaves with large lamina joint angles, abnormal vascular development, small panicles, abnormal organ identity and defects in root development, together with a reduction in internal IAA levels. Moreover, we found that auxin sensitivity and po