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Sample records for affects water relations

  1. Edge type affects leaf-level water relations and estimated transpiration of Eucalyptus arenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas E; Tausz, Michael; Kasel, Sabine; Volkova, Liubov; Merchant, Andrew; Bennett, Lauren T

    2012-03-01

    While edge effects on tree water relations are well described for closed forests, they remain under-examined in more open forest types. Similarly, there has been minimal evaluation of the effects of contrasting land uses on the water relations of open forest types in highly fragmented landscapes. We examined edge effects on the water relations and gas exchange of a dominant tree (Eucalyptus arenacea Marginson & Ladiges) in an open forest type (temperate woodland) of south-eastern Australia. Edge effects in replicate woodlands adjoined by cleared agricultural land (pasture edges) were compared with those adjoined by 7- to 9-year-old eucalypt plantation with a 25m fire break (plantation edges). Consistent with studies in closed forest types, edge effects were pronounced at pasture edges where photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were greater for edge trees than interior trees (75m into woodlands), and were related to greater light availability and significantly higher branch water potentials at woodland edges than interiors. Nonetheless, gas exchange values were only ∼50% greater for edge than interior trees, compared with ∼200% previously found in closed forest types. In contrast to woodlands adjoined by pasture, gas exchange in winter was significantly lower for edge than interior trees in woodlands adjoined by plantations, consistent with shading and buffering effects of plantations on edge microclimate. Plantation edge effects were less pronounced in summer, although higher water use efficiency of edge than interior woodland trees indicated possible competition for water between plantation trees and woodland edge trees in the drier months (an effect that might have been more pronounced were there no firebreak between the two land uses). Scaling up of leaf-level water relations to stand transpiration using a Jarvis-type phenomenological model indicated similar differences between edge types. That is, transpiration was greater at pasture than

  2. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  3. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  4. Some conditions affecting the definition of design basis accidents relating to sodium/water reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible damaging effects of large sodium/water reactions on the steam generator, IHX and secondary circuit are considered. The conditions to be considered in defining the design basis accidents for these components are discussed, together with some of the assumptions that may be associated with design assessments of the scale of the accidents. (author)

  5. On the structural factors of soil humic matter related to soil water repellence in fire-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, G.; González-Vila, F. J.; González-Pérez, J. A.; Knicker, H.; De la Rosa, J. M.; Dettweiler, C.; Hernández, Z.

    2012-04-01

    In order to elucidate the impact of forest fires on physical and chemical properties of the soils as well as on the chemical composition of the soil organic matter, samples from two Mediterranean soils with contrasted characteristics and vegetation (O horizon, Lithic Leptosols under Quercus ilex and Pinus pinaster) and one agricultural soil (Ap horizon, Luvisol) were heated at 350 °C in laboratory conditions for three successive steps up to 600 s. The C- and N-depletion in the course of the heating showed small changes up to an oxidation time of 300 s. On the other side, and after 600 s, considerable C-losses (between 21% in the Luvisol and 50% in the Leptosols) were observed. The relatively low N-depletion ca. 4% (Luvisol) and 21% (Leptosol under pine) suggested preferential loss of C and the subsequent relative enrichment of nitrogen. Paralleling the progressive depletion of organic matter, the Leptosols showed a significant increase of both pH and electrical conductivity. The former change paralleled the rapid loss of carboxyl groups, whereas the latter point to the relative enrichment of ash with a bearing on the concentration of inorganic ions, which could be considered a positive effect for the post-fire vegetation. The quantitative and qualitative analyses by solid-state 13C NMR spectra of the humic fractions in the samples subjected to successive heating times indicate significant concentration of aromatic structures newly-formed in the course of the dehydration and cyclization of carbohydrates (accumulation of black carbon-type polycyclic aromatic structures), and probably lipids and peptides. The early decarboxylation, in addition to the depletion of O-alkyl hydrophilic constituents and further accumulation of secondary aromatic structures resulted in the dramatic increase in the soil water drop penetration time. It was confirmed that this enhancement of the soil hydrophobicity is not related to an increased concentration of soil free lipid, but is

  6. Performance of neutron scattering relative to Diviner2000 for estimating soil water content in salt affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay and clayey soils at Deir Ezzor to compare the performance of Neutron Scattering (NS) relative to a capacitance probe (CP), Diviner2000, in our local conditions under saline soils. The effect of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and bulk density (ρb) on the precession, accuracy and sensitivity of the tested equipment s were evaluated. Also, the ability to improve the calibration equation for these equipment s, by including ECe and ρb as independent variables in the equation formula, was studied. The study showed that, Diviner2000 was very sensitive to soil bulk density and electrical conductivity of the soil (i.e. soil salinity) compared to the NS. Multiple non-linear regressions improved the fitting when both parameters (ρb and ECe) were included in the equation, even though the correlation coefficient (R2) remained low in the case of Diviner2000.(author)

  7. Can surfactants affect management of non-water repellent soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surfactants affect the water relations of water repellent soils but may or may not affect those of wettable soils. We studied the effects of three surfactants, Aquatrols IrrigAid Gold®, an ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymer, and an alkyl polyglycoside, along with untreated tap water as ...

  8. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  9. Water Temperature Affects Susceptibility to Ranavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Mabre D; Hill, Rachel D; Brenes, Roberto; Chaney, Jordan C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Grayfer, Leon; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife populations is increasing, and changes in environmental conditions have been hypothesized as a potential driver. For example, warmer ambient temperatures might favor pathogens by providing more ideal conditions for propagation or by stressing hosts. Our objective was to determine if water temperature played a role in the pathogenicity of an emerging pathogen (ranavirus) that infects ectothermic vertebrate species. We exposed larvae of four amphibian species to a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus at two temperatures (10 and 25°C). We found that FV3 copies in tissues and mortality due to ranaviral disease were greater at 25°C than at 10°C for all species. In a second experiment with wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we found that a 2°C change (10 vs. 12°C) affected ranaviral disease outcomes, with greater infection and mortality at 12°C. There was evidence that 10°C stressed Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, which is a species that breeds during summer-all individuals died at this temperature, but only 10% tested positive for FV3 infection. The greater pathogenicity of FV3 at 25°C might be related to faster viral replication, which in vitro studies have reported previously. Colder temperatures also may decrease systemic infection by reducing blood circulation and the proportion of phagocytes, which are known to disseminate FV3 through the body. Collectively, our results indicate that water temperature during larval development may play a role in the emergence of ranaviruses. PMID:27283058

  10. How Some Sense Relations Affect Language Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2002-01-01

    Language must make contact with the outside world. This contact is what we call meaning. The meaning of words forms part of human linguistic knowledge and therefore part of grammar. For foreign language teachers and learners, it is necessary to distinguish some lexical meanings in English,for it is these different sense relations that affect language use. This article analyzes the possible reasons which cause these changes in language use and aims at providing linguistic assistance for foreign language teaching and learning.

  11. Water relations in seed biology

    OpenAIRE

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  12. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  13. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  14. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi. PMID:24459990

  15. Relative contribution of food and water to 27 metals and metalloids accumulated by caged Hyalella azteca in two rivers affected by metal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyalella were caged at three sites in each of the two rivers for 17 days. Food added to the cages consisted of plant and detrital material collected from the same, or other, sites. Concentrations of some metals in Hyalella (e.g., Cd and Cu), but not others (e.g., Se), appeared to reach steady-state within 5 days in one of the rivers. Metal accumulation was minimal by day 5 in the other river, possibly due to the very low temperatures in this river for the first part of the exposure period. Both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance, using site as a categorical variable and metal in food as either a categorical or continuous variable, indicated that Cd, Cu and Se were the only metals for which concentration in food had a significant effect on concentration in Hyalella. Nevertheless, water was still a major source for these metals as well. Other metals which varied by over fivefold in food but for which concentration in food had no effect on concentration in Hyalella included Ag, As, Bi, Sb, U and Zn. Concentrations of the remaining metals varied less than fourfold in food, making it difficult to determine if these were accumulated from food. - Cadmium, copper and selenium were the only metals in food that correlated with increased body concentrations of metals in Hyalella, but even these metals were accumulated largely from water

  16. Relative contribution of food and water to 27 metals and metalloids accumulated by caged Hyalella azteca in two rivers affected by metal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgmann, U. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: uwe.borgmann@ec.gc.ca; Couillard, Y. [Existing Substances Division, Environment Canada, 351 Saint-Joseph Boulevard, Gatineau, QC, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Grapentine, L.C. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Hyalella were caged at three sites in each of the two rivers for 17 days. Food added to the cages consisted of plant and detrital material collected from the same, or other, sites. Concentrations of some metals in Hyalella (e.g., Cd and Cu), but not others (e.g., Se), appeared to reach steady-state within 5 days in one of the rivers. Metal accumulation was minimal by day 5 in the other river, possibly due to the very low temperatures in this river for the first part of the exposure period. Both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance, using site as a categorical variable and metal in food as either a categorical or continuous variable, indicated that Cd, Cu and Se were the only metals for which concentration in food had a significant effect on concentration in Hyalella. Nevertheless, water was still a major source for these metals as well. Other metals which varied by over fivefold in food but for which concentration in food had no effect on concentration in Hyalella included Ag, As, Bi, Sb, U and Zn. Concentrations of the remaining metals varied less than fourfold in food, making it difficult to determine if these were accumulated from food. - Cadmium, copper and selenium were the only metals in food that correlated with increased body concentrations of metals in Hyalella, but even these metals were accumulated largely from water.

  17. Factors affecting relative humidity during wood vacuum drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hui; CAI Ying-chun

    2009-01-01

    Effects of pressure and temperature in the chamber during vacuum drying on the relative humidity and evaporation of wood surface were investigated by using the vacuum chamber. The setting temperature during vacuum drying included dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the cooling water in the condenser. Results indicated that relative humidity during vacuum drying was affected by the dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the water in the condenser. Relative humidity of wood decreased with the increase in temperature at the given temperature of the water in the condenser. The relative humidity was affected slightly by pressure in the vacuum chamber pA, and it decreased from 70% to 65% with pA increased from 50 kPa to 101 kPa. Moreover, there was nearly no evaporation under the vacuum without external heating.

  18. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  19. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  20. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Humans alter the water cycle by constructing dams and through water withdrawals. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, model analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented. The results indicate that the impact of man-made reservoirs and water withdrawals on the long-term global terrestrial water balance is small. However, in some river basins, impacts of human interventions are significant. In parts o...

  1. Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Florke, M.F.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  2. Mutagens affect food and water biodeteriorating fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Many areas of food mycology could be affected detrimentally by mutation of wild type fungi. Some of these will contact mutagens from pre-isolation to experimentation and the effect on fungi isolated from mycotoxin-contaminated food is assessed for the first time in this review. However, this mutagen issue is not considered by other authors in primary research papers, which is relevant to molecular biology techniques for gene sequencing, phylogenetics, diagnostics and myco...

  3. Relative Foster Parents of HIV-Affected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sally; Linsk, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The permanency planning needs of 28 HIV-affected relative foster parents were examined. Findings indicated that the HIV-affected caregivers' greatest need was a more adequate response from social workers and therapy services for the children; nonaffected caregivers needed financial assistance most. More HIV-affected caregivers were considering…

  4. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  5. Water Bouncing Balls: how material stiffness affects water entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that one can skip a stone across the water surface, but less well known that a ball can also be skipped on water. Even though 17th century ship gunners were aware that cannonballs could be skipped on the water surface, they did not know that using elastic spheres rather than rigid ones could greatly improve skipping performance (yet would have made for more peaceful volleys). The water bouncing ball (Waboba®) is an elastic ball used in a game of aquatic keep away in which players pass the ball by skipping it along the water surface. The ball skips easily along the surface creating a sense that breaking the world record for number of skips could easily be achieved (51 rock skips Russell Byers 2007). We investigate the physics of skipping elastic balls to elucidate the mechanisms by which they bounce off of the water. High-speed video reveals that, upon impact with the water, the balls create a cavity and deform significantly due to the extreme elasticity; the flattened spheres resemble skipping stones. With an increased wetted surface area, a large hydrodynamic lift force is generated causing the ball to launch back into the air. Unlike stone skipping, the elasticity of the ball plays an important roll in determining the success of the skip. Through experimentation, we demonstrate that the deformation timescale during impact must be longer than the collision time in order to achieve a successful skip. Further, several material deformation modes can be excited upon free surface impact. The effect of impact velocity and angle on the two governing timescales and material wave modes are also experimentally investigated. Scaling for the deformation and collision times are derived and used to establish criteria for skipping in terms of relevant physical parameters.

  6. Clarifying the Relation Between Extraversion and Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; DeYoung, Colin G; Hall, Phillip J

    2015-10-01

    This article clarifies two sources of ambiguity surrounding the relation between extraversion and positive affect. First, positive affect is defined differently across major models of the structure of affect. Second, no previous research has examined potentially diverging associations of lower-order aspects of extraversion (i.e., assertiveness and enthusiasm) with positive affect. Australian (Study 1: N = 437, 78% female, Mage  = 20.41) and American (Study 2: N = 262, 39% female, Mage  = 33.86) participants completed multiple measures of extraversion and positive affect. Correlations were employed to examine relations among these measures. In both studies, extraversion was most clearly associated with positive affect as conceptualized within a major factor model of affect-specifically, as positive activation (Watson & Tellegen, 1985)-rather than the valence-based conceptualization of positive affect provided by a circumplex model of affect (Russell, 1980). This was also the case for the assertiveness and enthusiasm aspects of extraversion. Our findings clarify the nature of the positive affective component of extraversion, which is best described in terms of both positive valence and high activation. PMID:25234441

  7. 海南西部近岸浮游植物的周年变化及主要关联因素%ANNUAL VARIATION ON PHYTOPLANKTON IN COASTAL WATERS OF WESTERN HAINAN ISLAND AND RELATED AFFECTING FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨; 林茂; 陈兴群; 林更铭

    2012-01-01

    Annual variation of phytoplankton community in coastal waters at western Hainan Island and its related affecting factors were analyzed based on four cruise surveys of four seasons carried out in 2008 and 2009. A total of 155 species (including 5 forms and 2 varieties) belonging to 74 genera of 4 classes were identified in 165 samples, in which diatoms were predominant in the species composition and the cell abundance. Dinoflagellates contributed the second major group. Cyanobacteria abundance increased in July. The dominant species were Thalassionema nitzschioides, Ba-cillaria paradoxa, Paralia sulcata, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Trichodesmium spp., Prorocentrum micans, etc. Among them, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Bacillaria paradoxa and Paralia sulcata were dominant in four seasons. The species composition showed a significant seasonal change while phytoplankton cell abundance did not. Phytoplankton species were lower in October than in January, while richer in April and July. The annual average cell abundance of phytoplankton was (6.36±4.75)×l03cells/L (n=165), and the peak cell abundance appeared in October. The phytoplankton abundance of each season reduced from near-shore waters to offshore. Patch distribution of Trichodesmium spp. were obvious in April and July. The diversity index was almost coincident with that of the Pielou evenness index. The high values of both index suggested that the phytoplankton community was in stability and the water quality was healthy in western Hainan Island. Pearson Correlate Analysis of phytoplankton cell abundance with environmental factors indicated that the phytoplankton abundance non-correlated to water temperature, correlated positively to the abio-notrogen in October, and negatively correlated to the salinity in January and to the abio-phosphate in July. The feeding stress from zooplankton directly affected annual variation of the cell abundance of phytoplankton along with influences of

  8. Effects of Water Jet on Heat-Affected Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, L. (Libor); Bodnárová, L.; Válek, J. (Jan); M. Zeleňák; Klich, J. (Jiří); Foldyna, J.; Novotný, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is dealing with the effects of flat high-speed water jet on concretes affected by high temperature. Research should help to correct use of water jet technology in repair works on concrete structures especially after wildfires in tunnels, underground garages, etc., which are exposed to enormous thermal stress. Four concrete mixtures were prepared for tests of interaction of water jet with concrete. The samples were exposed to 200 °C and 600 °C and for comparison one third of samples ...

  9. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  10. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  11. Carboxymethyl modification of konjac glucomannan affects water binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Dai, Shuhong; Wang, Le; Ni, Xuewen; Yan, Wenli; Fang, Yapeng; Corke, Harold; Jiang, Fatang

    2015-10-01

    The water binding properties of konjac glucomannan (KGM) and carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CMKGM) are important for their application in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical engineering fields. The equilibrium moisture content of CMKGM was lower than that of KGM at the relative humidity in the range 30-95% at 25°C. The water absorption and solubility of CMKGM in water solution were lower than that of KGM at 25°C. Carboxymethyl modification of KGM reduces the water adsorption, absorption, and solubility. Both carboxymethylation and deacetylation could confer hydrophobicity for CMKGM. These data provide the basis for expanding CMKGM application. PMID:26076594

  12. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  13. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  14. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied

  15. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time...... evolution of relative humidity based on statistical rate theory and computational fluid dynamics is developed. In our approach we use short-term steady-state steps to simulate the slowly evolving evaporation in the system. Experiments demonstrate considerably good agreement with the computer modeling and...

  16. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  17. Rheological Parameters as Affected by Water Tension in Subtropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pértile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rheological parameters have been used to study the interaction between particles and the structural strength of soils subjected to mechanical stresses, in which soil composition and water content most strongly affect soil resistance to deformation. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of water tension on rheological parameters of soils with different mineralogical, physical, and chemical composition. Surface and subsurface horizons of four Oxisols, two Ultisols, one Alfisol, and one Vertisol were physically and chemically characterized; their rheological parameters were obtained from amplitude sweep tests under oscillatory shear on disturbed soil samples that were saturated and subjected to water tension of 1, 3, 6, and 10 kPa. In these samples, the rheological parameters linear viscoelastic deformation limit (γL, maximum shear stress (τmax, and integral z were determined. By simple regression analysis of the rheological parameters as a function of soil water tension, we observed increased mechanical strength with increasing water tension up to at least 6 kPa, primarily due to increased capillary forces in the soil. However, increased elasticity assessed by γL was not as expressive as the increase in structural rigidity assessed by τmax and integral z. Elastic deformation of the soil (γL increases with the increase in the number of bonds among particles, which depend on the clay, total carbon, expansive clay mineral, and cation contents; however, maximum shear resistance (τmax and structural stiffness (integral z mainly increase with clay, kaolinite, and oxide content by increasing the strength of interparticle bonds. A decrease in mechanical strength occurs for water tension of 10 kPa (the lowest water content evaluated in sandy horizons or in horizons with a high proportion of resistant microaggregates (pseudosand, when associated with low bulk density, due to fewer points of contact between soil particles and therefore

  18. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  19. Sediment-water interaction in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage : experimental and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sánchez, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage into a water reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. In this setting, sediment is commonly thought to act as a sink for pollutants. However, redox oscillations in the bottom water promoted by stratification-turnover events may significantly alter the metal cycling. A new sequential extraction procedure has been developed to study the metal partitioning in the sediment. The new scheme for iron, sulfur and organic carbon rich sediments was evaluated...

  20. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school. PMID:24936816

  1. Relations between affective music and speech: Evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoluan eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory distance are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics, with fear in the middle. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory distance interacts with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  2. Water-related planning and design at energy firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water related planning and design at energy firms are examined. By identifying production alternatives and specifying the cost of these alternatives under a variety of conditions, one gains insight into the future pattern of water use in the energy industry and the response of industry to water-related regulation. In Part II, the three principal decisions of industry that affect water allocation are reviewed: where to build plants, where to get water, and how much water to use. The cost of water use alternatives is reviewed. Part III presents empirical data to substantiate the inferences derived from engineering/economic analysis. The source of water, type of cooling system, and pattern of discharge for electric plants constructed during the 1970s or projected to come on line in this decade are reported. In the 1970s in the US, there was a trend away from once-through cooling toward use of evaporative cooling. Freshwater, as a source of supply, and discharge of effluent were standard practice. In the 1980s, almost all new capacity in the states and basins surveyed will use evaporative cooling. It is pointed out that a thorough understanding of industrial water use economics and water markets is a precursor to successful regulation

  3. 43 CFR 404.57 - Does this rule have any affect on state water law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this rule have any affect on state water law? No. Neither the Act nor this rule preempts or affects state water law or any interstate compact governing water. Reclamation will comply with state water laws... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does this rule have any affect on...

  4. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liangxin Fan; Guobin Liu; Fei Wang; Violette Geissen; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improv...

  5. Affective influences on energy-related decisions and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic, the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use, demonstrating that the appraisal-emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Belief-Norm Theory. Finally, we discuss how the appraisal-emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  6. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  7. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  8. Salt—Water Dynamics in Highly Salinized Topsoil of Salt—Affected Soil During Water Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXUE-FENG; YOUWEN-RUI; 等

    1991-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of salt and water movement in the soil profile of highly salinized topsoil under steadystate infiltration was conducted.It gives that salt and water dynamics during convection-diffusion period can be divided into three stages:1.formation of a salt peak,2.the salt peak moving downwards till the appearance of the summit of the salt peak,3.the salt peak moving further downwards with the peak value decreasing.Results show that the maximum salt peak appears at the same depth if soil texture and outflow condition are the same.Factors affecting salt and water movement and ion components in the outflow solution underinfiltration are discussed.

  9. Soil water retention and structure stability as affected by water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrakh I. Mamedov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid zones with a short water resources studying the effects of water quality on soil water retention and structure is important for the development of effective soil and water conservation and management practices. Three water qualities (electrical conductivity, EC ~ 2, 100 and 500 μS cm-1 with a low SAR representing rain, canal-runoff and irrigation water respectively and semi-arid loam and clay soils were tested to evaluate an effect of soil texture and water quality on water retention, and aggregate and structure stability using the high energy moisture characteristic (HEMC method. The water retention curves obtained by the HEMC method were characterized by the modified van Genuchten (1980 model that provides (i model parameters α and n, which represent the location (of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curve respectively, and (ii a volume of drainable pores (VDP, which is an indicator for the quantity of water released by the tested sample over the range of suction studied, and modal suction (MS, which corresponds to the most frequent pore sizes, and soil structure index, SI =VDP/MS. Generally (i treatments significantly affected the shape of the water retention curves (α and n and (ii contribution of soil type, water EC, and wetting rate and their interaction had considerable effect on the stability induces and model parameters. Most of changes due to the water quality and wetting condition were in the range of matric potential (ψ, 1.2-2.4; and 2.4-5.0 J kg-1 (pore size 125-250 μm and 60-125 μm. The VDP, SI and α increased, and MS and n decreased with the increase in clay content, water EC and the decrease in rate of aggregate wetting. The SI increased exponentially with the increase in VDP, and with the decrease in MS. Contribution of water EC on stability indices and model parameters was not linear and was soil dependent, and could be more valuable at medium water EC. Effect of

  10. The neural mechanisms of pain-related affect and memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pain experience includes a sensory-discriminative and an emotional-affective components. The affective dimension refers to the unpleasantness or aversion of sensation. The great progress at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and systemic levels on the study of the sensory dimension of pain has been made over past four decades. However, "to consider only the sensory features of pain, and ignore its motivational and affective properties, is to look at only part of the problem and not even the most important part of that". A line of clinic observations indicate that the patients with chronic pain suffer from much more affective disturbance than pain itself. Obviously,physiological arousal and hypervigilance to pain cause negative affect, such as anxiety, anger, worry, aversion, even tendency of suicide,these negative affective states in turn enhance pain sensation. Today, more and more attention has been paid to the study on mechanisms underlying affective dimension of pain. In order to deepen and expand our understanding of the nature of pain, this review summarizes the main progress and recent findings from our laboratory regarding affective component of pain in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and cell biochemistry.

  11. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin M Mekonnen; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related...

  12. Geomorphic and biophysical factors affecting water tracks in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, E. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of water movement on hillslopes in Arctic environments is necessary for evaluating the effects of climate variability. Drainage networks include a range of features that vary in transport capacity from rills to water tracks to rivers. This research focuses on describing and classifying water tracks, which are saturated linear-curvilinear stripes that act as first-order pathways for transporting water off of hillslopes into valley bottoms and streams. Multiple factor analysis was used to develop five water tracks classes based on their geomorphic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. The water track classes were then validated using conditional inference trees, to verify that the classes were repeatable. Analysis of the classes and their characteristics indicate that water tracks cover a broad spectrum of patterns and processes primarily driven by surficial geology. This research demonstrates an improved approach to quantifying water track characteristics for specific areas, which is a major step toward understanding hydrological processes and feedbacks within a region.

  13. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive microbial H2 cycling.

  14. Factors Affecting Water Dynamics and Their Assessment in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks

  15. Water stable aggregates of Japanese Andisol as affected by hydrophobicity and drying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobicity is a property of soils that reduces their affinity for water, which may help impeding the pressure build-up within aggregates, and reducing aggregate disruption. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of soil hydrophobicity and drying temperature to water stability of aggregates while preventing the floating of dry aggregates using unhydrophobized and hydrophobized surface Andisol. Soil was hydrophobized using stearic acid into different hydrophobicities. Hydrophobicity was determined using sessile drop contact angle and water drop penetration time (WDPT. Water stability of aggregates (%WSA was determined using artificially prepared model aggregates. The %WSA increased as the contact angle and WDPT increased. Contact angle and WDPT, which provided maximum %WSA showing less than 1 s of floating, was around 100° and 5 s, respectively. Although the %WSA gradually increased with increasing contact angle and WDPT above this level, high levels of hydrophobicity initiated aggregate floating, which would cause undesirable effects of water repellency. Heating at 50°C for 5 h d-1 significantly affected %WSA and hydrophobicity in hydrophobized samples, but did not in unhydrophobized samples. The results indicate that the contact angle and wetting rate (WDPT are closely related with the water stability of aggregates. The results further confirm that high levels of hydrophobicities induce aggregate floating, and the drying temperature has differential effects on hydrophobicity and aggregate stability depending on the hydrophobic materials present in the soil.

  16. Factors affecting the selection of a soil water sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews of soil moisture measurement technologies are counterproductive in attempting to identify the single approach that has the best overall performance for a range of soil, crop and landscape conditions. Not only does such an approach preclude the addition of new technologies, but it also obscures the fact that we have available today sensors and technologies that cover most field conditions, are well understood in terms of technical capability and are mechanically and electronically reliable. This review defines decision-making processes for assessing the characteristics, good and bad, of technology in relation to project objectives. Two processes are needed. The first links soil texture and scale of variability with the nature of the project, single-plant to catchment scale, to the needs for soil water measurement. The second lists the capabilities of some devices and shows how they can be selected to accommodate necessary criteria. It is concluded that the 'best technology' is a function of the project and soil conditions. (author)

  17. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  18. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: ► Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. ► PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. ► OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. ► The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm models. ► PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  19. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  20. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. PMID:20950834

  1. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  2. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high

  3. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  4. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  5. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  6. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Methods Three typical water treatment plants in a northern city (City T) of China and their corresponding distribution systems were investigated. Some parameters of the water samples, such as heterotrophic plate content (HPC), AOC, CODMn, TOC, and phosphate were measured. Results The AOC in most water samples were more than 100 μg/L, or even more than 200 μg/L in some cases. The HPC in distribution systems increased significantly with the decrease of residual chlorine. When the residual chlorine was less than 0.1 mg/L, the magnitude order of HPC was 104 CFU/mL; when it was 0.5-0.7 mg/L, the HPC was about 500 CFU/mL. Conclusion For controlling the biostability of drinking water, the controlling of AOC and residual chlorine should be considered simultaneously. The influence of phosphors on the AOC tests of water is not significant. Phosphors may not be the limiting nutrient in the water distribution systems.

  7. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lídia Palma,1 Liliana Tavares Marques,1 Julia Bujan,2,3 Luís Monteiro Rodrigues1,4 1CBIOS – Research Center for Health Science and Technologies, Universidade Lusófona, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3CIBER-BBN, Madrid, España, Spain; 4Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38, and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11. Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0, 15 (T1, and 30 (T2 in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg. This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. Keywords: dietary water, water consume, skin hydration, TEWL, skin biomechanics

  8. Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result. PMID:25003652

  9. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  10. The Relations of Parental Affect and Encouragement to Children's Moral Emotions and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Eisenburg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of observed parental affect and encouragement in children's empathy-related responding and moral behavior, specifically cheating on a puzzle activity. Finds that (1) parents' affect and encouragement positively related to children's sympathy (not empathy) and (2) boys' cheating on the puzzle correlated to parents' affect and…

  11. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  12. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  13. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  14. On the biases affecting water ages inferred from isotopic data

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaton, F. J.; Park, Y. -J.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater age has become a fundamental concept in groundwater hydrology, but ages originating from isotopic analyses are still identified with a lack of clarity and using models that occasionally are unrealistic. If the effect of advection and dispersion on water ages has already been extensively identified, very few studies address the reliability of using radiometric ages as derived from isotopic data to estimate aquifer properties such as average velocities. Using simple one-dimensional ...

  15. Influences affecting the soil-water characteristic curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; YU Jian-lin

    2005-01-01

    The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the primary partially saturated soil information as its behavior and properties can be derived from it. Although there have been many studies of unsaturated soils and the SWCC, there is still no combined constitutive model that can simulate soil characteristics accurately. In cases when hydraulic hysteresis is dominant (e.g.under cyclic loading) it is particularly important to use the SWCC. In the past decades, several mathematical expressions have been proposed to model the curve. There are various influences on the SWCC as a source of information, so the curves obtained from conventional tests often cannot be directly applied;and the mathematical expressions from one scenario cannot be used to simulate another situation. The effects of void ratio, initial water content, stress state and high suction were studied in this work revealing that water content and stress state are more important than the other effects;but that the influences tend to decrease when suction increases. The van Genuchten model was modified to simulate better the changes in the degree of saturation at low values of suction. Predictions were compared with experimental results to determine the simulation capability of the model.

  16. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... or fill disposal is to impair or destroy the resources which support recreation activities....

  17. Radon in ground water related to seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rn222 (radon) from Ra226 (radium) and two other natural isotopes of Rn219 (actinon) and Rn220 (thoron) are present in any rock formation in the soil, in groundwater and in the atmosphere. The inert gases, such as radon, are poorly affected by chemical equilibration processes and are often considered in earthquake prediction because of the high mobility characteristics, high natural production rate and relative low price of automatic monitoring analytical equipment. This study deals with the monitoring of radon in groundwater wells, groundwater table depth and water temperature for the year 1997. The daily oscillations of radon levels have been recorded with instantaneous technique using ZnS(Ag) detector from the borehole at Amritsar, India (31 deg. 35'N, 74 deg. 56'E). Significant increases in radon concentration of groundwater and water level have been observed which are correlated to the seismic events which occurred in Northern India during the period of study. The correlation between the radon levels and water table depth as well as water temperature is also discussed

  18. On the biases affecting water ages inferred from isotopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F J; Deleersnijder, E

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater age has become a fundamental concept in groundwater hydrology, but ages originating from isotopic analyses are still identified with a lack of clarity and using models that occasionally are unrealistic. If the effect of advection and dispersion on water ages has already been extensively identified, very few studies address the reliability of using radiometric ages as derived from isotopic data to estimate aquifer properties such as average velocities. Using simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions for single-site and two-sites mobile-immobile systems, we compare the radiometric ages to the mean ages (or residence times) as deduced from a direct, physically-based simulation approach (using the mean age equation), and show that the competition between isotope decay rate and dispersion coefficient can generate important discrepancies between the two types of ages. A correction for the average apparent velocity originating from apparent isotopic ages is additionally provided. Th...

  19. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  20. Modeling residential water and related energy, carbon footprint and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model residential water use and related energy and GHG emissions in California. • Heterogeneity in use, spatial variability and water and energy rates are accounted. • Outdoor is more than 50% of water use but 80% of energy is used by faucet + shower. • Variability in water and energy prices affects willingness to adopt conservation. • Targeting high-use hoses and joint conservation policies are effective strategies. - Abstract: Starting from single-family household water end-use data, this study develops an end-use model for water-use and related energy and carbon footprint using probability distributions for parameters affecting water consumption in 10 local water utilities in California. Monte Carlo simulations are used to develop a large representative sample of households to describe variability in use, with water bills for each house for different utility rate structures. The water-related energy consumption for each household realization was obtained using an energy model based on the different water end-uses, assuming probability distributions for hot-water-use for each appliance and water heater characteristics. Spatial variability is incorporated to account for average air and household water inlet temperatures and price structures for each utility. Water-related energy costs are calculated using averaged energy price for each location. CO2 emissions were derived from energy use using emission factors. Overall simulation runs assess the impact of several common conservation strategies on household water and energy use. Results show that single-family water-related CO2 emissions are 2% of overall per capita emissions, and that managing water and energy jointly can significantly reduce state greenhouse gas emissions

  1. Response of Wheat to Combined High Temperature and Osmotic Stress During Maturation. II. Plant Water Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer Hussain Shah; Gary M. Paulsen

    2000-01-01

    High temperature and drought affect plant processes individually and may interact to alter water relations. Our objectives were to ascertain the effect of high temperature and osmotic stress and to identify interactions between them on water relation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Len). Plants that were grown uniformly until anthesis were subjected to 15/10, 25/20 or 35/30 °C and -0.01 or 0.41 Mpa water stress and were sampled weekly until maturity. Relative water content (RWC) of flag le...

  2. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  3. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education). PMID:23977190

  4. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxin Fan

    Full Text Available Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use and cultural backgrounds (age, education.

  5. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  6. Transpiration and water relations of poplar trees growing close to the water table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heping; Morison, James I. L.; Simmonds, Lester P.

    1999-07-01

    Sap flow was measured on five branches of two poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray x P. tacamahaca L.) trees from June to September 1994 in the south of England with stem-surface, heat balance gauges, and was scaled up to estimate transpiration from single trees on the basis of leaf area. On six days, stomatal conductance and plant water potential were measured simultaneously with a porometer and pressure chamber, respectively. The effects of solar radiation (S), vapor pressure deficit (D) and stomatal conductance on transpiration were evaluated. Sap flow per unit leaf area (F(a)) was closely related to the time course of demand attributable to S and D throughout the season, and only slightly affected by the water content of the top 120 cm of soil. Although F(a) increased linearly at low values of D, it showed a plateau with increases in D above 1.2 kPa. The canopy coupling coefficient (1 - Omega) ranged from 0.48 to 0.78 with a mean of 0.65 +/- 0.01, indicating that transpiration was controlled more by stomatal conductance than by incident radiation. The seasonal pattern of tree water loss followed potential evaporation with a peak in late June or early July. On bright days, daily transpiration over the projected crown area was 3.6 mm early in the season, 3.8 mm in mid-season, and 2.7 mm late in the season. The water balance of the system indicated that poplar trees took 15-60% of water transpired from groundwater, with the proportion increasing as the soil in the unsaturated zone dried out. Access to the water table resulted in high predawn water potentials throughout the season. Estimated hydraulic resistance to water flow in the soil-tree system was in the range of 1.5 to 1.93 x 10(6) MPa s m(-3). PMID:12651530

  7. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from arsenic (As) affected villages of West-Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (±SD). Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age

  8. Possible relation of water structural relaxation to water anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-03-26

    The anomalous behavior of thermodynamic response functions is an unsolved problem in the physics of water. The mechanism that gives rise to the dramatic indefinite increase at low temperature in the heat capacity, the compressibility, and the coefficient of thermal expansion, is unknown. We explore this problem by analyzing both new and existing experimental data on the power spectrum S(Q, ω) of bulk and confined water at ambient pressure. When decreasing the temperature, we find that the liquid undergoes a structural transformation coinciding with the onset of an extended hydrogen bond network. This network onset seems to give rise to the marked viscoelastic behavior, consistent with the interesting possibility that the sound velocity and response functions of water depend upon both the frequency and wave vector. PMID:23483053

  9. Soil water balance as affected by throughfall in gorse ( Ulex europaeus, L.) shrubland after burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Benedicto; Diaz-Fierros, Francisco

    1997-08-01

    The role of fire in the hydrological behaviour of gorse shrub is studied from the point of view of its effects on vegetation cover and throughfall. In the first year after fire, throughfall represents about 88% of gross rainfall, whereas in unburnt areas it is 58%. Four years after fire, the throughfall coefficients are similar in burnt and unburnt plots (about 6096). The throughfall is not linearly related to vegetation cover because an increase in cover does not involve a proportional reduction in throughfall. The throughfall predicted by the two-parameter exponential model of Calder (1986, J. Hydrol., 88: 201-211) provides a good fit with the observed throughfall and the y value of the model reflects the evolution of throughfall rate. The soil moisture distribution is modified by fire owing to the increase of evaporation in the surface soil and the decrease of transpiration from deep soil layers. Nevertheless, the use of the old root system by sprouting vegetation leads to a soil water profile in which 20 months after the fire the soil water is similar in burnt and unburnt areas. Overall, soil moisture is higher in burnt plots than in unburnt plots. Surface runoff increases after a fire but does not entirely account for the increase in throughfall. Therefore the removal of vegetation cover in gorse scrub by fire mainly affects the subsurface water flows.

  10. A relative permeability modifier for water control of gas wells in a low-permeability reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tielong; Zhao Yong; Peng Kezong; Pu Wanfeng

    1996-08-01

    Water control in gas wells is a major measure to enhance gas recovery. The work is concentrated on finding a highly selective polymer to reduce water production without affecting gas production from gas wells in low-permeability reservoirs. This paper presents the conceptions of residual resistance factors (RRF`s) to both wetting and non-wetting phases and the laboratory experimental and field trial results of relative permeability modifiers for water control in gas wells.

  11. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Özarallı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, compromising and accomodating conflict resolution styles while those working in a competitive work environment would choose forcing and avoiding strategies. Results also showed that while positive job related affective well being is a major predictor o problem solving, compromising, accomodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles, negative job related affective well being significantly predicts forcing and avoiding strategies. Overall, the results draw attention to the preferred conflict resolution strategies assumed by Turkish employees, the role of the conflict environment as well as actors’ affective well being

  12. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ34SSO4 and δ15NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and land

  13. Simulation of water and nitrogen dynamics as affected by drip fertigation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-jun; LI Jiu-sheng; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Yan-ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of drip fertigation is synchronising the application of water and nutrients with crop requirements, and maintaining the proper concentration and distribution of nutrient and water in the soil. The wetting patterns and nutrient distributions under drip fertigation have been proved to be closely related to the fertigation strategies. In order to ifnd out the critical factors that affect the nutrient distribution under different drip fertigaiton strategies, a computer simulation model HYDRUS2D/3D was used to simulate the water and nitrate distribution for various fertigation strategies from a surface point source. Simulation results were compared with the observed ones from our previous studies. A 15° wedge-shaped plexiglass container was used in our experiment to represent one-twenty-fourth of the complete cylinder. The height of container is 40 cm, and the radius is 41 cm. The ammonium nitrate solution was added through a no. 7 needle connected to a Mariotte tube with a lfexible hose. The soil water content, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were measured. The comparison of simulated and observed data demonstrated that the model performed reliably. The numerical analysis for various fertigation strategies from a surface point source showed that: (1) The total amount of irrigation water, the concentration of the fertilizer solution and the amount of pure water used to lfush the pipeline after fertilizer solution application are the three critical factors inlfu-encing the distribution of water and fertilizer nitrogen in the soil. (2) The fresh water irrigation duration prior to fertigation has no obvious effect on nitrate distribution. The longer lfushing time period after fertigation resulted in nitrate accumulation closer to the wetting front. From the point of avoiding the possibility of nitrate loss from the root zone, we recommended that the lfushing time period should be as shorter as possible. (3) For a given amount of fertilizer, higher

  14. Metal cycling during sediment early diagenesis in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Ester; Ayora, Carlos; Canovas, C. R.;

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage (AMD) into a reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. To investigate the metal transfer between the water and the sediment, three cores were collected from the Sancho Reservoir (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) during different seasons: turnover event...

  15. Watered depressions as ecological phenomena in regions affected by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the importance of mine watered depressions in a landscape affected by mining activities (model localities - Louky nad Olsi, Orlova and Horni Sucha, Karvina district) from an ecological point of view - conservation and formation of wetland and water ecosystems, genetic resources and biodiversity conservation

  16. Relation between water chemistry and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the relation between chemistry/radiochemistry and operational safety, the technics bases for chemical and radiochemical parameters and an analysis of the Annual Report of Angra I Operation and OSRAT Mission report to 1989 in this area too. Furthermore it contains the transcription of the technical Specifications related to the chemistry and radiochemistry for Angra I. (author)

  17. PHOSPHORUS FORMS IN CALCAREOUS SOIL AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION WATER SALINITY

    OpenAIRE

    ABOU HUSSIEN, E.A.; RADWAN, S.A.; KHALIL, R.A.; HAMAD, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out on five calcareous soils of Egypt characterized by different content (%) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and other physical and chemical properties to study their content of different forms of phosphorus and its affected by soil properties and irrigation water salinity. The tested calcareous soils were used in a greenhouse experiment, where these soils were planted by barley and irrigated by tap water and four sources of artificial saline water. The artificial saline ...

  18. Relative importance of various measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological outcomes among children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relative importance of four different measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological problems among children affected by HIV in rural China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 orphans (i.e., children who lost one or both of their parents to HIV), 466 vulnerable children (children who were living with HIV-infected parents), and 404 comparison children who were from the same community and did not have HIV-related illness or death in their families. Four HIV-related stigma measures include perceived public stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), perceived public stigma against children affected by HIV (orphans and vulnerable children), personal stigmatizing attitudes against PLWHA, and enacted stigma among children affected by HIV. Psychological problems included depression and adjustment problems. Various measures of HIV-related stigma independently and differentially contribute to children's psychological problems. Enacted stigma and children's perceived public stigma against PLWHA or children affected by HIV are generally stronger predictors of psychological problems than their own feelings or attitudes towards PLWHA. Various aspects of HIV-related stigma are important for us to understand the perception, attitudes, and experience of children affected by HIV, including both children experiencing HIV-related parental illness and death in their own family and children who were living in the communities hardly hit by HIV. Future health promotion and psychological care efforts for children affected by HIV need to consider the effect of various forms of HIV-related stigma on these children's psychosocial well-being and mobilize the community resources to mitigate the negative effect of HIV-related stigma on PLWHA and their children. PMID:21681458

  19. The relation between negative affect and sexual offending: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Katrina; Fremouw, William

    2010-04-01

    Contemporaneous theories of the etiology and treatment of sex offenders incorporate the notion that negative affect is causally related to sexually deviant behavior. Specifically, one current theory suggests that sex functions as a mechanism for alleviating negative affect among sex offenders. This paper critically reviews research examining the hypothesis that sex functions as a coping strategy among sex offenders as well as literature suggesting there is a causal relation among negative affect, deviant sexual fantasies, and sexual offending. Due to methodological limitations, the literature in this review does not support a causal relation between negative affect and sexual offending, or the hypothesis that sex functions to alleviate negative affect. Methodological strengths and weaknesses of this area of research are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20074840

  20. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  1. Ear of durum wheat under water stress: water relations and photosynthetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambussi, Eduardo A; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2005-06-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of the ear and flag leaf of well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) were studied in plants grown under greenhouse and Mediterranean field conditions. Gas exchange measurements simultaneously with modulated chlorophyll fluorescence were used to study the response of the ear and flag leaf to CO2 and O2 during photosynthesis. C4 metabolism was identified by assessing the sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and electron transport to oxygen. The presence of CAM metabolism was assessed by measuring daily patterns of stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation. In addition, the histological distribution of Rubisco protein in the ear parts was studied by immunocytochemical localisation. Relative water content (RWC) and osmotic adjustment (osmotic potential at full turgor) were also measured in these organs. Oxygen sensitivity of the assimilation rate and electron transport, the lack of Rubisco compartmentalisation in the mesophyll tissues and the gas-exchange pattern at night indicated that neither C4 nor CAM metabolism occurs in the ear of WW or WS plants. Nevertheless, photosynthetic activity of the flag leaf was more affected by WS conditions than that of the ear, under both growing conditions. The lower sensitivity under water stress of the ear than of the flag leaf was linked to higher RWC and osmotic adjustment in the ear bracts and awns. We demonstrate that the better performance of the ear under water stress (compared to the flag leaf) is not related to C4 or CAM photosynthesis. Rather, drought tolerance of the ear is explained by its higher RWC in drought. Osmotic adjustment and xeromorphic traits of ear parts may be responsible. PMID:15645303

  2. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-05-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters (+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  3. Influence of Leaders’ Humor Styles on the Employees’ Job Related Affective Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Merve Unal

    2014-01-01

    Humor is a common dimension of human interaction. Therefore, it has an effect on working groups and organizations. The influence of humor on interpersonal relationship and behavior has been considered by various enterprises. In this work, we report that adaptive humor styles employed by leader buffers job related positive affective well-being of employees whereas maladaptive humor styles employed by leaders buffers job related negative affective well-being of employees. Our results indicate t...

  4. The Impact of Organizational Culture and Job Related Affective Well Being on Employees’ Conflict Resolution Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdan Özarallı

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of cooperative or competitive organizational culture and employees’ job related affective well being on their preferred conflict resolution styles. A total of 236 white collar employees in the private sector completed questionnaires on “Organizational Culture“, “Job Related Affective Well Being“and “Conflict Resolution Styles“. Results indicated that employees working in a cooperative organizational culture would choose problem solving, comprom...

  5. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level Sw. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten–Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  6. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zakir Bekturganov; Kamshat Tussupova; Ronny Berndtsson; Nagima Sharapatova; Kapar Aryngazin; Maral Zhanasova

    2016-01-01

    The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high wate...

  7. Soil Properties and Wheat Growth and Nutrients as Affected by Compost Amendment Under Saline Water Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. M. MAHDY

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to test and compare the suitability of saline compost and saline irrigation water for nutrient status amendment of a slightly productive sandy clay loam soil,to study the macronutrient utilization and dry matter production of wheat (Triticum aestivum c.v.Gemmiza 7) grown in a modified soil environment and to determine the effects of compost and saline irrigation water on soil productivity.The sandy clay loam soil was treated with compost of five rates (0,24,36,48,and 60 m3 ha-1,equivalent to 0,3,4.5,and 6 g kg-1 soil,respectively) and irrigation water of four salinity levels (0.50 (tap water),4.9,6.3,and 8.7 dS m-1).The results indicated that at harvest,the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil was significantly (P < 0.05) changed by the compost application as compared to thecontrol.In general,the soil salinity significantly increased with increasing application rates of compost.Soluble salts,K,C1,HCO3,Na,Ca,and Mg,were significantly increased by the compost treatment.Soil sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was significantly affected by the salinity levels of the irrigation water,and showed a slight response to the compost application.The soil organic carbon content was also significantly (P < 0.05) affected by application of compost,with a maximum value of 31.03 g kg-1 recorded at the compost rate of 60 m3 ha-1 and the irrigation water salinity level of 8.7 dS m-1 and a minimum value of 12.05 g kg-1 observed in the control.The compost application produced remarkable increases in wheat shoot dry matter production.The maximum dry matter production (75.11 g pot-1) occurred with 60 m3 ha-1 compost and normal irrigation water,with a minimum of 19.83 g pot-1 with no addition of compost and irrigation water at a salinity level of 8.70 dS m-1.Significant increases in wheat shoot contents of K,N,P,Na,and C1 were observed with addition of compost.The relatively high shoot N values may be attributed to increases in N availability in

  8. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  9. Non-Fickian Diffusion Affects the Relation between the Salinity and Hydrate Capacity Profiles in Marine Sediments

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2012-01-01

    On-site measurements of water salinity (which can be directly evaluated from the electrical conductivity) in deep-sea sediments is technically the primary source of indirect information on the capacity of the marine deposits of methane hydrates. We show the relation between the salinity (chlorinity) profile and the hydrate volume in pores to be significantly affected by non-Fickian contributions to the diffusion flux---the thermal diffusion and the gravitational segregation---which have been previously ignored in the literature on the subject and the analysis of surveys data. We provide amended relations and utilize them for an analysis of field measurements for a real hydrate deposit.

  10. Microbiology of Broiler Carcasses and Chemistry of Chiller Water as Affected by Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management SystemJ to recyc...

  11. COSMOS soil water sensing affected by crop biomass and water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize water content in the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of sensing soil volumes larger than a few hundred liters. Scientists with the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, evaluated: a) the Cos...

  12. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of futu re lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this ...

  13. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR 7763, February 22, 1982, a... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 and the rules and regulations published in 52 FR 11954, April 13, 1987 (43...

  14. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR 7763, February 22, 1982, a... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 and the rules and regulations published in 52 FR 11954, April 13, 1987 (43...

  15. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR 7763, February 22, 1982, a... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 and the rules and regulations published in 52 FR 11954, April 13, 1987 (43...

  16. Relation of Racial Identity Attitudes to Self-Actualization and Affective States of Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Thomas A.; Helms, Janet E.

    1985-01-01

    The relation between identity attitudes, or Black self-ac4ualization, and various affective states were investigated in 166 Black university students. Both pro-White/anti-Black and pro-Black/anti-White attitudes were associated with greater personal distress. Awakening Black identity was positively related to self-actualization tendencies and…

  17. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  18. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  19. THE POTENTIAL SOURCES OF POLLUTION AFFECTING THE WATER QUALITY OF LAKE IZNIK

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcın Askın OKTEM; Murat GUMUS; Gokcen BAYRAK YILMAZ

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine Lake Iznik, one of the most significant water resources of the South Marmara Region, and the anthropogenic pollution types affecting the drainage basin and their possible effects. Lake Iznik, a water resource that is quite significant because of its geographical position, is polluted not only with the point and non-point sources of pollution around it, but also with the pollutants spread via highways which are linear pollutants. The fertilization and di...

  20. Water relations and gas exchange in Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, F.; R. E. Jaimez; C. García-Núñez; A. Azócar; M. E. Ramírez

    2005-01-01

    Water relations and gas exchange of Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficit were evaluated. Microclimatic characteristics (air temperature, relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation), leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation rates) and leaf water potential were measured throughout the day in plants subjected to 3, 12 and 25 days without water. Pressure-volume curves were used to determine osmotic potential at turgor loss. ...

  1. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  2. Factors affecting the relative competitiveness of cassava production in southwestern Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson-Andrews, Hazel; Pemberton, Carlisle

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the factors affecting the relative competitiveness (RC) measured as the normalized profit per acre, of cassava farmers in South Western Trinidad through a determination of the factors affecting the mean and variance of the RC inefficiency term of the farmers. A sample of 112 small farmers growing cassava as their main crop provided the data for the study. A normalized translog stochastic RC frontier model was estimated. The model also determined the factors affe...

  3. Negative Affective Experiences in Relation to Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at ...

  4. Vase water effects on postharvest longevity and water relations of gladiolus grandiflorus 'white prosperity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water from different sources was compared in regard to optimizing the postharvest performance of cut gladiolus flowers. Tap water from different flower markets was compared with distilled, deionized, canal, and carbonated water to find the best water type to be used by the industry in regards to postharvest longevity and water relations of cut gladiolus. Carbonated water proved to be the best water for handling cut gladiolus as it not only extended longevity, but also maintained relative fresh weight, and continued water uptake by the cut stems. Deionized water and distilled water were better than tap water from different regional flower markets. The canal water and tap water from Pattoki were the worst water types due to their higher heavy metals and salt levels; therefore, the growers and florists should avoid using these water types for handling their cut flowers. In summary, cut gladiolus should be placed in carbonated water for its effective control on bacterial proliferation and lower pH. Additionally, tap water should be analyzed before using for cut flower handling. (author)

  5. Water Adsorption and Surface Acidity of Nano-Ball Allophane as Affected by Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamayoon Khan; Rozina Khan; Naoto Matsue; Teruo Henmi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of heat treatment on the water adsorption and surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio under different relative humidities (RHs) was studied. The water vapor adsorption of two allophane samples under various relative humidities, decreased with preheating treatment up to 400 °C for 2 h. The decrease in water adsorption at monolayer level (RH≤0.45) was greater for KnP sample than for KyP sample, whereas the decrease in water adsorption due to ...

  6. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm;

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 16 11 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop...

  7. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Jin [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ryu, Jong-Sik [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Lee, Kwang-Sik, E-mail: kslee@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sin-Woo [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO{sub 3} were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO{sub 4} were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4}) verified that the SO{sub 4} in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO3}) indicated that NO{sub 3} in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO{sub 3} in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3}. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes

  8. Water Collective Dynamics in Whole Photosynthetic Green Algae as Affected by Protein Single Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya D; Haertlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; De Francesco, Alessio; Campi, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the importance of water molecules for protein function/dynamics relationship, the role of water collective dynamics in Chlamydomonas green algae carrying both native and mutated photosynthetic proteins has been investigated by neutron Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Results show that single point genetic mutation may notably affect collective density fluctuations in hydrating water providing important insight on the transmission of information possibly correlated to biological functionality. In particular, we highlight that the damping factor of the excitations is larger in the native compared to the mutant algae as a signature of a different plasticity and structure of the hydrogen bond network. PMID:27300078

  9. Relations among Affect, Abstinence Motivation and Confidence, and Daily Smoking Lapse Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; McCarthy, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12–24 hours using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. Method 103 adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries post-quit. Results Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hours later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours while momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hours. Conclusion Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  10. Nitrogen Recovered By Sorghum Plants As Affected By Saline Irrigation Water And Organic/Inorganic Resources Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted in the green house of Soil and Water Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, to follow up the effect of saline irrigation water, inorganic and organic fertilizers on sorghum growth and N fractions that recovered by plant organs. Two types of artificial water salinity were used; one has 3 dS m-1 salinity level with 4 and 8 SAR and the second one has 3 and 6 dS m-1 salinity levels with 6 SAR . Leucenae residue and chicken manure were applied as organic sources at rate of 2% v/v. Sorghum was fertilized with recommended doses of super phosphate and potassium sulfate at rate of 150 kg P and 50 kg K per feddan, respectively. Labelled ammonium sulfate with 5% 15N atom excess was applied to sorghum at rate of 100 kg N fed-1. Dry matter yield (stalks and roots) was negatively affected by increasing water salinity levels or SAR ratios. Similar trend was recorded with N uptake by either stalks or roots of sorghum plants. On the other hand, both the dry matter yield and N uptake were positively and significantly affected by incorporation of organic sources in comparison to the untreated control. In this regard, the dry matter yield and N uptake induced by incorporation of chicken manure was superior over those recorded with leucenae residues. It means, in general, that the incorporation of organic sources into the soil may maximize the plant ability to combat the hazards effects caused by irrigation with saline water. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (% Ndff), soil (% Ndfs) and organic resources (% Ndfr) showed frequent trends as affected by water salinity and organic resources but in most cases, severe reduction of these values was recorded when plants were irrigated with saline water. In the same time, plants were more dependent on N derived from organic sources than those derived from mineral fertilizer. Superiority of one organic source over the other was related to water salinity levels and SAR ratios applied in

  11. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  12. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by mining activities in Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (SE, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Waters have a meteoric origin even in samples located near the shore. • Marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers. • Sulfate enrichment was caused by oxidative dissolution of pyrite by ferric iron. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from Portman Bay by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. In addition, surface waters from Sierra Minera were examined for the purpose of determining if these waters are affected by similar processes. The results obtained indicate that Portman Bay waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred

  13. Factor affecting the properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Prichapan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct fortification of minerals and vitamins into food may induce chemical degradation, change the level of bioavailability or decrease the sensory quality of food products. The strategy to solve these problems is encapsulation technology. Numerous investigations described the use of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W emulsions as encapsulation system. The properties and encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsions are influenced by emulsion components, the emulsification processes, and environmental conditions. The recently published results of research done on the factors affecting the properties of W/O/W emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins including form and concentration of core materials, concentration of inner water phase and lipophilic emulsifier, type and concentration of oil phase, type and concentration of hydrophilic emulsifier and stabilizer and the pH of the outer water phase have been reviewed in this article.

  14. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Hygiene Fast Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing hands with ...

  15. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  16. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  17. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants

  18. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants.

  19. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad–time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature

  20. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  1. Effects of rock fragments on water dynamics in a fire-affected soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.

    2014-05-01

    Rock fragments (RF) are common in the surface of Mediterranean semiarid soils, and have important effects on the soil physical (bulk density and porosity) and hydrological processes (infiltration, evaporation, splash erosion and runoff generation) (Poesen and Lavee, 1994; Rieke-Zapp et al., 2007). In some cases, RFs in Mediterranean areas have been shown to protect bare soils from erosion risk (Cerdà, 2001; Martínez-Zavala, Jordán, 2008; Zavala et al., 2010). Some of these effects are much more relevant when vegetation cover is low or has been reduced after land use change or other causes, as forest fires. Although very few studies exist, the interest on the hydrological effects of RFs in burned areas is increasing recently. After a forest fire, RFs may contribute significantly to soil recovery. In this research we have studied the effect of surface and embedded RFs on soil water control, infiltration and evaporation in calcareous fire-affected soils from a Mediterranean area (SW Spain). For this study, we selected an area with soils derived from limestone under holm oak forest, recently affected by a moderate severity forest fire. The proportion of RF cover showed a significant positive relation with soil water-holding capacity and infiltration rates, although infiltration rate reduced significantly when RF cover increased above a certain threshold. Soil evaporation rate decreased with increasing volumetric content of RFs and became stable with RF contents approximately above 30%. Evaporation also decreased with increasing RF cover. When RF cover increased above 50%, no significant differences were observed between burned and control vegetated plots. REFERENCES Poesen, J., Lavee, H. 1994. Rock fragments in top soils: significance and processes. Catena Supplement 23, 1-28. Cerdà, A. 2001. Effect of rock fragment cover on soil infiltration, interrill runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science 52, 59-68. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00354.x. Rieke

  2. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment. PMID:26122567

  3. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  4. Global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Suls, Jerry; Haig, Jeffrey

    2002-07-01

    Three studies examined global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity. In every study, self-esteem was strongly negatively correlated with Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and moderately to strongly related to Extraversion/Positive Affectivity. Additional findings, however, revealed that self-esteem is better viewed at the lower order level. For instance, global self-esteem correlated -.79 with the Depression facet of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in Study 3. Moreover, confirmatory factor analyses produced very strong correlations between self-esteem and depression in both Study 2 (r = -.82) and Study 3 (r = -.86). Taken together, the data suggest that global self-esteem measures define one end of a bipolar continuum, with trait indicators of depression defining the other. PMID:12088125

  5. Variation in orbitofrontal cortex volume: relation to sex, emotion regulation and affect

    OpenAIRE

    Welborn, B. Locke; Papademetris, Xenophon; Reis, Deidre L.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Bloise, Suzanne M.; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in brain structure have been examined extensively but are not completely understood, especially in relation to possible functional correlates. Our two aims in this study were to investigate sex differences in brain structure, and to investigate a possible relation between orbitofrontal cortex subregions and affective individual differences. We used tensor-based morphometry to estimate local brain volume from MPRAGE images in 117 healthy right-handed adults (58 female), age 18–...

  6. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  7. Trauma-Related Dissociation as a Factor Affecting Musicians' Memory for Music: Some Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Inette; van Niekerk, Caroline; Hartman, Woltemade

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of trauma on musicians revealed concentration and memory problems as two of the most common symptoms hampering the performance of affected individuals. In many instances where the causes of these problems were related to trauma sequelae, these could clearly be linked to dissociative symptoms. The following…

  8. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  9. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  10. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  11. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  12. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals' recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals' lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  13. Modelling the water quality in dams within the Umgeni Water operational area with emphasis on algal relations / Philip Mark Graham

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Philip Mark

    2007-01-01

    Based on many years of water quality (including algal) and water treatment cost data, available at Umgeni Water, a study was undertaken to better understand the water quality relationships in man made lakes within the company's operational area, and to investigate how water quality affected the cost of treating water from these lakes. The broad aims to the study were to: identify the key environmental variables that were affecting algal populations in lakes; and if these wer...

  14. Flood-related contamination in catchments affected by historical metal mining: an unexpected and emerging hazard of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, S A; Brewer, P A; Macklin, M G; Haresign, W; Betson, R E; Rassner, S M E

    2014-04-01

    Floods in catchments affected by historical metal mining result in the remobilisation of large quantities of contaminated sediment from floodplain soils and old mine workings. This poses a significant threat to agricultural production and is preventing many European river catchments achieving a 'good chemical and ecological status', as demanded by the Water Framework Directive. Analysis of overbank sediment following widespread flooding in west Wales in June 2012 showed that flood sediments were contaminated above guideline pollution thresholds, in some samples by a factor of 82. Most significantly, silage produced from flood affected fields was found to contain up to 1900 mg kg(-1) of sediment associated Pb, which caused cattle poisoning and mortality. As a consequence of climate related increases in flooding this problem is likely to continue and intensify. Management of contaminated catchments requires a geomorphological approach to understand the spatial and temporal cycling of metals through the fluvial system. PMID:24463253

  15. Growth response and ionic relation in two brassica species under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glasshouse study of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea showed that the growth and the ionic parameters of both the species were significantly (p < 0.0 I) affected due to water stress. Shoot length of both the species decreased consistently with decrease in solute potential (PSI) in the root medium. Relative growth rate and dry mass was higher in B. juncea than B. campestris but leaf area was less. Concentrations of K Ca/sup 2/ P and S generally decreased with gradual increase in water stress B. campestris was more susceptible to water stress than B juncea. (author)

  16. Soil Erosion as Affected by Polyacrylamide Application Under Simulated Furrow Irrigation with Saline Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Chao-Yin; LI Fa-Hu; L. S.WU

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of soil and water losses under furrow.irrigation with saline water is important to environnental protection and agricultural production.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polyacrylamide (pAM) application on soil infiltration and erosion under simulated furrow irrigation with saline water.Polyacrylamide was applied by dissolving it in irrigation water at the rates of 1.5,7.5,and 15.0 mg L-1 or spreading it as a powder on soil surface at the rates of 0.3,15,3.0,and 6.0 g m-2,respectively.The electrolyte concentration of tested irrigation water was 10 and 30 mmolc L-1 and its sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was 0.5,10.0,and 20.0 (mmol(c) L-1)0.5.Distilled water was used as a control for irrigation water quality.Results indicated that the electrolyte concentration and SAR generally did not significantly affect soil and water losses after PAM application.Infiltration rate and total infiltration volume decreased with the increase of PAM application rate.Polyacrylamide application in both methods significantly reduced soil erosion,but PAM application rate did not significantly affect it.The solution PAM application was more effective in controlling soil erosion than the powdered PAM application,but the former exerted a greater adverse influence on soil infiltration than the latter.Under the same total amounts,the powdered PAM application resulted in a 38.2%-139.6% granter infiltration volume but a soil mass loss of 1.3-3.4 times greater than the solution PAM apllication.

  17. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  18. Effects of stratum related to geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes on the quality of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life of facility for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes is affected by the quality of ground water. In the second year of this project, monitoring of water quality was started at several points, from which stratum samples were taken. Most of the samples included weathering granite soil and humic soil was partly included in the surface soil. The grain size distribution and mineral composition of these samples were investigated. And it was indicated that the alteration of granite due to ground water was related to smectite gibbsite in the surface soil and halloysite stilbite in the decomposed granite. In addition, surface water, spring and fissure water in rocks were collected for water monitoring. The varieties in the water quality were found to be due to the respective reactive substances such as soils, rocks etc. However, it was suggested that water infiltration capacity was the most strong environmental factor affecting the quality of water. (M.N.)

  19. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes. PMID:15840727

  20. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  1. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  2. Evaluation of Sorghum Density As Affected By Two Water Qualities Under Drip Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A.O. Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted under glasshouse conditions during 2005 at the Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University in Tottori, Japan. The study presented here was aimed to evaluating the response of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench, density under two different water qualities. The investigation was carried out in randomized complete block design experiments located in a plastic greenhouse. Crop growth was temporal varied with crop density and water quality. The statistical parameters; mean, median, CV, and the PCV, for the time series LWP data indicated the impact of sorghum density and water quality, on osmotic stress was best discriminated by PCV, followed by CV, median, and mean. The impact of different sorghum density on stresses under good water quality was similar trend to the impact of salinity under low density. The time series analysis for LWP indicated that PCV best statistical parameter to discriminate the impacts of stress under different water quality. The grain yield was significantly influenced by plant density regardless of water quality. Electrical conductivity was also affected by water quality as well as by plant density.

  3. Internal and external green-blue agricultural water footprints of nations, and related water and land savings through trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fader

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase food production for a growing world population makes an assessment of global agricultural water productivities and virtual water flows important. Using the hydrology and agro-biosphere model LPJmL, we quantify at 0.5° resolution the blue (irrigation water and green (precipitation water virtual water content, i.e. the inverse of water productivity, for 11 of the world's major crop types. Based on these, we also quantify the water footprints (WFP of all countries, for the period 1998-2002, distinguishing internal and external WFP (virtual water imported from other countries and their blue and green components, respectively. Moreover, we calculate water savings and losses, and for the first time also land savings and losses, through international trade with these products. The consistent separation of blue and green water flows and footprints, which is needed due to the different sources and opportunity costs of these two water pools, shows that green water globally dominates both the internal and external WFP (84% of the global WFP and 94% of the external WFP rely on green water. Accordingly, some of the major exporters of the crops considered here (e.g. Argentina, Canada export mainly green virtual water, but traditional rice exporters such as India and Pakistan mainly export blue virtual water. The external WFPs are found to be relatively small (6% of the total global blue WFP, 16% of the total global green WFP. Nevertheless, current trade saves significant water volumes and land areas (~263 km3 and ~41 Mha, respectively, equivalent to 5% of the sowing area of the crops considered here and 3.5% of the annual precipitation on this area. Linking the proportions of external to internal blue/green WFP with the per capita WFPs allows recognizing that only a few countries consume more water from abroad than from their own territory and have at the same time above average WFPs. Thus, countries with high levels of per

  4. Water-related disasters: A review and commentary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter M. Grayman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of water-related disasters,look at the trends in water-related disasters,categorize water-related disasters in several dimensions,provide insights on the impacts of such disasters and discuss the predictability of disasters.Disasters may be succinctly defined as natural or human events,usually unexpected,that result in significant impacts in terms of a variety of metrics.Metrics for evaluating the impacts of disasters include economic damage,environmental damage,fatalities,reconstruction cost,aesthetic damage,disruption of normal activities,destruction of irreplaceable objects,and long-term or permanent loss of species.Disasters may be categorized in terms of causes (natural events,human induced,or a combination).Water-related disasters may be further categorized as floods,storms,waves,slides,droughts,epidemics,contamination and climate change.The temporal and spatial scale of water-related disasters vary by many orders of magnitude ranging from seconds to centuries and from a few square kilometers to the entire earth.

  5. The relation of expression recognition and affective experience in facial expression processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Guangheng Dong1, Shenglan Lu21Department of Psychology, 2Department of International Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, ChinaAbstract: The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP. Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy, neutral (neutral, and negative (angry. Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively.Keywords: affective experience, expression recognition, cognitive load, event-related potential

  6. Depauperate macroinvertebrates in a mine affected stream: Clean water may be the key to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is frequently linked with changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages, but the relative contribution of water and sediment to toxicity is equivocal. We have shown that the macroinvertebrate fauna of Neubecks Ck, a mine impacted stream in New South Wales, Australia, was much poorer than in two reference streams. Multivariate RELATE analyses indicated that the patterns in the biological data were more strongly correlated with the concentrations of common metals in the surface water than the pore water of these streams. From this we hypothesised that the water was more toxic to the biota than the sediment and we tested this hypothesis with a sediment transplant experiment. Sediment from Neubecks Ck that was placed in reference streams retained high concentrations of metals throughout the experiment, yet supported a macroinvertebrate assemblage similar to that in the reference streams. Sediment from the reference streams that was placed in Neubecks Ck supported few, if any, animals. This indicates that water in Neubecks Ck is toxic to biota, but that sediment is able to support aquatic biota in clean water. Therefore, remediation should focus on improving water quality rather than sediment quality. - Macroinvertebrates colonise contaminated sediment in clean water

  7. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  8. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2009-01-01

    variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through......BACKGROUND: Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events are associated with affective disorders. AIM: To investigate whether the distribution of the alleles of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with a genetic predisposition to affective disorder and whether these...... the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....

  9. Factors affecting continued use of ceramic water purifiers distributed to Tsunami-affected Communities in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  There is little information about continued use of point-of-use technologies after disaster relief efforts. After the 2004 tsunami, the Red Cross distributed ceramic water filters in Sri Lanka. This study determined factors associated with filter disuse and evaluate the quality of household drinking water. Methods  A cross-sectional survey of water sources and treatment, filter use and household characteristics was administered by in-person oral interview, and household water qual...

  10. Ectomycorrhizas and water relations of trees: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Tarja; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2011-02-01

    There is plenty of evidence for improved nutrient acquisition by ectomycorrhizas in trees; however, their role in water uptake is much less clear. In addition to experiments showing improved performance during drought by mycorrhizal plants, there are several studies showing reduced root hydraulic conductivity and reduced water uptake in mycorrhizal roots. The clearest direct mechanism for increased water uptake is the increased extension growth and absorbing surface area, particularly in fungal species with external mycelium of the long-distance exploration type. Some studies have found increased aquaporin function and, consequently, increased root hydraulic conductivity in ectomycorrhizal plants while other studies showed no effect of ectomycorrhizal associations on root water flow properties. The aquaporin function of the fungal hyphae is also likely to be important for the uptake of water by the ectomycorrhizal plant, but more work needs to be done in this area. The best-known indirect mechanism for mycorrhizal effects on water relations is improved nutrient status of the host. Others include altered carbohydrate assimilation via stomatal function, possibly mediated by changes in growth regulator balance; increased sink strength in mycorrhizal roots; antioxidant metabolism; and changes in osmotic adjustment. None of these possibilities has been sufficiently explored. The mycorrhizal structure may also reduce water movement because of different fine root architecture (thickness), cell wall hydrophobicity or the larger number of membranes that water has to cross on the way from the soil to the xylem. In future studies, pot experiments comparing mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants will still be useful in studying well-defined physiological details. However, the quantitative importance of ectomycorrhizas for tree water uptake and water relations can only be assessed by field studies using innovative approaches. Hydraulic redistribution can support nutrient uptake

  11. Variations in heavy metal contamination of stream water and groundwater affected by an abandoned lead-zinc mine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Choi, Jung-Chan; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2005-09-01

    This study evaluated variations in heavy metal contamination of stream waters and groundwaters affected by an abandoned lead-zinc mine, where a rockfill dam for water storage will be built 11 km downstream. For these purposes, a total of 10 rounds of stream and groundwater samplings and subsequent chemical analyses were performed during 2002-2003. Results of an exploratory investigation of stream waters in 2000 indicated substantial contamination with heavy metals including zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) for at least 6 km downstream from the mine. Stream waters near the mine showed metal contamination as high as arsenic (As) 8,923 microg L(-1), copper (Cu) 616 microg L(-1), cadmium (Cd) 223 microg L(-1) and lead (Pb) 10,590 microg L(-1), which greatly exceeded the Korean stream water guidelines. Remediation focused on the mine tailing piles largely improved the stream water qualities. However, there have still been quality problems for the waters containing relatively high concentrations of As (6-174 microg L(-1)), Cd (1-46 microg L(-1)) and Pb (2-26 microg L(-1)). Rainfall infiltration into the mine tailing piles resulted in an increase of heavy metals in the stream waters due to direct discharge of waste effluent, while dilution of the contaminated stream waters improved the water quality due to mixing with metal free rain waters. Levels of As, Cu and chromium (Cr) largely decreased after heavy rain but that of Pb was rather elevated. The stream waters were characterized by high concentrations of calcium (Ca) and sulfate (SO(4)), which were derived from dissolution and leaching of carbonate and sulfide minerals. It was observed that the proportions of Ca and SO(4) increased while those of bicarbonate (HCO(3)) and sodium and potassium (Na+K) decreased after a light rainfall event. Most interestingly, the reverse was generally detected for the groundwaters. The zinc, being the metal mined, was the most dominant heavy metal in the groundwaters (1758

  12. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  13. Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pytka

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand and Poland (silty loamy sand were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

  14. Hormonal activity in detached lettuce leaves as affected by leaf water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, N; Blumenfeld, A; Richmond, A E

    1977-06-01

    The interrelationship between water deficiency and hormonal makeup in plants was investigated in detached leaves of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. ;Hazera Yellow'). Water stress was imposed by desiccating the leaves for several hours in light or darkness at different air temperatures and relative humidity. In the course of desiccation, a rise in abscisic acid content and a decline in gibberellin and cytokinin activity were observed by gas-liquid chromatography, by both the barley endosperm bioassay and radioimmunoassay and by the soybean callus bioassay. Gibberellin activity began to decline in the stressed leaves before the rise in abscisic acid, the rate of this decline being positively correlated with the rate of increase in leaf water saturation deficit. Recovery from water stress was effected by immersing the leaf petioles in water while exposing the blades to high relative humidity. This resulted in a decrease in leaf water saturation deficit, a reduction in abscisic acid content, and an increase in gibberellin and cytokinin activity.Application of abscisic acid to the leaves caused partial stomatal closure in turgid lettuce leaves, whereas treatment with gibberellic acid and kinetin of such leaves had no effect on the stomatal aperture. In desiccating leaves, however, gibberellic acid and kinetin treatment considerably retarded stomatal closure, thus enhancing the increase in leaf water saturation deficit. These results suggest that the effect of desiccation in changing leaf hormonal make-up, i.e. a rapid increase in abscisic acid and a decrease in both cytokinin and gibberellin activity, is related to a mechanism designed to curtail water loss under conditions inducing water deficiency. PMID:16660015

  15. Monitoring of soil chemical characteristics with time as affected by irrigation with saline water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lysimeter study was conducted to investigate the effect of irrigation with saline water on soil chemical characteristics at two depth (0-20) and (20-40 cm).Both fertilized (60, 120 KgN/ha) and unfertilized (0) soil were simulated in a total of 84 lysimeter. Data indicated that the electric conductivity (EC) values tended to increase with time intervals also EC-values as affected by soil depth after 105 days were high in 20 cm depth as compared to 40 cm depth. Chloride concentration did not reflect great variations as affected by time of nitrogen application where the values were nearly closed to each other. At the end of the experiment, much of Cl- content was occurred in the second layer of soil depth (20-40) as compared to depth of 0-20 cm. This was the case under all salinity levels. The irrigation with fresh water did not reflect any significant different in EC values between 120 KgN/ha , 60 KgN/ha or soil depth, however, it tend to increase with increasing water salinity levels. There were no much differences between the nitrogen application time (T1, T2 and T3). In contrast with Cl-, sodium was remained in the upper layer of 0-20 cm soil depth but still increase with increasing water salinity levels.

  16. Monitoring of Soil Chemical Characteristics with Time as Affected by Irrigation with Saline Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lysimeter study was conducted to investigate the effect of irrigation with saline water on soil chemical characteristics at two depth (0-20) and (20-40 cm). Both fertilized (60, 120 Kg N/ha) and unfertilized (0) soil were simulated in a total of 84 lysimeter. Data indicated that the electric conductivity (EC) values tended to increase with time intervals also EC- values as affected by soil depth after 105 days were high in 20 cm depth as compared to 40 cm depth. Chloride concentration did not reflect great variations as affected by time of nitrogen application where the values were nearly closed to each other. At the end of the experiment, much of Cl- content was occurred in the second layer of soil depth (20-40) as compared to depth of 0-20 cm. This was the case under all salinity levels. The irrigation with fresh water did not reflect any significant different in EC values between 120 Kg N/ha, 60 Kg N/ha or soil depth, however, it tend to increase with increasing water salinity levels. There were no much differences between the nitrogen application time (T1, T2 and T3). In contrast with Cl-, sodium was remained in the upper layer of 0-20 cm soil depth but still increase with increasing water salinity levels.

  17. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing. PMID:27120634

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN THE MEADOW OF BORCEA ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the factors leading to water pollution by nitrates in the Meadow of Borcea arm, mainly derived from agricultural sources. mIn oder to model the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, which can be partially used by plants or leached into the ground water, research was made on alluvial soil in the Meadow of Borcea arm. I tried to study in the laboratory the influence of three factors of nitrate nitrogen pollution of ground water: soil type, environmental conditions (temperature and humidity and the amount of mineral fertilizers incorporated. The resulting amount of nitrate nitrogen resulted with nitrogen fertilizer dose, and the temperature and it was affected by humidity especially 40-80% of field capacity.

  19. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horsewell, Andy; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey.......g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim of this...

  20. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health...

  1. Seasonal changes of water carbon relations in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Merbold, L.; Archibald, S.

    2011-12-01

    During evolution plant species have developed different strategies to optimize the water carbon relations. These stratgies summarize to ecosystem properties. As an example we show how tropical and subtropical savannas and woodlands can respond flexibly to changes in temperature and water availability and thus optimize carbon and water fluxes between land surface and atmosphere. Several phenomena are presented and discussed in this overview from African flux sites in Zambia, Burkina Faso and South Africa: Pre-rain leaf development: Many trees developed new leaves before the first rain appeared. As a consequence of this early timing of leaf flush, the phenological increase of photosynthetic capacity (Amax) was steeper than in temperate forests. Mid-term response of conductance and photosynthesis to soil water relations: The regulation of canopy conductance was temporally changing in two ways: changes due to phenology during the course of the growing season and short-term (hours to days) acclimation to soil water conditions. The most constant parameter was water use efficiency. It was influenced by water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) during the day, but the VPD response curve of water usage only changed slightly during the course of the growing season, and decreased by about 30% during the transition from wet to dry season. The regulation of canopy conductance and photosynthetic capacity were closely related. This observation meets recent leaf-level findings that stomatal closure triggers down-regulation of Rubisco during drought. Our results may show the effects of these processes on the ecosystem scale. Furthermore, we observed that the close relationship between stomatal conductance and photosynthesis resulted in different temperature optima of GPP that were close to the average daytime temperature. Adaptation of respiration to rain pulses: Finally, the response of respiration to rain pulses showed changes throughout the growing season. The first rain events early

  2. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Leelamanie, D.A.L.

    2014-01-01

    The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM) depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic...

  3. A relational model of therapists’ experience of affect regulation in psychological therapy with female sex addiction

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how therapists work with female sex addicts on affect regulation from a relational perspective in psychotherapy. I used a grounded theory approach, embedded in a social constructionist epistemology, and implemented a relativist constructionist methodology (Bryant & Charmaz, 2010). A total of twelve experienced psychotherapists and psychologists who worked in the sex addiction field participated in conversational, semi-structured interviews. Analysis revealed seventeen ...

  4. Relation of happiness, hope and affection with quality of life in patients with heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Nave Leal, Elisabete; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luís; Oliveira, Mário; Silva, Nogueira da; Soares, Rui; Santos, Sofia; Ferreira, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meeting the actual role of positive psychology, begins to be recognized the relation of positive variables with health. Objective: To know the relation of happiness, hope and affection with quality of life in individuals with heart failure. Population and Methodology: 128 individuals with heart failure, 98 men and 30 women, 61.9±12,1 years of age, 6,6±3,9 years in school and 74,2% retired because of this disease. 56,3% were in Class III of New York Heart Association, with poo...

  5. Ethics of the profession of public relations--does the public relations affects on journalism in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    of where the boundaries of public relations and journalism are. Where one ends and the other begins, and the extent to which these two professions touch and affect each other. Is manipulation and spin present in the media, that is the questions that we seek the answer in this paper. PMID:24308204

  6. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great pr

  7. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely eFisk Green

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs. Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (risk genotypes and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017. We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential

  8. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure

  9. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Assouline

    Full Text Available Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss. Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d and size (s, and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d, exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  10. Isotope geochemistry of waters affected by acid mine drainage in old labour sites (SE, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Agudo, Ines; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Recio, Clemente

    2015-04-01

    The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Iron is present in oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, and silicates; lead and zinc occur in sulfides (galena and sphalerite, respectively), carbonates, sulfates, and lead or zinc-bearing (manganese, iron) oxides. Mining started with the Romans and activity peaked in the second half of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century until the 1980's. From 1940 to 1957, mineral concentration was made by froth flotation and, prior to this, by gravimetric techniques. The mining wastes, or tailings, with a very fine particle size were deposited inland (tailings dams) and, since 1957, huge releases were made in directly the sea coast. The objective of this work was to evaluate processes affecting waters from abandoned mine sites by way of stable isotopic analysis, particularly H and O stable isotopes from water and S and O from dissolved sulfates. Several common chemical and physical processes, such as evaporation, water-rock interaction and mixing could alter water isotopic composition. Evaporation, which causes an enrichment in δD and δ18O in the residual water, is an important process in semiarid areas. The results obtained indicate that, for sites near the coast, waters are meteoric, and marine infiltration only takes place in the deepest layers near the shore or if water remains stagnated in sediments with low permeability. The main source of sulfate was the oxidation of sulfides, resulting in the liberation of acid, sulfate and metals. In order to assess the mechanism responsible for sulfide oxidation, the stoichiometric isotope balance model and the general isotope balance model were tested, suggesting that the oxidation via Fe3+ was predominant in the surface, and controlled by A. ferrooxidans, while at depth, sulfate reduction occurred.

  11. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  12. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water level regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL. High WL creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WL drawdown caused by land-use and/or climate change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WL drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine (undrained to short-term (years and long-term (decades WL drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation, i.e., Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    WL drawdown had a direct and positive effect on microbial activity. Enzyme allocation shifted towards C acquisition, which caused an increase in the rate of decomposition. However, litter type overruled the direct effects of WL drawdown and was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns. Our results imply that changes in plant community composition in response to persistent WL drawdown will strongly affect the C dynamics of peatlands.

  13. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a...... static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et...

  14. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  15. Sexualité et relations affectives des personnes sans domicile fixe

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenchaim , Nicolas; Pourette, Dolorès; Le Méner, Erwan; Laporte, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cet article présente les résultats d’une enquête sur les relations affectives et sexuelles de personnes sans-domicile. A partir d’une cinquantaine d’entretiens semi-directifs auprès d’individus fréquentant les centres d’accueil et d’hébergement du Samusocial de Paris, l’enquête met en évidence la pluralité des parcours de vie et des expériences affectives et sexuelles. Cette pluralité prend sens au regard de la manière dont les personnes définissent leur situation (Thomas, 1923), qui ne corre...

  16. Seasonal variation in the tissue water relations of picea glauca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, S.J.; Teng, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether seasonal patterns of water relations in white spruce are closely related to the phenology of the shoot apical meristem and seasonal variations in weather, and to evaluate water relations properties of importance to turgor maintenance capacity. Shoots of white spruce seedlings were collected from operationally produced crops at the Midhurst Tree Nursery. From September to March of each year, shoots were collected from seedlings that had completed their third year of shoot elongation. In early March of 1984 and 1985, sampling shifted to two-year-old seedlings that would produce their third- year shoot growth in the current year. Soil moisture tension during the summer was maintained above -100 kPa through irrigation.

  17. Relations between information, time, and value of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, S. V.; Galindo, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    This research uses with stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) as a tool to reveal economic information about managed water resources. An application to the operation of an example hydropower reservoir is presented. SDP explicitly balances the marginal value of water for immediate use and its expected opportunity cost of not having more water available for future use. The result of an SDP analysis is a steady state policy, which gives the optimal decision as a function of the state. A commonly applied form gives the optimal release as a function of the month, current reservoir level and current inflow to the reservoir. The steady state policy can be complemented with a real-time management strategy, that can depend on more real-time information. An information-theoretical perspective is given on how this information influences the value of water, and how to deal with that influence in hydropower reservoir optimization. This results in some conjectures about how the information gain from real-time operation could affect the optimal long term policy. Another issue is the sharing of increased benefits that result from this information gain in a multi-objective setting. It is argued that this should be accounted for in negotiations about an operation policy.

  18. Temperature affects longevity and age-related locomotor and cognitive decay in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Dario R; Terzibasi, Eva; Cattaneo, Antonino; Domenici, Luciano; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2006-06-01

    Temperature variations are known to modulate aging and life-history traits in poikilotherms as different as worms, flies and fish. In invertebrates, temperature affects lifespan by modulating the slope of age-dependent acceleration in death rate, which is thought to reflect the rate of age-related damage accumulation. Here, we studied the effects of temperature on aging kinetics, aging-related behavioural deficits, and age-associated histological markers of senescence in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri. This species shows a maximum captive lifespan of only 3 months, which is tied with acceleration in growth and expression of aging biomarkers. These biological peculiarities make it a very convenient animal model for testing the effects of experimental manipulations on life-history traits in vertebrates. Here, we show that (i) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C increases both median and maximum lifespan; (ii) life extension is due to reduction in the slope of the age-dependent acceleration in death rate; (iii) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C retards the onset of age-related locomotor and learning deficits; and (iv) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C reduces the accumulation of the age-related marker lipofuscin. We conclude that lowering water temperature is a simple experimental manipulation which retards the rate of age-related damage accumulation in this short-lived species. PMID:16842500

  19. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In t

  20. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes. In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. Results In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593. The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change

  1. [The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment--an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta; Miernik-Jaeschke, Magdalena; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The family burden (FB) has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems) and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers' emotions arising in response to objective difficulties). FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have been found. Since family member's illness can be not only a ballast, but also a potential source of satisfaction, it has been found that the level of caregiving-related satisfaction is a significant predictor of FB severity. FB dynamics does not seem to be parallel to the course of illness. Problem-focused and task-focused coping strategies are known to be related to lower values of FB. There is evidence suggesting that in families of patients with BD depressive episodes trigger substantially higher severity of FB, as compared to manic episodes. Data on FB related to major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce. Assertive community treatment strategies are the main option of reducing FB in the context of affective disorders, yet data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. PMID:24946470

  2. The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The family burden (FB has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers’ emotions arising in response to objective difficulties. FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have been found. Since family member’s illness can be not only a ballast, but also a potential source of satisfaction, it has been found that the level of caregiving-related satisfaction is a significant predictor of FB severity. FB dynamics does not seem to be parallel to the course of illness. Problem-focused and task-focused coping strategies are known to be related to lower values of FB.There is evidence suggesting that in families of patients with BD depressive episodes trigger substantially higher severity of FB, as compared to manic episodes. Data on FB related to major depressive disorder (MDD are scarce.Assertive community treatment strategies are the main option of reducing FB in the context of affective disorders, yet data on their effectiveness are inconclusive.

  3. Lycopene Accumulation Affects the Biosynthesis of Some Carotenoid-related Volatiles Independent of Ethylene in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Gao; Hongliang Zhu; Yi Shao; Anjun Chen; Chengwen Lu; Benzhong Zhu; Yunbo Luo

    2008-01-01

    For elucidating the regulatory mechanism of ethylene on carotenoid-related volatiles (open chain) compounds and the relationship between lycopene and carotenoid-related volatiles,transgenic tomato fruits in which ACC synthase was suppressed were used.The transgenic tomato fruit showed a significant reduction of lycopene and aroma volatiles with low ethylene production.6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and geranylacetone,which were suspected to be lycopene degradation products,were lower than those in wild type tomato fruits.In order to identify whether lycopene accumulation effects the biosynthesis of some carotenoid-related volatiles independent of ethylene in tomato or not,the capability of both wild type and transgenic tomato fruits discs to convert lycopene into carotenoid-related volatiles was evaluated.The data showed that external lycopene could convert into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol in vivo,Indicating that the strong inhibition of ethylene production had no effect on enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of some carotenoid-related volatiles.Therefore,in ACS-suppression transgenic tomato fruits,the low levels of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol was due to decreased lycopene accumulation,not ethylene production.Ethylene only affected the accumulation of lycopene,and then indirectly influenceed the level of lycopene-related volatiles.

  4. Rapid assessment of toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil-sand process-affected waters (OSPAW) are being evaluated in acute and chronic toxicity tests with various model organisms to assess the safety of reclamation ponds where OSPAWs are being deposited. Classical toxicity assays typically require large volumes of test waters, take time and are costly. They may also require expensive analytical assays to characterize the contaminants present. Cytotoxicity assays using indigenous and model fish cell lines may prove useful for a prompt comparative toxicity assessment of copious samples retrieved at various temporal and spatial sites at a fraction of cost and time compared to in vivo assays. This presentation reported on a study in which a rapid fluorometric assay using several fish cell lines was used to assess the acute toxicity of 20 water samples including OSPAW. The water samples were mixed with media salts and evaluated directly on cells in culture without prior extraction procedures. The evaluation was done in blind and a consistent pattern of toxicity was observed with the tested cell lines. It was concluded that this approach may minimize the need of using whole organisms for toxicity assessment of OSPAW.

  5. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A. [Univ. of Padua (Italy)

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Longitudinal study on work related and individual risk factors affecting radiating neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    Viikari-Juntura, E.; Martikainen, R; Luukkonen, R; Mutanen, P; Takala, E; Riihimaki, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the effects of work related and individual factors affecting radiating neck pain.
METHODS—A longitudinal study was carried out with repeated measurements. A total of 5180 Finnish forest industry workers replied to a questionnaire survey in 1992 (response rate 75%). Response rates to follow up questionnaires in 1993, 1994, and 1995 were 83%, 77%, and 90%, respectively. The outcome variable was the number of days with radiating neck pain during the preceding 12 months with t...

  7. [Sizes of soil macropores and related main affecting factors on a vegetated basalt slope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qi; Xu, Ze-Min; Tian, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The landslide on vegetated slopes caused by extreme weather has being increased steadily, and the preferential flow in soil macropores plays an important role in the landslide. By using water breakthrough curve and Poiseuille equation, this paper estimated the radius range, amount, and average volume of soil macropores on a vegetated basalt slope of Maka Mountain, Southwest China, and analyzed the distribution of the soil macropores and the main affecting factors. In the study area, the radius of soil macropores ranged from 0.3 to 1.8 mm, mainly between 0.5 and 1.2 mm. The large-radius macropores (1.4-1.8 mm) were lesser, while the small-radius macropores (soil profile, soil macropores were more in upper layers and lesser in deeper layers. The average volume of the macropores contributed 84.7% to the variance of steady effluent rate. Among the factors affecting the average volume of the large macropores, vegetations root mass had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.70, and soil organic matter content also had a linear relationship, with the correlation coefficient being 0.64. PMID:24483084

  8. Relations Between Dispositional Expressivity and Physiological Changes During Acute Positive and Negative Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmir Gračanin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the relations between emotional expressivity measured by Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and physiological response in situations where positive and negative affects were induced. On 65 participants four physiological parameters, including finger pulse amplitude, heart rate, skin conductance level and amplitude of skin conductance response were measured. In situations in which negative affect was induced, individuals higher in negative expressivity showed higher skin conductance level, higher amplitude of skin conductance response and higher heart rate compared to individuals low on negative expressivity, whereas finger pulse amplitude did not differ between these two groups. The same results were obtained even when controlling for five factor personality traits and recorded participants’ facial expression. In situation where a positive affect was induced, no differences in sympathetic responses between participants high and low in positive expressivity have been found. The results are explained in the context of Coactivation theory and possible consequences of the results on health outcomes are discussed.

  9. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  10. Heritability and repeatability of behavioural attributes affecting foraging success and fitness in water striders

    OpenAIRE

    Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Perner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Heritabilities and repeatabilities are presented for various behavioural attributes affecting foraging performance and fitness in Aquarius (Gerris) remigis (Heteroptera: Gerridae) females. These behavioural attributes were patch choice, foraging success, capture accuracy, and measures of mobility, activity, skittishness and aggressiveness. Most heritabilities were not significantly different from zero, which may be related to the low sampIe size. Conclusions as to the potential of direct sele...

  11. Lifestyle-Related Diseases Affect Surgical Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Hyperlipidemia (HL) and hypertension (HT) lead to systemic atherosclerosis. Not only atherosclerosis but also bone fragility and/or low bone mineral density result from diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine whether these lifestyle-related diseases affected surgical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods The subjects comprised 122 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The clinical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery and at 2 years postoperatively. The fusion status was graded as union in situ, collapsed union, or nonunion at 2 years after surgery. The abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score was assessed using preoperative lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine. Results HL did not significantly affect the JOA score recovery rate. On the other hand, HT and CKD (stage 3 to 4) had a significant adverse effect on the recovery rate. The recovery rate was also lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group, but the difference was not significant. The AAC score was negatively correlated with the JOA score recovery rate. The fusion status was not significantly affected by HL, HT, DM, or CKD; however, the AAC score was significantly higher in the collapsed union and nonunion group than in the union in situ group. Conclusions At 2 years after PLIF, the presence of HT, CKD, and AAC was associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes, and advanced AAC significantly affected fusion status. PMID:26835195

  12. Soil water content and yield variability in vineyards of Mediterranean northeastern Spain affected by mechanization and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. C.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyse the combined influence of the Mediterranean climate variability (particularly the irregular rainfall distribution throughout the year) and the land transformations carried out in vineyards of northeastern Spain on soil water content evolution and its influence on grape production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard located in the Anoia-Alt Penedès region (Barcelona province, northeastern Spain), which was prepared for mechanization with important land transformations. Two plots were selected for the study: one with low degree of transformation of the soil profile, representing a non-disturbed situation, and the second one in which more than 3 m were cut in the upper part of the plot and filled in the lower part, representing the disturbed situation. Soil water content was evaluated at three positions along the slope in each plot and at three depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm) during the period 1999-2001, years with different rainfall characteristics, including extreme events and long dry periods. Rainfall was recorded in the experimental field using a pluviometer linked to a data-logger. Runoff rates and yield were evaluated at the same positions. For the same annual rainfall, the season of the year in which rainfall is recorded and its intensity are critical for water availability for crops. Soil water content varies within the plot and is related to the soil characteristics existing at the different positions of the landscape. The differences in soil depth created by soil movements in the field mechanization give rise to significant yield reductions (up to 50%) between deeper and shallow areas. In addition, for the same annual rainfall, water availability for crops depends on its distribution over the year, particularly in soils with low water-storage capacity. The yield was strongly affected in years with dry or very dry winters.

  13. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  14. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Newton, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0–15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372

  15. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372

  16. Indus water disputes and India-Pakistan relations

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Muhammad Nasrullah

    2016-01-01

    The study reinforces the belief of geo-politicians that competition over and control of, vital resources –- be they oil, strategic materials for warfare, water and sea lanes or minerals – is the main cause of conflict between states and adds substance to that belief by attributing equal significance to the territorial control of freshwater resources as an issue of high-politics in international relations. To highlight theoretical and policy relevance it formulates a theoretical model befittin...

  17. Qualification of safety related equipment for a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to the fact that environment stresses, that prevail or may occur in a pressurized water reactor containment are very novel and hard, a new test procedure for safety-related equipment had to be devised. Such tests aim at ensuring equipment quality level and checking its fitness for use. This new field led to the development of test facilities in order to reproduce the stresses taken into account such as irradiation or pressure and temperature shocks. At the present time, the various preparation works are drawing to a close and the first test campaign, dealing with safety related cables, is undertaken; the others are planned up to 1981

  18. Heavy Metal Concentration in Drinking Water Sources Affected by Dredge Mine Operations of a Gold Mining Company in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Apori Ntiforo; Maxwell Anim-Gyampo; Frank K. Nyame

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses concentration of certain heavy metals in water sources affected by the operations of defunct dredged gold mine operations more than a decade to evaluate its quality as a source of drinking water. The concentration of heavy metals were determined from nine (9) surface water sampling points and three (3) boreholes in the Awusu-River basin in comparison with their maximum contaminant levels to assess their suitability as drinking water sources. Results obtained from the analys...

  19. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23937298

  20. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    ) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  1. Antimony isotopic composition in river waters affected by ancient mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resongles, Eléonore; Freydier, Rémi; Casiot, Corinne; Viers, Jérôme; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    In this study, antimony (Sb) isotopic composition was determined in natural water samples collected along two hydrosystems impacted by historical mining activities: the upper Orb River and the Gardon River watershed (SE, France). Antimony isotope ratio was measured by HG-MC-ICP-MS (Hydride Generation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) after a preconcentration and purification step using a new thiol-cellulose powder (TCP) procedure. The external reproducibility obtained for δ(123)Sb measurements of our in-house Sb isotopic standard solution and a certified reference freshwater was 0.06‰ (2σ). Significant isotopic variations were evident in surface waters from the upper Orb River (-0.06‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.11‰) and from the Gardon River watershed (+0.27‰≤δ(123)Sb≤+0.83‰). In particular, streams that drained different former mining sites exploited for Sb or Pb-Zn exhibited contrasted Sb isotopic signature, that may be related to various biogeochemical processes occurring during Sb transfer from rocks, mine wastes and sediments to the water compartment. Nevertheless, Sb isotopic composition appeared to be stable along the Gardon River, which might be attributed to the conservative transport of Sb at distance from mine-impacted streams, due to the relative mobile behavior of Sb(V) in natural oxic waters. This study suggests that Sb isotopic composition could be a useful tool to track pollution sources and/or biogeochemical processes in hydrologic systems. PMID:26452900

  2. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  3. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  4. Affecting Factors of Arterial Stiffness in Living Related Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Ergülü EŞMEN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness might be affected by several factors including recipient as well as donors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate arterial stiffness in living related kidney transplant recipients before and after transplantation. We enrolled 47 living related kidney recipients and pulse wave velocity (PWV was determined before and after transplantation. Donor renal arterial biopsy, recipient iliac artery samples were taken during the operation and PWV was also determined for the donors. Forty-seven patients completed the study. Post-transplantation follow-up duration was 18.5±5.7 months. Before transplantation, the mean PWV 8.1±1.4 m/sec and it was 7.5±2.0 m/sec after the transplantation (p=0.014. The patients were divided into two groups as with (30 patients and without (17 patients a PWV decrease. Recipient age, gender, CRP, PTH, lipids, and blood pressures were not significantly different between the groups. The recipient body mass index was higher in patients with a PWV decrease. Donor-related factors were not different between the groups. We found that blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels in recipients were associated with a decrease in PWV after the transplantation. In conclusion, donor-related factors do not seem to have an impact on arterial stiffness in recipients. Pretransplant BMI and posttransplant blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels were associated with a decrease in PWV.

  5. Dry-season soil water repellency affects Tahoe Basin infiltration rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Erin C; Mark E. Grismer

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tahoe’s declining clarity makes the identification of runoff and erosion sources and evaluation of control measures vitally important. We treated relatively undisturbed, native, forested sites of 10% to 15% slope with surfactant and used a rain-fall simulator to investigate the effects of repellency. We compared infiltration measurements made by the simulator and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI). Runoff was produced by all plots with untreated water, but only two of 12 plots with surfacta...

  6. The Relation between Language, Affection, and Cognition in Bilingualism. Quantitative Assessments of the Interrelationships. Educational and Psychological Interactions No. 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Lars Henric

    Assumptions of strong, causal relations between cognition, language, and affection are often made in general and in bilingualism in particular. This paper presents first a set of hypotheses concerning the relation between affection and language in bilingualism. One subset is concerned with language learning, language maintenance, and mental health…

  7. An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity. PMID:18817120

  8. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  9. On the relation between water pools and water holding capacity in cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Jørgensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations were measured on muscle, minced muscle and centrifuged mince from cod that had been treated under various frozen and chill storage conditions. By using multi-way chemometrics, uni-exponential profiles were obtained, from which the transverse...... measures of water holding capacity (WHC) in a way that WHC related to the original water content could be predicted well for the whole and the minced muscle. The centrifuged samples gave optimal predictions of WHC related to the dry matter content, probably because the centrifuged samples are similar to...

  10. Diurnal water relations of walnut trees - Implications for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1991-01-01

    Leaflet water content (WC), relative water content (RWC), and water potential, Phi(lf) were measured as indicators of diurnal change in tree water status in an experimental walnut orchard receiving two irrigation treatments: 100 and 33 percent of potential evapotranspiration (PET). Diurnal change was greatest in Phi(lf) throughout the experimental period, with minima occurring each day in early to mid-afternoon and maxima between midnight and sunrise. Leaflet WC and RWC were lower in the afternoon than at night, but had greater variability so that the diurnal pattern was not as clear. Comparison between the pattern of Phi(lf) and dielectric constants (DCs) measured from probes inserted 2 cm into a tree hole showed that both declined nearly in parallel in the morning. Phi(lf) recovered more rapidly than DC in the afternoon. This temporal discrepancy could be caused by cavitation of xylem elements in the vicinity of the DC probe. Microwave backscatter for L- and X-bands also measured diurnal variation that had local minima in the afternoon, but the pattern among wavelength and polarization signatures was complex.

  11. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, pacute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity. PMID:23000048

  12. How Do Severe Constraints Affect the Search Ability of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms in Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, T. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Raseman, W. J.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study contributes a diagnostic assessment of multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search on a set of water resources problem formulations with different configurations of constraints. Unlike constraints in classical optimization modeling, constraints within MOEA simulation-optimization represent limits on acceptable performance that delineate whether solutions within the search problem are feasible. Constraints are relevant because of the emergent pressures on water resources systems: increasing public awareness of their sustainability, coupled with regulatory pressures on water management agencies. In this study, we test several state-of-the-art MOEAs that utilize restricted tournament selection for constraint handling on varying configurations of water resources planning problems. For example, a problem that has no constraints on performance levels will be compared with a problem with several severe constraints, and a problem with constraints that have less severe values on the constraint thresholds. One such problem, Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) portfolio planning, has been solved with a suite of constraints that ensure high reliability, low cost variability, and acceptable performance in a single year severe drought. But to date, it is unclear whether or not the constraints are negatively affecting MOEAs' ability to solve the problem effectively. Two categories of results are explored. The first category uses control maps of algorithm performance to determine if the algorithm's performance is sensitive to user-defined parameters. The second category uses run-time performance metrics to determine the time required for the algorithm to reach sufficient levels of convergence and diversity on the solution sets. Our work exploring the effect of constraints will better enable practitioners to define MOEA problem formulations for real-world systems, especially when stakeholders are concerned with achieving fixed levels of performance according to one or

  13. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    makes attempts to influence the endotoxin exposure a possibility. Water content in straw affected the concentration, exposure level and size distribution of airborne endotoxin. PMID:20362504

  14. Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Zhi; Yang, Baomei; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin

    2010-04-01

    Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While an animal is fed with ROX, the As compounds in the manure primarily occur as ROX and its metabolites, including arsenate (As[V]), arsenite (As[III]), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous fertilizers in China. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), with the soil amended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 g PO(4)/kg, respectively, plus 2% (w/w manure/soil) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results indicate that this species of water spinach cannot accumulate ROX and MMA at detectable levels, but As(V), As(III), and DMA were present in all plant samples. Increased phosphorous decreased the shoot As(V) and As(III) in water spinach but did not affect the root As(V). The shoot DMA and root As(III) and DMA were decreased/increased and then increased/decreased by elevated phosphorous. The total phosphorous content (P) in plant tissue did not correlate with the total As or the three As species in tissues. Arsenate, As(III), and DMA were more easily accumulated in the roots, and phosphate considerably inhibited their upward transport. Dimethylarsinic acid had higher transport efficiency than As(V) and As(III), but As(III) was dominant in tissues. Conclusively, phosphate had multiple effects on the accumulation and transport of ROX metabolites, which depended on their levels. However, proper utilization of phosphate fertilizer can decrease the accumulation of ROX metabolites in water spinach when treated with CM containing ROX and its metabolites. PMID:20821525

  15. Hawaiian native forest conserves water relative to timber plantation: species and stand traits influence water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Aurora; Sack, Lawren; Duarte, Ka'eo; James, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    Tropical forests are becoming increasingly alien-dominated through the establishment of timber plantations and secondary forests. Despite widespread recognition that afforestation results in increased evapotranspiration and lower catchment yields, little is known of the impacts of timber plantations on water balance relative to native forest. Native forest trees have been claimed to use water conservatively and enhance groundwater recharge relative to faster-growing alien species, and this argument should motivate native forest preservation and restoration. However, data have been available primarily for leaf-level gas exchange rather than for whole-plant and stand levels. We measured sap flow of dominant tree and tree fern species over eight weeks in native Metrosideros polymorpha forest and adjacent alien timber plantations on the island of Hawai'i and estimated total stand transpiration. Metrosideros polymorpha had the lowest values of sap flux density and whole-tree water use (200 kg m(-2) sapwood d(-1), or 8 kg/d for trees of 35 cm mean diameter at breast height, D), substantially less than timber species Eucalyptus saligna or Fraxinus uhdei (33 and 34 kg/d for trees of 73 and 30 cm mean D, respectively). At the stand level, E. saligna and F. uhdei trees had three- and ninefold higher water use, respectively, than native M. polymorpha trees. Understory Cibotium tree ferns were most abundant in M. polymorpha-dominated forest where they accounted for 70% of water use. Overall, F. uhdei plantation had the highest water use at 1.8 mm/d, more than twice that of either E. saligna plantation or M. polymorpha forest. Forest water use was influenced by species composition, stem density, tree size, sapwood allocation, and understory contributions. Transpiration varied strongly among forest types even within the same wet tropical climate, and in this case, native forest had strikingly conservative water use. Comparisons of vegetation cover in water use should provide

  16. Personal Encounter and Affective Links: "Pilot Guidance" and the Relational Nurturing Process in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Vaquer Chiva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions represent the special setting for teenagers´ socialization and development in Spain. The concern for some disruptive phenomenon which take place within the educational setting draws the attention to investigate the aspects of the educational relationship that contribute positively to students´ development and learning. From a qualitative research design, according to the criteria of theoretical sampling proposed in the methodology of qualitative data analysis of the «Grounded Theory», twenty-three individual interviews were done to secondary school parents, teachers and students. The achieved results allow to suggest the «encounter» between student and teacher, with its respective acceptance and mutual appreciation, as a central issue that enables affective link and the practice of "pilot guidance". The emergence of the basic social process referred as «relational nurturing» implies that affective support and an instructional guide empower educational and personal growth. The "pilot guidance" function, both with individuals and in class, constitutes the center of the educational relationship fostering the students´ full growth.

  17. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  18. Specifying the relation between novel and known: input affects the acquisition of novel color terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, G M; Tonks, S J

    1996-06-01

    4 studies investigate how differential input affects preschoolers' abilities to learn novel color words. 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children saw objects in novel shapes and colors and heard a novel color label for the object. Labels were presented through ostensive definition (e.g., "See, it's mauve"), corrective linguistic contrast (e.g., "See, it's not purple; it's mauve"), or an inclusion statement (e.g., "See, it's mauve; it's a kind of purple"). 4- and 5-year-old children interpreted the novel word as a shape term when ostensive information was provided but as a color term when additional information, either contrastive or inclusive, specified a relation between the novel term and a known label for that color. Furthermore, children who consistently interpreted the novel word as a color word tended to treat the novel and known labels as mutually exclusive color terms if they heard contrastive information, whereas they tended to treat the words as hierarchically related if they heard inclusion information. 3-year-olds generally did not make use of either type of information in determining the semantic domain of the novel word or the relation between terms. PMID:8706530

  19. Affective associations and cognitive beliefs relate to individuals' decisions to perform testicular or breast self-exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2015-08-01

    Affective associations with behavioral practices play an important role in individuals' uptake of a variety of health behaviors. Most work has looked at individual behavioral practices with a direct impact on health; because screening behaviors are conceptually distinct from such behaviors, it is important to examine the interplay of affect and cognition in screening decision making. The current research explored affective and cognitive predictors of testicular and breast self-examination behavior. Young adult participants (N = 184) reported cognitive beliefs and affective associations with testicular self-exam behavior (male participants) and breast self-exam behavior (female participants) and reported their own current screening behavior. In univariable models, affective associations were related to screening behavior for both testicular self-exams and breast self-exams. When examining affective associations and cognitive beliefs as simultaneous predictors, affective associations (but not cognitive beliefs) predicted testicular self-exams, and neither affective associations nor cognitive beliefs were uniquely related to breast self-exams. Moreover, for testicular self-exams, affective associations mediated the relation between cognitive beliefs and screening behavior; no mediation was present for breast self-exam behavior. These findings suggest three potential outcomes: first, that greater consideration of affective associations in testicular self-exam screening decisions may be warranted; second, that breast and testicular self-exams may have different antecedents; and third, that incorporation of affective factors in intervention design might have merit for increasing engagement in some cancer screening behaviors. PMID:25851610

  20. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm. • Sulfate

  1. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  2. Changing Hydrological Cycle in Asian Monsoon Region in Relation to Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water is a key resource for sustainable development in the Monsoon Asian Region. Frequent occurrence of flood disasters related to increasing Asian monsoon climate variability, progressing land degradation associated with anomalous monsoon dry climate and land overexploitation, increasing water use due to rapid social/economic development, and water pollution under the development of industrialization, urbanization and intensive agriculture, all pose fundamental questions about mid- and long term future carrying capacity of water systems in this key-region of the globe. We review some of the most recent data and methodological insights about how the hydrological cycle and hydroclimate in monsoon Asia is changing or has already changed in association with the global warming (GHG increase). Next,we analyze how regional-scale anthropogenic impacts such land cover/use changes, forest fire, dust increase, affect the hydrological cycle and water resources in the monsoon Asia and Northern China. The issues addressed in the presentation include: (i)the current regional hydrological cycle, especially causal chains leading to observable changes in droughts and floods;(ii)how the water cycle and the extremes may respond to future drivers of global change;(iii) feedbacks in the coupled system as they affect the hydrological cycle; (iv)the uncertainties in the predictions of coupled climate-hydrological- land use models and (v)the future vulnerability of water as a resource. We argue for a substantial increase of international collaborative research efforts into integrated impact assessment of climate change and human activity on water systems in this region.

  3. Climatic Versus Biotic Constraints on Carbon and Water Fluxes in Seasonally Drought-affected Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (50%), and intermediate at the YS (climate, although leaf area is a function of climate in that climate can interact with age-related shifts in carbon allocation and affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance. Older forests, with well-established root systems, appear to be better buffered from effects of seasonal drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.

  4. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Negative affective experiences in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this

  6. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  7. Key parameters and processes affecting the re-establishment of eelgrass in estuaries and coastal water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula

    . As a result it was proven that macroalgae generated SPM affected the light climate by dampening greatly the light availability at the sea bed in shallow coastal waters. An agent based model to simulate opportunistic and slower growing macroalgae species transport in Odense fjord was created. In this model...... of the objectives were to gain a further and deeper understanding on eelgrass recolonization processes and to gather all the collected data into a modelling tool which allowing to predict eelgrass reestablishment. Eelgrass re-establishment in Denmark has to be based on seed and seedling success, therefore a series...... resulted in a diverse range of cellular lyses, which will limit the validation on the uses of such techniques for EPS measurements. A model to simulate bedload resuspension generated by macroalgae drift was created. The aim of the model was to test the influence on such resuspension on light climate...

  8. Radiation Power Affected by Current and Wall Radius in Water Cooled Vortex Wall-stabilized Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwao, Toru; Nakamura, Takaya; Yanagi, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The arc lighting to obtain the environment to evacuate, save the life, keep the safety and be comfortable are focus on. The lack of radiation intensity and color rendering is problem because of inappropriate energy balance. Some researchers have researched the arc lamp mixed with metal vapor for improvement of color rendering spectrum. The metal vapor can emit the high intense radiation. In addition, the radiation is derived from the high temperature medium. Because the arc temperature can be controlled by current and arc radius, the radiation can be controlled by the current and arc radius. This research elucidates the radiation power affected by the current and wall radius in wall-stabilized arc of water-cooled vortex type. As a result, the radiation power increases with increasing the square of current / square of wall radius because of the temperature distribution which is derived from the current density at the simulation.

  9. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  10. A Wider Notion of the Scope of Water Services in EU Water LawBoosting Payment for Water-Related Ecosystem Services to Ensure Sustainable Water Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E. Lindhout

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The services ecosystems on the Earth providing for mankind, like the provision of (clean water for drinking and other purposes, are under pressure. Payment for (water-related ecosystem services, incentive pricing policies and the recovery of service costs are instruments to attain a sustainable use of scarce environmental resources and ecosystems. Although the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, whose purpose explicitly includes striving for sustainable water use, includes an obligation to recover the costs of water services, the scope of application of this obligation depends on the width of the interpretation of 'water services' in the WFD. If 'water services' are interpreted broadly, the WFD embraces the concept of payment for water-related ecosystem services, but raises a number of questions that need to be addressed.

  11. Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Haiping

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water samples (N = 228) from domestic tube wells (DTWs) and seven samples from public water supply wells (PWSWs) were collected and tested in Hailun, northeast China. The percentage of samples with nitrate and ammonia concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate, 10 mg N/L, and the maximum ensure concentration of ammonia, 1.5 mg/L, for the DTWs were significantly higher than for the PWSWs. Of the DTWs, an important observation was that the occurrence of groundwater nitrate contamination was directly related to well tube material with different joint pathways. Nitrate in seamless-tube wells was lower statistically significantly than those in multiple-section-tube wells (p seamless tubes and to dig deep enough according to the depth of groundwater level. Improving the efficiency of chemical fertilizer use would also reduce the risk of groundwater contamination. PMID:23505772

  12. Gender Relations and Access to Water: What We Want to Know About Social Relations and Women's Time Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Jessica; Crow, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Inadequate access to safe water has severe consequences for health and livelihood. More than one billion people do not have access to safe water. This paper addresses three questions: 1) How could a focus on social relations illuminate access to water? 2) Is there statistical evidence of a water-poverty connection? 3) How could time allocation studies improve our understanding of access to water? First, evidence suggests that in much of the rural global South, gender relations in particular...

  13. Water Adsorption and Surface Acidity of Nano-Ball Allophane as Affected by Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayoon Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of heat treatment on the water adsorption and surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio under different relative humidities (RHs was studied. The water vapor adsorption of two allophane samples under various relative humidities, decreased with preheating treatment up to 400 °C for 2 h. The decrease in water adsorption at monolayer level (RH≤0.45 was greater for KnP sample than for KyP sample, whereas the decrease in water adsorption due to capillary condensation between allophane unit particles (RH≥0.6 was greater for KyP sample. These indicate that allophane hollow spherical particles in KyP sample were directly connected each other with the preheating, but those in KnP sample were not. Heat treatment caused the enhancement in the surface acidity of nano-ball allophane samples. The enhancement in the surface acidity after heat treatment is attributed to the inductive effect on the Si-OH groups present at the pore region of the hollow sphere. The results showed that surface acidity of the allophane with higher Si/Al ratio (KnP was stronger than the (KyP sample having lower Si/Al ratio. This trend was observed under RH between 0 and 75%; then the acid strength for the two samples was the same at RH of 98%. After the heat treatment at lower level of RH, the surface acidity of KnP was higher than KyP. The presence of polymerized silicate tails exposed outside of hollow spherical allophane particles (KnP, causes the enhancement of the BrØnsted acidity and also prevent direct connection between the particles after heating.

  14. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. PMID:26204047

  15. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  16. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  17. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  18. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  19. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Kinner, D.A.; Ubeda, X.

    2009-01-01

    Heat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kf and (2) sorptivity, S(??i), as a function of initial soil moisture content, ??i, ranging from extremely dry conditions (??i water repellency that influences Kf and S(??i). Values of Kf ranged from 4.5 ?? 10-3 to 53 ?? 10-3 cm s-1 for ash; from 0.93 ?? 10-3 to 130 ?? 10-3 cm s-1 for reference soils; and from 0.86 ?? 10-3 to 3.0 ?? 10-3 cm s-1, for soil unaffected by fire, which had the lowest values of Kf. Measurements indicated that S(??i) could be represented by an empirical non-linear function of ??i with a sorptivity maximum of 0.18-0.20 cm s-0.5, between 0.03 and 0.08 cm3 cm-3. This functional form differs from the monotonically decreasing non-linear functions often used to represent S(??i) for rainfall-runoff modeling. The sorptivity maximum may represent the combined effects of gravity, capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of Kf and S(??i) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall-runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These modified models can be used to predict floods from burned watersheds under these initial conditions.

  20. Dyadic Affective Flexibility and Emotional Inertia in Relation to Youth Psychopathology: An Integrated Model at Two Timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Kathryn J; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    The current review examines characteristics of temporal affective functioning at both the individual and dyadic level. Specifically, the review examines the following three research questions: (1) How are dyadic affective flexibility and emotional inertia operationalized, and are they related to youth psychopathology? (2) How are dyadic affective flexibility and emotional inertia related, and does this relation occur at micro- and meso-timescales? and (3) How do these constructs combine to predict clinical outcomes? Using the Flex3 model of socioemotional flexibility as a frame, the current study proposes that dyadic affective flexibility and emotional inertia are bidirectionally related at micro- and meso-timescales, which yields psychopathological symptoms for youth. Specific future directions for examining individual, dyadic, and cultural characteristics that may influence relations between these constructs and psychopathology are also discussed. PMID:26951560

  1. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Marmot, M.

    2005-01-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed b...

  2. Global hydrobelts: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meybeck

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Questions related to water such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions at the global scale. They are reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of the hydroclimate and the natural boundaries of the river basins. Here, we describe the continental landmasses according to eight global-scale hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30′ (0.5° resolution. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T and runoff (q, to maximise interbelt differences and minimise intrabelt variability. The belts were further divided into 29 hydroregions based on continental limits.

    This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The Mid-Latitude, Dry and Subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The Boreal and Equatorial belts are unique. The hydroregions (median size 4.7 Mkm2 contrast strongly, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr−1 and the average T between −9.7 and +26.3 °C.

    Unlike the hydroclimate, the population density between the North and South belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. The population density ranges from 0.7 to 0.8 p km−2 for the North American Boreal and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km−2 for the Asian part of the Northern Mid-Latitude belt. The combination of population densities and hydroclimate features results in very specific expressions of water-related

  3. Stress-related serotonergic systems: implications for symptomatology of anxiety and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex have a functional topographic organization. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of a bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-dorsal raphe nucleus pathway by stress- and anxiety-related stimuli modulates a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD) and caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) that participates in facilitation of anxiety-like responses. In contrast, recent studies suggest that activation of a spinoparabrachial pathway by peripheral thermal or immune stimuli excites subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus/ventrolateral periaqueducal gray (DRVL/VLPAG) region and interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI). Studies support a role for serotonergic neurons in the DRVL/VLPAG in inhibition of panic-like responses, and serotonergic neurons in the DRI in antidepressant-like effects. Thus, data suggest that while some subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in facilitation of anxiety-like responses, others play a role in inhibition of anxiety- or panic-like responses, while others play a role in antidepressant-like effects. Understanding the anatomical and functional properties of these distinct serotonergic systems may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. In this review, we describe the anatomical and functional properties of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, with a focus on those implicated in symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders, the DRD/DRC, DRVL/VLPAG, and DRI. PMID:22484834

  4. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  5. Study of water radiolysis in relation with the primary cooling circuit of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memorandum shows a fundamental study on the water radiolysis in relation with the cooling primary circuit of PWR type reactors. The water of the primary circuit contains boric acid a soluble neutronic poison and also hydrogen that has for role to inhibit the water decomposition under radiation effect. In the aim to better understand the mechanism of dissolved hydrogen action and to evaluate the impact of several parameters on this mechanism, aqueous solutions with boric acid and hydrogen have been irradiated in a experimental nuclear reactor, at 30, 100 and 200 Celsius degrees. It has been found that, with hydrogen, the water decomposition under irradiation is a threshold phenomenon in function of the ratio between the radiation flux '1' B(n, )'7 Li and the gamma flux. When this ratio become too high, the number of radicals is not sufficient to participate at the chain reaction, and then water is decomposed in O2 and H2O2 in a irreversible way. The temperature has a beneficial part on this mechanism. The iron ion and the copper ion favour the water decomposition. (N.C.)

  6. Effect of parameter choice in root water uptake models – the arrangement of root hydraulic properties within the root architecture affects dynamics and efficiency of root water uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Bechmann, M.; Schneider, C; Carminati, A.; Vetterlein, D.; Attinger, S.; Hildebrandt, A

    2014-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional models of root water uptake have become increasingly popular for investigating the process of root water uptake. However, they suffer from a lack of information on important parameters, particularly on the spatial distribution of root axial and radial conductivities, which vary greatly along a root system. In this paper we explore how the arrangement of those root hydraulic properties and branching within the root system affects modelled uptake dynamics, xylem water...

  7. For love or money? How activation of relational versus instrumental concerns affects reactions to decision-making procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Tomas; Vermunt, Riël; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how the direct activation of relational versus instrumental concerns affects reactions to decisions made by an authority. It is demonstrated that when instrumental concerns are experimentally induced, people's evaluations of the authority (Studies 1 and 2) as well as their intentions to protest (Study 3) are more strongly affected by how the procedures used by the authority affect anticipated outcomes (i.e., whether procedures are favorably or unfavorably inaccurate) than when ...

  8. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A. [University of New Brunswick, St John, NB (Canada). Canadian Rivers Institute

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  9. Analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in fish and the fresh water bodies directly affected by reclaimed water using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Gardinali, Piero R

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method for the analysis of 11 target pharmaceuticals representing multiple commonly used therapeutic classes was developed for biological tissues (fish), reclaimed water, and the surface water directly affected by irrigation with reclaimed water. One gram of fish tissue homogenate was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with methylene chloride followed by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to previously reported methods, the protocol produces cleaner extracts resulting in lower method detection limits. Similarly, an SPE method based on Oasis HLB cartridges was used to concentrate and cleanup reclaimed and surface water samples. Among the 11 target compounds analyzed, trimethoprim, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, carbamazepine, erythromycin, and fluoxetine were consistently detected in reclaimed water. Caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine were consistently detected in fish and surface water samples. Bioaccumulation factors for caffeine, diphenhydramine, and carbamazepine in mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) were calculated at 29 ± 26, 821 ± 422, and 108 ± 144, respectively. This is the first report of potential accumulation of caffeine in fish from a water body directly influenced by reclaimed water. Figure The pharmaceuticals detected in reclaimed water and the fresh water directly affected by reclaimed water. PMID:22678759

  10. Ammonium in thermal waters of Yellowstone National Park: processes affecting speciation and isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Böhlke, J.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Ball, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen, largely in reduced form (NH4(T)≈NH4(aq)++NH3(aq)o), has been documented in thermal waters throughout Yellowstone National Park, with concentrations ranging from a few micromolar along the Firehole River to millimolar concentrations at Washburn Hot Springs. Indirect evidence from rock nitrogen analyses and previous work on organic compounds associated with Washburn Hot Springs and the Mirror Plateau indicate multiple sources for thermal water NH4(T), including Mesozoic marine sedimentary rocks, Eocene lacustrine deposits, and glacial deposits. A positive correlation between NH4(T) concentration and δ18O of thermal water indicates that boiling is an important mechanism for increasing concentrations of NH4(T) and other solutes in some areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved NH4(T) is highly variable (δ15N = −6‰ to +30‰) and is positively correlated with pH values. In comparison to likely δ15N values of nitrogen source materials (+1‰ to +7‰), high δ15N values in hot springs with pH >5 are attributed to isotope fractionation associated with NH3(aq)o loss by volatilization. NH4(T) in springs with low pH typically is relatively unfractionated, except for some acid springs with negative δ15N values that are attributed to NH3(g)o condensation. NH4(T) concentration and isotopic variations were evident spatially (between springs) and temporally (in individual springs). These variations are likely to be reflected in biomass and sediments associated with the hot springs and outflows. Elevated NH4(T) concentrations can persist for 10s to 1000s of meters in surface waters draining hot spring areas before being completely assimilated or oxidized.

  11. Drought Stress Effects on Water Relations of Rice Grown in Nutrient Film Technique

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Halder; S. W Burrage

    2003-01-01

    Rice plants grown in nutrient film technique (NFT) to evaluate the effect of intermittent water stress on water relations, transpiration rate and leaf temperature. It was observed that the total water uptake by the plant, leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential and rate of transpiration were decreased with increasing water stress. The transpiration rate was also decreased with increasing water stress but the leaf temperature increased. There was a positive correlation between ...

  12. Power to Punish Norm Violations Affects the Neural Processes of Fairness-Related Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Guo, Xiuyan; Wang, Qianfeng; Lord, Anton; Hu, Zengxi; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people's responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the impunity game (IG), was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder's income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people's behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process. PMID:26696858

  13. Power to punish norm violations affects the neural processes of fairness-related decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG. The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people’s responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the Impunity Game (IG, was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder’s income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people’s behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  14. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Silerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Skanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

  15. Substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for univeristies students with muscular skeletal apparatuse affections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qiang San.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for universities students, who have disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: in experimental researches 126 students of 18-24 years’ age, having disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus, participated. With the help of testing we registered changes of students’ functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness indicators. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non specific loads was found: 60% of specific and 40% of non specific. It is recommended to follow certain correlation of exercises in easy and complicated conditions: for first year students - 3:2; for second year students - 3:2; for third year - 2:3; for forth year - 2:3; for fifth year students - 1:3. Specific only for power lifting conditions and temps of students’ (with muscular skeletal apparatus affections functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness improvement were determined. Conclusions: The requirements of the training methodic envisage correction of loads for bringing every indicator on proper level.

  16. Book of Abstracts of the XII Portuguese-Spanish Symposium on Plant Water Relations (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Renato R. P.; Vaz, Margarida M.

    2014-01-01

    Contents PLENARY CONFERENCES AND THEMATIC CONFERENCES Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Adaptation to Drought Water Relations in the Irrigation Scheduling of Olive Orchards Physiological Limits for Plant-Based Water Stress Indicators Water Use in Montado Ecosystems Hydrological, Engineering and Physiological Approaches to Water Conservation From Leaf to Whole Plant Water Use Efficiency: Solving the Gaps Efficient Use of Water Under Mediterranean Conditions: Agronomic Too...

  17. Study of how hydrological conditions affect the propagation of pseudorandom signals from the shelf in deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, Yu. N.; Bezotvetnykh, V. V.; Burenin, A. V.; Voitenko, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    The paper examines how hydrological conditions affect manifestation of the acoustic "landslide" effect, which consists in focusing of acoustic energy in the near-bottom layer on the shelf and its transition to the axis of an underwater sound channel in deep water. We compare the results of experiments performed in the Sea of Japan in April 2014 and August 2006 on the same acoustic track, where the distance between corresponding points was more than 100 km. In April, the hydrological conditions in the shelf region of the track and in the upper layer of the deep-water part of the sea were characterized by the presence of a relatively weak (~0.35 s-1) negative vertical sound velocity gradient, whereas in August 2006, it was ~1.5 s-1. Experimental and numerical studies showed that the acoustic landslide effect also manifests itself under conditions of a weak negative sound velocity gradient, but the structure of the acoustic field trapped by the underwater sound channel has a more complex character with a time-expanded pulse characteristic. Nevertheless, its ordered, stable, and well-identified structure at all track points chosen for measurements make it possible to reliably create an efficient (with accuracies to hundredths of a percent) underwater navigation systems like GLONASS and GPS for the spring hydrology season.

  18. Hydrographic processes driven by seasonal monsoon system affect siphonophore assemblages in tropical-subtropical waters (western North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tseng Lo

    Full Text Available This work is a part of the Taiwan Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation, the first large scale hydrographic and plankton survey around Taiwan (21-26°N, 119-123°E. The present study examined the influence of hydrodynamic and biological variables driven by monsoon system on the siphonophore assemblages through an annual cycle in 2004. Calycophorans, namely Chelophyes appendiculata, Diphyes chamissonis, Lensia subtiloides, Bassia bassensis, and Muggiaea atlantica, were the most dominant siphonophore species. Maximum abundance of these dominant species generally occurred during the warm period (May and August, while M. atlantica had a significantly peak abundance in February. Although no apparently temporal difference in siphonophore abundance was observed in the study, siphonophore assemblage was more diverse in August than in other sampling times. Result of a cluster analysis indicated that assemblage structure of siphonophores in the waters around Taiwan varied at temporal and spatial scales during the sampling period. The intrusions of the Kuroshio Branch Current and China Coastal Current to the study area play an important role on the transportation of siphonophores. Also, the distribution of siphonophore assemblage was closely related to the hydrographic characteristics, with temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, and zooplankton abundance being the major environmental factors affecting the spatio-temporal variability of siphonophores. This study contributes substantially to the new knowledge of the siphonophore assemblage in the tropical-temperate waters of Taiwan.

  19. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions as Affected by Water, Soil and Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zheng-Qin; XING Guang-Xi; ZHU Zhao-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Specific management of water regimes,soil and N in China might play an important role in regulating N2O and CH4 emissions in rice fields.Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from alternate non-flooded/flooded paddies were monitored simultaneously during a 516-day incubation with lysimeter experiments.Two N sources (15N-(NH4)2SO4 and 15N-labeled milk vetch)were applied to two contrasting paddies:one derived from Xiashu loess(Loess)and one from Quaternary red clay(Clay).Both N2O and CH4 emissions were significantly higher in soil Clay than in soil Loess during the flooded period.For both soil,N2O emissions peaked at the transition periods shortly after the beginning of the flooded and non-flooded seasons.Soil type affected N2O emission patterns.In soil Clay,the emission peak during the transition period from non-flooded to flooded conditions was much higher than the peak during the transition period from flooded to non-flooded conditions.In soil Loess,the emission peak during the transition period from flooded to non-flooded conditions was obviously higher than the peak during the transition period from non-flooded to flooded conditions except for milk vetch treatment.Soil type also had a significant effect on CH4 emissions during the flooded season,over which the weighted average flux was 111 mg C m-2 h-1 and 2.2 mg C m-2 h-1 from Clay and Loess,respectively.Results indicated that it was the transition in the water regime that dominated N2O emissions while it was the soil type that dominated CH4 emissions during the flooded season.Anaerobic oxidation of methane possibly existed in soil Loess during the flooded season.

  20. Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

    2013-05-21

    Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (<2 ppm). The additional chromatographic resolution allowed for separation of various isomers and interference-free MS(n) experiments. Overall, ∼3000 elemental compositions were revealed in each OSPW sample, corresponding to a range of heteroatom-containing homologue classes: Ox (where x = 1-6), NOx (where x = 1-4), SOx (where x = 1-4), NO₂S, N, and S. Despite similarities between the OSPW samples at the level of heteroatom class, the two samples were very different when considering isomer patterns and double-bond equivalent profiles. The chromatographic separations also allowed for confirmation that, in both OSPW samples, the O₂ species detected in ESI(-) (i.e., naphthenic acids) were chemically distinct from the corresponding O₂ species detected in ESI(+). In comparison to model compounds, tandem MS spectra of these new O₂ species suggested a group of non-acidic compounds with dihydroxy, diketo, or ketohydroxy functionality. In light of the known endocrine-disrupting potential of sm-OSPW, the toxicity of these O₂ species deserves attention and the method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region. PMID:23607765

  1. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Bing; Zhang Xu; Yan Ni; Chen Shengliang; Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli ...

  2. Water quality of a reservoir as affected by agriculture in the east of Thailand: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmanee, N; Wada, H

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study on the water quality of a reservoir, affected by agriculture, in the east of Thailand was conducted during 1996-1997. Monitoring water quality of a reservoir is important because the sloping lands surrounding the reservoirs are mainly utilized for cultivating cash crops (pineapple, cassava, etc). A lot of fertilizers and agrochemicals were applied to soil and crops which can polluted the water. The results from the preliminary studied will be applied for the monitoring of the water quality in other reservoirs in the 16 pilot areas. PMID:11724479

  3. 78 FR 46365 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Participation Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR 7763, February... Bureau of Reclamation Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related... FR 11954, April 13, 1987 (43 CFR 426.22), Reclamation will publish notice of proposed or...

  4. 78 FR 27256 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Participation Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR 7763, February... Bureau of Reclamation Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related...(f) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 and the rules and regulations published in 52 FR...

  5. 78 FR 72109 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Participation Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR 7763, February... Bureau of Reclamation Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related... FR 11954, April 13, 1987 (43 CFR 426.22), Reclamation will publish notice of proposed or...

  6. 78 FR 72111 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Public Participation Procedures'' for water resource-related contract negotiations, published in 47 FR... Bureau of Reclamation Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related... in 52 FR 11954, April 13, 1987 (43 CFR 426.22), Reclamation will publish notice of proposed...

  7. Oxidation of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water by Potassium Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjin; Klamerth, Nikolaus; Huang, Rongfu; Elnakar, Haitham; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-04-19

    This paper investigates the oxidation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) by potassium ferrate(VI). Due to the selectivity of ferrate(VI) oxidation, two-ring and three-ring fluorescing aromatics were preferentially removed at doses removed only at doses ≥100 mg/L Fe(VI). Ferrate(VI) oxidation achieved 64.0% and 78.4% removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) at the dose of 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L Fe(VI) respectively, and NAs with high carbon number and ring number were removed preferentially. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra indicated that the oxidation of fluorescing aromatics resulted in the opening of some aromatic rings. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis detected signals of organic radical intermediates, indicating that one-electron transfer is one of the probable mechanisms in the oxidation of NAs. The inhibition effect of OSPW on Vibrio fischeri and the toxicity effect on goldfish primary kidney macrophages (PKMs) were both reduced after ferrate(VI) oxidation. The fluorescing aromatics in OSPW were proposed to be an important contributor to this acute toxicity. Degradation of model compounds with ferrate(VI) was also investigated and the results confirmed our findings in OSPW study. PMID:27008571

  8. Tritium in surface water affected by nuclear facilities, July 1973--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface waters at 55 locations in the United States are currently being monitored for tritium as part of EPA's Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). The program is operated by the Office of Radiation Program's Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF) in Montgomery, Alabama. Sites covered include downstream locations from all of the nuclear power plants scheduled to become operational by 1978 as well as various AEC--ERDA facilities and national laboratories. This program was designed to provide ambient tritium concentrations as affected by various nuclear facilities. Without the contribution from these sources, activity levels resulting from fallout and cosmic radiation would probably be below normal detection limits of 0.2 nCi/l in most cases. Approximately 70% of the stations have detectable activity concentrations. The most significant influences noted by this monitoring system have been samples collected from (1) the Clinch River in Kingston, Tennessee, attributed to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, (2) the Savannah River in Allendale, South Carolina, attributed to the Savannah River Plant, (3) Lake Robinson at Hartsville, South Carolina, attributed to the H.B. Robinson Nuclear Power Plant, and (4) Humboldt Bay in Eureka, California, attributed to the Humboldt Bay Power Plant. Even at these locations estimated dose equivalents to the population have not exceeded one percent of the Radiation Protection Guide of 170 mrem/year for an average population dose. Data collected from these stations from July 1973 to July 1975 are summarized

  9. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time.  The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.

  10. Mercury Photolytic Transformation Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Natural Organics in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Feng [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms by which dissolved organic matter (DOM) mediates the photochemical reduction of Hg(II) in aquatic ecosystems are not fully understood, owing to the heterogeneous nature and complex structural properties of DOM. In this work, naturally occurring aromatic compounds including salicylic, 4-hydrobenzoic, anthranilic, 4-aminobenzoic, and phthalic acid were systematically studied as surrogates for DOM in order to gain an improved mechanistic understanding of these compounds in the photoreduction of Hg(II) in water. We show that the photoreduction rates of Hg(II) are influenced not only by the substituent functional groups such as OH, NH2 and COOH on the benzene ring, but also the positioning of these functional groups on the ring structure. The Hg(II) photoreduction rate decreases in the order anthranilic acid > salicylic acid > phthalic acid according to the presence of the NH2, OH, COOH functional groups on benzoic acid. The substitution position of the functional groups affects reduction rates in the order anthranilic acid > 4-aminobenzoic acid and salicylic acid > 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Reduction rates correlate strongly with ultraviolet (UV) absorption of these compounds and their concentrations, suggesting that the formation of organic free radicals during photolysis of these compounds is responsible for Hg(II) photoreduction. These results provide insight into the role of low-molecular-weight organic compounds and possibly DOM in Hg photoredox transformation and may thus have important implications for understanding Hg geochemical cycling in the environment.

  11. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment. PMID:26539710

  12. Membrane fouling mechanism transition in relation to feed water composition

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2014-12-01

    The impact of secondary effluent wastewater from the Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP), Melbourne, Australia, before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, on hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) and hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fouling was studied. Laboratory fouling tests were operated over 3-5 days with regular, intermittent backwash. During the filtration with PP membranes, organic rejection data indicated that humic adsorption on hydrophobic PP membrane occurred during the first 24h of filtration and contributed to fouling for both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. However, after the first 24h of filtration the contribution of humic substances to fouling diminished and biopolymers that contribute to cake layer development became more prominent in their contribution to the fouling rate. For PVDF membranes, the per cent removal of humic substances from both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters was very small as indicated by no change in UV254 from the feed to the permeate over the filtration period, even during the early stages of filtration. This suggested that the hydrophobic PP membrane adsorbed humic substances while the hydrophilic PVDF membrane did not. The highest mass of biopolymer removal by each PVDF membrane was from ETP water followed by PACl and IX treated water respectively. This was possibly due to differences in the backwashing efficiency linked to the filter cake contributed by biopolymers. Hydraulic backwashing was more effective during the later stages of filtration for the ETP water compared to IX and PACl treated waters, indicating that the filter cake contributed by ETP biopolymers was more extensively removed by hydraulic backwashing. It was proposed that humic substances may act to stabilise biopolymers in solution and that removing humics substances by coagulation or IX results in greater adhesive forces between the biopolymers and membrane/filter cake

  13. Increased Insensible Water Loss Contributes to Aging Related Dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrieva, Natalia I.; Burg, Maurice B.

    2011-01-01

    Dehydration with aging is attributed to decreased urine concentrating ability and thirst. We further investigated by comparing urine concentration and water balance in 3, 18 and 27 month old mice, consuming equal amounts of water. During water restriction, 3 month old mice concentrate their urine sufficiently to maintain water balance (stable weight). 18 month old mice concentrate their urine as well, but still lose weight (negative water balance). 27 month old mice do not concentrate their u...

  14. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina seedlings exposed to flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Polanco Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi K. Koch produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack

  15. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, N

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In this research, therefore, the development of an appropriate technology for an As-free, safe drinking water supply is considered from a local perspective and a societal context. To achieve the goal a...

  16. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Cunjak, Richard A; Arp, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (approximately 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species. They also suggest that striders may be more appropriate as a terrestrial rather than an aquatic Hg sentinel, underscoring the importance of understanding the origin of food for organisms used in contaminant studies. PMID:19215185

  17. Ethics of the Profession of Public Relations – Does the Public Relations Affects on Journalism in Croatia?

    OpenAIRE

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    The UK's leading professional body for public relations »Chartered Institute of Public Relations« (CIPR)1 said that the public relations is about reputation – they are the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you. Furthermore CIPR says that public relations are discipline whose objectives are safeguarding reputation, establishing understanding and pot pores, and the impact on the thinking and behavior of the public. Although the primary goal of public rela...

  18. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin. PMID:25796880

  19. Event-related rTMS at encoding affects differently deep and shallow memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Iglis; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Feurra, Matteo; Polizzotto, Nicola R; Bianco, Giovanni; Cappa, Stefano F; Rossi, Simone

    2010-10-15

    The "level of processing" effect is a classical finding of the experimental psychology of memory. Actually, the depth of information processing at encoding predicts the accuracy of the subsequent episodic memory performance. When the incoming stimuli are analyzed in terms of their meaning (semantic, or deep, encoding), the memory performance is superior with respect to the case in which the same stimuli are analyzed in terms of their perceptual features (shallow encoding). As suggested by previous neuroimaging studies and by some preliminary findings with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the left prefrontal cortex may play a role in semantic processing requiring the allocation of working memory resources. However, it still remains unclear whether deep and shallow encoding share or not the same cortical networks, as well as how these networks contribute to the "level of processing" effect. To investigate the brain areas casually involved in this phenomenon, we applied event-related repetitive TMS (rTMS) during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding of words. Retrieval was subsequently tested without rTMS interference. RTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) abolished the beneficial effect of deep encoding on memory performance, both in terms of accuracy (decrease) and reaction times (increase). Neither accuracy nor reaction times were instead affected by rTMS to the right DLPFC or to an additional control site excluded by the memory process (vertex). The fact that online measures of semantic processing at encoding were unaffected suggests that the detrimental effect on memory performance for semantically encoded items took place in the subsequent consolidation phase. These results highlight the specific causal role of the left DLPFC among the wide left-lateralized cortical network engaged by long-term memory, suggesting that it probably represents a crucial node responsible for the improved memory performance induced by

  20. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  1. Gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Miaoyan; Zhang, Xuan'e; Wang, Haiyan; Tong, Wenxin; Ju, Liping; Gu, Lei; Sun, Siming; Zhang, Hongli; Wang, Weiqing; Tian, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome, in a longitudinal study. Methods and results This longitudinal population-based study was performed in the Ping Liang community, Yangpu district, Shanghai, between November 2002 and October 2014. There were 334 participants with prediabetes enrolled in the final analysis. While a certain proportion of the prediabetic population progress to diabetes, the majority remain at the same level or even revert to normal glucose regulation. No gender difference was observed in the change of glucose regulation. However, results from an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males showed that physical activity was significantly associated with both elevated odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (active vs inactive, OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.09 to 8.30) and developing diabetes (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.92). Age, baseline 2 h glucose, triglycerides and smoking status were also risk factors significantly associated with diabetes development; while for females, waist circumference played a key role in the outcome. Every unit elevation of waist circumference was associated with lower odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and higher odds of progressing to diabetes (OR, 1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). Baseline hypertension and family history of diabetes carried higher risk for developing diabetes as well. Conclusions Physical activity in males and waist circumference in females are important factors predicting both progression to diabetes and regression to normal glucose regulation, indicating that more exercise for males and lower waist circumference for females are beneficial for prediabetes to achieve reversion. PMID:27239315

  2. The Coupled Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Understanding How Clouds Affect the Vertical Distribution and Meridional Transport of Dust and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The dust and water cycles are crucial to the current Martian climate, and they are coupled through cloud formation. Dust strongly impacts the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation, while clouds provide radiative forcing and control the hemispheric exchange of water through the modification of the vertical distributions of water and dust. Recent improvements in the quality and sophistication of both observations and climate models allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how the interaction between the dust and water cycles (through cloud formation) affects the dust and water cycles individually. We focus here on the effects of clouds on the vertical distribution of dust and water, and how those vertical distributions control the net meridional transport of water. For this study, we utilize observations of temperature, dust and water ice from the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) combined with the NASA ARC Mars Global Climate Model (MGCM). We demonstrate that the magnitude and nature of the net meridional transport of water between the northern and southern hemispheres during NH summer is sensitive to the vertical structure of the simulated aphelion cloud belt. We further examine how clouds influence the atmospheric thermal structure and thus the vertical structure of the cloud belt. Our goal is to identify and understand the importance of radiative/dynamic feedbacks due to the physical processes involved with cloud formation and evolution on the current climate of Mars.

  3. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], pemotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect. PMID:27188896

  4. Seasonal water quality variations in a river affected by acid mine drainage: the Odiel River (South West Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to analyse seasonal variations of the quality of the water of the Odiel River. This river, together with the Tinto River, drains the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), a region containing an abundance of massive sulphide deposits. Because of mining activity dating back to prehistoric times, these two rivers are heavily contaminated. The Odiel and Tinto Rivers drain into a shared estuary known as the Ria of Huelva. This work studies dissolved contaminant data in water of the Odiel River collected by various organisations, between October 1980 and October 2002, close to the rivers entry into the estuary. Flow data for this location were also obtained. The most abundant metals in the water, in order of abundance, are zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are also present but in much lower quantities. The quality of the river water is linked to precipitation; the maximum sulphate, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations occur during the autumn rains, which dissolve the Fe hydroxysulphates that were precipitated during the summer months. In winter, the intense rains cause an increase in the river flow, producing a dilution of the contaminants and a slight increase in the pH. During spring and summer, the sulphate and metal concentration (except Fe) recover and once again increase. The Fe concentration pattern displays a low value during summer due to increased precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides. The arsenic concentration displays a different evolution, with maximum values in winter, and minimum in spring and summer as they are strongly adsorbed and/or coprecipitated by the ferric oxyhydroxides. Mn and sulphates are the most conservative species in the water. Relative to sulphate, Mn, Zn and Cd, copper displays greater values in winter and lower ones in summer, probably due to its coprecipitation with hydroxysulphates during the spring and summer months. Cd and Zn also appear to be affected by the same

  5. Urbanization affects water and nitrogen use in the food chain in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, W; Ma, L.(School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China); Zhang, F.S.; Oenema, O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urbanization and agriculture are highly coupled. However, the impacts of urbanization(e.g. transformation in urban and rural population and change in diet) on water and nitrogen (N) use remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to quantify water flows in the food chain of China, to analyze the complex relationship between urbanization and water and N use efficiency, and to project water and N demand in China via various scenarios, using a combination of water footpri...

  6. Regulated deficit irrigation reduces water use of almonds without affecting yield

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, William L; Fulton, Allan E.; Krueger, William H; Lampinen, Bruce D; Shackel, Ken A.

    2011-01-01

    A plant-based regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) experiment in the northern Sacramento Valley determined that crop consumptive water use and irrigation could be reduced without significant detrimental effects on almond production. Tree stress was measured by recording midday stem water potential, a direct measure of tree water stress. With a water stress level of −14 to −18 bars during the hull-split period, average annual water savings were about 5 inches. Over 5 years, no significant yield ...

  7. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  8. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  9. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. - Highlights: • AgNP coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), PVP-AgNP were efficiently assimilated by Lymnaea stagnalis. • Water chemistry has no influence on the dietary uptake of PVP-AgNP by snails. - L. Stagnalis assimilated PVP-AgNPs efficiently from food and water chemistry had no influence on their uptake and toxicity

  10. Temperature and water stress during conditioning and incubation phase affecting Orobanche crenata seed germination and radicle growth

    OpenAIRE

    Moral , Juan; Lozano-Baena, María Dolores; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic plant that is potentially devastating to crop yield of legume species. Soil temperature and humidity are known to affect seed germination, however, the extent of their influence on germination and radicle growth of those of O. crenata is largely unknown. In this work, we studied the effects of temperature, water potential (Ψt) and the type of water stress (matric or osmotic) on O. crenata seeds during conditioning and incubation periods. We found that seed...

  11. Evaluating the relation between psychopathy and affective empathy: two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishner, David A; Vitacco, Michael J; Hong, Phan Y; Mosley, Jennifer; Miska, Kathryn; Stocks, Eric L

    2012-12-01

    It is widely believed that impairment in an ability to experience affective empathy for others is a central feature of psychopathy. The authors tested this assumption by covertly manipulating and measuring state experiences of emotional contagion and empathic concern in college undergraduates and male forensic inpatients. Surprisingly, they found little evidence of a negative association between psychopathy and affective empathy in either sample. In those instances in which associations were found, they tended to indicate that higher psychopathy was associated with increased affective empathy. Follow-up analyses also revealed that psychopathy was positively associated with pervasive experiences of sadness, anger, and fear, and negatively associated with pervasive experiences of happiness among nonforensic individuals. This research raises questions about existing conceptualizations of interpersonal affect in psychopathy and offers suggestions for advancing future understanding of the role-played by emotional processes in psychopathy. PMID:22094599

  12. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    GIAMMARINO, M.; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction. An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territ...

  13. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  14. Sources of organic matter affect depth-related microbial community composition in sediments of Lake Erhai, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment cores taken from different areas of the mesotrophic Lake Erhai were analysed to investigate the vertical distribution of bacterial community composition (BCC, as well as physicochemical parameters. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, stable carbon isotope (δ13C, C/N atomic ratio and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA were used to explore the relationships between the succession of bacterial communities and environmental variables, emphasising changes in the sources of organic matter (OM. The BCC in natural environments was characterised by DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of bands of interest. The CCA revealed that the depth-related variation in sediment bacterial communities in different areas of the lake was significantly influenced by varying environmental factors. The OM source, however, played an important role in structuring BCC at all sites. The DGGE banding patterns revealed that the abundance of Deltaproteobacteria decreased with accompanying elevated levels of C4 plant-derived organic carbon. The sequencing of DGGE bands suggested that the majority of the sequences were affiliated with common phylogenetic groups in lake sediments: Chloroflexi, Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Betaproteobacteria detected in our study appeared as a prominent phylotype in the upper sediment. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of bacterial communities was directly affected by the OM source. Constant OM sources resulted in a stable higher diversity of bacterial communities and broader enzymatic capabilities to access OM. We conclude that the differences in the diversity of bacterial communities in sediments differing in their sources of OM were related to environmental variables (e.g. water level, river runoff and terrestrial vegetation composition. Our study provided insights into the relationships between natural BCC and OM sources, facilitating a better understanding of microbial community structure in

  15. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. PMID:26738981

  16. Carbon dioxide inhalation induces dose-dependent and age-related negative affectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Griez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide inhalation is known to induce an emotion similar to spontaneous panic in Panic Disorder patients. The affective response to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects was not clearly characterized yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-four healthy subjects underwent a double inhalation of four mixtures containing respectively 0, 9, 17.5 and 35% CO(2 in compressed air, following a double blind, cross-over, randomized design. Affective responses were assessed according to DSM IV criteria for panic, using an Electronic Visual Analogue Scale and the Panic Symptom List. It was demonstrated that carbon dioxide challenges induced a dose dependent negative affect (p<0.0001. This affect was semantically identical to the DSM IV definition of panic. Older individuals were subjectively less sensitive to Carbon Dioxide (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CO(2 induced affectivity may lay on a continuum with pathological panic attacks. Consistent with earlier suggestions that panic is a false biological alarm, the affective response to CO(2 may be part of a protective system triggered by suffocation and acute metabolic distress.

  17. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova, T.; Evans, M.; Chernopiatko, A; Couch, Y.; Costa-Nunes, J; Cespuglio, R.; Chesson, L; Vignisse, J; Steinbusch, HW; Anthony, DC; Pomytkin, I; Lesch, KP.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depres...

  18. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  19. Effects of oil sands related aquatic reclamation on yellow perch (Perca flavescens). 2. Chemical and biochemical indicators of exposure to oil sands related waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact that oil sands related waters may have on aquatic ecosystems and fish was examined. Regardless of the oil sands tailing reclamation method, the quality of surface waters will be affected by elevated salinity and organic acids as well as by increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study determined that since surface waters will eventually impact on fish, it would be useful to have a suite of biochemical and chemical indicators of exposure to families of compounds associated with oil sands related waters. Two indicators, mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity and bile PAH equivalent concentration are frequently used to quantify exposure of fishes to petroleum hydrocarbons. Adult yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds containing oil sands related waters. After 5 and 11 months, the usefulness of MFO enzymes, conjugation enzymes, bile PAH metabolite concentrations and plasma steroid hormones in yellow perch were examined. The potential of these biochemical and chemical endpoints as predictive indicators of physiological and population-level impacts was examined. It was shown that MFO activity and bile PAH equivalents were good indicators of exposure to oil sands related waters, but they were not predictive of physiological endpoints. This suggests that physiological endpoints were influenced by ecological and not chemical factors. 28 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Booij, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water

  1. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KlausNüsslein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  2. Compromised development and survival in amphibians in reclaimed wetlands' water containing oil sands process-affected material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When closing a mine, operators must comply with government regulations to ensure that the sites are ecologically sustainable to support endemic flora and fauna. Creating wetlands in order to age and detoxify oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) is a common reclamation strategy. In this study, amphibians indigenous to the boreal forest ecosystem were examined to determine if they can complete their lifecycle in water from reclaimed wetlands. Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) eggs were collected from a natural pond 60 km south of an oil sand mining site. Tadpoles were raised in 1 of 6 water treatments refreshed every two days. The 2 reference water treatments included aged tap water and water from natural wetlands. The remaining 4 water treatments were from research wetlands on Syncrude and Suncor lease sites. Of the 120 tadpoles raised per water treatment, there was no significant difference in growth, development, or survival rates between the aged tap water and reference wetland water, but the fastest growth, development, and highest survival rates occurred in the two reference groups. There was a pronounced difference among the 4 treatment groups from Suncor and Syncrude reclamation sites. Survival was high in 3 of the water treatments from Syncrude and Suncor sites, but development rates were considerably reduced. Tadpoles that do not metamorphose before winter do not survive. It was therefore concluded that delayed development in tadpoles poses a serious risk to population stability in OSPM-containing wetlands.

  3. Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits. III. The effect of marker polymorphism on analysis of affected relative pairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, N

    1990-01-01

    The results from the second paper of this series are reexamined for markers that are not completely polymorphic. A maximum lod score (MLS) criterion is defined for affected relative pairs. The expected MLS (EMLS) is calculated as a function of the marker polymorphic information content (PIC) for various values of lambda R (relative risk ratio) and different relative types by using simulations. An m-allele model with equal allele frequencies is employed. The EMLS is calculated for two sampling...

  4. The role of C:N:P stoichiometry in affecting denitrification in sediments from agricultural surface and tile-water wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebliunas, Brian D; Perry, William L

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient stoichiometry within a wetland is affected by the surrounding land use, and may play a significant role in the removal of nitrate (NO3-N). Tile-drained, agricultural watersheds experience high seasonal inputs of NO3-N, but low phosphorus (PO4-P) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads relative to surface water dominated systems. This difference may present stoichiometric conditions that limit denitrification within receiving waterways. We investigated how C:N:P ratios affected denitrification rates of sediments from tile-drained mitigation wetlands incubated for: 0, 5, 10, and 20 days. We then tested whether denitrification rates of sediments from surface-water and tile-drained wetlands responded differently to C:N ratios of 2:1 versus 4:1. Ratios of C:N:P (P maintenance of anaerobic conditions, the availability of labile DOC is playing an important limiting role in sediment denitrification within mitigation wetlands. PMID:27064357

  5. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959

  6. Microbial water quality in streams as affected by high flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom sediments in surface water sources were shown to serve as reservoirs of pathogen and indicator microorganisms. Resuspension of these sediments during the high flow events strongly modifies microbial quality of recreation and irrigation waters. Therefore, changes in microbial water quality are...

  7. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Soda, M.; Boer, M.P.; Bagheri, H.; Hanhart, C.J.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adap

  8. Water treatment residuals and biosolids co-applications affect phosphatases in a semi-arid rangeland soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosolids and water treatment residuals (WTR) land co-application has not been extensively studied, but may be beneficial by sorbing excess biosolids-borne or soil P onto WTR, reducing the likelihood of off-site movement. Reduction of excess soil P may affect the role of specific P-cleaving enzymes...

  9. Relating water absorption features to soil moisture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Philpot, William D.

    2015-09-01

    The spectral reflectance of a sample of quartz sand was monitored as the sample progressed from air-dry to fully saturated, and then back to air-dry. Wetting was accomplished by spraying small amounts of water on the surface of the sample, and collecting spectra whenever change occurred. Drying was passive, driven by evaporation from the sand surface, with spectra collected every 5 minutes until the sample was air dry. Water content was determined by monitoring the weight of the sample through both wetting and drying. There was a pronounced difference in the pattern of change in reflectance during wetting and drying, with the differences being apparent both in spectral details (i.e., the depth of absorption bands) and in the magnitude of the reflectance for a particular water content. The differences are attributable to the disposition of water in the sample. During wetting, water initially occurred only on the surface, primarily as water adsorbed onto sand particles. With increased wetting the water infiltrated deeper into the sample, gradually covering all particles and filling the pore spaces. During drying, water and air were distributed throughout the sample for most of the drying period. The differences in water distribution are assumed to be the cause of the differences in reflectance and to the differences in the depths of four strong water absorption bands.

  10. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Study on water loss of the surface stream affected by longwall mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S.Peng

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the effect of longwalI mining on suface stream water,monitoring stations of water flow rate was established.A lot of water flowing data were collected before,during and after longwall mining.Based on monitoring data,the effects of longwall mining on surface stream water were analyzed.The results demonstrate that longwall mining has effects on the surface stream water:and the stream water would be lost and decrease due to longwall mining but never go into underground through fractured zone.Also.the mechanism of water loss due to longwall mining was presented.The stream water can go into the surface cracks in the intersection of stream and surface cracks.longwall mining subsidence can change the surface stream slope and the downstream water flowing status.The results also show the effects of longwall mining on stream water are temporary and about one or two years later,surface stream water can be recovered.

  12. Designing the Monitoring of Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals Based on Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to collective action and targeted interventions at global, regional, and national scales. Existing monitoring and data infrastructures are inadequate for producing the variety of environmental and socioeconomic information needed to ensure efficient and effective outcomes across the range of interlinked SDGs and targets. The scientific community needs to take a lead in developing new tools and approaches that, at reasonable cost, provide monitoring data of sufficient quality and spatial and temporal coverage to support informed decision making by diverse stakeholders. The expanded SDGs related to water offer the opportunity to explore potential new monitoring approaches and data system architectures in a key sector, building on existing water monitoring capabilities and incorporating new technologies and methods. Since additional investments in monitoring will undoubtedly be limited, it is important to assess carefully the value of information produced by different options and their associated risks and tradeoffs. We review here the existing set of water monitoring systems, known gaps and limitations, stakeholder inputs on data needs, and the potential value of information in light of alternative water sector interventions. Of particular interest are opportunities to share investments in monitoring across sectors and stakeholders (e.g., public and private entities) and to identify where incremental improvements in water monitoring could have significant benefits for other SDGs (e.g., related to health, energy, agriculture, and climate change). Value of information is also driven by the numbers of people affected by decisions or able to take advantage of improved data, which implies the need not only to collect and archive data, but also to invest in making data accessible and usable to diverse and geographically dispersed users.

  13. Secondary circuit water chemistry and related problems with SG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necessity for SG feed water and blowdown systems modernization Balakovo NPP steam generators PGV-1000M was identified at Units with VVER-1000 during commissioning separational, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-chemical testings. It was discovered, that in zone of 'hot' header coolant salt concentration (concentration of dissolved salts) was almost 2 times more, than salt concentration in blowdown water. A number of chemical testings was performed to investigate and optimize salts distribution in water volume of PGV-1000. (R.P.)

  14. Sublethal effects of aged oil sands-affected water on white sucker (Catostomus commersonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Collin J; Hogan, Natacha S; Kavanagh, Richard J; Mercer, Angella G; Kraak, Glen J Van Der; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    To investigate impacts of proposed oil sands aquatic reclamation techniques on benthic fish, white sucker (Catostomus commersonii Lacépède, 1803) were stocked in 2 experimental ponds-Demonstration Pond, containing aged fine tailings capped with fresh water, consistent with proposed end-pit lake designs, and South Bison Pond, containing aged unextracted oil sands material-to examine the effects of unmodified hydrocarbons. White sucker were stocked from a nearby reservoir at both sites in May 2010 and sampled 4 mo later to measure indicators of energy storage and utilization. Comparisons were then made with the source population and 2 reference lakes in the region. After exposure to aged tailings, white sucker had smaller testes and ovaries and reduced growth compared with the source population. Fish introduced to aged unextracted oil sands material showed an increase in growth over the same period. Limited available energy, endocrine disruption, and chronic stress likely contributed to the effects observed, corresponding to elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids, aromatic compounds in bile, and increased CYP1A activity. Because of the chemical and biological complexity of these systems, direct cause-effect relationships could not be identified; however, effects were associated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and high pH. Impacts on growth have not been previously observed in pelagic fishes examined in these systems, and may be related to differences in sediment interaction. PMID:25545538

  15. Analysis on mechanism and key factors of surrounding rock instability in deeply inclined roadway affected by argillation and water seepage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Rui; Li Guichen; Zhang Nong; Liu Cong; Wei Yinghao; Zhang Ming

    2015-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of surrounding rocks for deeply inclined roadway affected by argillation and water seepage, a structure model of layer crack plate was established to analyze the shear sliding insta-bility mechanism. Through solid mechanics analysis of anchored surrounding rock with defect from water seepage, combined with numerical analysis for instability mechanism under water seepage in deeply inclined roadway, key factors were proposed. Results show that with increasing height of layer crack plate, lateral buckling critical load value for high wall of the roadway decreases;there is a multi-stage distribution for tensile stress along the anchor bolt with defect under pulling state condition;groundwater seepage seriously affects the strength of surrounding rock of the roadway, to some extent the plastic zone of the high side rises up to 8 m. Finally some support strategies were proposed for the inclined roadway and successfully applied to Haoyuan coal mine in Tiela mining area, western China.

  16. Sugar transport and water relations of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    The A. bisporus fruit body can develop from a 0.5 cm primordium to a 7 cm fruit body within 6 days and it is this rapid growth and expansion which was investigated. The mycelium and fruit body extract water and solutes from the compost and casing soil. Water and solute translocation is thought to occur by osmotically derived pressure driven mass flow whereby the accumulation of the polyol mannitol in the fruit body lowers the water potential and allows for an influx of water which increases t...

  17. Water Resources Council Proposed Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources. Notice of Public Review and Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Services (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of the Federal Register.

    Presented in this notice of a public review and hearing are the proposed Principles and Standards for planning water and related land resources of the United States. Developed by the Water Resources Council pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-80), the purpose is to achieve objectives, determined cooperatively,…

  18. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in f...

  19. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  20. Alcohol affects the emotional mod ulation of cognitive control: An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method

  1. The Relation of Facial Affect Recognition and Empathy to Delinquency in Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Mary B.; Lutjemeier, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Associations among facial affect recognition, empathy, and self-reported delinquency were studied in a sample of 29 male youth offenders at a probation placement facility. Youth offenders were asked to recognize facial expressions of emotions from adult faces, child faces, and cartoon faces. Youth offenders also responded to a series of statements…

  2. Perceived Instructor Affective Support in Relation to Academic Emotions and Motivation in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations among perceived instructor affective support, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, behavioural engagement and academic help seeking in college classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 277 college students enrolled in a teacher training department of a major…

  3. Redefining a Bizarre Situation: Relative Concept Stability in Affect Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    I analyze the process by which we react cognitively to information that contradicts our culturally held sentiments in the context of affect control theory. When bizarre, unanticipated events come to our attention and we have no opportunity to act so as to alter them, we must reidentify at least one event component: the actor, the behavior, or the…

  4. 9-year old pupils’ self-related affect regarding mathematics: a comparison between Finland and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohilampi, Laura; Hannula, Markku S.; Varas, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    In the field of mathematics-related affect research, not many comparisons have been done with regard to Western-Latin countries. This article reports the state of 9-year old pupils’ self-related affect with respect to mathematics in two countries, i.e. Finland and Chile. Self-efficacy, mastery goal orientation, effort, and enjoyment of mathematics were under consideration. Through quantitative analysis, it was found that all the factors examined are highly positive in both countries. Howeve...

  5. Assessment of Water and Nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes in soil as affected by irrigation and nutrient management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehaye, Habte; Ceglie, Francesco; Mimiola, Giancarlo; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Many farming practices can result in contamination of groundwater, due to the downward migration of fertilizers and pesticides through the soil profile. The detrimental effects of this contamination are not limited to deterioration of chemical and physical properties of soils and waters, but also constitute a real risk to human and ecosystem health. Groundwater contamination may come from a very large array of chemicals. Nevertheless, on a global scale the main cause of pollution is a high nitrate concentration in the aquifer water. Nitrate concentrations of groundwater have constantly increased during the last decades, and the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers has been implicated as the main causative factor. It is often claimed that nutrient management in organic farming is more environmentally sustainable than its conventional counterpart. It is commonly presumed that organic agriculture causes only minimal environmental pollution. There is scientific evidence that organic management may enhance some soil physical and biological properties. In particular, soil fertility management strategies can affect soil properties and the related hydrological processes. It is thus crucial to quantify and predict management effects on soil properties in order to evaluate the effects of soil type, natural processes such as decomposition of organic matter, irrigation applications and preferential flow on the deep percolation fluxes of water and nitrates to the groundwater. In this study, we measured the water fluxes and the quality of water percolating below the root zone, underlying organic agriculture systems in greenhouse. Specifically, the aim was to examine the effects of application time and type of organic matter in the soil on the nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes under the following three organic soil fertility strategies in greenhouse tomato experiment: i. Organic input Substitution (which will be hereafter denoted SUBST) is represented as typical

  6. HOW THE MARKETING RESEARCH AFFECTS THE IMPROVEMENT IN THE DENTAL DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    Geangu, Petronela Iuliana; GÂRDAN, Daniel Adrian; Iuliana CETINĂ; Elena GURGU

    2010-01-01

    The relation between provider and customer in the services area, mainly medical, represents a fundamental desideratum. This type of relation derives from a two-way involvement of both parts at the entire marketing mix level. The base of new marketing strategies that imply effective relation models can only be built by setting out an ample time related investigation process of the mechanisms pertaining to the customer’s perception of the quality and the coordinates of the relationship with the...

  7. Ecology, Religious Practices and Identities Related to Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia García, Ángeles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts arising around the management of water are frequently resolved through a continuous process of symbolic or material appropriation of those places where the control, distribution and selection of water poses problems. The case of hermitages devoted to the Virgin Mary which serve as a crucial axis for the symbolic resolution of earthly conflicts, as is the case of those related to the administrative borders between neighbouring villages, is a constant. The link between the cult of the Virgin Mary and water shows the existence of more or less explicit interests of a part of the population in using symbolic control to achieve real and material domination through the construction of identity models, both locally and on a wider scale. A certain kind of knowledge is used to generate a social practice which, in turn, is transformed into ideology. Beliefs are thus linked to both economic and ecological factors, as well as to other referents of social organization. The religious practices associated with miraculous springs promote a certain way of thinking: springs, rivers and wells are not exclusively natural objects, rather they are fundamental mental maps of the social and environmental context.

    Los conflictos generados a partir de la gestión sobre el agua se han resuelto mediante un continuado proceso de apropiación simbólica o material de los lugares en los que el control, distribución y selección de las aguas planteaba problemas. La situación de las ermitas marianas como eje de resolución simbólica de conflictos terrenales, como los derivados de los litigios por límites entre pueblos, es una constante reiterada. La vinculación entre culto mariano y agua pone de manifiesto la existencia de intereses más o menos implícitos de una parte de la población que utiliza el dominio de los símbolos como instrumento de dominación real a través de la construcción de modelos identitarios locales o microcomarcales. Un cierto tipo

  8. Factor affecting the properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions for encapsulation of minerals and vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Prichapan; Utai Klinkesorn

    2014-01-01

    The direct fortification of minerals and vitamins into food may induce chemical degradation, change the level of bioavailability or decrease the sensory quality of food products. The strategy to solve these problems is encapsulation technology. Numerous investigations described the use of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions as encapsulation system. The properties and encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsions are influenced by emulsion components, the emulsification processes...

  9. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  10. Do Public Relations and Journalism’s Converging Roles Affect How They Perceive Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Media relations is historically a core activity qualifying public relations from other communication-related professions and is widely practiced in many organizations. Despite the increasing use of digital media to directly communicate with publics, journalists are still key stakeholders for...... organizations. Also communications by organizations have become more and more mediatized and at the same time more and more journalists are switching to a public relations career. Yet, if more journalists are becoming public relations practitioners and more public relations practitioners are adopting...... journalistic working practices, does this change the way these communicators perceive themselves and the other profession? The aim of this study is to provide some insights from a southern, Latin country, Italy, on how Italian public relations practitioners and journalists perceive their and the other...

  11. Feasibility studies in relation to the IMO Ballast Water Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Tamis, J.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    This project is aimed to develop possibilities to overcome the difficulties which arise from the implementation of the Ballast Water Convention (IMO 2004). For this purpose, three feasibility studies have been conducted: assessment of the applicability of small scale test systems; development of protocols for testing active substance residues; risk assessment of ballast water discharge.

  12. Microbial status of irrigation water for vegetables as affected by cultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mehboob

    2014-01-01

    Human pathogens present in irrigation water can be transmitted to plants. Consumption of fruits and vegetables irrigated with pathogen-contaminated water can cause illness in humans. Leafy vegetables that are consumed fresh are particularly prone to cause such illnesses. Understanding the microbiota of irrigation water and its decontamination and introducing some preventative pre-harvest cultural practices can help procure hygienically safe horticultural produce. Variations were found in ...

  13. Aspects of repository storage related to ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstrating the safety of a geologic repository in the post-operations phase requires the detection of releases, if any, of radionuclides as well as organic and inorganic substances on the water path. The Annex to the German Ground Water Ordinance of March 18, 1997 lists those families and groups of substances which may cause detrimental contamination of the ground water or other negative changes in its properties. It was demonstrated in the plans approval procedure of the Konrad repository project that the organic and inorganic substances listed in the Annex and in other pertinent documents will enter the ground water either not at all or in quantities so small and concentrations so low as to preclude any hazard to the ground water. (orig.)

  14. EARLY SENESCENCE1 Encodes a SCAR-LIKE PROTEIN2 That Affects Water Loss in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuchun; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Jie; Li, Xiaojing; Leng, Yujia; Dai, Liping; Huang, Lichao; Shao, Guosheng; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Jiang; Guo, Longbiao; Pan, Jianwei; Zeng, Dali

    2015-10-01

    The global problem of drought threatens agricultural production and constrains the development of sustainable agricultural practices. In plants, excessive water loss causes drought stress and induces early senescence. In this study, we isolated a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, designated as early senescence1 (es1), which exhibits early leaf senescence. The es1-1 leaves undergo water loss at the seedling stage (as reflected by whitening of the leaf margin and wilting) and display early senescence at the three-leaf stage. We used map-based cloning to identify ES1, which encodes a SCAR-LIKE PROTEIN2, a component of the suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous complex involved in actin polymerization and function. The es1-1 mutants exhibited significantly higher stomatal density. This resulted in excessive water loss and accelerated water flow in es1-1, also enhancing the water absorption capacity of the roots and the water transport capacity of the stems as well as promoting the in vivo enrichment of metal ions cotransported with water. The expression of ES1 is higher in the leaves and leaf sheaths than in other tissues, consistent with its role in controlling water loss from leaves. GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN-ES1 fusion proteins were ubiquitously distributed in the cytoplasm of plant cells. Collectively, our data suggest that ES1 is important for regulating water loss in rice. PMID:26243619

  15. Exposure of critical group of population to water radionuclides in area affected by uranium ore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste waters from the uranium industry are decontaminated and then discharged into water courses. Inhabitants of the nearest village on the river form the critical group with regard to radiation burden. The critical radionuclides are Usub(nat), Ra 226, Pb 210 and Po 210 whose concentrations were determined in drinking water, in the water course and in plants watered with water from the river. From obtained data on the consumption of foods of own production and of water for drinking and cooking, a weighted sum was made of the intake of critical radionuclides per year on the conservative assumption that ingestion is the sole form of intake (permissible ingestion under Notice 59/72, Coll. of Laws). Under the said criteria the intake of radionuclides from water and foods of own production is for the critical population group 27 times less than the permissible intake for the population. Decontaminated waste waters from the operation of uranium industries contribute to the radiation burden of the population only negligibly. Radionuclides from the investigated sources represent a minute fraction of permissible intake. (author)

  16. Relation between chlorine with the quality of crude water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine as disinfection agent in drinking water was used widely since it was successfully been practiced in drinking water in Jersey City, 1908. Mostly, water treatment plants in Malaysia were using chlorine as disinfection agent to kill pathogen and contaminated materials that can be dangerous to consumer. Because of chlorine was a strongly disinfection agent, it also can react with another chemical components such as manganese, hydrogen, sulfides, ammonia and phenol in water. These reactions happen very fast, and chlorine will not react as disinfection agent unless all the organic and inorganic substitution presented in water reacts with chlorine. These reactions between components will increase demand of chlorine in water. The demand of chlorine in water must be filled before the free radical chlorine occurred. These free radical chlorine will decay into hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion that so important in disinfection process to kill pathogens and pollutants in water. Most of water treatment plant to maintain free chlorine up to 0.2 mg/ L in distribution system to consumer. These researches involved determination of parameters that can be trusted to react with the chlorine in nine sampling station along Semenyih River and four stations in water treatment plants. These parameters were determined from ammonia, cyanides, sulfides, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese, iron and sum of organic carbons. Overall, these researches concluded that ammonia and sum of organic carbons were the most compounds that react with the chlorine to produce tryhalometane and chloramines. Besides that, the concentration of cyanides compounds, sulfide, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese and iron also decrease after the chlorination process. Results can used to evaluate demanding levels of chlorine in Semenyih River. (author)

  17. Specificities of defense mechanisms in bipolar affective disorder: relations with symptoms and therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Perry, J Christopher; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-09-01

    Defense mechanisms as a central notion of psychoanalysis have inspired various levels of interest in research in psychotherapy and psychopathology. Defense specificities have only recently been investigated systematically with regard to several clinical diagnoses, such as affective and personality disorders. For the present study, 30 inpatients diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder I (BD) were interviewed. An observer-rater method, the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales (DMRS), applied to session-transcripts, of assessment of defenses was used. A matched, nonclinical control group was introduced. Defense specificities in BD encompass a set of 5 immature defenses, of which omnipotence is linked with symptom level. The level of the therapeutic alliance is predicted by mature defenses. These results are discussed with regard to the psychological vulnerability of BD, and treatment implications for psychodynamic psychotherapy with such challenging patients are evoked. PMID:19752647

  18. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  19. Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Toddlers: Differential Relations to Affective Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunato, Christine K.; Dribin, Amy E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study applies a non-invasive and multi-system measurement approach (using salivary analytes) to examine associations between the psychobiology of the stress response and affective behavior in toddlers. Eighty-seven two-year-olds (48 females) participated in laboratory tasks designed to elicit emotions and behavior ranging from pleasure/approach to fear/withdrawal. Saliva samples were collected pre-task and immediately post-task, and assayed for markers of sympathetic nervous system (alph...

  20. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    OpenAIRE

    Roland eDeutsch; Kevin eSmith; Robert eKordts-Freudinger; Regina eReichardt

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990). Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association be...

  1. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfa...

  2. The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta; Magdalena Miernik-Jaeschke,; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The family burden (FB) has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems) and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers’ emotions arising in response to objective difficulties). FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have ...

  3. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15). PMID:26032451

  4. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  5. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mateiu, Ramona V; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  6. Moderate-intensity exercise affects perceived hunger and fullness but not appetite-related hormones in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Kym J; Halse, Rhiannon E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of exercise on appetite and appetite-related hormones during pregnancy is not known. This study found that 30 min of moderate-intensity stationary cycling transiently attenuated hunger and increased fullness in late gestational women (n = 12). Exercise did not affect perceived appetite or appetite-related hormones in response to subsequent caloric consumption. These observations suggest that appetite responses do not intrinsically compensate for the additional energy expenditure induced by exercise, at least in the short term. PMID:24053524

  7. Age and gender affects on consumers' awareness and source of awareness for food-related private-label brands

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogianni, Irini Tzimitra; Kamenidou, Irene; Priporas, Konstantinosvasilios; Tziakas, Vasilis

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research regarding consumers' awareness and source of awareness for food-related private-label brands. Results of the field research indicate that the majority of the consumers are aware of private- label brands, with main source being store shopping and the supermarkets' price advertising leaflets. Age and gender affects were tested for awareness, source of awareness and recall of supermarket practising food-related private-label brands. Results reveal...

  8. Does magnesium hardness in hatching waters affect the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on egg development and embryo survival. Ca2+ and Mg2+ contribute to water har...

  9. Factors Affecting the Ability of Agriculture to Pay Irrigation-Water Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no universally acceptable standard criteria for determining how much agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Justification of cost will depend upon the country's need to develop its soil and water resources for food, for international trade, and for its cumulative effect on other industries in comparison with other possible uses and their over-all contributions to the economy. Social and political conditions often have as much or more influence on development cost decisions than do strictly economic analyses. Many studies indicate that US $0.10/1000 US gal is an upper limit of acceptable costs for developing irrigation water at present economic levels. Under private development and on projects where water users must pay total water costs, methods are available for making feasibility budgets based on present prices. Because of inflation, world food shortage, recessions, future population and other unknown factors, it is hazardous to predict how much farmers or agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Better utilization of water available now offers opportunities for ''developing'' sources at costs much less than those for sources such as sea-water conversion. (author)

  10. Regulatory Issues Affecting Management of Produced Water from Coal Bed Methane Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, John A.

    2003-03-03

    This paper describes the existing national discharge regulations, the ways in which CBM produced water is currently being managed, the current CBM discharge permitting practices, and how these options might change as the volume of produced water increases because of the many new wells being developed.

  11. Technologies for Safe Water Supply in Arsenic Affected Villages of Bangladesh Utilizing a Pedal Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Wahidul K.; Leslie, Greg

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents information on the socio-techno-economic aspects of a water purification system for the arsenic contaminated villages of Bangladesh. The proposed system which is based on hollow fiber membranes and granular activated carbon columns can be used to harvest potable water from ponds without many of the problems inherent in the conventional pond sand filters. This paper also examines the possible application of human operated pedal pump, instead of diesel or electricity driven pump, for pumping water from ponds to overcome limitations in existing water technologies in the arsenic-contaminated villages in Bangladesh. A market model of this technology has been suggested that allows the rural poor to access to safe water at affordable monthly rate.

  12. The Complex Relation between Bullying, Victimization, Acceptance, and Rejection: Giving Special Attention to Status, Affection, and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Munniksma, Anke; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2010-01-01

    To understand the complex nature of bullies' acceptance and rejection, this article considered goal-framing effects of status and affection as they relate to the gender of the bully (male vs. female bullies), the target (male vs. female victims), and the evaluator (acceptance and rejection from male vs. female classmates). The hypotheses were…

  13. A review of OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities related to coupled processes affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA0) activities related to coupled processes. The scope of these activities affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository are focused on. They cover two general headings: the development of performance assessment methodologies and the acquisition of field and laboratory data

  14. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Jonker, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N = 25) and older (N = 38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic

  15. Trauma-Related Impairment in Children--A Survey in Sri Lankan Provinces Affected by Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Thomas; Schauer, Maggie; Schauer, Elisabeth; Huschka, Bianca; Hirth, Michael; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined traumatic experiences, PTSD, and co-morbid symptoms in relation to neuropsychological and school performance in school children affected by two decades of civil war and unrest. Method: The epidemiological survey of children's mental health included a representative sample of 420 school children. Local…

  16. Prion Protein M129V Polymorphism Affects Retrieval-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Andreas; Mondadori, Christian R. A.; Hanggi, Jurgen; Aerni, Amanda; Vrticka, Pascal; Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M.; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein Met129Val polymorphism has recently been related to human long-term memory with carriers of either the 129[superscript MM] or the 129[superscript MV] genotype recalling 17% more words than 129[superscript VV] carriers at 24 h following learning. Here, we sampled genotype differences in retrieval-related brain activity at 30 min…

  17. Water and Agriculture: a relation that needs to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the top ten of the global risks in terms of impact analysed, from the 2015 World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report, the ' water crisis' is in first place as intensity of impact: that's understandable because from water depends not only the life on the Earth but also many of the economic activities. For this reason it is essential protect water and to use it in a way more and more efficient and sustainable. The Technical Unit models, methods and technologies for environmental assessments of ENEA works since several years in the field of water resource management. It is in this context that ENEA has patented a biological system for removing phosphorus from wastewater, which is presented here schematically.

  18. Relative potential hazards of radioactive waste in various water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazard to man arising from the hypothetical release of radioactive spent fuel waste into various water systems has been evaluated. Radionuclide transport and human exposure were simulated for six water systems: a large Northwestern river, a small Northeastern river, a small Northwestern river, a large Central Region river, a lake with no outflow in an arid region, and an aquifer discharging directly into an ocean

  19. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  20. Corn Leaf Water Retention as Affected by Organic Fer—tilizations and Effective Microbes Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUHUILIAN; N.AJIKI; 等

    1998-01-01

    Effects of organic fertilizers and effective microbes on lef water retention of sweet corn (Zea mays L.cv. Honey-Bantam) were studied.Sweet corns were grown with organic or chemical fertilzers with or without effective microbes (EM).A water retention urve was obtained by drying the excised leaves under a light of 500μmol(m2.s)-1,The cure shows two distinct phases.The initial steep slope indicates the water loss speed by stomatal transpiration (Est) and the gentle slope of the second phase indicates water loss speed by cuticular transpiration(Ecu).Both Est and Ecu were lower for leaves of plants grown with organic materials than fro thoe with chemical fertilizers.Addition of EM to both organic and chemical fertilizers decreased Est but showed no effect on Ecu.The water retention ability of the excised leaves was proportional to pho-tosynthetic maintenance ability under soil water deficit conditions as well as the solte concentration in leaves ,The results suggested that organic fertilization and EM appication increased water stress resistance both under in situ conditions and in excised leaves of sweet corn plants.

  1. The glass transition and relaxation behavior of bulk water and a possible relation to confined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jan; Teixeira, José

    2010-01-01

    Due to the widespread importance of water and the difficulty to study it in the so-called no man's land between 150 and 235 K, deeply supercooled bulk water is currently heavily debated. It speculates about its properties from extrapolations of experimental data on bulk water above 235 K and below 150 K, computer simulations, and experiments on confined water for which the finite size effects may prevent crystallization in the no man's land. However, it is far from obvious how experimental data on bulk water should be extrapolated to the temperature range of the no man's land or how relevant results from computer simulations and studies of confined water are for bulk water. In this paper the structural and dynamical properties of supercooled bulk water are tried to be understood from experimental results on confined water and comparisons with bulk water. We propose that a similar crossover from a high temperature α-relaxation to a low temperature β-relaxation occurs also for bulk water but at a higher temperature than for confined water due to the larger average number of hydrogen bonds between the water molecules in bulk water. In the case of bulk water the crossover is expected to occur around the critical temperature Ts≈228 K when the buildup of an icelike tetrahedral network structure is completed. The proposed interpretation is the simplest one that is able to explain many of the peculiar properties of supercooled water.

  2. La relation psycho-affective à l'enfant dans l'école maternelle contemporaine

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    International audience A partir des instructions de 1986, l'école maternelle a connu un processus de scolarisation au niveau du curriculum formel. Progressivement, la relation scolaire à l'enfant a gagné en légitimité dans les textes prescriptifs. Dans ces textes, la relation d'ordre psycho-affectif à l'enfant, jadis hautement légitime, a ainsi perdu peu à peu en importance. Quid des pratiques contemporaines ? La relation d'ordre psycho-affectif à l'enfant marque-t-elle les classes ? Cette...

  3. Global-Change-Induced Disturbances of Water-Related Phenomena - The European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Falkenmark, M.

    1989-01-01

    Impact of global change on human society will first be felt through disturbances of water-related phenomena. Traditionally, land use discussions only seldom reflect water phenomena. Present methods may therefore be poor tools in addressing the impact of global change. This report takes an alternative approach to land use by addressing a number of water-related phenomena from the perspective of their relation to land use and land-use-related societal activities. Such activities include both th...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN THE MEADOW OF BORCEA ARM

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the factors leading to water pollution by nitrates in the Meadow of Borcea arm, mainly derived from agricultural sources. mIn oder to model the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, which can be partially used by plants or leached into the ground water, research was made on alluvial soil in the Meadow of Borcea arm. I tried to study in the laboratory the influence of three factors of nitrate nitrogen pollution of ground water: soil type, environmental conditions (te...

  5. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard;

    In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used, and the structure at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for lipid oxidation in emulsions. Previous studies have shown that e...... study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  6. Randomized clinical trial comparing affect regulation and supportive group therapies for victimization-related PTSD with incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D; Chang, Rocío; Levine, Joan; Zhang, Wanli

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic victimization and associated problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and affect dysregulation are prevalent among incarcerated women, but there is limited evidence to support psychotherapeutic interventions for these problems in this underserved population. A group psychotherapy designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing-Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)-was compared to a supportive group therapy (SGT) in a randomized clinical trial with 72 incarcerated women with full or partial PTSD. Both interventions achieved statistically significant reductions in PTSD and associated symptom severity and increased self-efficacy. Dropout rates for both interventions were low (forgiveness toward others who have caused harm in the past. Group therapy that teaches affect regulation may enhance incarcerated women's ability to achieve affective resolution (forgiveness) while also reducing their victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Experiential-focused supportive group therapy also may reduce victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Both group therapy approaches warrant further study with this vulnerable population. PMID:23611076

  7. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. PMID:27294797

  8. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J M; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation - a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008

  9. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  10. Affective disturbance in rheumatoid arthritis: psychological and disease-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Finan, Patrick H; Zautra, Alex J

    2016-09-01

    In addition to recurrent pain, fatigue, and increased rates of physical disability, individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased prevalence of some mental health disorders, particularly those involving affective or mood disturbances. This narrative Review provides an overview of mental health comorbidities in RA, and discusses how these comorbidities interact with disease processes, including dysregulation of inflammatory responses, prolonged difficulties with pain and fatigue, and the development of cognitive and behavioural responses that could exacerbate the physical and psychological difficulties associated with RA. This article describes how the social context of individuals with RA affects both their coping strategies and their psychological responses to the disease, and can also impair responses to treatment through disruption of patient-physician relationships and treatment adherence. Evidence from the literature on chronic pain suggests that the resulting alterations in neural pathways of reward processing could yield new insights into the connections between disease processes in RA and psychological distress. Finally, the role of psychological interventions in the effective and comprehensive treatment of RA is discussed. PMID:27411910

  11. Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    N Rouhani; Yang, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Physics Department, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China); S Amin Sichani; M. Afyuni; S.F Mousavi; A. A. Kamgar Haghighi

    2009-01-01

    Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress...

  12. Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Munir Fehmidah; Kalawsky Katryna; Wallis Deborah J; Donaldson-Feilder Emma

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different ...

  13. Competition between conceptual relations affects compound recognition: the role of entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Kuperman, Victor; Gagné, Christina L; Spalding, Thomas L

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the conceptual representation of a compound is based on a relational structure linking the compound's constituents. Existing accounts of the visual recognition of modifier-head or noun-noun compounds posit that the process involves the selection of a relational structure out of a set of competing relational structures associated with the same compound. In this article, we employ the information-theoretic metric of entropy to gauge relational competition and investigate its effect on the visual identification of established English compounds. The data from two lexical decision megastudies indicates that greater entropy (i.e., increased competition) in a set of conceptual relations associated with a compound is associated with longer lexical decision latencies. This finding indicates that there exists competition between potential meanings associated with the same complex word form. We provide empirical support for conceptual composition during compound word processing in a model that incorporates the effect of the integration of co-activated and competing relational information. PMID:26340846

  14. Reconnaissance Study of Water Quality in the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  15. Capturing benefits from water entitlement trade in salinity affected areas: A role for trading houses?

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Rosalyn

    2002-01-01

    While there is potential for substantial benefits from water entitlement trade, external effects such as salinity may mean that traders cannot capture these benefits. This paper demonstrates that by creating a trading house as a single seller of water entitlements, with trade profits distributed to buyers, it is possible to achieve an allocation of entitlements which gives a social outcome higher than that possible from atomistic competition for entitlements. Such an outcome may be comparable...

  16. Runoff Water in Cocoa Plantation as Affected by Rorak Number and Mulch Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a serious problem in the field of ecology and environment. Providing rorak (small blocked ditches and mulches as an alternative conservation action is expected to minimize water runoff. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combination of rorak and mulches in controlling water runoff in a cocoa farm. Location of this research was in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute during rainy season in early 2015. This research used a nested design in which there is a complete factorial design of random groups that every combination treatment was repeated three times. Each experiment plot consisted of 16 cocoa trees of eight years old. The first factor was rorak treatment consisted of without rorak, 9 rorak per 16 trees (plot and 16 rorak per 16 trees, whereas the second factor was mulch treatment consisted of control (without mulch, cocoa leaves as mulch and rice straw mixed with cocoa leaves as mulch. Rorak collecting runoff water was made of aluminum with a length of 40 cm, width 30 cm and  high 30 cm. Observation of runoff water was carried out early every morning. The results showed that increased number of rorak combined with cocoa leaf and rice straw significantly controlled runoff water compared to control. Rorak and mulch treatments were able to reduce runoff water compared to control. High number of rorak per plot increased the effectiveness in controlling runoff water when it was combined with mulch especially mixture of wide leaf (cocoa leaf and needleshaped leaf (rice straw. Treatment of 16 rorak in every 16 trees with cocoa leaves and rice straw mulch could reduce runoff water by 82.8% compared to a control.

  17. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  18. SIMULATION OF SOME PARAMETERS OF PLANT WATER RELATION IN MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ANDA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on simulation of plant temperature and stomatal resistance in maize by using the microclimate simulation model of Goudriaan (1977 were carried out at Keszthely Agrometeorological Research Station, during the growing season of 2001. The size of plot was 0.5 ha, because of parallel investigations done on the elements of microclimate. To facilitate the validation of the model field observations were measured. Two watering levels, rainfed plots with natural rainfall only, and irrigated plant stand were applied in simulation study. We irrigated the plants by using the amounts of crop water stress index with +drop irrigation system. The limit value for watering was the CWSI >0,25. In summer of 2001 the weather was dry and hot. The lack of water was substituted by 170 mm irrigation water on 4 occasions. To validate the model the root mean square deviation (RMSD between a number of pairs of simulated and measured microclimate elements was applied. The estimation of plant temperature was very accurate, the error of simulation was below 0.5 degree for noon irrigated plots and 0.3 degree for irrigated ones. The accuracy in stomatal resistance simulation was weaker than that of plant temperature, the error was 5.9 % for nonirrigated, and 21 % for irrigated plots. The estimation of stomatal resistance for irrigated plants need further refinement, but this requires changes in the basic equations of the model.

  19. Heavy Metal Concentration in Drinking Water Sources Affected by Dredge Mine Operations of a Gold Mining Company in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apori Ntiforo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses concentration of certain heavy metals in water sources affected by the operations of defunct dredged gold mine operations more than a decade to evaluate its quality as a source of drinking water. The concentration of heavy metals were determined from nine (9 surface water sampling points and three (3 boreholes in the Awusu-River basin in comparison with their maximum contaminant levels to assess their suitability as drinking water sources. Results obtained from the analysis of water samples indicated that the concentrations of four heavy metals (Fe, 0.01-14.93 mg/L; Cd, <0.002-0.01 mg/L; As, <0.002-0.003 mg/L and Pb, <0.005-0.05 mg/L analyzed in surface water samples were above WHO threshold values (Fe 300, Cd 3, As 10 and Pb 10 ug/L for drinking water and two (Cu, <0.002-0.05 mg/L and Zc, <0.005-0.03 mg/L were below (Cu 2000 ug/L and Zc 3000 ug/L. Dissolved iron registered the highest concentrations with the Slime Retention Area (SRA dominating with a mean concentration of 4.979 mg/L. All the sampling points were being used as drinking water sources by the two communities. An integrated approach to management of sources of drinking water quality in the mining areas is needed and should involve not only the mining companies and regulatory agencies but also the local communities to enable the latter understand and appreciate post mining issues of water quality.

  20. Questioning the Link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  1. Questioning the link between Self-Expressed Attitudes and Repurchasing Behavior: Relations Between Cognitive, Affective and Action Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Ordun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In psychology attitude is defined as favorable or unfavorable evaluations towards a person, group, object or event. Attitudes are formed by past and present experiences and are expected to change as a function of experience. Three components of the attitude defined as cognitive (what we know about the subject, affective (how we feel towards the subject and behavioral (intention to behave towards the subject. Our behavior is defined as a complex combination of beliefs, feelings, capabilities and norms. The majority of consumer behavior literature examined the main antecedents of purchase behavior. Attitudes are described as one of the most important determinant of the behavior. There are several methods and techniques to assess attitude; the most used one is the self-report paper and pencil measures. Brand loyalty is another important concept related with repetitive purchasing behavior. While cognitive loyalty is related with the information, affective loyalty is related with feelings. Behavioral loyalty is described as the past behaviors or experiences. Some of our behaviors are determined by the cognitive component of the attitude while others may be directed by the affective part. Main focus of the research is to find out whether there is a level of compliance between cognitive, affective and behavioral attitude of consumers. 1000 forms are distributed in order to identify the attitudes and purchasing behaviors of consumers 783 forms are evaluated

  2. VINEYARD FLOOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AFFECT SOIL PROPERTIES & MICROBIOLOGY, WATER RELATIONS, AND CROP NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term comparison of various vineyard floor management practices (weed control and cover crops) indicates that weed control treatments had no impact on soil microbial biomass, but had a significant interactive effect with the rye cover crop on mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots, presum...

  3. Waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water near Elkhart, Indiana, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Yeskis, D.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Four wells downgradient from a landfill near Elkhart, Indiana were sampled during 2000-2002 to evaluate the presence of waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water. Compounds detected in leachate-affected ground water included detergent metabolites (p-nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, nonylphenol diethoxylate, and octylphenol monoethoxylate), plasticizers (ethanol-2-butoxy-phosphate and diethylphthalate), a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), disinfectants (1,4-dichlorobenzene and triclosan), an antioxidant (5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three fire-retardant compounds (tributylphosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, and tri(dichlorisopropyl)phosphate), and several pharmaceuticals and metabolites (acetaminophen, caffeine, cotinine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, fluoxetine, and ibuprofen). Acetaminophen, caffeine, and cotinine detections confirm prior indications of pharmaceutical and nicotinate disposal in the landfill. ?? 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

  4. River flow changes related to land and water management practices across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Ken; Wolock, David M.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of land and water management practices (LWMP)—such as the construction of dams and roads—on river flows typically have been studied at the scale of single river watersheds or for a single type of LWMP. For the most part, assessments of the relative effects of multiple LWMP within many river watersheds across regional and national scales have been lacking. This study assesses flow alteration—quantified as deviation of several flow metrics from natural conditions—at 4196 gauged rivers affected by a variety of LWMP across the conterminous United States. The most widespread causes of flow changes among the LWMP considered were road density and dams. Agricultural development and wastewater discharges also were associated with flow changes in some regions. Dams generally reduced most attributes of flow, whereas road density, agriculture and wastewater discharges tended to be associated with increased flows compared to their natural condition.

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel U. ONWEREMADU

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated selected properties of soils affected by wastewater and its relationship with some heavy metals. A free survey technique involving target sampling was used in siting soil profile pits. Soil samples were collected based on horizon differentiation and analyzed using routine and special analytical techniques. Soil data were subjected to correlation analysis using SAS program. Results show that all heavy metals studied had values above critical limits in the polluted soils using known standards and that these biotoxic metals decreased with soil depths. Highly significant (P=0.01 and 0.05) relationships were established between investigated heavy metals and some soil properties, especially soil pH and organic matter. Further studies involving more edaphic properties, biotoxic metals and their bioaccessibility in crops growing on wastewater soils will surely enhance knowledge and management of these highly anthropogenically influenced soils of the study site.

  6. Analysis of related factors affecting prognosis of shunt surgery in patients with secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; DU Hang-gen; YIN Li-chun; HE Min; ZHANG Guo-jun; TIAN Yong; HAO Bi-lie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The management of secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH) is controversial.Many factors may affect the surgery effect.The purpose of this study was to identify the possible factors influencing prognosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of sNPH.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the results of 31 patients with sNPH who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery from January 2007 to December 2011.We processed the potential influencing factors by univariate analysis and the result further by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results:Factors including age,disease duration and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score before surgery significantly influenced the prognosis of sNPH (P<0.05).Further logistic regression analysis showed that all the three factors are independent influencing factors.Conclusion:Age,disease duration and GCS score before surgery have positive predictive value in estimating favorable response to surgical treatment for sNPH.

  7. Affective judgement about information relating to competence and warmth: an embodied perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Tessier, Marie; Lacrampe, Rémy; Dru, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown that social judgement may be defined by two dimensions, competence and warmth. From a functional perspective, embodied theories have proposed that warmth may be associated with physical distance, whereas competence may be connected to a vertical motion (UPWARD/DOWNWARD). Two main studies were conducted to examine if approach-avoidance and vertical motion could influence affective judgements about traits representing these two social dimensions. Valence judgements about warmth traits that were moving towards the subject resulted in more positive judgement than when they were moving away (approach/avoidance). Furthermore, competence traits were judged more positively when they moved in an UPWARD direction, compared with when they moved DOWNWARD. A metacognitive account of confidence is offered to explain how cognitions about warmth and competence are connected to the physical world. PMID:23577960

  8. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol affect rat intestinal epithelial cells: a concentration related study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuseppe; Fontanella, Bianca; Severino, Lorella; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Marzocco, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the gastrointestinal tract represents a crucial first level defence against ingested toxins. Among them, Nivalenol is a trichotecenes mycotoxin frequently found on cereals and processed grains; when it contaminates human food and animal feed it is often associated with another widespread contaminant, Deoxynivalenol. Following their ingestion, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to concentrations of these trichothecenes high enough to cause mycotoxicosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol on intestinal cells in an in vitro model system utilizing the non-tumorigenic rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Both Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol (5-80 µM) significantly affected IEC-6 viability through a pro-apoptotic process which mainly involved the following steps: (i) Bax induction; (ii) Bcl-2 inhibition, and (iii) caspase-3 activation. Moreover, treatment with Nivalenol produced a significant cell cycle arrest of IEC-6 cells, primarily at the G(0)/G(1) interphase and in the S phase, with a concomitant reduction in the fraction of cells in G(2). Interestingly, when administered at lower concentrations (0.1-2.5 µM), both Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol affected epithelial cell migration (restitution), representing the initial step in gastrointestinal wound healing in the gut. This reduced motility was associated with significant remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, and changes in expression of connexin-43 and focal adhesion kinase. The concentration range of Nivalenol or Deoxynivalenol we have tested is comparable with the mean estimated daily intake of consumers eating contaminated food. Thus, our results further highlight the risks associated with intake of even low levels of these toxins. PMID:23251682

  9. Spatial Analysis of Soil and Water Quality in Tsunami AffectedAreas of Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayudha Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In India, the natural disasters, especially the Tsunami in 2004 having exposed our unpreparedness, variability, diverse scientific, engineering, financial and also social processes. Vedaranyamtalukof Nagapattinam coastal region of Tamilnadu, India,was severely affected by Tsunami-2004. Due to its unique geological nature and climate conditions, the quality of soil and water resources was subjected to natural and synthetic changes. The recent efforts of prawn culture and saltpan in these areas also affect the natural resources. This study has revealed the present scenario of soil and water resources by analyzing their chemical parameters in the Tsunami affected areas after ten years of Tsunami-2004. For this study, soil samples (less than 30cm depth from land surface and groundwater samples (from existing hand/bore pumps were collected in the study area. It was observed from the analysis that the pH of soil was improved well and EC was lowered significantly except few places. Regarding the available N, P, K of soil, N was low, P and Kwere low to medium range. Further thepH,DO, Turbidity, Hardness,Cl and Mgof groundwater were within the permissible limit;EC and TDS were slight to moderate range for irrigation and drinking.The SAR is within the maximum allowable limit which inferred that groundwater can be used for irrigation without any risk.Thisspatial-temporal variability of soil and water parameters were mapped in GIS environment (Surfer ver. 9 and compared with pretsunami-2004 as well as ground truth scenario. Keeping these results, the soil is suitable for agriculture production. The natural flash flood has helped to reduce contamination of soil and water due to Tsunami-2004. However,due to alkaline in nature the quality of groundwater is not fit for drinking in some places but suitable for irrigation. Among the affected villages, Vedaranyam village has worst quality. This study also recommends suitable management strategies for sustainable

  10. Factors affecting food choice in relation to venison: A South African example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radder, L; le Roux, R

    2005-11-01

    Meat is a universally valued and sought-after source of human nutrition. However, concerns are raised about the health implications of eating too much saturated animal fat. This also applies to South Africa where the high incidence of heart disease and cancer is often linked to consumption of red meat. Despite venison offering a healthy alternative to beef and lamb, its consumption is low. A review of appropriate literature and the perceptions, opinions and preferences of 300 South African consumers resulted in a simplified framework of consumer and market related issues that could influence consumers' preference for wild venison. Consumer-related factors include health considerations, sensory variables, social interactions, familiarity and habit, psychographics and demographics, while the most important market-related issues comprise price, distribution and promotion. An understanding of all these factors is required to better target the promotion of venison as a healthy food choice. PMID:22060937

  11. Dysmorphic concern is related to delusional proneness and negative affect in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Charlotte; Thomas, Neil; Stephens, Jessie; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-06-30

    Body image concerns are common in the general population and in some mental illnesses reach pathological levels. We investigated whether dysmorphic concern with appearance (a preoccupation with minor or imagined defects in appearance) is explained by psychotic processes in a community sample. In a cross-sectional design, two hundred and twenty six participants completed an online survey battery including: The Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire; the Peters Delusional inventory; the Aberrant Salience Inventory; and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Participants were native English speakers residing in Australia. Dysmorphic concern was positively correlated with delusional proneness, aberrant salience and negative emotion. Regression established that negative emotion and delusional proneness predicted dysmorphic concern, whereas, aberrant salience did not. Although delusional proneness was related to body dysmorphia, there was no evidence that it was related to aberrant salience. Understanding the contribution of other psychosis processes, and other health related variables to the severity of dysmorphic concern will be a focus of future research. PMID:27085667

  12. Relational trustworthiness: how status affects intra-organizational inequality in job autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Castillo, Celeste; Ewoodzie, Kwesi

    2014-03-01

    Recent accounts of trustworthiness have moved away from treating it as a stable, individual-level attribute toward viewing it as a variable situated in a relational context, but have not been formalized or supported empirically. We extend status characteristics theory (SCT) to develop formal propositions about relational trustworthiness. We posit that members of task- and collectively oriented groups (non-consciously) infer three qualities from their relative status that are commonly used to determine an individual's trustworthiness: ability, benevolence, and integrity. We apply our formalization to clarify ambiguities regarding intra-organizational job autonomy inequality, thereby linking SCT to broader disparities rooted in job autonomy. We analyze data from a vignette experiment and the General Social Survey to test incrementally how well our propositions generalize across different settings and populations. Results generally support our proposed links between status and intra-organizational job autonomy. We discuss implications for SCT in understanding broader patterns of inequalities. PMID:24468434

  13. A shift from extensive to intensive livestock production system in Uruguay : Driver of local changes in water-related ecosystem services?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Livestock production is one of the largest and fastest growing agricultural subsectors in the world, contributing almost 40 % of agricultural GDP. The present global trend of livestock intensification affects water demand, resulting in local alterations of hydrological features. This study quantifies water requirements for livestock production and links them to local changes in water-related ecosystem services (WRES). It examines the present situation in Uruguayan beef production as it underg...

  14. The water relations and irrigation requirements of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum): a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, M. K. V.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2011-01-01

    The results of research on the water relations and irrigation needs of sugar cane are collated and summarized in an attempt to link fundamental studies on crop physiology to irrigation practices. Background information on the centres of production of sugar cane is followed by reviews of (1) crop development, including roots; (2) plant water relations; (3) crop water requirements; (4) water productivity; (5) irrigation systems and (6) irrigation scheduling. The majority of th...

  15. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab; Taha Mohamed El-Katony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosp...

  16. Study on the Decomposition of Factors Affecting Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Guangdong is China’s largest province in terms of energy consumption. The energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong province are calculated, and two extended and improved decomposition models for energy-related carbon emissions are established with the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method based on the basic principle of Kaya identity. Main results are as follows: (1 the energy-related carbon emissions from the three strata of industry, except the primary industry, and household energy consumption in Guangdong province show increasing trend from 1995 to 2009; (2 the main driving and inhibiting factors which influence energy-related carbon emissions are economic output and energy intensity, respectively, while the contributions of energy mix, industrial structures, population size and living standards are not significant during the period of interest. It is concluded that optimizing the energy mix by exploiting new energy sources and cutting down energy intensity by developing low-carbon technologies are the two most effective approaches to reduce carbon emissions for Guangdong province in the future. The results and proposals in this paper provided reference for relevant administrative departments in the Government of Guangdong province to develop policies for energy conservation and emission reduction as well as to promote development of low-carbon economy.

  17. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been a

  18. Relative Saliency in Change Signals Affects Perceptual Comparison and Decision Processes in Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…

  19. Feedback delay gradually affects amplitude and valence specificity of the feedback-related negativity (FRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterburs, Jutta; Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Processing of performance-related feedback is an essential prerequisite for adaptive behavior. Even though in everyday life feedback is rarely immediate, to date very few studies have investigated whether the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a relative negativity in the ERP approximately 200 to 300 ms after feedback that is sensitive to feedback valence and predictability, is modulated by feedback timing, and findings are inconsistent. The present study investigated effects of gradually increasing feedback delays on feedback processing in the FRN time window. Subjects completed a probabilistic learning task in which feedback was provided after short, intermediate, or long delays. Difference wave-based analyses showed that amplitudes decreased linearly with increasing feedback delay. A distinct pattern was observed for the FRN as defined in the original waveforms, with FRN amplitudes being largest for long and smallest for short delays. This pattern of results is consistent with the notion that the neural systems underlying feedback processing vary depending on feedback timing. The gradually reduced difference wave signal might reflect a gradual shift away from processing in frontostriatal circuits toward medial temporal involvement. To what extent increased signal amplitudes for longer delays in the original waveforms are related to processing in certain brain structures will need to be determined in future studies. PMID:26459164

  20. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Houben; C. Nederkoorn; R.W. Wiers; A. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking s

  1. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  2. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  3. Transcriptome expression analysis of candidate milk genes affecting cheese-related traits in 2 sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Vega, A; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Arranz, J J

    2016-08-01

    Because ewe milk is principally used for cheese making, its quality is related to its content of total solids and the way in which milk constituents influence cheese yield and determine the technological and organoleptic characteristics of dairy products. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the expression levels of milk genes influencing cheese-related traits is essential. In the present study, the milk transcriptome data set of 2 dairy sheep breeds, Assaf and Spanish Churra, was used to evaluate the expression levels of 77 transcripts related to cheese yield and quality traits. For the comparison between both breeds, we selected the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data at d 10 of lactation because this is the time point at which within and between breed differences due to lactation length are minimal. The evaluated genes encode major milk proteins (caseins and whey proteins), endogenous proteases, and enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and citrate content. Through this analysis, we identified the genes predominantly expressed in each of the analyzed pathways that appear to be key genes for traits related to sheep milk cheese. Among the highly expressed genes in both breeds were the genes encoding caseins and whey proteins (CSN2, CSN3, CSN1S1, ENSOARG00000005099/PAEP, CSN1S2, LALBA), genes related to lipid metabolism (BTN1A1, XDH, FASN, ADFP, SCD, H-FABP, ACSS2), and one endogenous protease (CTSB). Moreover, a differential expression analysis between Churra and Assaf sheep allowed us to identify 7 genes that are significantly differentially expressed between the 2 breeds. These genes were mainly linked to endogenous protease activity (CTSL, CTSK, KLK10, KLK6, SERPINE2). Additionally, there were 2 differentially expressed genes coding for an intracellular fatty acid transporter (FABP4), an intermediate molecule of the citric acid cycle (SUCNR1), and 2 heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSPB8) that could be related to high protein production. The differential expression of

  4. Soil water and transpirable soil water fraction variability within vineyards of the Penedès DO (NE Spain) affected by management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work investigated the variability in soil water recorded within the vineyard plots related to soil properties and management practices and its influence on the transpirable sol water fraction. The study was carried out in vineyards in the Penedès Designation of Origin, planted with Chardonnay, with different disturbance degree and with compost treated and untreated areas within the plots. The response in years with different rainfall distributions, included years with extreme situations were evaluated. The main soil types are Typic Xerorthent and Calcixerollic Xerorthent and soil is bare most of the time. Soil water content was measured at different depths using TDR probes. The transpirable soil water fraction was estimated as the ratio between available soil water (ASW) at a given date and the total transpirable soil water (TTSW). TTSW was estimated as the soil water reserve held between an upper and lower limit (respectively, the soil water content near field capacity and soil water content at the end of a dry summer) and integrated over the estimated effective rooting depth. Both minimum and maximum soil water values varied within the plot at all depths. On the surface the minimum values ranged between 4.45 to about 10%, while on deeper layers it ranged between 7.8 and 17.8%. Regarding the maximum value varied between 17.45 and 24.8%. The transpirable soil water fraction for a given year varied significantly within the plot, with differences greater than 20% between the treated and untreated areas. The results were more exacerbated in the driest years an in those with more irregular distribution. Water available has a significant effect on yield. The results indicate the need of using different strategies for water management within the plots.

  5. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  6. Rice Yield and Water Use as Affected by Soil Management Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; XIE Hong-Tu; LIANG Wen-Ju; WEN Da-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,to study the effects of soil management practices on water use and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in an aquic brown soil during 2001 and 2002. A completely random experimental design with three replications was employed, having four soil management practices as treatments, namely: an undisturbed plow layer (CK), a thin plastic film (TN), a thick plastic film (TI) and subsoil compacting (CP). Results indicated no significant differences arong all treatments for rice biomass and grain yields. Also, water consumption was about the same for treatments TN and CK, however the treatments TI and CP were much lower with more than 45% and 40% of the irrigation water in the treatments TI and CP, respectively,saved each year compared to CK. Therefore, water use efficiency was higher in the treatments TI and CP. These results will provide a scientific basis for the water-saving rice cultivation.

  7. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover. PMID:23600246

  8. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  9. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito

  10. Phosphogypsum amendments and irrigation with acidulated water affect tomato nutrition in reclaimed marsh soils from SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Quintero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (PG is a by-product of the P fertilizer industry usually valorised as amendment for acidic and sodic soils. This work was aimed to study the effects of PG on nutrient uptake by industrial tomato plants in an originally sodic soil. A completely randomized experiment was performed involving two factors: (i acidification with nitric acid (mimics cleaning techniques in drip irrigation, and (ii PG rate (equivalents to 0, 20, 60, and 200 Mg ha–1. The highest PG rate resulted in an increased dry matter yield, which can be ascribed at least in part to an increased water use efficiency. PG decreased K, Mg and P concentrations in shoots, and P and Cu concentrations in fruits. At the highest rate, PG increased B concentration in shoots and total B content in the aerial parts of plants when acid was applied. The highest PG rate also increased Ca concentration in fruits, which can be considered positive in view of reducing the incidence of blossom end rot. The total content of Ni and Mo in aerial parts increased with PG, probably related to a decreased adsorption of these nutrients in soils. Acid application increased the concentration of all micronutrients in shoots and the concentration of Fe, Cu and B in fruits. In conclusion, PG promoted positive effects on B, Ni, Mo, and Ca nutrition, and some negative nutritional effects through antagonisms or affecting nutrient cycling in the soils, which however did not result in decreasing yields, even at a large dose which mimics the cumulative application during 20-30 years. Acid treatments resulted in improved micronutrient nutrition of tomato plants.

  11. How Seasonal Drought Affect Carbon and Water Fluxes of Alternative Energy Crops in the US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E.; Hussain, M. Z.; Zeri, M.; Masters, M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The cellulosic biomass of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and native prairie are considered candidate second-generation biofuels, potentially resulting in partial replacement annual row crops within the Midwestern US. There is an increasing focus to study the environmental impact of agricultural crops, however not much is known on the influence on the energy, carbon and water cycles of energy crops, especially under drought conditions. This study compares the impact of drought episodes (in 2011 and 2012) on evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE; equals to NEP/ET) for Switchgrass (SW), Miscanthus (MXG), Maize (MZ) and native prairie (NP) grown in Central Illinois using the eddy covariance technique. Due to the prolonged drought and the rapid growth development with increasing ET of MXG in 2012, large water deficit (precipitation-ET) was observed for each species up to the highest deficit of -360 mm for this species. The gross primary production (GPP) of MZ was radically decreased by the drought in 2011 and 2012, while SW and NP were not influenced. MXG increased NEP throughout the typically wet and drought years, mainly due to the decrease in respiration and by the largest GPP upon the drought in 2012. Despite having the largest water deficit, MXG showed an enhanced WUE of 12.8 and 11.4 Kg C ha-1mm-1 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, in comparison to years typical to the region with WUE of 3.7-7.3 Kg C ha-1mm-1. Other species did not show a significant enhancement of WUE. Therefore we conclude that out of the studied species, MXG has more access to water, and uses this water the most efficiently to store carbon, under drought conditions.

  12. The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

    2014-05-01

    The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

  13. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    and salinity were due to natural effects of strong tidal currents (tidal range, 7 m) and intrusion of saline waters from the salt works. The high loading of petroleum hydrocarbons was due to the spillage from loading and unloading of oil and other petroleum... the reliability of the APCS modeling approach for the source apportionment of the Creek water. Further, this model could also be a useful tool to eliminate multi-colinearity problems and to remove indirect effect of parameters. We believe that the apportionment...

  14. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N, but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics,the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage. A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates (PNR, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids

  15. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. PMID:26707515

  16. Water Education: An e-learning platform for water-related competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Arvin, Erik; Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish water sector is in dire need for competence development to accommodate the changes in Danish water governance (decentralisation,privatisation and larger entities) and the implementation of relevant EuropeanUnion (EU) directives. In parallel, the number of international students enrolle......, DTUEnvironment has created an e-learning platform called Water Education (WatEdu) scheduled to be operational in 2011....

  17. Globalisation of water resources: Global virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between nation

  18. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  19. How industry - labor relations and government policies affect Senegal's economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Katherine; Svejnar, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Senegal is in a long-term economic crisis. Senegalese industry suffers from a highly adversarial system of industrial and labor relations, excessive government regulations in some areas and inadequate government support in others, and many misperceptions about the ethnically diverse labor force and enterprise ownership. Since the late 1970s, the Senegalese government has recognized the need to embark on a sustained and long-term adjustment program and has searched for appropriate policies to ...

  20. Relative floral density of an invasive plant affects pollinator foraging behaviour on a native plant

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Marie Iler; Karen Goodell

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between invasive and native plants for pollinators vary from competition to facilitation of pollination of native plants. Theory predicts that relative floral densities should account for some of this variation in outcomes, with facilitation at low floral densities and competition at high floral densities of the invader. We tested this prediction by quantifying pollination and female reproductive success of a native herb, Geranium maculatum, in three experimental arrays that vari...

  1. A Grey Relational Analysis Between Some Selected Affective Factors and English Test Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    With Grey relational analysis (GRA), the paper examined the sensitivity of eight variables influencing test performance at branch level. The eight variables involved included language proficiency, test anxiety, self-esteem, achievement motivation, achievement goal, English proficiency test anxiety (EPTA), state anxiety and trait anxiety. Results showed that: (1) Besides language proficiency, motivation-to-avoid- failure was most sensitive to English test performance; (2) Trait and state anxie...

  2. Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Dvořák; Veronika Mančíková; Václav Pižl; Dana Elhottová; Marcela Silerová; Radka Roubalová; František Skanta; Petra Procházková; Martin Bilej

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of b...

  3. A Comprehensive Observational Coding Scheme for Analyzing Instrumental, Affective, and Relational Communication in Health Care Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Siminoff, Laura A.; STEP, MARY M.

    2011-01-01

    Many observational coding schemes have been offered to measure communication in health care settings. These schemes fall short of capturing multiple functions of communication among providers, patients, and other participants. After a brief review of observational communication coding, the authors present a comprehensive scheme for coding communication that is (a) grounded in communication theory, (b) accounts for instrumental and relational communication, and (c) captures important contextua...

  4. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  5. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  6. Event-related potentials reveal preserved attention allocation but impaired emotion regulation in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen De Taeye

    Full Text Available Patients with epilepsy have a high prevalence of comorbid mood disorders. This study aims to evaluate whether negative affect in epilepsy is associated with dysfunction of emotion regulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs are used in order to unravel the exact electrophysiological time course and investigate whether a possible dysfunction arises during early (attention and/or late (regulation stages of emotion control. Fifty epileptic patients with (n = 25 versus without (n = 25 comorbid negative affect plus twenty-five matched controls were recruited. ERPs were recorded while subjects performed a face- or house-matching task in which fearful, sad or neutral faces were presented either at attended or unattended spatial locations. Two ERP components were analyzed: the early vertex positive potential (VPP which is normally enhanced for faces, and the late positive potential (LPP that is typically larger for emotional stimuli. All participants had larger amplitude of the early face-sensitive VPP for attended faces compared to houses, regardless of their emotional content. By contrast, in patients with negative affect only, the amplitude of the LPP was significantly increased for unattended negative emotional expressions. These VPP results indicate that epilepsy with or without negative affect does not interfere with the early structural encoding and attention selection of faces. However, the LPP results suggest abnormal regulation processes during the processing of unattended emotional faces in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect. In conclusion, this ERP study reveals that early object-based attention processes are not compromised by epilepsy, but instead, when combined with negative affect, this neurological disease is associated with dysfunction during the later stages of emotion regulation. As such, these new neurophysiological findings shed light on the complex interplay of epilepsy with negative affect during the processing of

  7. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (<1 NTU), Escherichia coli (<50 cfu mL(-1)), and pH (6-9). UV254 was recommended as a surrogate for organic contaminants (e.g., BOD5), but requires further calibration steps for validation. The developed specific water standard is the first for dishwashing water reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development

  8. Nitrogen Nutrition of Sugar Beet as Affected by Water Salinity, Proline Acid and Nitrogen Forms Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted under green house condition using sugar beet as a test crop. Saline water (sea water) was applied at different levels. i.e. fresh water, 4 and 8 dSm-1. Labelled urea and ammonium sulphate (5% a.e.) were applied at rate of 120 kg N fed-1. Also; proline amino acid was sprayed at rate of 25, and 50 ppm. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Crop leaves and tuber yield were severely affected by sea water salinity. These parameters were improved by adding proline acid. Effect of proline acid was significantly varied according to rate of addition, water salinity levels and N forms. In this respect, the improvement of leaves and tuber was more pronounced at rate of 50 ppm proline under 8 dSm-1 salinity when plants fertilized with ammonium sulfate. Another picture was drawn with urea, where the improvement was detected at rate of 25 ppm proline, under 4dSm-1 water salinity level. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium uptake by leaves and tuber of sugar beet plants were significantly improved by addition of 50 ppm proline under 4 and /or 8 dSm-1 salinity levels. Nitrogen uptake was higher in tuber and fertilization with urea than those of leaves and ammonium sulfate, respectively. Other nutrients were varied according to N forms and proline levels. Nitrogen use efficiency was enhanced by spraying proline, despite of addition rates, and negatively affected by increasing salinity levels. In this regard, no big significant difference was detected between urea and ammonium sulfat

  9. THE ORDINATION OF AQUATIC NEMATODE COMMUNITIES AS AFFECTED BY STREAM WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic nematodes were sampled at 16 sites on two streams to investigate the relationships of nematode community structure to various water quality factors. A prominence value for each species was calculated for use in three-dimensional community ordination. Species composition o...

  10. Sediment-water interactions affect assessments of metals discharges at electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present three examples to show the importance of sediment-water interactions to electric utilities: (1) Selenium (Se), in ash pond effluent, has caused declines in fish populations in North Carolina. A biogeochemistry model appears to explain Se dynamics for several reservoirs. However, further work on sediment water interactions is needed to predict the speed of reservoir Se declines following cessation of inputs; (2) Mercury (Hg), volatilized in stack gases from coal fired power plants, is a public and wildlife health concern. Sediments play a major role in the biogeochemistry of Hg as documented in the Mercury Cycling Model (MCM); As with Se, questions about sediment water interactions limit the confidence in predictions about dynamics and effects of Hg; and (3) One of the recommendations from a recent Pellston Conference was to evaluate the use of a new paradigm as a basis for metals regulations. Under this new paradigm, effects of surface active metals (Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) on fish can be viewed as dependent on competition between the gill, a 'biotic ligand', and other environmental ligands for metals in discharges. Under this new paradigm, then, the mechanics of toxicity can be viewed as analogous to interactions at the sediment-water interface. It is clear from these three examples that fostering discussion among chemists and toxicologists, through joint participation at meeting and publication in journal used by both fields, is critical for development of accurate assessment capabilities and support of cost effective decision making. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Water use efficiency and photosynthesis of glyphosate-resistant soybean as affected by glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies comparing cultivars of different maturity groups in different soils demonstrated that early maturity group cultivars were more sensitive to glyphosate injury than those of other maturity groups. In this work, we evaluated the effect of increasing rates of glyphosate on water absorpt...

  12. Arsenic accumulation in rice grains as affected by cultivars and water management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a threat to human health and marketability of rice products. The accumulation has been linked to the elevated As in soil resulting from pesticide application and/or irrigation water quality. In an effort to minimize As uptake by rice grain and occurrence o...

  13. Use of advanced information technologies for water conservation on salt-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water conservation on arid and semi-arid soils must be done with constant and careful consideration of the distribution of salinity across the landscape and through the soil profile. Soil salinity can be managed through leaching and the application of various soil amendments. The field-scale manag...

  14. AFFECT OF NEW BLADES ON NOISE REDUCTION OF SMALL WIND TURBINE WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acoustical noise data were collected on small wind turbines used for water pumping -- different blade designs were tested on each wind turbine. Three different blade designs were tested on 1 kW wind turbines and each successive blade design was shown to produce less noise with respect to rotor spee...

  15. How biological (fish) noise affects the performance of shallow water passive array system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.; Haris, K.; Vijayakumar, K.; Sundar, D.; Luis, R.A.A.; Mahanty, M.M.; Latha, G.

    Passive acoustic data off Grand Island, Goa were acquired using a single wideband hydrophone system deployed at the water depth of ~20.5 m during the month of April, 2014. The 4- elements hydrophone array with an aperture of 1.5 m having design...

  16. WATER RESISTANCE AND SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RICE STRAW FIBERBOARDS AFFECTED BY THERMAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Pan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw fiberboard was made using 12 wt % urea-formaldehyde (UF resin as binder and 1.0 wt % polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI and 1.2 wt % wax emulsion as water retardants. The prepared fiberboards were heat-treated at 120, 150, 185, and 210°C in the presence of steam in a high-temperature dry kiln, respectively for 90 min. The effect of water retardants and heat treatment on the water resistant and some mechanical properties of the fiberboards were investigated. It was found that the water resistance of the rice straw fiberboard could not be improved by adding wax emulsion. The use of pMDI to the system significantly increased the interfacial strength and reduced 24-h thickness swelling (TS compared to the boards with or without wax emulsion. After heat treatment, the TS was significantly decreased due to the decrease in the free reactive hydroxyl group content of rice straw fiber. Some mechanical properties of the fiberboards, such as the internal bonding strength, modulus of elasticity, and modulus of rapture were dramatically reduced with increasing temperature from 120°C to 210°C.

  17. Laboratory Experiments on Effects of Water Jet on Heat-Affected Concretes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Klich, Jiří; Hlaváček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 459, č. 459 (2014), s. 650-657. ISSN 1660-9336 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP104/12/1988 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-speed water jet * flat (fan) jet * removal of concrete surface layers * fireproof concretes Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  18. Factors affecting alcohol-water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite-silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of ZSM-5 zeolite particles dispersed in silicone rubber exhibited ethanol-water pervaporation permselectivities up to 5 times that of silicone rubber alone and 3 times higher than simple vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). A number of conditi...

  19. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Spanings, F.A.T.; Gresnigt, R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a lo

  20. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT LEAD (II) IN POTABLE WATER? HEXAFLUOROSILICATE AND FLUORIDE EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafluorosilicate hydrolysi...

  1. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  2. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA; Radiana Mariana TAMBA - BEREHOIU

    2015-01-01

    15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significan...

  3. Fluctuations in Water and their Relation to the Hydrophobic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Varilly, Patrick Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic effect, or the tendency for oil and water not to mix, is a fundamental force that strongly influences the shape, behavior and assembly of solutes in solution. Hydrophobicity emerges from the collective behavior of large numbers of solvent molecules, so its accurate treatment is challenging. A decade ago, Lum, Chandler and Weeks (LCW) addressed this challenge indirectly by modeling how solvent density fluctuations couple to external solutes and constraints, and then inferring...

  4. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  5. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  6. Desalination of oil sands process-affected water and basal depressurization water in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada: application of electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Sik; Dong, Shimiao; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The high content of inorganic species in water used to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands and in the groundwater below the oil sands is an increasing environmental concern. These water matrices require treatment before they can be reused or safely discharged. Desalination of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and groundwater, or basal depressurization water (BDW), can be accomplished with deionization techniques such as electrodialysis (ED). In order to achieve the effective ED treatment, OSPW and BDW were pretreated with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation to remove solid species and turbidity. We demonstrated that a conductivity range for industrial reuse of OSPW and BDW can be achieved with the ED treatment and showed the possibility of applying ED in the oil sands industry. A continuous ED system that reuses the diluate stream as a source for the concentrate stream was designed. The cost of a hypothetical ED water treatment plant in Fort McMurray, Alberta, was estimated to be C$10.71 per cubic meter of treated water. PMID:24355856

  7. Return on Capital and Cost of Capital: How does their Relation Affect Firm Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Halil D. Kaya; Julia S. Kwok; Elizabeth C. Rabe

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2008-2009 hurt almost all of the companies’ stock values in the United States. Interestingly, for Starbucks, the deterioration started a few years before the recession. From 2005 to 2007, the company’s stock price declined by approximately 40%. This case encourages students to examine the company’s return on capital, compare it to its cost of capital, and then relate this to the decline in the company’s stock price. First, they will establish a single formula for return...

  8. Does mode of administration affect health-related quality-of-life outcomes after stroke?

    OpenAIRE

    Caute, A.; Northcott, S.; Clarkson, L.; Pring, T.; Hilari, K.

    2012-01-01

    Telephone interviews and postal surveys may be a resource-efficient way of assessing health-related quality-of-life post-stroke, if they produce data equivalent to face-to-face interviews. This study explored whether telephone interviews and postal surveys of the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale (SAQOL-39g) yielded similar results to face-to-face interviews. Participants included people with aphasia and comprised two groups: group one (n =22) were 3-6 months post-stroke; group two (n ...

  9. Protein level affects the relative lysine requirement of growing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Noelie; Govaerts, Bernadette; Abboudi, Tarik; Detavernier, Christel; De Saeger, Sarah; Larondelle, Yvan; Rollin, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The effect of two digestible protein levels (310 and 469g/kg DM) on the relative lysine (Lys; g Lys/kg DM or g Lys/100g protein) and the absolute Lys (g Lys intake/kg(0.75) per d) requirements was studied in rainbow trout fry using a dose-response trial. At each protein level, sixteen isoenergetic (22-23 MJ digestible energy/kg DM) diets were tested, involving a full range (2-70 g/kg DM) of sixteen Lys levels. Each diet was given to one group of sixty rainbow trout fry (mean initial body weig...

  10. DYNAMICS OF CHOICE: RELATIVE RATE AND AMOUNT AFFECT LOCAL PREFERENCE AT THREE DIFFERENT TIME SCALES

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, Carlos F; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4∶1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right lever one pellet); Phase 2 reversed the food-amount ratio to 1∶4, and in Phase 3 the food-amount ratio was 3∶2. At a relatively extended time scale, ...

  11. [Evaluation of the work-related disability in people affected by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogni, M; Basotti, A; Vigna, L; Brunani, A; Bertazzi, P A; Riboldi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), inherited disorder of connective tissue, frequently leads to impairment of various functional areas, including employment. In 35 subjects with classic type EDS, 14 hypermobile, 3 vascular was administered 7 visual analogical scales (pain, stiffness, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, work, social relations). An impairment of particular significance in total score and in individual areas emerges is in the hypermobile group, followed by classic, less for the vasculature. Overall there is a significant alteration of the quality of life that deserves proper evaluation to facilitate the definition of fitness and the improvement of job insertion in patients with EDS. PMID:23405630

  12. Does erotic stimulus presentation design affect brain activation patterns? Event-related vs. blocked fMRI designs

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Jane; Vollstädt-Klein Sabine; Bühler Mira; Smolka Michael N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing brain imaging studies, investigating sexual arousal via the presentation of erotic pictures or film excerpts, have mainly used blocked designs with long stimulus presentation times. Methods To clarify how experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design affects stimulus-induced brain activity, we compared brief event-related presentation of erotic vs. neutral stimuli with blocked presentation in 10 male volunteers. Results Brain activation differed...

  13. Structural brain plasticity induced by physical training in adults affected by aging or disease related impairments: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Dhondt, Evy; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Burggraeve, Lieselot; Danneels, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural brain plasticity is observed as a consequence of alterations in input/behavior or of disease. For instance aging is associated with structural decline of the brain, and structural brain alterations have been identified in certain medical pathologies. While physical exercise has a positive impact on function, health status and quality of life in those affected by disease or neurodegenerative related deteriorations, the question remains if structural plasticity of the bra...

  14. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  15. Relation between cooperative effects in cyclic water, methanol/water, and methanol trimers and hydrogen bonds in methanol/water, ethanol/water, and dimethylether/water heterodimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Flament, Jean Pierre

    1998-05-01

    Ab initio calculations at the MP2 level have been performed on water, methanol/water, ethanol/water, and dimethylether/water dimers and on water, methanol/water, and methanol cyclic trimers. Several properties of their hydrogen bonds have been investigated, such as interoxygen distances, O-H bond lengths, binding energies, electronic densities at hydrogen bond (HB) critical points and OH stretch vibrational frequencies. Results exhibit HB enhancements for dimers where the acceptor molecule corresponds to water (HDA dimers) as compared to dimers where the donor is water (HDD dimers). In particular, HB reinforcement depends on the number of alkyl groups bonded to the donor oxygen. For trimers, a comparison among their HB properties and those of dimers shows that HB reinforcements (as compared to isolated dimers) occurring in trimers correlate with HB reinforcements observed in (HDA dimers (as compared to (HDDs). In particular, HB properties of the cyclic water trimer are close to those of alcohol/water HDA dimers, and for the methanol cyclic trimer to that of the dimethylether/water HDA dimer. All of these results agree with an orbital interpretation of hydrogen bonding in terms of charge transfer from donor lone pairs to acceptor antibond σOH*, even if all of the HB properties in cyclic trimers may not be explained from this approach.

  16. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2015-09-15

    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources. PMID:26005995

  17. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the "Pampa del Tamarugal", Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ(13)C and δ(18)O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  18. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ18O-H2O) as well as those of nitrate (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3−) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal changes. High

  19. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  20. Root-zone acidity affects relative uptake of nitrate and ammonium from mixed nitrogen sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.; Chaillou, S.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) were grown for 21 days on 4 sources of N (1.0 mM NO3-, 0.67 mM NO3- plus 0.33 mM NH4+, 0.33 mM NO3- plus 0.67 mM NH4+, and 1.0 mM NH4+) in hydroponic culture with the acidity of the nutrient solution controlled at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Dry matter and total N accumulation of the plants was not significantly affected by N-source at any of the pH levels except for decreases in these parameters in plants supplied solely with NH4+ at pH 4.5. Shoot-to-root ratios increased in plants which had an increased proportion [correction of proporiton] of NH4(+)-N in their nutrient solutions at all levels of root-zone pH. Uptake of NO3- and NH4+ was monitored daily by ion chromatography as depletion of these ions from the replenished hydroponic solutions. At all pH levels the proportion of either ion that was absorbed increased as the ratio of that ion increased in the nutrient solution. In plants which were supplied with sources of NO3- plus NH4+, NH4+ was absorbed at a ratio of 2:1 over NO3- at pH 6.0. As the pH of the root-zone declined, however, NH4+ uptake decreased and NO3- uptake increased. Thus, the NH4+ to NO3- uptake ratio declined with decreases in root-zone pH. The data indicate a negative effect of declining root-zone pH on NH4+ uptake and supports a hypothesis that the inhibition of growth of plants dependent on NH4(+)-N at low pH is due to a decline in NH4+ uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by N stress.

  1. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2015-01-01

    effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and...... interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving......, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before 16 weeks of age. The measures outlined in this review may be useful for improving the welfare of pullets and adult laying hens....

  2. The Key Factors Affecting Tuber Development of Potato in vitro and the Relation with Protein Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Da-yong; LIAN Yong; ZHU De-wei

    2002-01-01

    According to previous analysis, some properties bounding up with tuber yield were investigated.The results showed that tuber average weight, plastid Mg2+ -ATPase activity, plastid Ca2+ -ATPase activity,mitochondria Mg2+-ATPase activity, total soluble protein content, tuber average diameter, and Q-enzyme activity were important factors determining the tuber yield. The linear regression equation was:Y = 0.5211 +0.0595X(1) + 0.8389X(2) + 0.0882X(3) - 0. 0073X(4) + 0. 1449X(5) + 0. 3510X(6) + 0. 0031X(7) -0.00003X(8) + 0.3412X(9)+ 0.0127X(10) + 0.2904X(11) + 0.0570X(12) + 0.0159X(13) + 0.3585X(14)+ 0.0134X(15) -0.1012X(16). At the same time, the relation between several important properties and soluble protein fractions were analyzed.

  3. Using intervention mapping to develop a work-related guidance tool for those affected by cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Fehmidah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working-aged individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer require support and assistance to make decisions regarding work. However, healthcare professionals do not consider the work-related needs of patients and employers do not understand the full impact cancer can have upon the employee and their work. We therefore developed a work-related guidance tool for those diagnosed with cancer that enables them to take the lead in stimulating discussion with a range of different healthcare professionals, employers, employment agencies and support services. The tool facilitates discussions through a set of questions individuals can utilise to find solutions and minimise the impact cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment may have on their employment, sick leave and return to work outcomes. The objective of the present article is to describe the systematic development and content of the tool using Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP. Methods The study used the first five steps of the intervention mapping process to guide the development of the tool. A needs assessment identified the ‘gaps’ in information/advice received from healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. The intended outcomes and performance objectives for the tool were then identified followed by theory-based methods and an implementation plan. A draft of the tool was developed and subjected to a two-stage Delphi process with various stakeholders. The final tool was piloted with 38 individuals at various stages of the cancer journey. Results The tool was designed to be a self-led tool that can be used by any person with a cancer diagnosis and working for most types of employers. The pilot study indicated that the tool was relevant and much needed. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a valuable protocol for designing complex guidance tools. The process and design of this particular tool can lend itself to other situations both occupational and more health

  4. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  5. In Brief: Some decline in contaminants affecting U.S. coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-05-01

    A new report indicates that environmental laws enacted in the 1970s are having a positive effect on reducing overall contaminant levels in U.S. coastal waters. However, there are continuing concerns with elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants found near urban and industrial areas of the coasts, according to the 12 May report issued by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ``Pesticides such as DDT [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane] and industrial chemicals such as PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] show significant decreasing trends around the nation, but similar trends were not found for trace metals,'' said Gunnar Lauenstein, manager of the NOAA Mussel Watch program, the nation's longest continuous national contaminant-monitoring program in U.S. coastal waters.

  6. Water Diffusion Coefficients of Selected Legumes Grown in Turkey As Affected by Temperature and Variety

    OpenAIRE

    SEYHAN-GÜRTAŞ, Ferda; AK, M. Mehmet; Evranuz, E. Özgül

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of water absorption by chickpeas (Koçbaşı, Kuşbaşı), lentils (green Pul) and beans (Battal, Dermason, Horoz, Şeker) grown in Turkey were studied by a gravimetric method during soaking at 15, 25 and 40ºC to determine moisture diffusivity of these selected legumes. The water diffusion coefficients of the legumes were in the range 9.71x10-11 - 5.98x10-10 m2/s for the chickpeas, 3.53x10-10 - 1.33x10-9 m2/s for the lentils and 4.35x10-11 - 3.79x10-9 m2/s for the beans. An Arrhenius-t...

  7. Conditioned water affects pair formation behaviour in the marine polychaete Neanthes (Nereis) acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Ellen J; Reish, Don J; Hardege, Jörg D

    2013-01-01

    Assessing cues from conspecifics is paramount during mate choice decisions. Neanthes acuminata is a marine polychaete with a unique life cycle: pair formation, female death following reproduction, male parental care and male ability to mate again after egg care. Males completing such egg care are 'experienced'. Females have been shown to prefer experienced males over all others, including aggressively dominant males. As the female dies following reproduction, the reproductive success of her offspring depends upon successful parental care by the male. It is therefore vital that the female makes a good mate choice decision. This paper shows that the use of conditioned water from males caring for eggs and newly experienced males caused the female to alter her choice to a previously undesired male. However, conditioned water from males, which had reproduced but were isolated for 2 weeks, did not have the same effect on pairing behaviour. This indicates that the smell of experience is short lived. PMID:22941305

  8. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  9. Environmental factors affecting recruitment of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Siegstad, H.

    2012-01-01

    Survey estimates of biomass of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters increased from about 178000 tons in 1998 to about 598000 tons in 2003. The increase in stock size was preceded by several consecutive years in which recruitment was substantially above average. Recruitment...... of the fitted model, possibly due to a mismatch between the timing of larval hatch and the timing of the phytoplankton bloom, which could not adequately be addressed due to data limitations...

  10. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Ware, Arthur Gates; Atwood, Corwin Lee; Sattison, Martin Blaine; Hartley, Robert Scott; Hsu, C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number of rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  11. Environmental Parameters Affecting the Algal Diversity in a Sewage Water Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out at a tertiary sewage water treatment plant located at El-Kattameya city, Cairo, Egypt, for a duration period of 12 months during 2004. The present work aimed to study the algal diversity (phyto benthos and phytoplankton) of the different tanks (collector, oxidation, settling and effluent) included in the tertiary sewage treatment system with respect to changes in physico-chemical characteristics of sewage water during the different seasons to be used for golf course irrigation. The treatment system is of the physico-biological type. Representing data of the physico-chemical parameters are air and water temperatures, ph, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended salts (TSS), total alkalinity, nutrients (nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, ortho-phosphorus, phosphorus and silicate), as well as major ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride). In addition, the treatment efficiency of the system was evaluated and the suitability of using the effluent in irrigation purposes was discussed

  12. Degradation behaviour of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in water as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi B; Singh, Neera

    2013-01-01

    Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, a new herbicide belonging to the sulfonylurea group, is used for weed control in rice crops growing in areas varying from acidic to alkaline soils. This study was undertaken to determine the degradation behaviour of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in distilled water and buffer solutions at pH 4, 7 and 9. Degradation was pH-dependent and herbicide was least persistent in acidic pH followed by alkaline and neutral pH. The half-life of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl varied from 2.6 days (pH 4) to 19.4 days (pH 7) and half-life in distilled water was comparable to half-life at pH 7 buffer. HPLC analysis of different pH samples showed the formation of three metabolites viz., 5-(aminosulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid; ethyl 5-(aminosulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate and 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine. The formation of pyrazosulfuron acid [5-([([(4,6-dimethoxy-2 pyrimidinyl)-amino]-carbonyl) amino]-sulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid] was not observed at any pH. The study indicated that the herbicide was least stable under acidic conditions and the predominant degradation route of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in water is hydrolysis of sulfonamide linkage. PMID:23374044

  13. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  14. Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Paddy Soil Quality as Affected by Different Nutrient and Water Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang-Ming; YANG Lin-Zhang; YAN Ting-Mei

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted from 1999 to 2002 to compare and evaluate the effects of nutrient and water regimes on paddy soil quality by investigating soil chemical and microbiological parameters. Four nutrient regimes, a control, chemical fertilizers only (CF), chemical fertilizers with swine manure (SM), and chemical fertilizers with wheat straw (WS), and two soil moisture regimes, continuous waterlogging (CWL) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD),were investigated. With SM and WS total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the paddy soil were significantly higher (P <0.05) than those with CF. A similar effect for organic amendments was observed in the soil light fraction organic C (LFOC), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and water-soluble organic C (WSOC). CWL, in particular when swine manure was incorporated into the paddy soil, markedly decreased soil redox potential (Eh) and increased total active reducing substances (ARS). Meanwhile, as compared to CF, SM and WS significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and mineralizable carbon, with differences in AWD being higher than CWL. In addition, SM and WS treatments significantly (P < 0.05) improved rice above-ground biomass and grain yield, with AWD being greater than CWL. Thus, for ecologically sustainable agricultural management of paddy soils, long-term waterlogging should be avoided when organic manure was incorporated into paddy soil.

  15. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Relating Water Quality and Age in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using Self-Organising Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mirjam Blokker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing water quality in drinking water distribution system is essential for public health and wellbeing, but is challenging due to the number and complexity of interacting physical, chemical and biological processes occurring within vast, deteriorating pipe networks. In this paper we explore the application of Self Organising Map techniques to derive such understanding from international data sets, demonstrating how multivariate, non-linear techniques can be used to identify relationships that are not discernible using univariate and/or linear analysis methods for drinking water quality. The paper reports on how various microbial parameters correlated with modelled water ages and were influenced by water temperatures in three drinking water distribution systems.

  18. Rational Utilization of Salt Affected Soils and Saline Waters for Crop Production and the Protection of Soil and Water in Agricultural Catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable management of land and water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is of concern as a result of increased population pressure and the need for more food and fibre. Soil and water salinity is widespread across the arid and semiarid regions of Australia, the Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, North Africa, North America and South Asia, where it is a major constraint for agricultural productivity and the livelihoods of the rural population. Globally, salinity spreads across at least 75 countries and about 20% of irrigated land is affected by salinity. Recent estimates suggest that up to 50% of irrigated land has become saline in some of these regions. While both natural processes (primary) and anthropogenic activities (secondary) cause soil and water salinity, the latter contributes more to loss of agricultural productivity in these regions. In addition to anthropogenic activities global climate change also accelerates soil and water salinity through the following processes: - Unpredictable evaporation and transpiration: Climate change alters the evapotranspiration and water balance at the land surface, and changes the groundwater recharge. In shallow aquifers, the groundwater responds to these changes quickly and moves towards the surface bringing salt with it and accelerating soil salinization (Yu et al., 2002). - Reduction in rainfall: Current best estimates suggest that in arid and semi-arid catchments, a reduction in rainfall due to climate change will result in up to double the reduction in run-off from catchments and river flow. Under such conditions, river salinity will increase as a result of reduced river dilution (CSIRO, 2008). - Influence of tidal waves: In coastal areas, the risk of soil and water salinization under climate change is even higher because the increased sea level and frequency of tidal waves brings salt water into inland freshwaters and is lost then to groundwater, making it saline. In low-lying areas, salty river water moves to

  19. Availability and Temporal Heterogeneity of Water Supply Affect the Vertical Distribution and Mortality of a Belowground Herbivore and Consequently Plant Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tsunoda, Tomonori; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2014-01-01

    We examined how the volume and temporal heterogeneity of water supply changed the vertical distribution and mortality of a belowground herbivore, and consequently affected plant biomass. Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) seedlings were grown at one per pot under different combinations of water volume (large or small volume) and heterogeneity (homogeneous water conditions, watered every day; heterogeneous conditions, watered every 4 days) in the presence or absence of a larva of the belowgr...

  20. Use of Nitrogen-15 Isotope Method in Soils and Ground Water to Determine Potential Nitrogen Sources Affecting a Municipal Water Supply in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M. A.; Macko, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate-N concentrations have increased to greater than 10 mg/L in a municipal water supply in western Kansas from 1995 to 2002. A study was done by the Kansas Geological Survey using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance isotope method to determine potential sources for the increasing nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results of the isotope analyses on water samples suggest that animal waste and/or denitrification enrichment has affected the water supply. Soil samples from areas near the wells that were not treated with manure show a general increase of nitrogen-15 signature (+9 to +15 \\permil) to a depth of 5 m. Soils are silt loams with measurable carbonate (0.8 to 2 % by weight) in the profile, which may permit volatilization enrichment to occur in the soil profile. Wells in the area range from 11 to 20 m in alluvial deposits with depth to water at approximately 9 m). Nitrate-N values range from 8 to 26 mg/L. Nitrogen-15 values range from (+17 to +28 \\permil) with no obvious source of animal waste near the well sites. There are potential nearby long-term sources of animal waste - an abandoned sewage treatment plant and an agricultural testing farm. One well has a reducing chemistry with a nitrate value of 0.9 mg/L and a nitrogen-15 value of +17 \\permil suggesting that alluvial sediment variation also has an impact on the water quality in the study area. The other wells show values of nitrate and nitrogen-15 that are much greater than the associated soils. The use of nitrogen-15 alone permited limited evaluation of sources of nitrate to ground water particularly in areas with carbonate in the soils. Use of oxygen-18 on nitrate will permit the delineation of the processes affecting the nitrogen in the soil profile and determination of the probable sources and the processes that have affected the nitrogen in the ground water. Final results of the nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 analyses will be presented.