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Sample records for affects touch perception

  1. A warm touch of affect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the research areas within affective Computer Mediated Communication currently under investigation is that of mediated social touch. A social touch is a complex composition of different physical parameters that can be simulated by haptic technologies. In this article we argue why we think it m

  2. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

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    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  3. Freezing in Touch: Sound Enhances Tactile Perception

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    Ya-Yeh Tsai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual segregation in rapidly changing visual displays can be facilitated by a synchronized salient sound that segregates itself from other sounds in the sequence (Vroomen & de Gelder, 2000. We examined whether this “freezing” phenomenon can also be found in tactile perception. Three vibrators were placed on the participant's palm to produce four different tactile patterns. Four sounds were presented separately and simultaneously with each of the four tactile patterns. Among the three same-pitch tones, an abrupt high-pitch tone was presented simultaneously with the designated temporal position of the target pattern in the sequence of tactual stimuli that was presented rapidly and repeatedly. The task was to identify the tactile pattern of the target. Results showed that participants responded faster and more accurately with the high-pitch tone, compared to the condition when all the tones were of the same pitch. However, the result reversed when an extra tactile cue was presented on the wrist. This suggests that a salient auditory signal can improve perceptual segregation not only in vision but also in touch. That is, it is a cross-modal facilitation, not an alerting or attentional cueing effect.

  4. Affective touch and attachment style modulate pain: a laser-evoked potentials study

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    Drabek, Marianne M.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Affective touch and cutaneous pain are two sub-modalities of interoception with contrasting affective qualities (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and social meanings (care/harm), yet their direct relationship has not been investigated. In 50 women, taking into account individual attachment styles, we assessed the role of affective touch and particularly the contribution of the C tactile (CT) system in subjective and electrophysiological responses to noxious skin stimulation, namely N1 and N2-P2 laser-evoked potentials. When pleasant, slow (versus fast) velocity touch was administered to the (non-CT-containing) palm of the hand, higher attachment anxiety predicted increased subjective pain ratings, in the same direction as changes in N2 amplitude. By contrast, when pleasant touch was administered to CT-containing skin of the arm, higher attachment anxiety predicted attenuated N1 and N2 amplitudes. Higher attachment avoidance predicted opposite results. Thus, CT-based affective touch can modulate pain in early and late processing stages (N1 and N2 components), with the direction of effects depending on attachment style. Affective touch not involving the CT system seems to affect predominately the conscious perception of pain, possibly reflecting socio-cognitive factors further up the neurocognitive hierarchy. Affective touch may thus convey information about available social resources and gate pain responses depending on individual expectations of social support. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health’. PMID:28080967

  5. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

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    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  6. Aging affects attunement in perceiving length by dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed age-dependent differences in perception by dynamic touch. In the present study, we examined whether the capacity to learn deteriorates with aging. Adopting an ecological approach to learning, the authors examined the process of attunement-that is, the changes in what in

  7. Freezing in Touch: Sound Enhances Tactile Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Yeh Tsai; Su-Ling Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual segregation in rapidly changing visual displays can be facilitated by a synchronized salient sound that segregates itself from other sounds in the sequence (Vroomen & de Gelder, 2000). We examined whether this “freezing” phenomenon can also be found in tactile perception. Three vibrators were placed on the participant's palm to produce four different tactile patterns. Four sounds were presented separately and simultaneously with each of the four tactile patterns. Among the three sa...

  8. Perception of simulated local shapes using active and passive touch.

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    Smith, Allan M; Chapman, C Elaine; Donati, François; Fortier-Poisson, Pascal; Hayward, Vincent

    2009-12-01

    This study reexamined the perceptual equivalence of active and passive touch using a computer-controlled force-feedback device. Nine subjects explored a 6 x 10-cm workspace, with the index finger resting on a mobile flat plate, and experienced simulated Gaussian ridges and troughs (width, 15 mm; amplitude, 0.5 to 4.5 mm). The device simulated shapes by modulating either lateral resistance with no vertical movement or by vertical movement with no lateral forces, as a function of the digit position in the horizontal workspace. The force profiles and displacements recorded during active touch were played back to the stationary finger in the passive condition, ensuring that stimulation conditions were identical. For the passive condition, shapes simulated by vertical displacements of the finger had lower categorization thresholds and higher magnitude estimates compared with those of active touch. In contrast, the results with the lateral force fields showed that with passive touch, subjects recognized that a stimulus was present but were unable to correctly categorize its shape as convex or concave. This result suggests that feedback from the motor command can play an important role in processing sensory inputs during tactile exploration. Finally, subjects were administered a ring-block anesthesia of the digital nerves of the index finger and subsequently retested. Removing skin sensation significantly increased the categorization threshold for the perception of shapes generated by lateral force fields, but not for those generated by displacement fields.

  9. Primary somatosensory cortex discriminates affective significance in social touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Spezio, Michael L.; Etzel, Joset A.; Castelli, Fulvia; Adolphs, Ralph; Keysers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Another person's caress is one of the most powerful of all emotional social signals. How much the primary somatosensory cortices (SIs) participate in processing the pleasantness of such social touch remains unclear. Although ample empirical evidence supports the role of the insula in affective proce

  10. Neurotransmitters affecting time perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been demonstrated that dopamine and acetylcholine are the main neurotransmitters that affect time perception,which is also affected by other neurotransmitters.OBJECTIVE:To summarize how the neurotransmitter affect the time perception,and put forward the perspectives for further study on time perception.RETRIEVE STRATEGY:An online search for related literatures published in English was conducted in Elsevier SDOL(ScienceDirect Online)database from May 1990 to March 2007 using key words of "timing neurotransmitter".Totally 69 literatures were collected,and they were primarily checked.Inclusive criteria:Reviews and experimental studies;correlative studies of timing neurotransmitter.Exclusive criteria:Repeated studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The literatures were mainly sourced from Cognitive Brain Research and Neuroscience,and they were analyzed according to the inclusive criteria.Nineteen of them were involved,and all were experimental studies and reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS:The studies on time perception are developed mainly concentrating on dopamine and acetylcholine.Dopamine D2 receptors mainly affect the speed of internal clock.Dopamine receptors play an important role in both timing excitation and inhibition,which suggests the bi-directional regulation of dopamine.Injection of dopamine agonist can affect the attention to timing information.Injection of BW813U(antagonist of acetylcholine) can induce memory disorder,which indicates the effect of acetylcholine on timing memory,and further study shows that it is the effect of acetylcholine in precentral medial area.In a word,the study on the neurotransmitters affecting time perception is still at the primary stage.CONCLUSION:Dopamine and acetylcholine are the neurotransmitters known to be related to time perception.Dopamine in the basal ganglia is related to internal-clock in the range of seconds and minutes;Acetylcholine in prefrontal cortex is related to the mechanisms of temporal memory and attention

  11. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

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    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  12. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

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    Stefanie M. Erk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video can (1 enhance recovery from sadness, (2 enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3 increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble, which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses and subjective (questionnaires data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was

  13. Multisensory Perception of Affect

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    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  14. Brain dynamics for perception of tactile allodynia (touch-induced pain) in postherpetic neuralgia

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    Geha, P. Y.; Baliki, M. N.; Wang, X.; Harden, R. N.; Paice, J. A.; Apkarian, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a debilitating chronic pain condition often accompanied by a sensation of pain when the affected region is touched (tactile allodynia). Here we identify brain regions involved in stimulus-induced touch-evoked pain (dynamical mechanical allodynia, DMA), compare brain activity between DMA and spontaneous pain (described earlier for the same patients in [28], delineate regions that specifically code the magnitude of perceived allodynia, and show the transformation of allodynia-related information in the brain as a time-evolving network. Eleven PHN patients were studied for DMA and its modulation with Lidoderm therapy (patches of 5% lidocaine applied to the PHN affected body part). Continuous ratings of pain while the affected body part was brushed during fMRI were contrasted with non-painful touch when brushing was applied to an equivalent opposite body site, and with fluctuations of a bar observed during scanning, at three sessions relative to Lidoderm treatment. Lidoderm treatment did not decrease DMA ratings but did decrease spontaneous pain. Multiple brain areas showed preferential activity for allodynia. However, mainly responses in the bilateral putamen and left medial temporal gyrus were related to the magnitude of allodynia. Both DMA and spontaneous pain perceptions were best represented within the same sub-cortical structures but with minimal overlap, implying that PHN pain modulates behavioral learning and hedonics. These results have important clinical implications regarding adequate therapy. PMID:18384958

  15. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

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    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  16. A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.

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    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-10-01

    Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss.

  17. Mirror-Touch and Ticker Tape Perceptions in Synesthesia

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    Charlotte Anne Chun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia’s connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person’s arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one’s own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker’s mouth. To explore synesthesia’s associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n=3,743 was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1,017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However effect size was small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2 to 4% and sequence-space synesthesia (9 to 14%. Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect

  18. Factors affecting the haptic filled-space illusion for dynamic touch.

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    Sanders, Abram F J; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2009-02-01

    In the haptic filled-space illusion for active dynamic touch, observers move their fingertip across an unfilled extent or an extent filled with intermediate stimulations. Previous researchers have reported lengths of filled extents to be overestimated, but the parameters affecting the strength of the illusion are still largely unknown. In the current research, we show that the illusion persists when intermediate stimulations do not provide information about the extent's length. In addition, the results show that the strength of the illusion increases with the number of filler elements. In contrast with earlier research, we control for movement speed differences between filled and unfilled extents. The results suggest that the strength of the illusion is independent of the overall average movement speed. Insight into factors affecting the strength of the illusion may provide a better understanding of the kinematic mechanisms underlying haptic length perception.

  19. Reach out and touch somebody's virtual hand : Affectively connected through mediated touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Petrignani, F.F.; Dufrasnes, M.H.; Sahhashivan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a haptic computer accessory that adds the experience of touch to online conversations. It enables dyads to exchange the physical experience of holding hands regardless of distance and location. Text, speech and video communication systems support the transmission of several

  20. Pleasant touch moderates the subjective but not objective aspects of body perception

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    Donna Marie Lloyd

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Un-myelinated C tactile afferents (CT afferents are a key finding in affective touch. These fibres, which activate in response to a caress-like touch to hairy skin (CT afferents are not found in palm skin, may have more in common with interoceptive systems encoding body ownership, than afferent systems processing other tactile stimuli. We tested whether subjective embodiment of a rubber hand (measured through questionnaire items was increased when tactile stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at a rate optimal for CT afferents (3cm/s vs. stimulation of glabrous skin (on the palm of the hand or at a non-optimal rate (30cm/s, which should not activate these fibres. We also collected ratings of tactile pleasantness and a measure of perceived limb position, proprioceptive drift, which is mediated by different mechanisms of multisensory integration than those responsible for feelings of ownership. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that proprioceptive drift was a significant predictor of subjective strength of the illusion when tactile stimuli were applied to the back of the hand, regardless of stroking speed. This relationship was modified by pleasantness, with higher ratings when stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at the slower vs. faster stroking speed. Pleasantness was also a unique predictor of illusion strength when fast stroking was applied to the palm of the hand. However, there were no conditions under which pleasantness was a significant predictor of drift. Since the illusion was demonstrated at a non-optimal stroking speed an integrative role for CT afferents within the illusion cannot be fully supported. Pleasant touch, however, does moderate the subjective aspects of the rubber hand illusion, which under certain tactile conditions may interact with proprioceptive information about the body or have a unique influence on subjective body perception.

  1. Touch-contingent visual motion perception: tactile events drive visual motion perception.

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    Teraoka, Ryo; Teramoto, Wataru

    2017-03-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the brain rapidly forms an association between concurrently presented sound sequences and visual motion. Once this association has been formed, the associated sound sequence can drive visual motion perception. This phenomenon is known as "sound-contingent visual motion perception" (SCVM). In the present study, we addressed the possibility of a similar association involving touch instead of audition. In a 9-min exposure session, two circles placed side by side were alternately presented to produce apparent motion in a horizontal direction. The onsets of the circle presentations were synchronized with vibrotactile stimulation on two different positions of the forearm. We then quantified pre- and post-exposure perceptual changes using a motion-nulling procedure. Results showed that after prolonged exposure to visuotactile stimuli, the tactile sequence influenced visual motion perception. Notably, this effect was specific to the previously exposed visual field, thus ruling out the possibility of simple response bias. These findings suggest that SCVM-like associations occur, at least to some extent, for the other modality combinations. Furthermore, the effect did not occur when the forearm posture was changed between the exposure and test phases, suggesting that the association is formed after integrating proprioceptive information.

  2. The affective and cognitive processing of touch, oral texture, and temperature in the brain.

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    Rolls, Edmund T

    2010-02-01

    Some of the principles of the representation of affective touch in the brain are described. Positively affective touch and temperature are represented in parts of the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex. The orbitofrontal cortex is implicated in some of the affective aspects of touch that may be mediated through C fibre touch afferents, in that it is activated more by light touch to the forearm (a source of C-tactile (CT) afferents) than by light touch to the glabrous skin of the hand. Oral somatosensory afferents implicated in sensing the texture of food including fat in the mouth also activate the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex, as well as the insular taste cortex. Top-down cognitive modulation of the representation of affective touch produced by word labels is found in parietal cortex area 7, the insula and ventral striatum. The cognitive labels also influence activations to the sight of touch and also the correlations with pleasantness in the pregenual cingulate/orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum.

  3. Touch-typing VDU operation: workstation adjustment, working posture, and workers' perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.; Berndsen, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    At a VDU workstation professional touch-typing operators worked at eight different combined adjustments of visual target height and chair backrest inclination. Working posture, workers' perceptions and work performance were measured. Two conclusions were drawn. First, in order to minimize the load o

  4. ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.

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    Morrison, India

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways.

  5. Disturbances in affective touch in hereditary sensory & autonomic neuropathy type III.

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    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley-Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1-10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity.

  6. Dynamic touch is affected in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Ocarino, Juliana M; Fonseca, Sergio T; Silva, Paula L P; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Souza, Thales R; Mancini, Marisa C

    2014-02-01

    Children with developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy have limited opportunities for effortful interactions with objects and tools. The goal of the study was to investigate whether children with cerebral palsy have deficits in their ability to perceive object length by dynamic touch when compared to typically developing children. Fourteen children with typical development and 12 children with cerebral palsy were asked to report the length of hand-held rods after wielding them out of sight. Multilevel regression models indicated that I1 (maximum principal moment of inertia) was a significant predictor of perceived length - LP (pcerebral palsy (group factor) partially explained such variance (p=.002). In addition, accuracy and reliability of the length judgments made by children with cerebral palsy were significantly lower than the typically developing children (p<.05). Theoretical and clinical implications of these results were identified and discussed.

  7. Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness

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    Rochelle eAckerley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents over the body, which are found at varying densities. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s-1, known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1-10 cm s-1, where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with

  8. Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: An analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T.; Bensamaïa, S. J.; Craig, J. C.; Hsiao, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable information about the texture of objects can be perceived remotely through a probe. It is not clear, however, how texture perception with a probe compares with texture perception with the bare finger. Here we investigate the perception of a variety of textured surfaces encountered daily (e.g., corduroy, paper, and rubber) using the two scanning modes—direct touch through the finger and indirect touch through a probe held in the hand—in two tasks. In the first task, subjects rated the overall pair-wise dissimilarity of the textures. In the second task, subjects rated each texture along three continua, namely, perceived roughness, hardness, and stickiness of the surfaces, shown previously as the primary dimensions of texture perception in direct touch. From the dissimilarity judgment experiment, we found that the texture percept is similar though not identical in the two scanning modes. From the adjective rating experiments, we found that while roughness ratings are similar, hardness and stickiness ratings tend to differ between scanning conditions. These differences between the two modes of scanning are apparent in perceptual space for tactile textures based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that three physical quantities, vibratory power, compliance, and friction carry roughness, hardness, and stickiness information, predicting perceived dissimilarity of texture pairs with indirect touch. Given that different types of texture information are processed by separate groups of neurons across direct and indirect touch, we propose that the neural mechanisms underlying texture perception differ between scanning modes. PMID:17558923

  9. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, S.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto parti

  10. Factors affecting the haptic filled-space illusion for dynamic touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the haptic filled-space illusion for active dynamic touch, observers move their fingertip across an unfilled extent or an extent filled with intermediate stimulations. Previous researchers have reported lengths of filled extents to be overestimated, but the parameters affecting the strength of th

  11. C-tactile afferent stimulating touch carries a positive affective value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawling, Ralph; Cannon, Peter R.; McGlone, Francis P.; Walker, Susannah C.

    2017-01-01

    The rewarding sensation of touch in affiliative interactions is hypothesized to be underpinned by a specialized system of nerve fibers called C-Tactile afferents (CTs), which respond optimally to slowly moving, gentle touch, typical of a caress. However, empirical evidence to support the theory that CTs encode socially relevant, rewarding tactile information in humans is currently limited. While in healthy participants, touch applied at CT optimal velocities (1-10cm/sec) is reliably rated as subjectively pleasant, neuronopathy patients lacking large myelinated afferents, but with intact C-fibres, report that the conscious sensation elicited by stimulation of CTs is rather vague. Given this weak perceptual impact the value of self-report measures for assessing the specific affective value of CT activating touch appears limited. Therefore, we combined subjective ratings of touch pleasantness with implicit measures of affective state (facial electromyography) and autonomic arousal (heart rate) to determine whether CT activation carries a positive affective value. We recorded the activity of two key emotion-relevant facial muscle sites (zygomaticus major—smile muscle, positive affect & corrugator supercilii—frown muscle, negative affect) while participants evaluated the pleasantness of experimenter administered stroking touch, delivered using a soft brush, at two velocities (CT optimal 3cm/sec & CT non-optimal 30cm/sec), on two skin sites (CT innervated forearm & non-CT innervated palm). On both sites, 3cm/sec stroking touch was rated as more pleasant and produced greater heart rate deceleration than 30cm/sec stimulation. However, neither self-report ratings nor heart rate responses discriminated stimulation on the CT innervated arm from stroking of the non-CT innervated palm. In contrast, significantly greater activation of the zygomaticus major (smiling muscle) was seen specifically to CT optimal, 3cm/sec, stroking on the forearm in comparison to all other

  12. Reading Touch Screen Storybooks with Mothers Negatively Affects 7-Year-Old Readers’ Comprehension but Enriches Emotional Engagement.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Kirsty; Pye, Rachel E.; Randell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s \\ud learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format(touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low...

  13. Reading touch screen storybooks with mothers negatively affects seven-year-old readers’ comprehension but enriches emotional engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsty Mhairi Ross; Rachel Emma Pye; Jordan Randell

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) ...

  14. Feeling Touched: Emotional Modulation of Somatosensory Potentials to Interpersonal Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaja, N.; Harjunen, V.; Ahmed, I.; Jacucci, G.; Spapé, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher’s emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee’s somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality. Touch processing was indexed using SEPs, and self-reports of touch experience were collected. Early potentials were found to be amplified after angry, happy and sad facial expressions, while late potentials were amplified after anger but attenuated after happiness. These effects were related to two stages of emotional modulation of tactile perception: anticipation and interpretation. The findings show that not only does touch affect emotion, but also emotional expressions affect touch perception. The affective modulation of touch was initially obtained as early as 25 ms after the touch onset suggesting that emotional context is integrated to the tactile sensation at a very early stage. PMID:28079157

  15. Prosthetic hand sensor placement: Analysis of touch perception during the grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on their hands to perform everyday tasks. The hand is used as a tool, but also as the interface to “sense” the world. Current prosthetic hands are based on sophisticated multi-fingered structures, and include many sensors which counterpart natural proprioceptors and exteroceptors. The sensory information is used for control, but not sent to the user of the hand (amputee. Grasping without sensing is not good enough. This research is part of the development of the sensing interface for amputees, specifically addressing the analysis of human perception while grasping. The goal is to determine the small number of preferred positions of sensors on the prosthetic hand. This task has previously been approached by trying to replicate a natural sensory system characteristic for healthy humans, resulting in a multitude of redundant sensors and basic inability to make the patient aware of the sensor readings on the subconscious level. We based our artificial perception system on the reported sensations of humans when grasping various objects without seeing the objects (obstructed visual feedback. Subjects, with no known sensory deficits, were asked to report on the touch sensation while grasping. The analysis included objects of various sizes, weights, textures and temperatures. Based on this data we formed a map of the preferred positions for the sensors that is appropriate for five finger human-like robotic hand. The final map was intentionally minimized in size (number of sensors.

  16. Rhythm in number: exploring the affective, social and mathematical dimensions of using TouchCounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Chorney, Sean; Rodney, Sheree

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the mathematical, social and affective nature of children's engagement with TouchCounts, a multitouch application for counting and doing arithmetic. In order to study these dimensions of engagement in a way that recognizes their fundamental intertwinement, we use rhythm as a primary unit of analysis. Drawing on over 8 hours of research sessions with children aged 6, 7 and 8 years old, we show how various rhythms emerged from their interactions and how these rhythms changed over time—moving from the particular to the more general. We also show how important rhythm is to children's carrying of activity, which relates to aspects of interest and motivation.

  17. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  18. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  19. Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knill, D C; Kersten, D

    1991-05-16

    The human visual system has the remarkable capacity to perceive accurately the lightness, or relative reflectance, of surfaces, even though much of the variation in image luminance may be caused by other scene attributes, such as shape and illumination. Most physiological, and computational models of lightness perception invoke early sensory mechanisms that act independently of, or before, the estimation of other scene attributes. In contrast to the modularity of lightness perception assumed in these models are experiments that show that supposedly 'higher-order' percepts of planar surface attributes, such as orientation, depth and transparency, can influence perceived lightness. Here we show that perceived surface curvature can also affect perceived lightness. The results of the earlier experiments indicate that perceiving luminance edges as changes in surface attributes other than reflectance can influence lightness. These results suggest that the interpretation of smooth variations in luminance can also affect lightness percepts.

  20. Reading Touch Screen Storybooks with Mothers Negatively Affects 7-Year-Old Readers' Comprehension but Enriches Emotional Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kirsty M; Pye, Rachel E; Randell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children's learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22) were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print formats. Touch screen interactivity level had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother-child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers' cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help). Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and although length of the shared reading session and

  1. Reading Touch Screen Storybooks with Mothers Negatively Affects 7-Year-Old Readers’ Comprehension but Enriches Emotional Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kirsty M.; Pye, Rachel E.; Randell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22) were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print formats. Touch screen interactivity level had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother–child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help). Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and although length of the shared reading session and

  2. Reading touch screen storybooks with mothers negatively affects seven-year-old readers’ comprehension but enriches emotional engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Mhairi Ross

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22 were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print versions. Touch screen interactivity had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother-child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help. Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and length of the shared reading session and

  3. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  4. Water-induced finger wrinkles do not affect touch acuity or dexterity in handling wet objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Haseleu

    Full Text Available Human non-hairy (glabrous skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n = 40 in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects.

  5. Using historical accounts of harpsichord touch to empirically investigate the production and perception of dynamics on the 1788 Taskin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMacritchie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the extent of production and perception of dynamic differences on a French historical harpsichord, extensively revised in 1788 by Pascal Taskin. A historical review reports on the descriptions of two different types of touch found in treatises of the eighteenth century. These two touches (loud/struck and soft/pressed were used to perform single tones on the lower, upper, peau de buffle registers (the last of which Taskin is credited with having invented and the coupled 8-foot registers to investigate differences in dynamics. Acoustic measurements show varied differences of up to 11dB for the two types of touch over different pitches in each register. The strongest difference is measured in the first harmonic of note F2 on the peau de buffle. A listening experiment was conducted to test whether these differences are perceivable. Participants performed a discrimination task using pairs of single tones. Participants were able to perform significantly better than chance in correctly identifying whether pairs of single tones were same or different with respect to loudness (t (24 = 12.01, p < .001. Accuracies were influenced by pitch and register, the peau de buffle providing the strongest accuracies over the four registers tested.

  6. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brianna; Snell, Sam; Bye-Nagel, Kyri; Tonidandel, Scott; Heyer, Laurie J; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2011-07-21

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  7. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  8. Parental Perceptions of Touch between Parents and Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the role of touch in the parental experience of having an infant in the NICU. Using a narrative analysis methodology, the researcher interviewed six parents who currently had infants in the NICU. Both mothers and one father were interviewed. Infant ages ranged from 24-28 weeks gestation and all…

  9. Robotic touch shifts perception of embodiment to a prosthesis in targeted reinnervation amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Paul D; Kim, Keehoon; Colgate, James Edward; Peshkin, Michael A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-03-01

    Existing prosthetic limbs do not provide amputees with cutaneous feedback. Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control of a prosthetic limb and it is now clear that the sense of body self-identification is also linked to cutaneous touch. Here we have created an artificial sense of touch for a prosthetic limb by coupling a pressure sensor on the hand through a robotic stimulator to surgically redirected cutaneous sensory nerves (targeted reinnervation) that once served the lost limb. We hypothesize that providing physiologically relevant cutaneous touch feedback may help an amputee incorporate an artificial limb into his or her self image. To investigate this we used a robotic touch interface coupled with a prosthetic limb and tested it with two targeted reinnervation amputees in a series of experiments fashioned after the Rubber Hand Illusion. Results from both subjective (self-reported) and objective (physiological) measures of embodiment (questionnaires, psychophysical temporal order judgements and residual limb temperature measurements) indicate that returning physiologically appropriate cutaneous feedback from a prosthetic limb drives a perceptual shift towards embodiment of the device for these amputees. Measurements provide evidence that the illusion created is vivid. We suggest that this may help amputees to more effectively incorporate an artificial limb into their self image, providing the possibility that a prosthesis becomes not only a tool, but also an integrated body part.

  10. Roughness perception in tactile channels: evidence for an opponent process in the sense of touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gescheider, George A; Wright, John H

    2013-09-01

    Magnitude estimates of the tactile roughness of raised-dot surfaces revealed that perceived overall roughness, defined as the combination of the perceived roughness of the dot pattern and the perceived roughness of the individual dots in the pattern, is an inverted U-shaped function of dot spacing, reaching a maximum at approximately 3.0 mm of dot separation. The hypothesis that Pacinian corpuscles are involved in roughness perception has been supported by the finding that selective adaptation of the Pacinian corpuscle (PC) channel with a 250-Hz stimulus at 20-dB SL results in a decrease in the perceived overall roughness of the raised-dot surface at the fingertip. The effect of PC channel adaptation on perceived overall roughness was attributable entirely to a reduction in the perceived roughness of the individual raised dots; PC adaptation had no effect on the perceived roughness of the raised-dot pattern. Selective adaptation of the slowly adapting type I (SA I) channel with a 5-Hz stimulus at 20-dB SL had the opposite effect of PC channel adaptation and resulted in an increase in the perceived roughness of the individual raised dots, and consequently the perceived overall roughness of the raised-dot surface. As was the case with PC channel adaptation, SA I channel adaptation had no effect on the perceived roughness of the pattern. Adaptation with a compound adapting stimulus containing 5- and 250-Hz components at 20-dB SL had no effect on perceived overall roughness, which suggests that the PC and SA I channels operate antagonistically in an opponent-process fashion in the perception of the microstructure of a textured surface. Neither PC adaptation nor SA I adaptation affected perceived pattern roughness, which suggests that pattern roughness is coded by relative rather than by absolute spatial variation in firing rate.

  11. Texture design for skin friction and touch perception of stainless steel surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Tactile perception a concept with mechanical, physiological and psychological perspective, is of particular concern to the industrial companies and research area. The hedonic attributes of tactile perception are influential to our daily life like wearing clothes, using personal care products, holdin

  12. Bodily Illusions Modulate Tactile Perception

    OpenAIRE

    De Vignemont, Frédérique; H. Ehrsson, Henrik; Haggard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Touch differs from other exteroceptive senses in that the body itself forms part of the tactile percept. Interactions between proprioception and touch provide a powerful way to investigate the implicit body representation underlying touch. Here, we demonstrate that an intrinsic primary quality of a tactile object, for example its size, is directly affected by the perceived size of the body part touching it. We elicited proprioceptive illusions that the left index finger was either elongating ...

  13. Vision is superior to touch in shape perception even with equivalent peripheral input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonju; Craig, J C; Hsiao, S S; Bensmaia, S J

    2016-01-01

    Results from previous studies suggest that two-dimensional spatial patterns are processed similarly in vision and touch when the patterns are equated for effective size or when visual stimuli are blurred to mimic the spatial filtering of the skin. In the present study, we measured subjects' ability to perceive the shape of familiar and unfamiliar visual and tactile patterns to compare form processing in the two modalities. As had been previously done, the two-dimensional tactile and visual patterns were adjusted in size to stimulate an equivalent number of receptors in the two modalities. We also distorted the visual patterns, using a filter that accurately mimics the spatial filtering effected by the skin to further equate the peripheral images in the two modalities. We found that vision consistently outperformed touch regardless of the precise perceptual task and of how familiar the patterns were. Based on an examination of both the earlier and present data, we conclude that visual processing of both familiar and unfamiliar two-dimensional patterns is superior to its tactile counterpart except under very restricted conditions.

  14. Task usefulness affects perception of rivalrous images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Adrien; Mamassian, Pascal

    2010-12-01

    In bistable perception, several interpretations of the same physical stimulus are perceived in alternation. If one interpretation appears to help the observer to be successful in an auxiliary task, will that interpretation be seen more often than the other? We addressed this question using rivalrous stimuli. One of the elicited percepts presented an advantage for a separate visual search task that was run in close temporal proximity to the rivalry task. We found that the percept that was useful for the search task became dominant over the alternate percept. Observers were not aware of the manipulation that made one percept more useful, which suggests that usefulness was learned implicitly. The learning influenced only the first percept of each rivalrous presentation, but the bias persisted even when the useful percept was no longer useful. The long-lasting aspect of the effect distinguishes it from other documented attentional effects on bistable perception. Therefore, using implicit learning, we demonstrated that task usefulness can durably change the appearance of a stimulus.

  15. Touching motion: rTMS on the human middle temporal complex interferes with tactile speed perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Demis; Pavan, Andrea; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Fagioli, Sabrina; Vecchi, Tomaso; Miniussi, Carlo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Brain functional and psychophysical studies have clearly demonstrated that visual motion perception relies on the activity of the middle temporal complex (hMT+). However, recent studies have shown that hMT+ seems to be also activated during tactile motion perception, suggesting that this visual extrastriate area is involved in the processing and integration of motion, irrespective of the sensorial modality. In the present study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to assess whether hMT+ plays a causal role in tactile motion processing. Blindfolded participants detected changes in the speed of a grid of tactile moving points with their finger (i.e. tactile modality). The experiment included three different conditions: a control condition with no TMS and two TMS conditions, i.e. hMT+-rTMS and posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-rTMS. Accuracies were significantly impaired during hMT+-rTMS but not in the other two conditions (No-rTMS or PPC-rTMS), moreover, thresholds for detecting speed changes were significantly higher in the hMT+-rTMS with respect to the control TMS conditions. These findings provide stronger evidence that the activity of the hMT+ area is involved in tactile speed processing, which may be consistent with the hypothesis of a supramodal role for that cortical region in motion processing.

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Affects Pain Perception in Depressed Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Borckardt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS affects pain perception in epilepsy patients, with acute VNS decreasing pain thresholds and chronic VNS treatment increasing pain thresholds. However, no studies have investigated the effects of VNS on pain perception in chronically depressed adults, nor have controlled, systematic investigations been published on the differential effects of certain VNS device parameters on pain perception.

  17. When emotional intelligence affects peoples' perception of trustworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wing Shing; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    By adopting social exchange theory and the affect-infusion-model, the hypothesis is made that emotional intelligence (EI) will have an impact on three perceptions of trustworthiness – ability, integrity and benevolence – at the beginning of a relationship. It was also hypothesized that additional information would gradually displace EI in forming the above perceptions.The results reveal that EI initially does not contribute to any of the perceptions of trustworthiness. As mo...

  18. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  19. Touch Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

    The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

  20. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  1. Touching the private parts: how gender and sexuality norms affect medical students' first pelvic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensdotter, Renita; Siwe, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Gynaecologists are in a position to challenge norms about gender and sexuality in relation to female genitals. Through their work they have the opportunity to educate patients, which is why teaching medical students to perform examinations in a gender sensitive way is significant. Medical students performing their first pelvic examination often experience the examination as uncomfortable because it is a body part that is connected to sex and to something private. This paper uses medical students' interpretations of performing their first pelvic examination as a means to discuss how cultural norms for gender, sexuality and female genitals affect these examinations. Issues raised include how cultural connotations of female genitals affect the pelvic examination, how female and male students relate differently to examining female genitals and the interpretations they make in relation to themselves. Findings show that the female genitals are perceived as a special body part connected to sexuality and intimacy. Students' gender also affects the interpretations they make during pelvic examinations. Norms of gender, sexuality and female genitals need to be challenged in the teaching and performance of pelvic examination in order to demystify this experience.

  2. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  3. Touch massage, a rewarding experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences.

  4. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  5. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  6. A review of fingerpad contact mechanics and friction and how this affects tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilenburg, van J.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, van der E.

    2015-01-01

    In the sliding contact between the fingerpad and a rough surface when touching a product’s surface, friction plays a role in the perception of roughness, slipperiness and warmth. For product engineers who aim to control and optimize the sensorial properties of a product surface interacting with the

  7. Dream Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Beer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the nineteenth century people were relatively uninhibited in recounting their dreams and dream material is prominent in many literary texts of the period. Touch is often described as being relatively rare in dreams because of the need to be alert to an actual touch. However, touch is explored in dreams in works by, for example, Emily Brontë, Charles Dickens, Christina Rossetti, Edwin Abbott, and Thomas Hardy. A frequent Victorian explanation for dream experiences was indigestion and this raises questions about the degree to which experiences of inner touch are particularly disquieting. The article analyses a number of diverse texts in which touch disturbs the threshold between sleep and waking. It examines Victorian arguments connecting evolutionary theory and tactile experience.

  8. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  9. Professors' Facebook content affects students' perceptions and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J; Smith, Aimee W; Laboe, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Abstract Facebook users must make choices about level of self-disclosure, and this self-disclosure can influence perceptions of the profile's author. We examined whether the specific type of self-disclosure on a professor's profile would affect students' perceptions of the professor and expectations of his classroom. We created six Facebook profiles for a fictitious male professor, each with a specific emphasis: politically conservative, politically liberal, religious, family oriented, socially oriented, or professional. Undergraduate students randomly viewed one profile and responded to questions that assessed their perceptions and expectations. The social professor was perceived as less skilled but more popular, while his profile was perceived as inappropriate and entertaining. Students reacted more strongly and negatively to the politically focused profiles in comparison to the religious, family, and professional profiles. Students reported being most interested in professional information on a professor's Facebook profile, yet they reported being least influenced by the professional profile. In general, students expressed neutrality about their interest in finding and friending professors on Facebook. These findings suggest that students have the potential to form perceptions about the classroom environment and about their professors based on the specific details disclosed in professors' Facebook profiles.

  10. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: Results from congenital amusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney eLolli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusics, or tone-deaf individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying band-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody (MBEP were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under band-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for band-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold > 16 Hz performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between band-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation.

  11. Auditory feedback affects perception of effort when exercising with a Pulley machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordegoni, Monica; Ferrise, Francesco; Grani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment that investigates the role of auditory feedback in affecting the perception of effort when using a physical pulley machine. Specifically, we investigated whether variations in the amplitude and frequency content of the pulley sound affect perception of effort....... Results show that variations in frequency content affect the perception of effort....

  12. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  13. Virtual Touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslie, Ståle

    Erotogod. The third chapter investigates the foundations of touch through a physiological and psychological approach. Chapter four presents an alternative haptic history of Virtual Realities through the presentation and discussion of several technological and artistic works that are computer...... is the analysis and conclusion of my experiments. The problems addressed concern how it feels to touch and be touched in multimodal environments, or so called Virtual Realities. Firstly how haptic, corporeal interaction influence the overall experience of a given interactive human-to-computer system. Secondly...... and the psychophysically-contextualized work of art The main results and applications of the study are firstly that haptic technologies bridge the gap between the real (corporeal) and the virtual (immaterial) world, supporting the assumption that the distinction between the ‘virtual’ and the ‘real’ is not convincing...

  14. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  15. Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Patients' Ease of Use of a Touch-Screen (iPad) Patient Survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghom, Saman; Di Fonzo, David; Leung, Fok-Han

    2013-01-11

    Socioeconomic disparities influence the usage rate of advanced communication technologies in Canada. It is important to assess all patient interactions with computers and electronic devices based on these socioeconomic differences. This project studied the ease of use of a touch-screen interface program for collecting patient feedback. The interface collected feedback on physicians' communication skills, an important health concern that has been garnering more and more attention. A concurrent paper survey was used to gather information on the socioeconomic status and the usability of the touchscreen device. As expected, patients who were older, had lower annual household income, and had lower educational attainment were associated with more difficulty using the devices. Surprisingly, 94% of all users (representing a wide range of socioeconomic status backgrounds) rated the device as easy to use.

  16. Good vibrations: Global processing can increase the pleasantness of touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-12-01

    Visual-tactile carry-over effects of global/local processing (attention to the whole, versus the details) have been reported under active touch conditions. We investigated whether carry-over effects of global/local processing also occur for passive touch and whether global/local processing has differential effects on affective and discriminative aspects of touch. Participants completed two tactile tasks involving pleasantness rating and discrimination of a set of tactile vibrations before and after completing a version of the Navon task that encouraged a focus on the global (n = 30), local (n = 30), or both (n = 30) features of a series of visual stimuli. In line with previous research suggesting a link between global processing and positive emotion, global processing increased pleasantness ratings of high-frequency (but not low-frequency) tactile vibrations. Local processing did not improve the ability to discriminate between vibrations of different frequencies, however. There was some evidence of a tactile-visual carry-over effect; prior local processing of tactile vibrations reduced global precedence during the Navon task in the control group. We have shown carry-over effects of global versus local processing on passive touch perception. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that a common perceptual mechanism determines processing level across modalities and show for the first time that prior global processing affects the pleasantness of touch.

  17. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  18. Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

  19. Internet and Facebook related images affect the perception of time

    OpenAIRE

    Gonidis, Lazaros; Sharma, Dinkar

    2017-01-01

    Even though there is a wealth of research on addiction and implicit measures, the effects of addiction on time perception are still unclear. Internal clock models separate the effects of attention and arousal which could have important implications for addiction research. The present study investigated whether Internet related stimuli can lead to distorted time perception. We found evidence that Internet and Facebook related stimuli can distort time perception due to attention and arousal rel...

  20. Touch-screen technology for the dynamic display of -2D spatial information without vision: promise and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Giudice, Nicholas A; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2014-01-01

    Many developers wish to capitalize on touch-screen technology for developing aids for the blind, particularly by incorporating vibrotactile stimulation to convey patterns on their surfaces, which otherwise are featureless. Our belief is that they will need to take into account basic research on haptic perception in designing these graphics interfaces. We point out constraints and limitations in haptic processing that affect the use of these devices. We also suggest ways to use sound to augment basic information from touch, and we include evaluation data from users of a touch-screen device with vibrotactile and auditory feedback that we have been developing, called a vibro-audio interface.

  1. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  2. How to Touch Humans : Guidelines for Social Agents and Robots that can Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2013-01-01

    Touch is an essential channel in interpersonal and affective communication, yet most social agents currently lack the capability to touch the user. In this paper we show the credibility of three premises that make the case that providing touch capability to social robots will increase their effectiv

  3. Quarrelsome behavior in borderline personality disorder: influence of behavioral and affective reactivity to perceptions of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Russell, Jennifer J; Zuroff, David C; Paris, Joel

    2013-02-01

    We examined how the amplification of 3 within-person processes (behavioral reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, and behavioral reactivity to a person's own affect) accounts for greater quarrelsome behavior among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology, individuals with BPD (N = 38) and community controls (N = 31) reported on their negative affect, quarrelsome behavior, and perceptions of the interaction partner's agreeable-quarrelsome behavior in interpersonal events during a 20-day period. Behavioral reactivity to negative affect was similar in both groups. However, behavioral reactivity and affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions were elevated in individuals with BPD relative to community controls; specifically, individuals with BPD reported more quarrelsome behavior and more negative affect during interactions in which they perceived others as more cold-quarrelsome. Greater negative affect reactivity to perceptions of other's cold-quarrelsome behavior partly accounted for the increased quarrelsome behavior reported by individuals with BPD during these interactions. This pattern of results suggests a cycle in which the perception of cold-quarrelsome behavior in others triggers elevated negative affect and quarrelsome behavior in individuals with BPD, which subsequently led to more quarrelsome behavior from their interaction partners, which leads to perceptions of others as cold-quarrelsomeness, which begins the cycle anew.

  4. The phase of prestimulus alpha oscillations affects tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lei; Ro, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural oscillations in the 8- to 12-Hz range influence sensory perception. In the current study, we examined whether both the power and phase of these mu/alpha oscillations predict successful conscious tactile perception. Near-threshold tactile stimuli were applied to the left hand while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded over the contralateral right somatosensory cortex. We found a significant inverted U-shaped relationship between prestimulus mu/alpha power and detection rate, suggesting that there is an intermediate level of alpha power that is optimal for tactile perception. We also found a significant difference in phase angle concentration at stimulus onset that predicted whether the upcoming tactile stimulus was perceived or missed. As has been shown in the visual system, these findings suggest that these mu/alpha oscillations measured over somatosensory areas exert a strong inhibitory control on tactile perception and that pulsed inhibition by these oscillations shapes the state of brain activity necessary for conscious perception. They further suggest that these common phasic processing mechanisms across different sensory modalities and brain regions may reflect a common underlying encoding principle in perceptual processing that leads to momentary windows of perceptual awareness.

  5. Close to me? The influence of affective closeness on space perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Nicolas; Muller, Dominique; Gentaz, Edouard; Palluel-Germain, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent data show that psychosocial factors affect visual perception. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between affective closeness and the perception of apertures between two people. People feel discomfort when they are near someone they are not affectively close to. Therefore, we predict that they will be less likely to perceive that they can pass between two people not affectively close to them. Participants had to imagine passing through the aperture between two life-size classmate pictures. We found that the closer participants felt to their classmates, the more they felt able to pass between them. This provides the first evidence of a relationship between affective closeness and the perception of aperture between two people, suggesting that psychosocial factors constrain space perception.

  6. Perception of affective prosody in major depression: a link to executive functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Abdel-Hamid, Mona; Lehmkämper, Caroline; Vollmoeller, Wolfgang; Daum, Irene

    2008-07-01

    Major depression is associated with impairments of executive functions and affect perception deficits, both being linked to dysfunction of fronto-subcortical networks. So far, little is known about the relationship between cognitive and affective deficits in major depression. In the present investigation, affect perception and executive functions were assessed in 29 patients with a diagnosis of major depression (Dep) and 29 healthy controls (HC). Both groups were comparable on IQ, age, and gender distribution. Depressed patients showed deficits of perception of affective prosody, which were significantly related to inhibition, set shifting, and working memory. Our findings suggest a significant association between cognitive deficits and affect perception impairments in major depression, which may be of considerable clinical relevance and might be addressed in treatment approaches. Future studies are desirable to investigate the nature of the association in more detail.

  7. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance.

  8. Delayed feedback on tax audits affects compliance and fairness perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we explore the conflicting finding that delayed feedback on tax audits apparently results in higher tax compliance, although delaying feedback is associated with lower perceptions of procedural fairness. In a repeated rounds design the timing of feedback (delayed vs. immediate)

  9. Does Viewing Documentary Films Affect Environmental Perceptions and Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janpol, Henry L.; Dilts, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether viewing documentary films about the natural or built environment can exert a measurable influence on behaviors and perceptions. Different documentary films were viewed by subjects. One film emphasized the natural environment, while the other focused on the built environment. After viewing a film, a computer game…

  10. Teacher Perceptions Affect Boys' and Girls' Reading Motivation Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher perceptions and children's reading motivation, with specific attention to gender differences. The reading self-concept, task value, and attitude of 160 fifth and sixth graders were measured. Teachers rated each student's reading comprehension. Results showed that for boys,…

  11. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  12. Master scaling of perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Harju, Eva-Liz

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is presented for scaling perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth based on magnitude estimation. In this method named master scaling thenar is utilized as common reference area for scaling and calibrating perceived intensity. The master scaling is particularly well suited for clinical applications in which the stimulation in pain-affected body areas creates a complex perception (e.g., paradoxical heat for cold stimulation) and/or aberrant psychophysical functions for perceived intensity. The results from three different experiments showed that: (a) All patients and healthy subjects were able to scale adequately the perceived intensity of touch, cold, and warmth at unaffected body areas. (b) Thenar stimulations were shown to be adequate common references in the joint scaling of perceived intensity of other body areas in pain patients as well as healthy persons. (c) Individual thenar psychophysical functions can be used for screening patients and healthy persons with regard to their ability to scale perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth. (d) Master scaled perceived intensity scales can be used for determining if various pain-unaffected body areas are normal or abnormal in patients and in healthy persons. (e) The interindividual variation in perceived intensity is considerably reduced after master scaling and approaches that of intraindividual variation as found in olfaction and hearing. Finally, empirically based thenar Master Functions of perceived intensity for touch, cold and warmth are proposed to be used in future sensory testing of patients, as well as of healthy persons.

  13. Short-term memory affects color perception in context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olkkonen

    Full Text Available Color-based object selection - for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market - places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly.

  14. Design of a wearable research tool for warm mediated social touches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfab, Isabel; Willemse, Christian J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Social touches are essential in interpersonal communication, for instance to show affect. Despite this importance, mediated interpersonal communication oftentimes lacks the possibility to touch. A human touch is a complex composition of several physical qualities and parameters, but different haptic

  15. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  16. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions.

  17. Perception, Imagination and Affect in Human–Robot Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kerruish

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As they arrive in our homes, nursing facilities and educational institutions, urgent questions are being asked about the ethics of encouraging people to have feelings towards social robots that have roles as companions, carers and teachers. This article suggests that the quality of these debates is enhanced by examining how people perceive robots and, in particular, how robots’ expressive characteristics stimulate feelings through engaging the embodied imagination. I discuss the perception and expression of the zoomorphic therapeutic robot Paro, before considering the directions an understanding of these processes can take discussions about the aesthetics and ethics of social robots.

  18. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  19. The role of illness perceptions in the attachment-related process of affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Dekel, Rachel; Asher, Zvia; Leibowitz, Morton; Mosseri, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Based on the predictions of the attachment theory and the Common Sense Model of illness perceptions, the current study focused on the role played by illness perceptions in explaining the path linking attachment orientations to negative affect during recovery from cardiac illness. We predicted two putative mechanisms: (1) illness perceptions would mediate the direct association between attachment-related insecurity (especially attachment anxiety) and levels of distress at follow-up and (2) illness perceptions would interact with attachment orientations (attachment avoidance in particular) in explaining patients' distress. The sample consisted of 111 male patients admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit of the Meir Medical Center, located in the central region of Israel. Patients completed a measure of attachment orientations during hospitalization (baseline). One month later, patients' illness perceptions were measured. Patients' depression and anxiety symptoms were measured at baseline and at the six-month follow-up. The associations between attachment-related anxiety and anxiety symptoms at follow-up were fully mediated by illness perceptions. Attachment-related avoidance was found to interact with illness perceptions in the prediction of depressive symptoms at follow-up. The findings shed light on the possible dynamics among personality, cognitive appraisals, and affect regulation efforts when coping with illness.

  20. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eChatel-Goldman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration. 14 couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  1. An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle eAckerley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm and hairy (arm skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signalling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch.

  2. Instant Sencha Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Dave, Hiren J

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, step by step tutorial that will get you to use Sencha Touch core components quickly and efficiently.Instant Sencha Touch is for hobbyists who want to explore the capabilities of Sencha Touch. No prior knowledge of Sencha Touch is assumed. This book is simultaneously helpful for developers as well who want to quickly learn about Sencha Touch Framework. The book is structured in such a way that amateurs as well as experts

  3. Does Motor Competence Affect Self-Perceptions Differently for Adolescent Males and Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rose

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is understood about the impact of level of motor competence on self-perceptions in adolescence, in particular how this may differentially affect girls and boys. A sample of 1,568 14-year-old participants (766 girls and 802 boys were grouped into four motor competence levels (very low to high based on the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND. Self-perceptions were assessed using the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Boys had higher self-perceptions of global self-worth, athletic competence, and physical appearance, whereas girls had higher scores for close friendships and behavioral conduct. Main effects in the predicted direction were found for motor competence for self-perceptions of global self-worth, athletic competence, physical appearance, close friendships, social acceptance, and romantic appeal. These findings indicate that level of motor competence is important in many aspects of self-perceptions, affecting girls and boys differently. Higher motor competence has a protective effect on psychosocial health, particularly for girls.

  4. Undetectable Changes in Image Resolution of Luminance-Contrast Gradients Affect Depth Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Morita, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A great number of studies have suggested a variety of ways to get depth information from two dimensional images such as binocular disparity, shape-from-shading, size gradient/foreshortening, aerial perspective, and so on. Are there any other new factors affecting depth perception? A recent psychophysical study has investigated the correlation between image resolution and depth sensation of Cylinder images (A rectangle contains gradual luminance-contrast changes.). It was reported that higher resolution images facilitate depth perception. However, it is still not clear whether or not the finding generalizes to other kinds of visual stimuli, because there are more appropriate visual stimuli for exploration of depth perception of luminance-contrast changes, such as Gabor patch. Here, we further examined the relationship between image resolution and depth perception by conducting a series of psychophysical experiments with not only Cylinders but also Gabor patches having smoother luminance-contrast gradients. As a result, higher resolution images produced stronger depth sensation with both images. This finding suggests that image resolution affects depth perception of simple luminance-contrast differences (Gabor patch) as well as shape-from-shading (Cylinder). In addition, this phenomenon was found even when the resolution difference was undetectable. This indicates the existence of consciously available and unavailable information in our visual system. These findings further support the view that image resolution is a cue for depth perception that was previously ignored. It partially explains the unparalleled viewing experience of novel high resolution displays.

  5. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  6. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  7. Students Perceptions on Factors That Affect Their Academic Performance: The Case of Great Zimbabwe University (GZU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…

  8. The Perception and Fear of Crime: Implications for Neighborhood Cohesion, Social Activity, and Community Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected from interviews with residents of a western Canadian city did not support the hypothesis that the perception and fear of crime would be inversely related to neighborhood cohesion and social activity. But as hypothesized, the fear of crime was negatively related to affect for the community. (RLV)

  9. Preschool Children's Perceptions of the Value of Affection as Seen in Their Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günindi, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of children in preschool education with regard to the value of affection in the pictures they draw. The study involved 199 children aged 60 months old or above. The descriptive research method was used and data were collected with the draw-and-explain technique. During the collection of the…

  10. Kinaesthesia and Touching Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Smith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the philosophical and historical background to nineteenth-century belief that the touch sense, specifically including kinaesthesia, gives special, or uniquely deep, access to the world. The argument associates touch with life itself. Victorian writers also tied the sense of movement and touch to an understanding of causation and the world as a system of forces. The conclusion points to the possible significance of the arguments for the modernist arts, especially dance.

  11. Sencha Touch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    The book is written in a Cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge.Sencha Touch Cookbook (2nd edition) is great for developers who are new to Sencha Touch and who are looking to get a good hold on what the Sencha Touch framework offers and how to use it to build a great touch-based mobile application running on different platforms. It is assumed that you will have some experience in HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript. To truly appreciate the framework capability

  12. Fenomenológia dotyku (Phenomenology of Touching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hroncov��

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our culture seems to be visual. Maybe in knowledge… But, it is the fact that we always touch objects, other persons, ourselves. Every moment of our life is tactile. In the following article we shall ask about a touching, how we know it in common, and how we live it. We will try to delimitate some different kinds of tactile perception, which is also a part of our life. We want to point out that grasping is only one of the modalities of touching. This work is searching for a closer, temperamental touching.

  13. Climate Change Risk Perception and Policy Preferences. The Role of Affect, Imagery, and Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiserowitz, A. [Decision Research, 1201 Oak Street, Suite 200, Eugene, OR 97401 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    A national, representative survey of the U.S. public found that Americans have moderate climate change risk perceptions, strongly support a variety of national and international policies to mitigate climate change, and strongly oppose several carbon tax proposals. Drawing on the theoretical distinction between analytic and experiential decision-making, this study found that American risk perceptions and policy support are strongly influenced by experiential factors, including affect, imagery, and values, and demonstrates that public responses to climate change are influenced by both psychological and socio-cultural factors.

  14. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  15. The influence of a working memory task on affective perception of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S; Aupperle, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    In a dual-task paradigm, participants performed a spatial location working memory task and a forced two-choice perceptual decision task (neutral vs. fearful) with gradually morphed emotional faces (neutral ∼ fearful). Task-irrelevant word distractors (negative, neutral, and control) were experimentally manipulated during spatial working memory encoding. We hypothesized that, if affective perception is influenced by concurrent cognitive load using a working memory task, task-irrelevant emotional distractors would bias subsequent perceptual decision-making on ambiguous facial expression. We found that when either neutral or negative emotional words were presented as task-irrelevant working-memory distractors, participants more frequently reported fearful face perception - but only at the higher emotional intensity levels of morphed faces. Also, the affective perception bias due to negative emotional distractors correlated with a decrease in working memory performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that concurrent working memory load by task-irrelevant distractors has an impact on affective perception of facial expressions.

  16. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  17. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  18. An Analysis on the Cultural Factors that Affect People’s Perceptions:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this present paper is to explore the relationship between culture and perception and the cultural fac⁃tors that affect people’s perceptions from different cultural backgrounds. This study is based on a case, which is a news report about the cultural conflict between an old Chinese father and her daughter who has been living in Canada for eight years. De⁃tailed information has been acquired by the author using relative books, journals as well as her own understanding and interpreta⁃tion. It is concluded that to be aware of the cultural factors is of great importance to understand why people from different cul⁃tures have quite different perceptions toward the same thing, which can help to reduce the conflicts and misunderstandings in in⁃tercultural communication.

  19. A touch of gastronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, C.; Hobkinson, C.; Gallace, A.; Piqueras Fiszman, B.

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rapid growth of research interest in the study of the role of touch and oralsomatosensation in the experience of eating and drinking. The various ways in which the sense of touch can be used to enhance the diner’s/consumer’s experience in both everyday eating and drink

  20. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  1. The role of touch in acupuncture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Younbyoung; Olausson, Håkan

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a 'limbic touch' response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a 'therapist intensive' and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice.

  2. The Touch, the sense of body and the sense of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Camerota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The tactile sensitivity has been used as a model to analyze the cortical organization’s principles in order to realize a conscious perception. Somatosensory cortex is a perceptive macrosystem localized in the parietal cortex organized to represent the whole tactile system. Touch is a double complex sensory system because is localized in the hand, but also generalized as the whole body presence and may be described in three tactile perceptions forms: the passive touch, the active touch and the dynamic one. In last years, tactile perception received particular attention from scientists linked to the possible application in robotics, using the haptic perception, and for the therapeutic application in rehabilitation

  3. Errors in Moral Forecasting: Perceptions of Affect Shape the Gap Between Moral Behaviors and Moral Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teper, Rimma; Tullett, Alexa M; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Research in moral decision making has shown that there may not be a one-to-one relationship between peoples' moral forecasts and behaviors. Although past work suggests that physiological arousal may account for part of the behavior-forecasting discrepancy, whether or not perceptions of affect play an important determinant remains unclear. Here, we investigate whether this discrepancy may arise because people fail to anticipate how they will feel in morally significant situations. In Study 1, forecasters predicted cheating significantly more on a test than participants in a behavior condition actually cheated. Importantly, forecasters who received false somatic feedback, indicative of high arousal, produced forecasts that aligned more closely with behaviors. In Study 2, forecasters who misattributed their arousal to an extraneous source forecasted cheating significantly more. In Study 3, higher dispositional emotional awareness was related to less forecasted cheating. These findings suggest that perceptions of affect play a key role in the behavior-forecasting dissociation.

  4. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits.

  5. Construction Managers’ Perception of the Factors Affecting Sustainability in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taheriattar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a comprehensive concept which requires long-term planning. Moreover, construction managers play a key role in leading, planning and scheduling of a construction project. As a result, sustainability of construction projects can be affected by construction managers’ decisions. In addition, for greater development of sustainable construction, affecting factors should firstly be notified. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate construction managers’ perception of the factors affecting sustainability in construction projects. To quantify managers’ perspective of construction sustainability, a survey involving 15 construction managers from Iran construction industry was employed. A statistical comparative analysis used to identify the most important factors affecting sustainability performance at project-level. The results show that most of the factors affecting sustainable construction can be addressed by management teams. The findings will be useful for managers to improve construction sustainability performance at project-level.

  6. Cultural differences in affect intensity perception in the context of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna ePogosyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1 perceptual differences in the extent to which high arousal images were discriminated from low arousal images, and (2 categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for cross-cultural communication and global advertising are discussed.

  7. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  8. Grab and Touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Warming

    . In the area of touch interactions, we report on results from a study that investigated the influence of display orientation on users’ performance and satisfaction. Using a horizontal and a vertical touch screen, we studied 16 participants as they tapped, dragged, and interacted bimanually. Results show......Tangible user interfaces seek to make computing natural and ubiquitous by coupling digital information with physical objects. The thesis contributes to this field by presenting empirical research on tangible computing and touch interaction. In the area of tangible computing, the thesis first......, by supporting multi-touch control, and by allowing efficient interaction with multiple tangibles. These benefits were evaluated in a study that shows that rotation-based interactions were more efficient with Tangible Bots. A second study demonstrated usefulness by observing how electronic musicians use Tangible...

  9. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed.

  10. Plug in and touch

    OpenAIRE

    Machal, Kaled

    2010-01-01

    Invention is a challenging task, special when there is a similar product in the market. There are numerous alike products in the market made for the same purpose but owned and invented from different manufactures. These comparable products have same functions but different shapes, looks, dimensions, materials, etc. The overflow of new touch screen devices in the market, which keeps increasing all the time, requires the consumers to buy new touch screen pen. Most of devices come with one t...

  11. A Qualitative Case Study of EFL Students' Affective Reactions to and Perceptions of Their Teachers' Written Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan A.; Pandian, Ambigapathy

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports a qualitative case study of investigating EFL students' affective reactions to and perceptions of their teachers' written feedback. In addition, the study reported here also focuses on contextual factors that may influence students' reactions to and perceptions of their teachers' written feedback. Data were collected…

  12. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-11-19

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy.

  13. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Myun Lee

    Full Text Available Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition. A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1 the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2 the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied

  14. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Myun; Barrett, Karen Chan; Kim, Yeonhwa; Lim, Yeoeun; Lee, Kyogu

    2015-01-01

    Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats) via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs) to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition) or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition). A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1) the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2) the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied familiarity with

  15. Subjective disturbance of perception is related to facial affect recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Corigliano, Valentina; Romano, Silvia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Campana, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    To examine the relationship between facial affect recognition (FAR) and subjective perceptual disturbances (SPDs), we assessed SPDs in 82 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (44 with first-episode psychosis [FEP] and 38 with multiple episodes [ME]) using two subscales of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), WAS (simple perception) and WAK (complex perception). Emotional judgment ability was assessed using Ekman and Friesen's FAR task. Impaired recognition of emotion correlated with scores on the WAS but not on the WAK. The association was significant in the entire group and in the ME group. FAR was more impaired in the ME than in the FEP group. Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between SPDs and FAR impairment in schizophrenia, particularly in multiple-episode patients.

  16. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  17. Perception of affective and linguistic prosody: an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Prosody refers to the melodic and rhythmic aspects of speech. Two forms of prosody are typically distinguished: 'affective prosody' refers to the expression of emotion in speech, whereas 'linguistic prosody' relates to the intonation of sentences, including the specification of focus within sentences and stress within polysyllabic words. While these two processes are united by their use of vocal pitch modulation, they are functionally distinct. In order to examine the localization and lateralization of speech prosody in the brain, we performed two voxel-based meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of the perception of affective and linguistic prosody. There was substantial sharing of brain activations between analyses, particularly in right-hemisphere auditory areas. However, a major point of divergence was observed in the inferior frontal gyrus: affective prosody was more likely to activate Brodmann area 47, while linguistic prosody was more likely to activate the ventral part of area 44.

  18. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-12-02

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body-because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies-resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.

  19. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Elfekey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body—because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies—resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.

  20. Strengthening affective organizational commitment: the influence of fairness perceptions of management practices and underlying employee cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Brian; Chalon, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cynicism, the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices, and affective organizational commitment. High levels of affective organizational commitment have been shown to reduce voluntary turnover in the nursing workforce. Previous research suggests that "unfair" management practices and employee cynicism lead to lower commitment. It is not clear, however, whether the perceived fairness of particular practices influences affective commitment beyond that accounted for by underlying employee cynicism. Data were obtained from a study involving 1104 registered nurses that formed part of a larger investigation of the general well-being of nurses in Western Australia. Only nurses who were permanent or employed on fixed term or temporary contracts were included. Findings indicated that although higher levels of cynicism among nurses were associated with lower levels of affective commitment, their perception of the fairness of change management and personnel practices influenced their affective commitment over and above their cynicism. The perceived fairness of management practices is an important influence on nurses' affective commitment beyond that accounted for by cynicism. The implication for managers is that the affective organizational commitment of nurses is likely to be strengthened by addressing the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices notwithstanding their beliefs about the integrity of the organization.

  1. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  2. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David;

    2015-01-01

    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...... a tablet with 6x4 tactile areas, enabling a tactile numpad, slider, and thumbstick. We show that the gel is up to 25 times stiffer when activated and that users detect tactile features reliably (94.8%)....

  3. Is Color Perception of Packages Affected by Their In-aisle Position?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porcheddu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The retail environment is characterized by numerous competing stimuli vying for the consumer’s attention. Products packages feature both verbal and nonverbal elements. Nonverbal stimuli, like package colors, seem to be particularly relevant for perception. Knowing whether there is preferential positioning of colored items on the shelves is fundamental for retailers. In addition, some colors may be better perceived than others. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the color perception of packages in a supermarket is affected by their in-aisle position and by their color type. In a lab setting, 120 right-handed subjects were asked to look at 3 series of images on a screen. Images showed a virtual supermarket aisle. The aisle had two identical opposite gondolas, each containing the same number of items of same size and shape. In each image, apart from one single colored item, all other items were gray. In each series, the colored item was always of the same primary color (blue, red or green and it was displayed an equal number of times on the right and on the left. For each image, subjects were asked to locate the colored item as quickly as possible. Accuracy and response time of answers were recorded. Colored items were perceived more accurately and rapidly when they were displayed on the left gondola to the observer. This phenomenon was specifically color-dependent, as red and blue items were better perceived than green ones. Our results support the hypothesis of an asymmetric perception of colored items in the aisle. Retailers should consider that the consumer’s perception of colored package is more accurate and fast when the items are positioned on the left gondola. They should also consider that some colors may be more effective than others in catching customers’ attention.

  4. Substitution visuelle par électro-stimulation linguale : étude des procédés affectant la qualité de perception

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhchoukh, Abdessalem

    2015-01-01

    Our perception of the world is by essence multimodal. Various sensory cues (vision, hearing, touch, etc.) are hence integrated to allow us the execution of daily life activities. When one sense organ is missing or impaired, in some circumstances, the central nervous system can replace or reinforce the missing sensory information by using reliable sensory information coming from an other intact sense organ. This doctoral thesis was designed to explore this so-called ‘sensory substitution' conc...

  5. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline W. ede Borst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  6. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  7. Losing the music: aging affects the perception and subcortical neural representation of musical harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Oliver; Plack, Christopher J

    2015-03-04

    When two musical notes with simple frequency ratios are played simultaneously, the resulting musical chord is pleasing and evokes a sense of resolution or "consonance". Complex frequency ratios, on the other hand, evoke feelings of tension or "dissonance". Consonance and dissonance form the basis of harmony, a central component of Western music. In earlier work, we provided evidence that consonance perception is based on neural temporal coding in the brainstem (Bones et al., 2014). Here, we show that for listeners with clinically normal hearing, aging is associated with a decline in both the perceptual distinction and the distinctiveness of the neural representations of different categories of two-note chords. Compared with younger listeners, older listeners rated consonant chords as less pleasant and dissonant chords as more pleasant. Older listeners also had less distinct neural representations of consonant and dissonant chords as measured using a Neural Consonance Index derived from the electrophysiological "frequency-following response." The results withstood a control for the effect of age on general affect, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for the perceived pleasantness of musical chords and affective voices and that, for listeners with clinically normal hearing, age-related differences in consonance perception are likely to be related to differences in neural temporal coding.

  8. Repeated exposure to odors induces affective habituation of perception and sniffing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille eFerdenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory perception, and especially hedonic evaluation of odors, is highly flexible, but some mechanisms involved in this flexibility remain to be elucidated. In the present study we aimed at better understanding how repeated exposure to odors can affect their pleasantness. We tested the hypothesis of an affective habituation to the stimuli, namely a decrease of emotional intensity over repetitions. More specifically, we tested whether this effect is subject to inter-individual variability and whether it can also be observed at the olfactomotor level. Twenty-six participants took part in the experiment during which they had to smell two odorants, anise and chocolate, presented twenty times each. On each trial, sniff duration and volume were recorded and paired with ratings of odor pleasantness and intensity. For each smell, we distinguished between likers and dislikers, namely individuals giving positive and negative initial hedonic evaluations. Results showed a significant decrease in pleasantness with time when the odor was initially pleasant (likers, while unpleasantness remained stable or slightly decreased when the odor was initially unpleasant (dislikers. This deviation towards neutrality was interpreted as affective habituation. This effect was all the more robust as it was observed for both odors and corroborated by sniffing, an objective measurement of odor pleasantness. Affective habituation to odors can be interpreted as an adaptive response to stimuli that prove over time to be devoid of positive or negative outcome on the organism. This study contributes to a better understanding of how olfactory preferences are shaped through exposure, depending on the individual’s own initial perception of the odor.

  9. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mirams

    Full Text Available Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20 or negative affectivity (N = 20 judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged and unhealthy looking (green-tinged versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood.

  10. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood.

  11. Touched by Turner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  12. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  13. A TOUCH-SENSITIVE DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    propagating towards a specific point of the detector array is prevented from being incident upon the specific point of the detector array when an object contacts a touch-sensitive surface of the touch-sensitive waveguide at a corresponding specific contact point.......The present invention relates to an optical touch-sensitive device and a method of determining a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch sensitive device. In particular, the present invention relates to an optical touch pad and a method of determining...... a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch pad. A touch-sensitive device, according to the present invention may comprise a light source, a touch- sensitive waveguide, a detector array, and a first light redirecting member, wherein at least a part of the light...

  14. Designing Business Touch Screen Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Čeč, Neža

    2013-01-01

    This thesis covers conversion of a business application from a standard application to a touch screen version. The first part describes basic functional characteristics of touch screen applications, like their structure and user interaction. Later on we describe technological characteristics that cover different technologies and frameworks for developing touch screen applications. These theoretic chapters are followed by a practical example of converting a business application to a touch scre...

  15. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  16. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Addabbo

    Full Text Available The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand and/or an object (spoon. In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts.

  17. Empathy hurts: compassion for another increases both sensory and affective components of pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that some brain structures activated by pain are also engaged when an individual observes someone else in pain, and that these empathy-related responses are modulated as a function of the affective link between the empath and the individual in pain. In this study we test the hypothesis that empathy-evoked activation in the pain network leads to heightened pain perception. After inducing in half of our subjects a state of high empathy for an actor and in the other half a state of low empathy towards him, we measured the sensitivity to heat stimuli of various intensities in healthy participants while they watched the actor being exposed to similar stimuli. Participants in the "high-empathy" group rated painful (but not non-painful) stimuli applied to themselves as more intense and unpleasant than did those in the "low-empathy" group. Positive correlations between state empathy scores and pain ratings further suggest that this perceptual phenomenon depends on the magnitude of empathic response induced in the participants. The effects were observed when subjects watched the model receiving either neutral or painful stimuli, suggesting that it is empathy itself that alters pain perception, and not necessarily the observation of pain behaviors.

  18. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  19. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds.

  20. Households Perceptions on Factors Affecting Resilience towards Natural Disasters in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viverita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most areas in Indonesia are prone to natural disasters. Learning the lessons from the Aceh Tsu- nami in 2004, areas with high risks of natural disasters are in the process of preparing themselves for such an unexpected event, by increasing their resilience. The objective of this studyis to shed more lights on factors affecting the resilience from two sources namely, existing literatures and the application of disaster management in four disaster-prone areas in Indonesia -Padang, Sleman, Cilacap, and Palu. To enrich our analysis, we collect data from the field tocompare the prepared- ness and to get insights on people’s perceptions towards the factors of resilience in those areas.We employ IDI and FGD to identify the factors of resilience and the preparedness in the areas investi- gated. Thereafter, a preliminary survey is conducted to identify people’s perceptions towards the aspects of resilience in the areas. Results from the survey conducted to 800 households in Padang and Cilacap indicates that from the social aspect, community’s value cohesiveness is one of impor- tant factor affecting their resilience towards natural disaster. In addition, since almost 85 percent of their income was spending to fulfill their daily basic needs such as foods, clothing, and housing. Therefore, when disaster occurred, they heavily relied on the help of debt or selling some of their assets, as well as used cash in hand as emergency funds. In general, respondents in all sample cit- ies are able to re-start their economic activities as soon as two weeks after the event of disaster. In addition, the survey found that most of respondents were aware that the government has pro- grams to educate people on the disaster mitigation.

  1. Improved Acuity and Dexterity but Unchanged Touch and Pain Thresholds following Repetitive Sensory Stimulation of the Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kowalewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity underlies the brain’s ability to alter perception and behavior through training, practice, or simply exposure to sensory stimulation. Improvement of tactile discrimination has been repeatedly demonstrated after repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS of the fingers; however, it remains unknown if such protocols also affect hand dexterity or pain thresholds. We therefore stimulated the thumb and index finger of young adults to investigate, besides testing tactile discrimination, the impact of rSS on dexterity, pain, and touch thresholds. We observed an improvement in the pegboard task where subjects used the thumb and index finger only. Accordingly, stimulating 2 fingers simultaneously potentiates the efficacy of rSS. In fact, we observed a higher gain of discrimination performance as compared to a single-finger rSS. In contrast, pain and touch thresholds remained unaffected. Our data suggest that selecting particular fingers modulates the efficacy of rSS, thereby affecting processes controlling sensorimotor integration.

  2. The User, not the Tool: Perceptions of Credibility and Relevance Affect the Uptake of Prioritisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatkoski Kim, Milena; Evans, Louisa; Scherl, Lea M.; Marsh, Helene

    2016-04-01

    Prioritisation methods have been used in conservation planning for over 20 years. The scientific literature focuses on the technical aspects of prioritisation, providing limited information on factors affecting the uptake of priorities. We focused on the Back on Track species prioritisation program in Queensland, Australia, used to prioritise species conservation efforts across Queensland from 2005. The program had low uptake by intended users. Our study aimed to identify the perceived limitations in the technical-scientific quality of this species-based prioritisation process and its outcomes in terms of credibility (scientific adequacy of the technical evidence) and relevance (of information to the needs of decision-makers). These criteria have been used to understand the uptake of scientific information in policy. We interviewed 73 key informants. Perceptions of credibility were affected by concerns related to the use of expert judgement (rather than empirical evidence) to assess species, impressions that key experts were not included in the planning process, and the lack of confidence in the information supporting prioritisation. We identified several trade-offs and synergies between the credibility and relevance of priorities to potential users. The relevance of the output plans was negatively affected by the lack of clarity about who were potential users and implementers of the priorities identified. We conclude with recommendations to enhance the credibility and relevance of such initiatives.

  3. Instant website touch integration

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This book gives you a quick theoretical knowledge base before moving on to focus on task-based projects designed to keep you on your toes.This book is for web developers who have a working knowledge of JavaScript and the traditional way of writing web applications intended to be mouse-driven. A touch-enabled device is definitely recommended as well as a sense of adventure.

  4. Perception of parental attitudes and the level of female adolescents’ self-esteem affected with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The article’s aim is to look for correlation between a parent - child relationship and the level of self-esteem in the perception of girls affected with anorexia nervosa (who meet the criteria of DSM-IV-TR). The differences in the perception of parental attitudes (of mothers and fathers) and self-esteem of girls suffering from anorexia nervosa and their healthy peers were also analyzed. Method. Two equally numbered groups of girls: the clinical group (30 persons affected with anorexia ne...

  5. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer.

  6. Preschool Children’s Perceptions of the Value of Affection As Seen in Their Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus GÜNİNDİ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of children in preschool education with regard to the value of affection in the pictures they draw. The study involved 199 children aged 60 months old or above. The descriptive research method was used and data were collected with the draw-and-explain technique. During the collection of the data, the children were requested to draw a picture related to the value of affection and explain the picture they drew. The children’s explanations were recorded by the researcher. The study is one of the first to be conducted in Turkey with preschoolers in this research area. The results showed that the children generally depicted human figures like family members, other children and friends, animals like butterflies and dogs, trees, flowers and grass, happy images such as hearts, balloons and balls, and abiotic images like clouds and sunshine, as well as other images like houses in their drawings. The children tended especially to feature people and objects in their immediate vicinity.

  7. Face configuration affects speech perception: Evidence from a McGurk mismatch negativity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; MacDonald, Ewen; Andersen, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    as demonstrated by the Thatcher illusion in which the orientation of the eyes and mouth with respect to the face is inverted (Thatcherization). This gives the face a grotesque appearance but this is only seen when the face is upright. Thatcherization can likewise disrupt visual speech perception but only when...... the face is upright indicating that facial configuration can be important for visual speech perception. This effect can propagate to auditory speech perception through audiovisual integration so that Thatcherization disrupts the McGurk illusion in which visual speech perception alters perception...... perception due to the McGurk illusion without any change in the acoustic stimulus. We found that Thatcherization disrupted a strong McGurk illusion and a correspondingly strong McGurk-MMN only for upright faces. This confirms that facial configuration can be important for audiovisual speech perception...

  8. ‘Seeing Touch Anew’: Clothing, Gender, and ‘The Victorian Tactile Imagination’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Tennant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses upon issues of touch, gender, and perceptions of mid-Victorian 'femininity', produced as a result of 'The Victorian Tactile Imagination' conference at Birkbeck in July 2013.

  9. Perception of parental attitudes and the level of female adolescents’ self-esteem affected with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska, Bogumiła

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article’s aim is to look for correlation between a parent - child relationship and the level of self-esteem in the perception of girls affected with anorexia nervosa (who meet the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. The differences in the perception of parental attitudes (of mothers and fathers and self-esteem of girls suffering from anorexia nervosa and their healthy peers were also analyzed. Method. Two equally numbered groups of girls: the clinical group (30 persons affected with anorexia nervosa and control group (30 healthy girls in the 15-20 age range were examined. Two test were applied: Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire (PCR A. Roe and M. Siegelman in the authorized translation by W. S. Kowalski to investigate characteristic behavior of parents of small children as perceived by youth or adults and a Questionnaire „What are you like?” by P. Sears in adaptation of J. Kostrzewski, which is used to study self-esteem. Results and conclusions. The results confirmed the expected relationship between perception of parental attitudes and the level of self-esteem of girls affected with anorexia nervosa. Parental attitudes characterized by love and protection promote higher self-esteem of their daughters and the experience of higher demands and rejection by both parents lowers their self-esteem. The comparison of average attitudes of mothers and fathers in perception of their daughters diagnosed with anorexia nervosa did not confirm significant statistical differences. Comparison of maternal attitudes in the perception of their daughters from the group affected by anorexia and the healthy group revealed significant differences in full range of attitudes. The differences in perception of the attitudes of their fathers were statistically substantial regarding the attitudes concerning love and rejection. Self-esteem of persons treated for anorexia is significantly lower than of their healthy peers

  10. Sencha Touch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    The book is written in a cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This book is ideal for anyone who wants to gain the practical knowledge involved in using Sencha Touch mobile web application framework to make attractive web apps for mobiles. If you have some familiarity with HTML and CSS, then this book is for you. This book will give designers the skills they need to implement their ideas, and provide developers with creative inspiration through practic

  11. Prospective and concurrent correlates of emotion perception in psychotic disorders: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of neurocognition, affective blunting and avolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Johnsen, Erik; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Kroken, Rune A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2013-06-01

    This naturalistic study investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional symptomatic and neurocognitive correlates of social cognition indexed by emotion perception. Participants were 31 persons admitted to a psychiatric emergency ward due to acute psychosis. Positive and negative (i.e., affective blunting and avolition) symptoms were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Participants completed neuropsychological assessments with alternative versions of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. Emotion perception was measured using the Face/Voice Emotion Test at 12-month follow-up. Correlational analyses (Spearman's rho) revealed strong and statistically significant associations between neurocognition and emotion perception (baseline r = 0.58, follow-up r = 0.43). Associations between positive symptoms and emotion perception were weak or non-existent (baseline r = 0.13, follow-up r  =  -0.01). Emotion perception was moderately, but not significantly, associated with affective blunting at follow-up (r = 0.33), but not at baseline (r = 0.21). The association with avolition was non-existent (baseline r  =  -0.05, follow-up r = 0.01). This study supports the notion that emotion perception has neurocognitive correlates. The cross-sectional trend level association with affective blunting suggests that the ability to perceive emotions might be related to, but dissociable from the ability to express emotions.

  12. Abnormal Pressure Pain, Touch Sensitivity, Proprioception, and Manual Dexterity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Riquelme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD often display an abnormal reactivity to tactile stimuli, altered pain perception, and lower motor skills than healthy children. Nevertheless, these motor and sensory deficits have been mostly assessed by using clinical observation and self-report questionnaires. The present study aims to explore somatosensory and motor function in children with ASD by using standardized and objective testing procedures. Methods. Tactile and pressure pain thresholds in hands and lips, stereognosis, proprioception, and fine motor performance of the upper limbs were assessed in high-functioning children with ASD (n=27 and compared with typically developing peers (n=30.  Results. Children with ASD showed increased pain sensitivity, increased touch sensitivity in C-tactile afferents innervated areas, and diminished fine motor performance and proprioception compared to healthy children. No group differences were observed for stereognosis. Conclusion. Increased pain sensitivity and increased touch sensitivity in areas classically related to affective touch (C-tactile afferents innervated areas may explain typical avoiding behaviors associated with hypersensitivity. Both sensory and motor impairments should be assessed and treated in children with ASD.

  13. Investigating affective color association of media content in language and perception based on online RGB experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2005-03-01

    As an investigation of color categorization in language and perception, this research intends to study the affective associations between certain colors and different media content (i.e., movie genres). Compared to non-entertainment graphics (medical imaging and engineering graphics), entertainment graphics (video games and movies) are designed to deliver emotionally stimulating content to audiences. Based on an online color survey of 19 subjects, this study investigated whether or not subjects had different color preferences on diverse movie genres. Instead of providing predefined limited number of color chips (or pictures) as stimuli, this study was conducted by asking the subjects to visualize their own images of movie genres and to select their preferred colors through an online RGB color palette. By providing a combined application interface of three color slides (red, green, blue) and 216 digital color cells, the subjects were interactively able to select their preferred colors of different movie genres. To compare the distribution of movie genres, the user selected colors were mapped on CIE chromaticity diagram. This study also investigated preferred color naming of different movie genres as well as three primary color names of the subjects" most favorite genre. The results showed that the subjects had different color associations with specific movie genres as well as certain genres showed higher individual differences. Regardless of genre differences, the subjects selected blue, red or green as their three primary color names that represent their favorite movie genres. Also, the results supports Berlin & Kay"s eleven color terms.

  14. Young adults’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural tourism community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Möller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many rural areas, in Sweden and worldwide, experience population decline where the young leave for education and work in urban areas. Employment has declined in several rural industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing, while growing in other industries are often located in urban areas. Politicians and organizations have put much hope in tourism as a tool of rural development, but can tourism help reverse the rural out-migration trend among young adults? This paper explores how tourism affects young inhabitants’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural area in Sweden, the ski resort of Sälen. Students from the 1993–1995 elementary school graduating classes were interviewed about their migration history, childhood, and view of and ties to Sälen. The respondents experience that tourism contributes to a more vital community incorporating influences from elsewhere, but without eliminating the positive aspects of rural life. The regular flow of people – tourists, seasonal workers, and entrepreneurs – passing through Sälen presents opportunities to extend one’s social network that are widely appreciated by respondents. The high in and out mobility constitutes a key part of Sälen’s character. Contributions from tourism – such as employment, entertainment, leisure, and opportunities to forge new social relationships – are available during the adult transition, the life phase when rural areas are often perceived as least attractive. Even though out-migration occurs in Sälen, and some respondents still find Sälen too small, tourism has clearly increased the available opportunities and contributed significantly to making Sälen more attractive to young adults.

  15. Reconhecimento dos aspectos tacêsicos para o cuidado afetivo e de qualidade ao idoso hospitalizado Reconocimiento de los aspectos de lenguaje del tacto para el cuidado afectivo y de calidad al anciano hospitalizado An approach to touching while providing high-quality affective health care to hospitalized elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Gioia Schimidt

    2013-04-01

    , revela la calidad de atención prestada.The aim of the present study was to verify the important factors of tacesics that should be observed while touching the elderly. This qualitative and exploratory field of study was developed using 117 undergraduate students and healthcare professionals who participated in a training course regarding nonverbal communication in gerontology. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to identify at least one care factor that must be respected when touching the elderly. The discourses allowed for the construction of nine categories indicating the conditions that are necessary for high-quality affective care provided within the tacesics context; these conditions included the authorization for the touch to occur, location of the touch, intensity of the touch, condition of the elderly person, intentionality and type of touch, duration of the touch, gender and age of the person who touches and of the person being touched, frequency of the touch, and characteristics of the hands that touch. Touch is part of the quotidian practice of healthcare professionals and expresses their dedication and its related emotions, thereby revealing the quality of the care that is provided.

  16. Touching base with OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Three seminars – at CERN, at Gran Sasso and in Japan – and an article calling for the scrutiny of the scientific community: the OPERA Collaboration opened its research publicly. In addition to huge press coverage, this triggered welcome reactions from colleagues around the world, many of whom will attempt to independently interpret and reproduce the measurement. OPERA’s Spokesperson touches base with the Bulletin.   The CERN Main Auditorium was crowded as OPERA Physics co-ordinator Dario Autiero presented the results of their research (23 September 2011). According to the OPERA strategy, the results of the measurements are in the hands of the scientific community and, as for any other scientific result, several months will be needed before other groups will be able to perform an independent measurement. In the meantime, the OPERA Collaboration is dealing with an avalanche of emails from the scientific community, members of the general public, and the press. &...

  17. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  18. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-13

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part.

  19. Two-dimensional grouping affects perisaccadic perception of depth and synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruga, Reiko; Saito, Hideo; Ando, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Junji

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that, when visual stimuli are presented around the time of a saccade, spatial and temporal perceptions of them are distorted. However, only a small number of previous studies have addressed the perception of a visual image induced by a saccade eye movement (visual image that is dynamically drawn on the retina during a saccade at the speed of the eye movement). Here we investigated three-dimensional and temporal perceptions of the saccade-induced images and found that perceptual grouping of objects has a significant effect on the perceived depth and timing of the images.

  20. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    OpenAIRE

    Resul Yilmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Mustafa Ozcetin; Erhan Karaaslan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years). Vis...

  1. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years. Visual perception scores were measured with a sketch and maternal feeding style was measured with validated "Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire". Results: The parental feeding dimensions "emotional feeding" and "encouragement to eat" subscale scores were low in overweight children according to visual perception classification. "Emotional feeding" and "permissive control" subscale scores were statistically different in children classified as correctly perceived and incorrectly low perceived group due to maternal misperception. Conclusion: Various feeding styles were related to maternal visual perception. The best approach to preventing obesity and underweight may be to focus on achieving correct parental perception of the weight status of their children, thus improving parental skills and leading them to implement proper feeding styles.

  2. Affect differentially modulates brain activation in uni- and multisensory body-voice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Sarah; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Emotion perception naturally entails multisensory integration. It is also assumed that multisensory emotion perception is characterized by enhanced activation of brain areas implied in multisensory integration, such as the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). However, most previous studies have employed designs and stimuli that preclude other forms of multisensory interaction, such as crossmodal prediction, leaving open the question whether classical integration is the only relevant process in multisensory emotion perception. Here, we used video clips containing emotional and neutral body and vocal expressions to investigate the role of crossmodal prediction in multisensory emotion perception. While emotional multisensory expressions increased activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FFG), neutral expressions compared to emotional ones enhanced activation in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and posterior STS. Hence, while neutral stimuli activate classical multisensory areas, emotional stimuli invoke areas linked to unisensory visual processing. Emotional stimuli may therefore trigger a prediction of upcoming auditory information based on prior visual information. Such prediction may be stronger for highly salient emotional compared to less salient neutral information. Therefore, we suggest that multisensory emotion perception involves at least two distinct mechanisms; classical multisensory integration, as shown for neutral expressions, and crossmodal prediction, as evident for emotional expressions.

  3. Reduced pleasant touch appraisal in the presence of a disgusting odor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Croy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. METHODS: Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/- 3years SD, 24 females were presented to slow (3 cm/s and fast (30 cm/s brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/-6 years, 21 females, the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. RESULTS: The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005 whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r = -0.56; p = 0.007, but not with any of the other odors. CONCLUSION: Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable.

  4. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding.

  5. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  6. Seeing and Feeling for Self and Other: Proprioceptive Spatial Location Determines Multisensory Enhancement of Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Ladavas, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the relation between visuo-tactile interactions and the self-other distinction. In the Visual Enhancement of Touch (VET) effect, non-informative vision of one's own hand improves tactile spatial perception. Previous studies suggested that looking at "another"person's hand could also enhance tactile perception, but did not…

  7. Students’ factors affecting undergraduates’ perceptions of their teaching and learning process within ECTS experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eDe La Fuente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of this research was to learn what variables determine satisfaction with the teaching-learning process (TLP, from the perspective of students participating in the ECTS experience (European Credit Transfer System. Method. A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain participated in an evaluation of their class subjects. They completed a protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of Variance were carried out, taking different measures as independent variables, such as student’s grade average, year in school, branch of studies, workload in terms of ECTS credits per subject and the use of e-learning. Perception of TLP was used as the dependent variable.Results. Variables that establish significant differences in the perception of the TL process were determined. Student’s grade average (in favor of high performers, year in school (in favor of earlier years, ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits, and e-learning (in favor of its use establish a sufficiently delimited profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of this process. Discussion and Conclusions. The appearance of significant differences showed that perception of TLP depends on different variables that were assessed. Thus, it is important to take these variables into consideration in giving shape to the European Higher Education Area. We comment on the results and their implications for the large-scale implementation of the ECTS.

  8. Rhythm perception: speeding up or slowing down affects different subcomponents of the ERP P3 complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marijtje L.A.; Meeuwissen, Esther; Vos, Piet G.; Maes, Roald

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, by measuring the event related potential (ERP) P3 complex, whether the perception of small accelerations differs from that of small decelerations. Participants had to decide whether the last beat of a short sequence was presented ‘too early’ or ‘too late’. T

  9. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water e

  10. Speaking rate affects the perception of duration as a suprasegmental lexical-stress cue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinisch, E.; Jesse, A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment

  11. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  12. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of th

  13. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  14. How our body influences our perception of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Roy Harris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the fact that the senses are embodied is necessary for an organism to interpret sensory information. Before a unified perception of the world can be formed, sensory signals must be processed with reference to body representation. The various attributes of the body such as shape, proportion, posture, and movement can be both derived from the various sensory systems and can affect perception of the world (including the body itself. In this review we examine the relationships between sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions of the world and the body. We provide several examples of how the body affects perception (including but not limited to body perception. First we show that body orientation effects visual distance perception and object orientation. Also, visual-auditory crossmodal-correspondences depend on the orientation of the body: audio high frequencies correspond to a visual up defined by both gravity and body coordinates. Next, we show that perceived locations of touch is affected by the orientation of the head and eyes on the body, suggesting a visual component to coding body locations. Additionally, the reference-frame used for coding touch locations seems to depend on whether gaze is static or moved relative to the body during the tactile task. The perceived attributes of the body such as body size, affect tactile perception even at the level of detection thresholds and two-point discrimination. Next, long-range tactile masking provides clues to the posture of the body in a canonical body schema. Finally, ownership of seen body parts depends on the orientation and perspective of the body part in view. Together, all of these findings demonstrate how sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions (of the body and the world are interdependent.

  15. How our body influences our perception of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurence R; Carnevale, Michael J; D'Amour, Sarah; Fraser, Lindsey E; Harrar, Vanessa; Hoover, Adria E N; Mander, Charles; Pritchett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the fact that the senses are embodied is necessary for an organism to interpret sensory information. Before a unified perception of the world can be formed, sensory signals must be processed with reference to body representation. The various attributes of the body such as shape, proportion, posture, and movement can be both derived from the various sensory systems and can affect perception of the world (including the body itself). In this review we examine the relationships between sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions of the world and the body. We provide several examples of how the body affects perception (including but not limited to body perception). First we show that body orientation effects visual distance perception and object orientation. Also, visual-auditory crossmodal-correspondences depend on the orientation of the body: audio "high" frequencies correspond to a visual "up" defined by both gravity and body coordinates. Next, we show that perceived locations of touch is affected by the orientation of the head and eyes on the body, suggesting a visual component to coding body locations. Additionally, the reference-frame used for coding touch locations seems to depend on whether gaze is static or moved relative to the body during the tactile task. The perceived attributes of the body such as body size, affect tactile perception even at the level of detection thresholds and two-point discrimination. Next, long-range tactile masking provides clues to the posture of the body in a canonical body schema. Finally, ownership of seen body parts depends on the orientation and perspective of the body part in view. Together, all of these findings demonstrate how sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions (of the body and the world) are interdependent.

  16. Synaptic mechanisms underlying sparse coding of active touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Sylvain; Poulet, James F A; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2011-03-24

    Sensory information is actively gathered by animals, but the synaptic mechanisms driving neuronal circuit function during active sensory processing are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the synaptically driven membrane potential dynamics during active whisker sensation using whole-cell recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory barrel cortex of behaving mice. Although whisker contact with an object evoked rapid depolarization in all neurons, these touch responses only drove action potentials in ∼10% of the cells. Such sparse coding was ensured by cell-specific reversal potentials of the touch-evoked response that were hyperpolarized relative to action potential threshold for most neurons. Intercontact interval profoundly influenced touch-evoked postsynaptic potentials, interestingly without affecting the peak membrane potential of the touch response. Dual whole-cell recordings indicated highly correlated membrane potential dynamics during active touch. Sparse action potential firing within synchronized cortical layer 2/3 microcircuits therefore appears to robustly signal each active touch response.

  17. Role of sex in externally motivated self-touching gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Laura; McBrayer, Dan; Prince, Bob

    2002-08-01

    Self-touching gestures can be externally induced by the verbal presentation of anxiety-inducing stimuli and the active discussion of a passage. The frequency of these self-touching gestures appears to be affected by the individual interacting with the topic, the type of discourse (listening or discussing), the type of stimulus (canaries or leeches), and the interaction between the types of discourse and stimulus. This study assessed these variables as well as the sex of the participant and the order of presentation of stimulus type, neither of which were statistically significant. Participants were read two passages, one about a topic (leeches) expected to produce anxiety and the other about a topic (canaries) not expected to do so, and asked to answer questions about the passages. The number of self-touches was counted by an observer in another room. Each participant had both types of discourse (listening and discussing) and both types of stimulus (canaries and leeches). There was no significant difference between the number of self-touches by participants with either the male or female reader. Discussion as a method of discourse was associated with a significantly greater number of self-touches than listening. The interaction between discourse type and stimulus type was also significant. The combination of the anxiety-producing stimulus and the active discourse (discussion) produced the highest average number of self-touches.

  18. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under re...

  19. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  20. Nurses' perceptions of how clinical information system implementation affects workflow and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marcia M; Vartak, Smruti; Schwichtenberg, Tammy; Wakefield, Douglas S

    2011-09-01

    There is a little evidence of the impact of clinical information system implementation on nurses' workflow and patient care to guide institutions across the nation as they implement electronic health records. This study compared changes in nurse's perceptions about patient care processes and workflow before and after a comprehensive clinical information system implementation at a rural referral hospital. The study used the Information Systems Expectations and Experiences survey, which consists of seven scales-provider-patient communication, interprovider communication, interorganizational communication, work-life changes, improved care, support and resources, and patient care processes. Survey responses were examined across three administrations-before and after training and after implementation. The survey responses decreased significantly for eight of the 47 survey items from the first administration to the second and for 37 items from the second administration to the third. Perceptions were more positive in nurses who had previous experience with electronic health records and less positive in nurses with more years of work experience. These findings point to the importance of setting realistic expectations, assessing user perceptions throughout the implementation process, designing training to meet the needs of the end user, and adapting training and implementation processes to support nurses who have concerns.

  1. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valeria I; Zetterberg, Hedvig; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  2. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria I Petkova

    Full Text Available Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005. We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10, all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12. The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  3. Anatomical, neurophysiological and perceptual issues of tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, B.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Cholewiak, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we are concerned with what our touch receptors and the associated central nervous structures do. Our description begins with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the touch receptors followed by a comprehensive psychophysical overview of touch sensation and perception.

  4. Factors affecting Latina immigrants' perceptions of maternal health care: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida

    2008-05-01

    Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.

  5. Factors affecting college students' perceptions of sexual relationships between high school students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromuth, M E; Holt, A; Parker, A L

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the effects of respondent gender, gender combination (male teacher/female student versus female teacher/male student), and teacher age (24 versus 39-years-old) on the perception of a sexual relationship between a teacher and a 16-year-old student. Participants were 80 male and 80 female undergraduates. A MANOVA yielded significant main effects for respondent gender and gender combination. Subsequent ANOVAs indicated that men generally viewed the experience more positively and that the male teacher/female student combination was viewed more negatively than the female teacher/male student pairing.

  6. Touch, and you will gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Hahn, Claudia; Voigt, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This study extends previous research by exploring the quality of the interaction experienced by a group of elderly participants interacting with a healthcare portal when applying a touch screen remote control. This is compared to a standard remote control with physical buttons.......This study extends previous research by exploring the quality of the interaction experienced by a group of elderly participants interacting with a healthcare portal when applying a touch screen remote control. This is compared to a standard remote control with physical buttons....

  7. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p timbres designed to incorporate timbral cues to particular emotions. Our findings show that timbre (instrument identity) independently affects the perception of emotions in music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors.

  8. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robin M.; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.

  9. Touch, compliance, and awareness of tactile contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joule, Robert-Vincent; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    Many experimental studies have shown that touch increases compliance with a request; however, the difference between the effect of touch on compliance between participants who notice and those who do not notice such contact remains in question. An experiment was conducted in which a female confederate asked 368 female smokers to give her a cigarette. In the Touch condition, when making her request, the confederate slightly touched the participant on her forearm. Analysis showed the touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request, and a difference was evident in the Touch condition between subjects who had noticed the tactile contact and those who had not.

  10. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  11. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  12. Touch technologies in primary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    This paper presents findings from a longitude project on children‘s use of interactive touchscreens in classroom-settings. By exploring and analysing interaction among pairs, children‘s collaborative activities are under study, and it is highlighted how touch technologies invites for a more...

  13. Parenthetical Windows: A Project on How Artificial Light and Sound Architecture Affect Human Perception on Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    and darkness (activity and rest) are being measured. With the use of gesture recognition devices (e.g. Myo), visual and audio parameters are triggered in order for a chart of a “movement choreography”/ vocabulary to be analysed. The first draft of the research evaluates whether the user can distinguish...... (where artificial is in fashion) what we mostly attempt to value and evaluate within this research and installation is the enantiomorpous pattern of natural to artificial, aiming from the initial stage/ level to organize and manifest what the body perceives as real, and where it measures fatigue......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  14. Sustainable Decisions Signal Sustainable Relationships: How Purchasing Decisions Affect Perceptions and Romantic Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-01-01

    In the pursuit of love, individuals strategically use luxury products to signal status and other attractive attributes. Might eco-friendly products also signal mate-relevant information? The current research examined inferences from eco-friendly purchases and how they predict perceived suitability for short- and long-term romantic relationships. Participants read descriptions of a stranger's eco-friendly or luxury purchase decisions, reported their perceptions of the purchaser, and indicated their potential romantic interest in the purchaser. The influence of the relative price of the chosen product was also investigated. Compared to luxury purchasers, eco-friendly purchasers were ascribed greater warmth, competence, and good partner traits, but less physical appeal, and they were preferred for long-term but not short-term relationships. The social costs and benefits of "going green" are discussed in light of their implications for environmental sustainability efforts.

  15. Tobacco industry marketing strategies that affect perception and use of waterpipe in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Diatlenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in Ukraine in 2010, only 31% of adults pointed to health hazards of waterpipe smoking while corresponding levels for cigarettes were much higher. Higher prevalence of use was found in young urban adults with university education. Students lifestyle surveys revealed that up to 70% of students had smoked waterpipe at least once in their lifetime. Thus we aimed to clarify possible mechanisms in charge of widespread use and favorable attitude of young adults towards waterpipe smoking by means of a qualitative study.METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 university students in Kiev city. Respondents were 11 males and 16 females aged 17-26 years. Convenience sampling was applied. Questions encompassed personal experience of, attitudes towards, and perception of waterpipe smoking. RESULTS: Waterpipe is perceived by students as a safer alternative of cigarettes. Less irritating smoke is taken as a sign of no adverse health impact. Students are attracted by sweet smell and taste of tobacco smoke produced by waterpipe. Those who had observed the waterpipe tobacco packages reported that they bear pictures of fruit and create perception of a healthy product inside. On some packages, health warnings and the information regarding content are either absent or written in a language customers cannot read. Tobacco and accessories were reported to have been displayed in most attractive places in supermarkets. CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals the necessity to strengthen the awareness campaign depicting the devastating consequences of waterpipe use. To close the existing loopholes, the Ukrainian legislation needs to require health warnings on waterpipe packages which differ from those on cigarette packs, ban of tobacco products display at the points of sales, and ban of fruity additives to tobacco.

  16. AGATE: Autonomous Go and Touch Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for...

  17. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  18. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  19. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  20. Sharing the pain: perceptions of fairness affect private and public response to hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Adger, W. Neil; Quinn, Tara; Lorenzoni, Irene; Murphy, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Structural causes of vulnerability to hazards are well established in geographical research. But what facilitates individual adaptive behavior? How does the performance of government intervention affect such behavior? Drawing on political economy, environmental psychology, and climate justice perspectives, we explore how perceived fairness of responses to weather-related extreme events affects the public and private distribution of responsibility and action. We focus on flood risk and examine...

  1. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  2. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  3. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS.

  4. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Jakobsen, Michael L.; Hanson, Steen G.; Mosgaard, Morten; Iversen, Theis; Korsgaard, Jorgen

    2011-08-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching finger is also demonstrated.

  5. Disentangling interoception: insights from focal strokes affecting the perception of external and internal milieus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin eIbanez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is the moment-to-moment sensing of the physiological condition of the body. The multimodal sources of interoception can be classified into two different streams of afferents: an internal pathway of signals arising from core structures (i.e., heart, blood vessels, and bronchi and an external pathway of body-mapped sensations (i.e., chemosensation and pain arising from peripersonal space. This study examines differential processing along these streams within the insular cortex (IC and their subcortical tracts connecting frontotemporal networks. Two rare patients presenting focal lesions of the IC (insular lesion, IL or its subcortical tracts (subcortical lesion, SL were tested. Internally generated interoceptive streams were assessed through a heartbeat detection task, while those externally triggered were tapped via taste, smell, and pain recognition tasks. A differential pattern was observed. The IC patient showed impaired internal signal processing while the SL patient exhibited external perception deficits. Such selective deficits remained even when comparing each patient with a group of healthy controls and a group of brain-damaged patients. These outcomes suggest the existence of distinguishable interoceptive streams. Results are discussed in relation with neuroanatomical substrates, involving a fronto-insulo-temporal network for interoceptive and cognitive contextual integration.

  6. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  7. Adolescents’ Perception of the Psychosocial Factors affecting Sustained Engagement in Sports and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAVIN, JAMES; MCBREARTY, MADELEINE; MALO, KIT; ABRAVANEL, MICHAEL; MOUDRAKOVSKI, TATIANA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents’ perceptions of psychosocial influences – personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings – influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their ‘parents’ or ‘guardians’ participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents’ PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context.

  8. Speech-specific audiovisual perception affects identification but not detection of speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Andersen, Tobias

    -like nature of the signal. The sine-wave speech was dubbed onto congruent and incongruent video of a talking face. Tuomainen et al. found that the McGurk effect did not occur for naïve observers, but did occur when observers were informed. This indicates that the McGurk illusion is due to a mechanism...... of audiovisual integration specific to speech perception. However, the results of Tuomainen et al. might have been influenced by another effect. When observers were naïve, they had little motivation to look at the face. When informed, they knew that the face was relevant for the task and this could increase...... their motivation for looking at the face. Since Tuomainen et al. did not monitor eye-movements in their experiments the magnitude of the effect of motivation is unknown. The purpose of our first experiment was to replicate Tuomainen et al.’s findings while controlling observers’ eye movements using a secondary...

  9. Bridging music and speech rhythm: rhythmic priming and audio-motor training affect speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Nia; Astésano, Corine; Schön, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Following findings that musical rhythmic priming enhances subsequent speech perception, we investigated whether rhythmic priming for spoken sentences can enhance phonological processing - the building blocks of speech - and whether audio-motor training enhances this effect. Participants heard a metrical prime followed by a sentence (with a matching/mismatching prosodic structure), for which they performed a phoneme detection task. Behavioural (RT) data was collected from two groups: one who received audio-motor training, and one who did not. We hypothesised that 1) phonological processing would be enhanced in matching conditions, and 2) audio-motor training with the musical rhythms would enhance this effect. Indeed, providing a matching rhythmic prime context resulted in faster phoneme detection, thus revealing a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on phonological processing. In addition, our results indicate that rhythmic audio-motor training enhances this priming effect. These results have important implications for rhythm-based speech therapies, and suggest that metrical rhythm in music and speech may rely on shared temporal processing brain resources.

  10. Project design factors that affect student perceptions of the success of a science research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    Throughout the United States, various summer science programs for precollege students are conducted with an aim toward increasing the involvement of young people in science. Most of these programs are perceived as successful by teachers and scientists because they involve students in hands-on science activities, improve their scientific skills and confidence, and allow them the opportunity to use science to answer questions and solve problems. The work described here involves a detailed assessment of a summer National Science Foundation (NSF) Young Scholars Program, which was carried out over 2 summers. Student participants were entering 9th and 10th grade. The data used for this assessment included journals kept by teaching assistants, questionnaires administered to the participants and parents, and interviews with the participants. Analysis revealed that students perceived program success differently from teachers and program organizers. Their perception of the success of a program is directly related to whether or not their individual research project met its goals, regardless of other project activities. Designing projects that have a high likelihood of success from this perspective can be complex, but this work identified six variables that must be incorporated appropriately into the design of a project to ensure its success: (1) extent of project structure and who structures the project, faculty or student; (2) project relevance; (3) project flexibility; (4) project background research; (5) tangible results; and (6) project introduction.Received: 5 March 1993; Revised: 20 October 1993;

  11. Positive emotional priming of facial affect perception in females is diminished by chemosensory anxiety signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, Bettina M; Ohrt, Anne; Prehn, Alexander; Ferstl, Roman

    2004-11-01

    Chemosensory communication of anxiety is a common phenomenon in vertebrates and improves perceptual and responsive behaviour in the perceiver in order to optimize ontogenetic survival. A few rating studies reported a similar phenomenon in humans. Here, we investigated whether subliminal face perception changes in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals. Axillary sweat samples were taken from 12 males while they were waiting for an academic examination and while exercising ergometric training some days later. 16 subjects (eight females) participated in an emotional priming study, using happy, fearful and sad facial expressions as primes (11.7 ms) and neutral faces as targets (47 ms). The pooled chemosensory samples were presented before and during picture presentation (920 ms). In the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat samples taken during the sport condition, subjects judged the targets significantly more positive when they were primed by a happy face than when they were primed by the negative facial expressions (P = 0.02). In the context of the chemosensory anxiety signals, the priming effect of the happy faces was diminished in females (P = 0.02), but not in males. It is discussed whether, in socially relevant ambiguous perceptual conditions, chemosensory signals have a processing advantage and dominate visual signals or whether fear signals in general have a stronger behavioural impact than positive signals.

  12. Development of a two-step touch method for website navigation on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kihyo; Jang, Jinah

    2015-05-01

    The touch method for hyperlink selection in smartphones can often create usability problems because a hyperlink is universally smaller than a finger contact area as well as visually occluded by a finger while pressing. In this study, we developed a two-step touch method (called Press and Flick method) and comprehensively examined its effectiveness using the goals, operators, methods, and selection rules (GOMS) model and user testing. The two-step touch method consisted of finger press and flick motions; a target hyperlink was selected by a finger press motion, and a finger flick method was subsequently conducted for error correction if the initial interaction (press) failed. We compared the two-step touch method with the current touch method through the GOMS model and user testing. As a result, the two-step touch method was significantly superior to the current touch method in terms of error rate and subjective satisfaction score; however, its superiority in terms of number of interactions and touch time was vulnerably affected by error rate. The two-step touch method developed in this study can improve the usability and user experience of website navigation using smartphones.

  13. How perceptions of HIV-related stigma affect decision-making regarding childbirth in rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S Medema-Wijnveen

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Kenya is high. Furthermore, there is a high risk of maternal mortality, as many women do not give birth with a skilled healthcare provider. Previous research suggests that fears of HIV testing and unwanted disclosure of HIV status may be important barriers to utilizing maternity services. We explored relationships between women's perceptions of HIV-related stigma and their attitudes and intentions regarding facility-based childbirth.1,777 pregnant women were interviewed at their first antenatal care visit. We included socio-demographic characteristics, stigma scales, HIV knowledge measures, and an 11-item scale measuring health facility birth attitudes (HFBA. HFBA includes items on cost, transport, comfort, interpersonal relations, and services during delivery at a health facility versus at home. A higher mean HFBA score indicates a more positive attitude towards facility-based childbirth. The mean HFBA score was dichotomized at the median and analyses were conducted with this dichotomized HFBA score using mixed effects logit models.Women who anticipated HIV-related stigma from their male partner had lower adjusted odds of having positive attitudes about giving birth at the health facility (adjusted OR = .63, 95% CI 0.50-0.78 and less positive attitudes about health facility birth were strongly related to women's intention to give birth outside a health facility (adjusted OR = 5.56, 95% CI 2.69-11.51.In this sample of pregnant women in rural Kenya, those who anticipated HIV-related stigma were less likely to have positive attitudes towards facility-based childbirth. Furthermore, negative attitudes about facility-based childbirth were associated with the intention to deliver outside a health facility. Thus, HIV-related stigma reduction efforts might result in more positive attitudes towards facility-based childbirth, and thereby lead to an increased level of skilled birth attendance, and reductions

  14. iPod touch2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    第二代的iPod touch三围分别为110mm×61.8mm×8mm,并且,其最薄处仅有1.9mm,薄得有些不可思议。与一代一样,iPod touch2配备了一块3.5英寸480×320分辨率的触摸大屏,支持AAC、MP3、Apple Lossiess、WAV等音乐格式和30fps VGA分辨率的视频格式。iPodtouch2的机身一侧有音量控制键和麦克风。除此之外,iPod touch2的WiFi天线设计得更加美观。

  15. Role of movement velocity on the magnitude of grip force while lifting an object with touch from the contralateral finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Veena; Santos, Marcio J; Aruin, Alexander S

    2009-04-01

    We investigated whether slower velocity of arm movement affects grip-force generation in conditions with the finger touch provided to the wrist of the target arm. Nine subjects performed the task of lifting and transporting an object at slow, intermediate, and fast velocities with a light finger touch from the contralateral arm and without it. There was an effect of velocity of arm movement on grip-force generation in both conditions. However, when the no touch and touch trials performed with similar velocity were matched, the effect of touch on grip-force reduction was statistically significant (p touch conditions and underlines the importance of using a contralateral touch in the performance of activities of daily living. It also points to a possibility of the development of therapeutic advances for the enhancement of grip-force control in patients with neurological impairments.

  16. Factors Affecting Customer’s Perception of Service Quality: Comparing Differences among Countries - Case study: Beauty salons in Bandung and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nakashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a holistic study of analyzing several factors affecting service quality andtheir correlation with characteristic of customers based on value and life style. Furthermore,customer’s perception of service quality can be drawn from those relationships. Exploratoryfactor analysis and quantitative analysis is employed with case study of beauty salon serviceat Bandung and Tokyo. The results indicate how the quality of services is perceived differentlyby customers who have different value and life style, and also describe significant relationshipbetween value and life style with the affecting factors of service quality.Key words : service quality, value and life style, customer perception, beauty salon.

  17. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  18. Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-08-01

    Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch.

  19. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  20. Room air temperature affects occupants' physiology, perceptions and mental alertness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Kwok Wai; Willem, Henry Cahyadi [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore)

    2010-01-15

    Thermal environment that causes thermal discomfort may affect office work performance. However, the mechanisms through which occupants are affected are not well understood. This study explores the plausible mechanism linking room air temperature and mental alertness through perceptual and physiological responses in the tropics. Ninety-six young adults participated as voluntary subjects in a series of experiment conducted in the simulated office settings. Three room air temperatures, i.e. 20.0, 23.0 and 26.0 C were selected as the experimental conditions. Both thermal comfort and thermal sensation changed significantly with time under all exposures (P < 0.0001). Longer exposure at 20.0 C led to cooling sensations due to lower skin temperatures (P < 0.0001) and was perceived as the least comfortable. Nevertheless, this moderate cold exposure induced nervous system activation as demonstrated by the increase of {alpha}-Amylase level (P < 0.0001) and the Tsai-partington test (P < 0.0001). A mechanism linking thermal environment, occupants' responses and performance is proposed. (author)

  1. Multimodal perception and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.J.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses mechanisms of multimodal perception in the context of multimodal simulators and virtual worlds. We review some notable findings from psychophysical experiments with a focus on what we call touch-inclusive multimodal perception—that is, the sensory integration of the tactile sy

  2. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Amy E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Methods Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. Conclusions EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  3. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended…

  4. Exploring Factors Affecting Learner's Perception of Learning Information and Communication Technology: A HLM Analysis of a National Farmers' Training Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Tzy-Ling; Chiu, Li-An; Lin, Wei-Chien

    2013-01-01

    The present study, pertaining to a national information literacy training program for both farmers and rural communities in Taiwan, explores factors that affect learners' perception of learning information and communication technology (ICT). It further analyzes effects of individual characteristics and varied training designs on learners'…

  5. Nursing doctoral faculty perceptions of factors that affect their continued scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Wise, Nancy; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah

    2014-01-01

    This focus group study was undertaken as part of a larger investigation of how the demand for increased production of nurses with doctorates affects doctoral faculty's scholarly productivity. This study provided a basis for development of the national survey questionnaire. Two focus groups that included 29 faculty teaching in doctor of philosophy and/or doctor of nursing practice programs took place at one of two national conferences. The focus group interviews were transcribed and content analyzed for the identification of themes; all members of the research team reached consensus. The three major themes were the demands of teaching, the importance of institutional structure and climate, and the sustainability of one's self, the institution, and the discipline. Participants identified strategies for enhancing scholarly productivity. Findings are limited by the small sample size and the voluntary participation of conference attendees. The strength of emotion that participants revealed underscores the need for nursing leaders to address the increasing academic expectations for faculty. If the profession does not address the needs of its current and future faculty, goals explicated by the Institute of Medicine in The Future of Nursing cannot be achieved, and the health of the nation will suffer.

  6. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eve R; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Slav N

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates.

  7. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  8. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  9. Inventions on GUI for Touch Sensitive Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    A touch sensitive screen displays the information on the screen and also receives the input by sensing a user's touch on the same screen. This mechanism facilitates system interaction directly through the screen without needing a mouse or keyboard. This method has the advantage to make the system compact by removing keyboard, mouse and similar interactive device. However there are certain difficulties to implement a touch screen interface. The display screens of portable devices are becoming ...

  10. The perception of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces affects hypothetical voting decisions differently in wartime and peacetime scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. Here we extend these findings by examining the contributions of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces to perceived votability. We first use real faces to show that attractiveness and trustworthiness are positively and independently related to perceptions of good leadership (rating study). We then show that computer graphic manipulations of attractiveness and trustworthiness influence choice of leader (experiments 1 and 2). Finally, we show that changing context from wartime to peacetime can affect which face receives the most votes. Attractive faces were relatively more valued for wartime and trustworthy faces relatively more valued for peacetime (experiments 1 and 2). This pattern suggests that attractiveness, which may indicate health and fitness, is perceived to be a useful attribute in wartime leaders, whereas trustworthiness, which may indicate prosocial traits, is perceived to be more important during peacetime. Our studies highlight the possible role of facial appearance in voting behaviour and the role of attributions of attractiveness and trust. We also show that there may be no general characteristics of faces that make them perceived as the best choice of leader; leaders may be chosen because of characteristics that are perceived as the best for leaders to possess in particular situations.

  11. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations.

  12. Towards social touch intelligence: developing a robust system for automatic touch recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel M.

    2014-01-01

    Touch behavior is of great importance during social interaction. Automatic recognition of social touch is necessary to transfer the touch modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). This paper describes a PhD research program on the automatic detecti

  13. Inclusive Education in Spain: How Do Skills, Resources, and Supports Affect Regular Education Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiner, Esther; Cardona, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined regular education teachers' perceptions of inclusion in elementary and secondary schools in Spain and how these perceptions may differ depending on teaching experience, skills, and the availability of resources and supports. Stratified random sampling procedures were used to draw a representative sample of 336 general…

  14. Graphene Tribotronics for Electronic Skin and Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Tae-Ho; Ryu, Hanjun; Seung, Wanchul; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Graphene tribotronics is introduced for touch-sensing applications such as electronic skins and touch screens. The devices are based on a coplanar coupling of triboelectrification and current transport in graphene transistors. The touch sensors are ultrasensitive, fast, and stable. Furthermore, they are transparent and flexible, and can spatially map touch stimuli such as movement of a ball, multi-touch, etc.

  15. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  16. Categorical perception of tactile distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Frances Le Cornu; Longo, Matthew R; Bremner, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    The tactile surface forms a continuous sheet covering the body. And yet, the perceived distance between two touches varies across stimulation sites. Perceived tactile distance is larger when stimuli cross over the wrist, compared to when both fall on either the hand or the forearm. This effect could reflect a categorical distortion of tactile space across body-part boundaries (in which stimuli crossing the wrist boundary are perceptually elongated) or may simply reflect a localised increased in acuity surrounding anatomical landmarks (in which stimuli near the wrist are perceptually elongated). We tested these two interpretations across two experiments, by comparing a well-documented bias to perceive mediolateral tactile distances across the forearm/hand as larger than proximodistal ones along the forearm/hand at three different sites (hand, wrist, and forearm). According to the 'categorical' interpretation, tactile distances should be elongated selectively in the proximodistal axis thus reducing the anisotropy. According to the 'localised acuity' interpretation, distances will be perceptually elongated in the vicinity of the wrist regardless of orientation, leading to increased overall size without affecting anisotropy. Consistent with the categorical account, we found a reduction in the magnitude of anisotropy at the wrist, with no evidence of a corresponding localised increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that we reference touch to a representation of the body that is categorically segmented into discrete parts, which consequently influences the perception of tactile distance.

  17. Multi-touch pinch gestures: performance and ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggan, Eve; Nacenta, Miguel; Kristensson, Per Ola; Williamson, John; Oulasvirta, Antti; Lehtiö, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Multi-touch gestures are prevalent interaction techniques for many different types of devices and applications. One of the most common gestures is the pinch gesture, which involves the expansion or contraction of a finger spread. There are multiple uses for this gesture—zooming and scaling being the most common—but little is known about the factors affecting performance and ergonomics of the gesture motion itself. In this note, we present the results from a study where we manipulated angle, d...

  18. Do Young Chinese Children Gain Anthropomorphism after Exposure to Personified Touch-Screen and Board Games?

    OpenAIRE

    LI, HUI; Hsueh, Yeh; Wang, Fuxing; Bai, Xuejun; Tao LIU; Zhou, Li

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that preschoolers are likely to anthropomorphize not only animals, but also inanimate toy after being exposed to books that personify these objects. Can such an effect also arise through young children’s use of touch-screen games? The present study is the first to examine whether playing a touch-screen personified train game affects young children’s anthropomorphism of real trains. Seventy-nine 4- and 6-year-old children were randomly assigned to play either a touch-screen game...

  19. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  20. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  1. A Deported View Concept for Touch Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Following the paradigm shift where physical controls are replaced by touch-enabled surfaces, we report on an experimental evaluation of a user interface concept that allows touchscreen-based panels to be manipulated partially blindly (aircrafts, cars). The proposed multi-touch interaction strategy...

  2. User Authentication based on Continuous Touch Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Kroeze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones have until now been protected by traditional authentication methods, including passwords or pattern locks. These authentication mechanisms are difficult to remember and are often disabled, leaving the device vulnerable if stolen. This paper investigates the possibility of unobtrusive, continuous authentication for smartphones based on biometric data collected using a touchscreen. The possibility of authenticating users on a smartphone was evaluated by conducting an experiment simulating real-world touch interaction. Touch data was collected from 30 participants during normal phone use. The touch features were analysed in terms of the information provided for authentication. It was found that features such as finger pressure, location of touch interaction and shape of the finger were important discriminators for authentication. The touch data was also analysed using two classification algorithms to measure the authentication accuracy. The results show that touch data is sufficiently distinct between users to be used in authentication without disrupting normal touch interaction. It is also shown that the raw touch data was more effective in authentication than the aggregated gesture data.

  3. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords affectiv

  4. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touchin...... finger is also demonstrated....

  5. "Seeing" and "feeling" architecture: how bodily self-consciousness alters architectonic experience and affects the perception of interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Isabella; Llobera, Joan; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Over the centuries architectural theory evolved several notions of embodiment, proposing in the nineteenth and twentieth century that architectonic experience is related to physiological responses of the observer. Recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience of embodiment (or bodily self-consciousness) enable empirical studies of architectonic embodiment. Here, we investigated how architecture modulates bodily self-consciousness by adapting a video-based virtual reality (VR) setup previously used to investigate visuo-tactile mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness. While standing in two different interiors, participants were filmed from behind and watched their own virtual body online on a head-mounted display (HMD). Visuo-tactile strokes were applied in synchronous or asynchronous mode to the participants and their virtual body. Two interiors were simulated in the laboratory by placing the sidewalls either far or near from the participants, generating a large and narrow room. We tested if bodily self-consciousness was differently modulated when participants were exposed to both rooms and whether these changes depend on visuo-tactile stimulation. We measured illusory touch, self-identification, and performed length estimations. Our data show that synchronous stroking of the physical and the virtual body induces illusory touch and self-identification with the virtual body, independent of room-size. Moreover, in the narrow room we observed weak feelings of illusory touch with the sidewalls and of approaching walls. These subjective changes were complemented by a stroking-dependent modulation of length estimation only in the narrow room with participants judging the room-size more accurately during conditions of illusory self-identification. We discuss our findings and previous notions of architectonic embodiment in the context of the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness and propose an empirical framework grounded in architecture, cognitive

  6. Seeing and feeling architecture: how bodily self-consciousness alters architectonic experience and affects the perception of interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella ePasqualini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries architectural theory evolved several notions of embodiment, proposing in the 19th and 20th century that architectonic experience is related to physiological responses of the observer. Recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience of embodiment (or bodily self-consciousness enable empirical studies of architectonic embodiment. Here, we investigated how architecture modulates bodily self-consciousness by adapting a video-based virtual reality setup previously used to investigate visuo-tactile mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness. While standing in two different interiors, participants were filmed from behind and watched their own virtual body online on a head-mounted display. Visuo-tactile strokes were applied in synchronous or asynchronous mode to the participants and their virtual body. Two interiors were simulated in the laboratory by placing the sidewalls either far or near from the participants, generating a large and narrow room. We tested if bodily self-consciousness was differently modulated when participants were exposed to both rooms and whether these changes depend on visuo-tactile stimulation. We measured illusory touch, self-identification and performed length estimations. Our data show that synchronous stroking of the physical and the virtual body induces illusory touch and self-identification with the virtual body, independent of room-size. Moreover, in the narrow room we observed weak feelings of illusory touch with the sidewalls and of approaching walls. These subjective changes were complemented by a stroking-dependent modulation of length estimation only in the narrow room with participants judging the room-size more accurately during conditions of illusory self-identification. We discuss our findings and previous notions of architectonic embodiment in the context of the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness and propose an empirical framework grounded in architecture, cognitive neuroscience

  7. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial...

  8. Affect study of swim combined with touch for the nutritional status and intellectual development of premature infants%游泳联合抚触对早产儿营养状态及智能发育的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟翠霞; 周萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the affect of swim combined with touch for the nutritional status and intellectual devel-opment of premature infants. Methods 84 premature infants in our hospital from June 2012 to September 2014 were selected as research object,and they were randomly divided into control group (They were used conventional interven-tion) and observation group(They were given swim and touch on the basis of control group),with 42 cases in each group. The nutritional status related indexes and Gesell score evaluation indexes of two groups before the intervention and at different time after the intervention was compared. Results The nutritional status related indexes and Gesell score eval-uation indexes in observation group was significantly better than those of control group at different time after the inter-vention, the difference was significant between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The influence of swim combined with touch for the nutritional status and intellectual development of premature infants are great,and it can effectively im-prove the mental and physical development state of premature infants.%目的:探讨游泳联合抚触对早产儿营养状态及智能发育的影响。方法选取2012年6月~2014年9月本院的84例早产儿为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组(采用常规干预)和观察组(常规干预基础上加游泳和抚触),每组42例。将两组早产儿干预前及干预后的营养状态相关指标及Gesell量表评估结果进行比较。结果观察组早产儿干预后不同时间的营养状态相关指标及Gesell量表评估结果均显著优于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论游泳联合抚触对早产儿的营养状态及智能发育影响较大,可有效改善早产儿的身心发育状态。

  9. The Perception of Violence of University Student and Factors Affecting to Perception of Violence/Şiddet algısı: Üniversite öğrencilerinde şiddet algısını etkileyen faktörlerin İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It was aimed with this study to determine the perception of violence and also the family and personal characteristics and risk factors pertaining to the individual that affect the perception of violence among 1st and 2nd year students at the three Faculties of Hacettepe University with the aim of understanding the perception of violence and the factors affecting. Method: Totally 904 university students were reached. The informed consent form was attached to the questionnaire and s...

  10. [Affective perception of the body in neurotics. Its relation to anxiety, depression, and various types of defense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxant, P

    1976-05-01

    This study compares and relates affective bodily perception (ABP), anxiety, depression, and the utilisation of some defense mechanisms in 25 neurotic women (16 depressives, 9 hysterical) and 25 normal women. ABP is evaluated according to satisfaction and anxiety (Body cathexis scale), distorsions (Body distortion questionnaire) and body conscience (Body prominence). Anxiety is measured with Cattell questionnaire, depression through Zung and Hamilton scales, and defense mechanisms by the Firo Form Cope of Schutz. Neurotics have a ABP more negative and are more depressed and anxious than normals; they use more regression while controls tend to use introjection. In comparison with depressives, hysterical women have higher scores in body distortion, mostly in the feeling of boundary loss; they express more masked anxiety and react more often through projection. Among neurotics, those who have a very disturbed ABP are more anxious, more depressed, and more prone to denial, projection, and regression in comparison with the others. In both samples, anxiety and depression have a negative correlation with body satisfaction and a positive one with body distortions and somatic anxiety. In the control group, body satisfaction is inversely related with feeling of dirt. Somatic anxiety is also inversely related to unusual feelings of body and skin obstruction. The intensity of body consciousness is related to using isolation and distortions are negatively related to using denial. In neurotics, denial is in opposition with the intensity of body awareness and is linked to somatic anxiety. The intensity of body awareness is also correlated to various forms of anxiety. Distortions are positively related to regression. The comparison of both samples shows a degradation of ABP in neurotics. The study of correlations clarifies several relations between deficient ABP anxiety, depression and the use of some defense mechanisms.

  11. Factors Affecting Patients' Perception On, and Adherence To, Anticoagulant Therapy: Anticipating the Role of Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Ekta Y; Bajorek, Beata

    2017-04-01

    The role of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in practice has been given extensive consideration recently, albeit largely from the clinician's perspective. However, the effectiveness and safety of using anticoagulants is highly dependent on the patient's ability to manage and take these complex, high-risk medicines. This structured narrative review explores the published literature to identify the factors underpinning patients' non-adherence to anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF), and subsequently contemplates to what extent the DOACs might overcome the known challenges with traditional warfarin therapy. This review comprised a two-tier search of various databases and search platforms (CINAHL, Cochrane, Current Contents Connect, EMBASE, MEDLINE Ovid, EBSCO, PubMed, Google, Google Scholar) to yield 47 articles reporting patients perspectives on, and patients adherence to, anticoagulant therapy. The findings from the literature were synthesised under five interacting dimensions of adherence: therapy-related factors, patient-related factors, condition-related factors, social-economic factors and health system factors. Factors negatively affecting patients' day-to-day lives (especially regular therapeutic drug monitoring, dose adjustments, dietary considerations) predominantly underpin a patient's reluctance to take warfarin therapy, leading to non-adherence. Other patient-related factors underpinning non-adherence include patients' perceptions and knowledge about the purpose of anticoagulation; understanding of the risks and benefits of therapy; socioeconomic status; and expectations of care from health professionals. In considering these findings, it is apparent that the DOACs may overcome some of the barriers to traditional warfarin therapy at least to an extent, particularly the need for regular monitoring, frequent dose adjustment and dietary considerations. However, their high cost, twice-daily dosing and gastrointestinal adverse effects may present

  12. The Effect of Touching a Dolphin on the EEG Slow Waves hi Children

    OpenAIRE

    HOMMA Ayako:筆頭著者; Hara, Hideki; MATSUZAKI Kumiko; SASAKI Miki; MASAOKA Yuri; Homma, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    Among animal-facilitated therapies, dolphin-facilitated therapy has been shown to beneficially affect human behavior, emotion and speech ability. We recently showed that touching a dolphin reduced the respiratory rate and state anxiety in healthy children. In this study, we collected electroencephalographic data (EEG), widely used for examining various brain functions, before and after touching dolphins. We examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and individual trait anxiety score...

  13. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  14. iPod touch For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Bove, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate beginner guide to the iPod touch, now updated and in full-color! Part media player, portable game console, and breakthrough Internet device, you could say that the iPod touch is one ideal gadget. With this new, full-color edition, bestselling For Dummies author Tony Bove walks you through powering up your iPod touch, personalizing it, establishing a Wi-Fi connection, and synchronizing your data. You'll also explore how to surf the web, rent movies, buy songs, send and receive e-mail, get directions, check stocks, organize photos, watch videos, keep a calendar, and much more. Plus,

  15. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bruchmann

    Full Text Available Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III, and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II. The results show that (i irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is.

  16. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is.

  17. Double swab technique for collecting touched evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B C M; Cheung, B K K

    2007-07-01

    Touched evidence is often submitted to forensic laboratories for DNA analysis. Classical stain recovery technique, involving one wet cotton swab, is commonly used for recovering the touched evidence. Double swab technique, using a wet cotton swab followed by a dry cotton swab, was compared with the classical technique for recovering the touched evidence. The wet cotton swabs and the dry cotton swabs were individually extracted. DNA extracts were quantified and amplified at 15 polymorphic loci. DNA recovered in some of the second dry swabs contained sufficient amount of DNA to yield a DNA profile. This study shows that the double swab technique improves the quality of the resulting DNA profiles. The double swab technique for recovering touched evidence at crime scenes is recommended.

  18. [The language of touch in care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication.

  19. Touch- and Brush-Spinning of Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, Alexander; Asheghali, Darya; Griffiths, Ian M; Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Gruzd, Alexey; Lin, Xin; Stone, Howard A; Minko, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Robust, simple, and scalable touch- and brush-spinning methods for the drawing of nanofibers, core-shell nanofibers, and their aligned 2D and 3D meshes using polymer solutions and melts are discussed.

  20. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal...

  1. Action perception in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness: how does the loss of a sensory modality from birth affect perception-induced motor facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Seeing or hearing manual actions activates the mirror neuron system, that is, specialized neurons within motor areas which fire when an action is performed but also when it is passively perceived. Using TMS, it was shown that motor cortex of typically developed subjects becomes facilitated not only from seeing others' actions, but also from merely hearing action-related sounds. In the present study, TMS was used for the first time to explore the "auditory" and "visual" responsiveness of motor cortex in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness. TMS was applied over left primary motor cortex (M1) to measure cortico-motor facilitation while subjects passively perceived manual actions (either visually or aurally). Although largely unexpected, congenitally blind or deaf subjects displayed substantially lower resonant motor facilitation upon action perception compared to seeing/hearing control subjects. Moreover, muscle-specific changes in cortico-motor excitability within M1 appeared to be absent in individuals with profound blindness or deafness. Overall, these findings strongly argue against the hypothesis that an increased reliance on the remaining sensory modality in blind or deaf subjects is accompanied by an increased responsiveness of the "auditory" or "visual" perceptual-motor "mirror" system, respectively. Moreover, the apparent lack of resonant motor facilitation for the blind and deaf subjects may challenge the hypothesis of a unitary mirror system underlying human action recognition and may suggest that action perception in blind and deaf subjects engages a mode of action processing that is different from the human action recognition system recruited in typically developed subjects.

  2. Developing Instruments to Capture Young People's Perceptions of How School as a Learning Environment Affects Their Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awartani, Marwan; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Gordon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Universal Education Foundation's (UEF) activities to create research tools and methodologies that capture the voices of children concerning their perceptions of the effect of the school learning environment on their well-being. UEF defines well-being as the realisation of one's physical, emotional, mental, social and…

  3. Can environmental conditions affect smallholders' climate change perception? Evidence from an aridity gradient in the Gobi desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueff, Henri

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing interest in smallholders' climate change perception (CCP). Understanding what people perceive in relation to the climate they endure supports national climate change adaptation policy especially relevant to uncertain and resource-scarce environments. Most research so far focused on the accuracy of CCP compared to observed climatic data. However, the potential effect of factors influencing peoples' perceptions remains largely unstudied. This research tests two hypotheses in a desert environment; first, that CCP varies along an aridity gradient, and, second, that respondents are more consistent (answers less far apart) in their CCP when facing more climate shocks, which supports the first hypothesis. A semi-structured survey was conducted among nomadic (Mongolia) (n=180) and semi-nomadic (Inner Mongolia-China) (n=180) herders, to analyse perception along an aridity gradient (proxied by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) covering an array of climate change issues in the Gobi. Results suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on CCP but only in terms of experienced climate shocks. The CCP for other climatic variables (rain, season length) is more diffused and can poorly be predicted by the surrounding environment smallholders live in. Institutional contrasts between China and Mongolia explain marginally differences of perception. Further research is needed to validate these results among smallholders on other environmental gradient types, for examples along altitudinal biome stratification in mountain environments.

  4. How the Use of Second Life Affects E-Learners' Perceptions of Social Interaction in Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Mansour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Educators, researchers, and online courses designers are increasingly investigating the use of 3-D shared virtual worlds for online education. This paper discusses the importance of social interaction in e-learning. We present the idea of using Second Life, a 3-D shared virtual world, in online courses. The researchers investigated the impact of using Second Life as a learning environment and a communication medium in online courses. We measured the extent to which the completion of a learning task and the communication in Second Life can enhance the elearners' perceptions of social interaction via a self-report questionnaire. A prototype application called The Village of Belknap was developed by the Delphi Center of Teaching and Learning at the University of Louisville. The study compared the perception of social interaction of e-learners who participated in Second Life sessions with the perception of social interaction of e-learners who did not participate in the Second Life sessions. The results indicated that the use of Second Life has a positive impact on experiencing a high perception of social interaction in online courses.

  5. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  6. Object recognition - Convergence of vision, audition, and touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja

    recognition implemented in the human brain? 3. Are there intrinsic asymmetries in the contributions of vision and touch to visuo-haptic object recognition? In all three studies, the same set of familiar, manipulable objects were used as stimuli as they are commonly captured by all three senses. Study 1...... in effectiveness of the two senses, haptic object recognition might gain more from interactions with vision than vice versa. Indeed, regions previously implied in visuo-haptic object recognition such as the bilateral LO, FG, and intraparietal sulcus (Lacey & Sathian, 2011) displayed multisensory interaction......Recognizing objects is one of the most fundamental capabilities we use in every day interaction with our environment. As object information can be conveyed by different senses, real-life object perception is usually a multisensory experience. Thereby, we do not perceive an accumulation of features...

  7. Factors Involved in Tactile Texture Perception through Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takashi; Zhou, Julia

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of texture perception by robotic systems can be developed by examining human texture perception through a probe. Like texture perception through direct touch with the finger, texture perception by indirect means of a probe is multi-dimensional, comprising rough, hard, and sticky texture continua. In this study, we describe the individual subject variability in probe-mediated texture perception, and compare similarities and differences of texture perception between direct touch and indirect touch. The results show variability among subjects, as individual subjects may choose to rely on different degrees of three texture dimensions and do so at different scanning velocities. Despite this variability between scanning conditions within each subject, the subjects make consistently reliable discriminations of textures and subjective magnitude estimates along texture continua when indirectly exploring texture surfaces with a probe. These data contribute information that is valuable to the design of robotic sensory systems, and to the understanding of sensory feedback, which is essential in teleoperations. PMID:19617927

  8. Gustatory Perception and Fat Body Energy Metabolism Are Jointly Affected by Vitellogenin and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wang; Brent, Colin S.; Erin Fennern; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and e...

  9. Farmers' Perception and Awareness and Factors Affecting Awareness of Farmers Regarding Crop Insurance as a Risk Coping Mechanism Evidence from Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidra Ghazanfar; Zhang Qi-wen; Muhammad Abdullah; Zeeshan Ahmad; Majid Lateef

    2015-01-01

    This study has been conducted in three districts of Punjab Province namely, Dera Ghazi Khan, RajanPur and Bahawalpur of Pakistan. The study showed the results of a survey of 300 farmers which was organized to assess awareness level of farmers regarding crop insurance, factors affecting the awareness level among farmers and the perception of farmers about crop insurance. Based on exploratory research work upon the responses of farmers, the average and standard deviation were calculated. Probit model was applied to explore the factors affecting the awareness level of farmers. SPSS was used for the analysis of the collected data. The results revealed that out of 300 farmers, 184 farmers were aware with crop insurance and rests of the 116 farmers were not aware. Banks and E-media were found to be the two most important sources of the awareness for the respondent farmers. In the study area, the climatic risks were reported as the most severe risks faced by the farmers. The results also revealed the existence of negative perceptions of the farmers about crop insurance i.e. farmers perceived crop insurance as a kind of tax and they believed premium was so high that it was out of range of poor farmers and only large scale farmers could afford it. Results obtained by applying Probit model revealed that "education" and "previously availed agricultural credit" were the two most important factors which affected the awareness of the farmers regarding crop insurance.

  10. What affects teacher ratings of student behaviors? The potential influence of teachers' perceptions of the school environment and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2014-12-01

    Teachers serve as the natural raters of students within the school and classroom contexts. Yet teachers' ratings of their students may vary based on these contextual factors. The current study explored the extent to which teacher perceptions of the school environment predict their longitudinal ratings of student behaviors. Data for this study come from 702 teachers in 42 elementary schools. Teachers self-reported their perceptions of the school context at a single time point, and provided ratings of their students' behavior via the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaption-Checklist (TOCA-C) across three school years. Latent profile analysis identified three latent classes of teachers based on their ratings of school organizational health, burnout, and efficacy. A regression framework demonstrated an association between the baseline profiles in relation to TOCA-C ratings of student behavior across 3 years. Teachers with more favorable perceptions of the environment had lower initial ratings of concentration problems, disruptive behavior, and internalizing symptoms, and higher ratings of prosocial behaviors and family involvement. They also showed slower growth in their ratings of emotion dysregulation and greater increases of their ratings of family involvement over time. This work is particularly important for determining the extent to which teacher ratings may be biased by teacher and contextual factors, and may have implications for the identification of teachers who may rate students poorly over time.

  11. Touching the Void - Introducing CoST: Corpus of Social Touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel M.; Poppe, Ronald; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Touch behavior is of great importance during social interaction. To transfer the tactile modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) and remote communication automatic recognition of social touch is necessary. This paper introduces CoST: Corpus of Soc

  12. Perceptions of Panem : how the translation of culture-specific items in The Hunger Games affects the Norwegian reader's interpretation of the fictional universe

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, Julie Bettina Saltvik

    2016-01-01

    This master’s thesis analyses and compares universe-building culture-specific items from the young adult novel The Hunger Games and its Norwegian translation Dødslekene in order to investigate how this translation affects the reader’s perception of the fictional universe. The thesis makes use of a two-part method, as it analyses textual material and audience response. The main difference between the original and the translation is that certain culture-specific items are less universe-specific...

  13. Does a single session of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation of inferior temporal cortex affect tinnitus perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Tobias

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical excitability changes as well as imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a distinct pathophysiological role in chronic tinnitus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the temporoparietal cortex was recently introduced to modulate tinnitus perception. In the current study, the effect of theta-burst stimulation (TBS, a novel rTMS paradigm was investigated in chronic tinnitus. Twenty patients with chronic tinnitus completed the study. Tinnitus severity and loudness were monitored using a tinnitus questionnaire (TQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS before each session. Patients received 600 pulses of continuous TBS (cTBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS and intermediate TBS (imTBS over left inferior temporal cortex with an intensity of 80% of the individual active or resting motor threshold. Changes in subjective tinnitus perception were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS. Results TBS applied to inferior temporal cortex appeared to be safe. Although half of the patients reported a slight attenuation of tinnitus perception, group analysis resulted in no significant difference when comparing the three specific types of TBS. Converting the NRS into the VAS allowed us to compare the time-course of aftereffects. Only cTBS resulted in a significant short-lasting improvement of the symptoms. In addition there was no significant difference when comparing the responder and non-responder groups regarding their anamnestic and audiological data. The TQ score correlated significantly with the VAS, lower loudness indicating less tinnitus distress. Conclusion TBS does not offer a promising outcome for patients with tinnitus in the presented study.

  14. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  15. Multisensory distortions of the hand have differential effects on tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshi-marie Perera, A; Newport, Roger; McKenzie, Kirsten J

    2015-11-01

    Research has suggested that altering the perceived shape and size of the body image significantly affects perception of somatic events. The current study investigated how multisensory illusions applied to the body altered tactile perception using the somatic signal detection task. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were asked to report the presence or absence of near-threshold tactile stimuli delivered to the index finger under three multisensory illusion conditions: stretched finger, shrunken finger and detached finger, as well as a veridical baseline condition. Both stretching and shrinking the stimulated finger enhanced correct touch detections; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase were found to be different. In contrast, the detached appearance reduced false touch reports-possibly due to reduced tactile noise, as a result of attention being directed to the tip of the finger only. These findings suggest that distorted representations of the body could have different modulatory effects on attention to touch and provide a link between perceived body representation and somatosensory decision-making.

  16. Perceptions of Equity and Justice and Their Implications on Affective Organizational Commitment: a Confirmatory Study in a Teaching and Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Balassiano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies about individuals commitment to organizations acquire renewed interest in light of the changes imposed by new organizational structures and ‘boundary-less’ careers. The need to identify and retain individuals who add value to the organization constitutes an increasing challenge facing human resource professionals. In this context it is necessary to establish stronger links between the individuals and the organization they work for. In this paper the effects of the perceived equity and justice on the employees’ affective commitment to the organization is evaluated, using a structural equation model. The main stream of the literature treats equity as part of distributive justice. The main contribution of this study was to treat both concepts separately. Based on data gathered from a teaching and research institute, this study confirmed the theoretical assumptions that the perception of justice is indeed antecedent to and determinant of affective organizational commitment. However, the same was not observed in relation to the perception of equity. This result justifies the new approach of removing the concept of equity from justice when measuring organizational commitment.

  17. Sencha Touch Mobile JavaScript Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, SSVV Narasimha

    2012-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial aimed at beginners to Sencha Touch. There is ready sample code explained with essential screenshots for better and quicker understanding. This book is ideal for anyone who wants to gain the practical knowledge involved in using Sencha Touch mobile web application framework to make attractive web apps for mobiles. If you have some familiarity with HTML and CSS, then this book is for you. This book will give designers the skills they need to implement their ideas, and provides developers with creative inspiration through practical examples. It is assumed that

  18. iPod Touch portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul; McFedries, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Tips, tricks, and shortcuts for getting the most out of Apple's iPod Touch Packed with authoritative, no-nonsense advice for getting the most out of your iPod touch, this hip and sophisticated guide addresses the most used and desired features of this exciting device. The author covers the most essential skills, tools, and shortcuts you need to know in order to become savvy and confident for accomplishing any task necessary. Featuring a handy trim size, this guide goes where you go, offering accessible, useful information immediately at your fingertips. You'll find the hottest tips coupled

  19. From sweeping to the caress: similarities and discrepancies between human and non-human primates' pleasant touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clara Grandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding i the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, ii the autonomic effects, iii the encoding at the central nervous system, iv the development from early life to adulthood, and v the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans.

  20. From Sweeping to the Caress: Similarities and Discrepancies between Human and Non-Human Primates’ Pleasant Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding (i) the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, (ii) the autonomic effects, (iii) the encoding at the central nervous system, (iv) the development from early life to adulthood, and (v) the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans. PMID:27660620

  1. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  2. Cross-Modal Correspondence Among Vision, Audition, and Touch in Natural Objects: An Investigation of the Perceptual Properties of Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Shoko; Kariya, Kenji; Fujisaki, Waka

    2016-10-01

    Certain systematic relationships are often assumed between information conveyed from multiple sensory modalities; for instance, a small figure and a high pitch may be perceived as more harmonious. This phenomenon, termed cross-modal correspondence, may result from correlations between multi-sensory signals learned in daily experience of the natural environment. If so, we would observe cross-modal correspondences not only in the perception of artificial stimuli but also in perception of natural objects. To test this hypothesis, we reanalyzed data collected previously in our laboratory examining perceptions of the material properties of wood using vision, audition, and touch. We compared participant evaluations of three perceptual properties (surface brightness, sharpness of sound, and smoothness) of the wood blocks obtained separately via vision, audition, and touch. Significant positive correlations were identified for all properties in the audition-touch comparison, and for two of the three properties regarding in the vision-touch comparison. By contrast, no properties exhibited significant positive correlations in the vision-audition comparison. These results suggest that we learn correlations between multi-sensory signals through experience; however, the strength of this statistical learning is apparently dependent on the particular combination of sensory modalities involved.

  3. The perception of time heals all wounds: temporal distance affects willingness to forgive following an interpersonal transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; McGrath, April L

    2007-07-01

    Prior research has assessed the temporal unfolding of forgiveness and found that forgiveness becomes more likely as time distances the victim from the transgression. These findings lend credence to the axiom "time heals all wounds." This research examines the effect of time perception on forgiveness of others by experimentally manipulating temporal distance. In Experiment 1, respondents reported greater willingness to forgive the transgressor when more time had elapsed since the transgression. Experiments 2 and 3 determined the influence of subjective temporal distance on willingness to forgive. Participants who perceived a hypothetical (Experiment 2) or real (Experimental 3) transgression to be farther away in time were more willing to forgive the target than were participants who perceived the event to be temporally closer. Results suggest that temporal appraisals of an event are central to the forgiveness process.

  4. The Affect of Leader - Member Exchange on the Employee Performance on The Role of the Employees’ Perception of Organizational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TURGUT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study can be expressed in two different ways. The first one is two find out the effects of the leader - member exchange on employees organizational justice perception and performances. The second one is to investigate whether or not if organizational justice plays a mediation role on the relationship between leader-member exchange and employee performance. In order to reach our goal, a study has been conducted with the participation of 471 school teachers employed by 20 different schools that provide secondary educational level in Çorum. Results reveal that leader-member exchange has positive and significant effect on organizational justice dimensions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational and employee performance, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice have positive and significant effect on employee performance, also shows that procedural, interpersonal and informational justice have full mediation role on the relationship that occur between leader-member exchange and employee performance.

  5. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  6. RECOGNITION AND VERIFICATION OF TOUCHING HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Kryzak, A.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of financial document processing, recognition of touching handwritten numerals has been limited by lack of good benchmarking databases and low reliability of algorithms. This paper addresses the efforts toward solving the two problems. Two databases IRIS-Bell\\\\\\'98 and TNIST are built/o

  7. Preview Screening of Documentary Touching the Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>While CPAFFC Vice President Li Xiaolin visited the U.S.from April 11 to 16,a preview of the documentary film Touching the Tigers,a memorial to the great contribution American pilots made to China’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression in WWII,was screened at the Chinese Embassy in Washington,D.C.

  8. Designing social play through interpersonal touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Nicolas; Löwgren, Jonas; Hobye, Mads

    2013-01-01

    We present five design cases as an annotated portfolio, exploring ways to design for intimate, interpersonal touch and social intimacy in interaction design. Five key qualities are elicited from the cases, including novel connotations sparking curiosity; providing an excuse to interact; unfolding...

  9. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  10. Mechanosensitive Channels: In Touch with Piezo

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X. Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels.

  11. Touching virtual agents: embodiment and mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Bruijnes, Merijn; Kolkmeier, Jan; Jung, Merel; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Rybarczyk, Yves

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we outline the design and development of an embodied conversational agent setup that incorporates an augmented reality screen and tactile sleeve. With this setup the agent can visually and physically touch the user. We provide a literature overview of embodied conversational agents, as

  12. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  13. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  14. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  15. The Farmers Perception on Effectiveness of Private Forest Revolving Fund Distribution and Factors Affecting its Repayment: Case in South Lampung District, Lampung Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanudin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial s are ed providing for forest plantation development bank not interest in fund community based . - Therefore, in this case, non bank institutions such Forest Development Funding Center (pusat pembiayaan pembangunan hutan, PPPH private forest are highly required. This paper is aimed to find out the effectiveness of revolving fund and factors affecting its repayment distribution . The research was conducted during September–December 2014 in Private Forest Farmer Groups in Katibung Sub-District South Lampung Dist 3 , , rict Lampung Province. The data was collected through household surveys and in-depth interviews. The household surveys were done using structured questionnaires that included questions related to: characteristics of the borrowers, characteristics of private forest, characteristics of loan, and household perceptions on private forest revolving fund Household perceptions on private forest revolving fund are loan . pre requirement, loan procedure, realization, interest rate, , and repayment procedure The effectiveness of private forest length of repayment periode . revolving fund d t and factors affecting repayment of loan was analyzed by istribution was analyzed by liker scale logistic regression. ult private forest revolving fund in The res showed that: 1 three private forest farmer groups in Katibung Sub-District, South Lampung effective District was 2 income from non-private forest and amount of loan , are factors affecting repayment of private forest revolving fund, 3 faced private forest revolving f the problem in und distribution PPPH private could be overcame by maximizing the role of field officers in assisting and facilitating forest revolving fund ors debit candidate.

  16. When right feels left: referral of touch and ownership between the hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria I Petkova

    Full Text Available Feeling touch on a body part is paradigmatically considered to require stimulation of tactile afferents from the body part in question, at least in healthy non-synaesthetic individuals. In contrast to this view, we report a perceptual illusion where people experience "phantom touches" on a right rubber hand when they see it brushed simultaneously with brushes applied to their left hand. Such illusory duplication and transfer of touch from the left to the right hand was only elicited when a homologous (i.e., left and right pair of hands was brushed in synchrony for an extended period of time. This stimulation caused the majority of our participants to perceive the right rubber hand as their own and to sense two distinct touches--one located on the right rubber hand and the other on their left (stimulated hand. This effect was supported by quantitative subjective reports in the form of questionnaires, behavioral data from a task in which participants pointed to the felt location of their right hand, and physiological evidence obtained by skin conductance responses when threatening the model hand. Our findings suggest that visual information augments subthreshold somatosensory responses in the ipsilateral hemisphere, thus producing a tactile experience from the non-stimulated body part. This finding is important because it reveals a new bilateral multisensory mechanism for tactile perception and limb ownership.

  17. Do Young Chinese Children Gain Anthropomorphism after Exposure to Personified Touch-Screen and Board Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hsueh, Yeh; Wang, Fuxing; Bai, Xuejun; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Li

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that preschoolers are likely to anthropomorphize not only animals, but also inanimate toy after being exposed to books that personify these objects. Can such an effect also arise through young children's use of touch-screen games? The present study is the first to examine whether playing a touch-screen personified train game affects young children's anthropomorphism of real trains. Seventy-nine 4- and 6-year-old children were randomly assigned to play either a touch-screen game or a board game of Thomas the Tank Engine for 10 min. They completed the Individual Differences in Anthropomorphism Questionnaire-Child Form (IDAQ-CF) (two subscales: Technology/Inanimate Nature, Animate Nature) and an additional four items about the anthropomorphism of real trains, before (T1) and after (T2) the game. Overall results showed that children manifested a small but statistically significant increase in anthropomorphizing of real trains after their exposure to both games, claiming that real trains were like humans. Interestingly, 4-year-old children in the board game group tended to anthropomorphize real trains more than those in the touch-screen group, whereas the reverse was true for the 6-year-old children. The results suggest that touch-screen games may delay the decline of children's anthropomorphism during the cognitive and socio-emotional transition that occurs in children aged 5-7. These findings have implications for future research on how touch-screen games increase children's anthropomorphism of the real world, and more generally, for evaluation of the influence of the growing use of touch-screen games on young children's learning.

  18. "A touch of physiotherapy" - the significance and meaning of touch in the practice of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorbækmo, Wenche Schrøder; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    Touch, while ubiquitous and ever present in the practice of physiotherapy, is conspicuously absent from physiotherapy-related research. Based on a theoretical perspective inspired by phenomenology, this article explores and elaborates on the meaning and significance of touch in the practice of physiotherapy. The research data were generated through 16 close observations conducted in primary care clinics, and through interviews with 9 physiotherapists and with 9 patients suffering from chronic neck problems. The findings revealed how the use of touch in the practice of physiotherapy brings people into proximity in ways more complex than simple skin-to-skin contact. Through nontouch, touch, and movements, physiotherapists invite their patients to participate in the process of creating and performing therapy; dialogue through touch and movement is vital. Touch in physiotherapy depends on the physiotherapist's embodied skills; those they cultivate in order to respectfully listen to their patients and guide them to explore their own bodily capacity, limits and possibilities. The findings also suggest that observing therapy from outside and from participating in it offer significant different experiences, information, understanding, and meanings. The differences between physiotherapy as observed expression and as lived experience would seem to have important implications for understanding the practice of physiotherapy.

  19. Physical factors influencing pleasant touch during tactile exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöcker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (unpleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. RESULTS: Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT , as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN , i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. CONCLUSION: Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of

  20. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction

  1. An Analysis of Speech Structure and Perception Processes and Its Effects on Oral English Teaching Centering around Lexical Chunks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; NIE Yong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The paper tries to analyze speech perception in terms of its structure, process, levels and models. Some problems con⁃cerning speech perception have been touched upon. The paper aims at providing some reference for oral English teaching and learning in the light of speech perception. It is intended to arouse readers’reflection upon the effect of speech perception on oral English teaching.

  2. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Marlene

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

  3. Does teaching method affect students' perceptions regarding communication patterns in pediatric dentistry? A comparison of lecture and video methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwitzki, Matthias; Meller, Christina; Beyer, Christine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dental students' perceptions regarding six communication patterns for use in pediatric dentistry differed depending on whether they were taught by lecturing or by video-based teaching. Prior to the introduction of interpersonal skills in a clinical course in pediatric dentistry, four consecutive cohorts of students (n=107) in a German dental school were divided equally into two groups. Group one (n=57) was taught by video sequences and group two (n=50) by conventional lecture. Six communication patterns were presented: involvement of the child's toy(s), speaking in positive phrases, mentioning a personal aspect, recalling positive behavior of the patient, addressing fear verbally, and complimenting the patient. Immediately after the presentation, students were asked by means of a questionnaire about their assessment of and intentions regarding the clinical application of the communication patterns presented. After completion of the course, they were asked about the communication patterns that had been used. There were significant differences for three communication patterns in favor of video-based teaching (p<0.05); there were no significant differences regarding the intention for clinical application and the actual clinical application. In this study, students perceived differences between video-based teaching and lecturing regarding ease of use, but they did not seem to benefit from one method over the other regarding clinical application.

  4. Influence of Auditory and Haptic Stimulation in Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Kawabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have shown that visual information affects perception in the other modalities, little is known about how auditory and haptic information affect visual perception. In this study, we investigated how auditory, haptic, or auditory and haptic stimulation affects visual perception. We used a behavioral task based on the subjects observing the phenomenon of two identical visual objects moving toward each other, overlapping and then continuing their original motion. Subjects may perceive the objects as either streaming each other or bouncing and reversing their direction of motion. With only visual motion stimulus, subjects usually report the objects as streaming, whereas if a sound or flash is played when the objects touch each other, subjects report the objects as bouncing (Bounce-Inducing Effect. In this study, “auditory stimulation”, “haptic stimulation” or “haptic and auditory stimulation” were presented at various times relative to the visual overlap of objects. Our result shows the bouncing rate when haptic and auditory stimulation were presented were the highest. This result suggests that the Bounce-Inducing Effect is enhanced by simultaneous modality presentation to visual motion. In the future, a neuroscience approach (eg, TMS, fMRI may be required to elucidate the brain mechanism in this study.

  5. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples.

  6. Work locus of control and its relationship to stress perception, related affections, attitudes and behaviours from a domain-specific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    This research aims to examine the value of applying the Work Locus of Control Scale in predicting work-related outcomes. Study 1 surveyed 323 employees from different companies in China and found that the domain-specific scale was more predictive than the general scale in predicting perceived stressors, rather than in predicting organizational affective commitment and altruistic behaviour. Study 2 applied a multi-wave and multi-source design and used commensurate Likert scales to measure work and general locus of control. Participants were 344 employees from one corporation. Work locus of control was found to be more useful in predicting supervisor-rated job performance, conscientious and altruistic behaviours. These findings help understand the theory-based and measurement-based reasons for the advantages of using domain-specific measures. They claim the importance for employing the domain-specific measure to predict work-related perceptions and behaviours. Implications for the theory and practice are discussed.

  7. Design and algorithm research of high precision airborne infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Shuang-Jie; Fu, Yan; Chen, Zhao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    There are shortcomings of low precision, touch shaking, and sharp decrease of touch precision when emitting and receiving tubes are failure in the infrared touch screen. A high precision positioning algorithm based on extended axis is proposed to solve these problems. First, the unimpeded state of the beam between emitting and receiving tubes is recorded as 0, while the impeded state is recorded as 1. Then, the method of oblique scan is used, in which the light of one emitting tube is used for five receiving tubes. The impeded information of all emitting and receiving tubes is collected as matrix. Finally, according to the method of arithmetic average, the position of the touch object is calculated. The extended axis positioning algorithm is characteristic of high precision in case of failure of individual infrared tube and affects slightly the precision. The experimental result shows that the 90% display area of the touch error is less than 0.25D, where D is the distance between adjacent emitting tubes. The conclusion is gained that the algorithm based on extended axis has advantages of high precision, little impact when individual infrared tube is failure, and using easily.

  8. Perceptions of Maternal and Paternal Attachment Security in Middle Childhood: Links with Positive Parental Affection and Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, D.; Grietens, H.; Onghena, P.; Kuppens, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether paternal parenting behaviours (attachment and positive affection) added significant information on children's psychosocial adjustment beyond that provided by maternal reports. Five hundred and fifty-two children (fourth through sixth graders) from a non-clinical sample completed a brief measure of perceived…

  9. College Students' Comfort Level Discussing Death with Faculty and Perceptions of Faculty Support for Grief-Affected Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Students' comfort discussing death with faculty, views regarding faculty's likelihood to provide accommodations to grief-affected students, and perceived empathy of faculty were assessed. Undergraduate students (n = 371) attending a Midwestern university completed the Student Survey on Grief Issues. Twenty-six percent reported the death of at…

  10. Pastoral care: marketing "high touch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, M

    1986-01-01

    Marketing pastoral care skills is important both within and without the health care organization. To increase administrators' awareness of the value of the pastoral care department, for example, chaplains must be able to demonstrate that their activities can affect the bottom line. They must therefore develop a system of accountability that defines and measures their services in objective terms. Such a system would include the reporting of monthly visit statistics as well as the collection of data from patients and personnel on the adequacy of pastoral care services. Other awareness-building activities could include participation in nursing practice rounds, in-service presentations, involvement in hospital social events, and placement of articles about pastoral care in hospital publications. Activities that would help to foster good community relations and thereby improve census include participation in the area clergy association, work with local church groups that visit the sick and the homebound, providing speakers to community organizations, and sponsoring a memorial Mass for families of patients who have died at the hospital. Pastoral care staff should not feel threatened by the changing health care environment. Instead they must recognize the opportunity it provides to create ways to minister to a new mix of patients and to reach new groups.

  11. Subliminal Cues Bias Perception of Facial Affect in Patients with Generalized Social Phobia: Evidence for Enhanced Unconscious Threat Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiste eJusyte

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSocially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signalling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment task, 23 SAD and 23 matched control participants were asked to rate the affective valence of parametrically manipulated affective expressions ranging from neutral to angry. Each trial was preceded by subliminal presentation of an angry/ neutral cue. The SAD group tended to rate target faces as angry when the preceding subliminal stimulus was angry vs. neutral, while healthy participants were not biased by the subliminal stimulus presentation. The perceptual bias in SAD was also associated with higher reaction time latencies in the subliminal angry cue condition. The results provide further support for enhanced unconscious threat processing in SAD individuals. The implications for etiology, maintenance and treatment of SAD are discussed.

  12. Lamb Wave Multi-touch Ultrasonic Touchscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Kamyar; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Carver, Thomas; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus

    2016-09-13

    Touchscreen sensors are widely used in many devices such as smart phones, tablets, laptops, etc., with diverse applications. We present the design, analysis, and implementation of an ultrasonic touchscreen system that utilizes interaction of transient Lamb waves with objects in contact with the screen. It attempts to improve on the existing ultrasound technologies, with the potential of addressing some of the weaknesses of the dominant technologies, such as the capacitive or resistive ones. Compared to the existing ultrasonic and acoustic modalities, among other advantages, it provides the capability of detecting several simultaneous touch points, and also a more robust performance. The localization algorithm, given the hardware design, can detect several touch points with a very limited number of measurements (one or two). This in turn can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost.

  13. The influence of experimental pain intensity in the local and referred pain area on somatosensory perception in the area of referred pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Eva; Hansson, Per

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental pain intensity in the local and referred pain area on somatosensory perception thresholds in the area of referred pain. Pain was induced by intramuscular electrical stimulation of the left infraspinatus muscle in 12 healthy individuals. The stimulation corresponded to the local pain threshold ("mild local pain"), the referred pain threshold ("mild referred pain"), and a pain intensity corresponding to 2 on a 10-point category scale in the referred pain area ("moderate referred pain"). Quantitative sensory testing was performed to assess perception thresholds in the referred pain area and the homologous contralateral area before and during stimulation. Perception thresholds to light touch (LTTs), pressure pain (PPTs), and to innocuous as well as noxious warmth and cold were assessed. During stimulation the LTTs increased in the referred pain area compared to baseline, uninfluenced by pain intensity. Perception thresholds to innocuous cold and warmth increased bilaterally during the stimulation, without relation to pain intensity. Heat pain thresholds were not affected. Compared to baseline, PPTs increased bilaterally during stimulation corresponding to "mild local pain" and "mild referred pain", respectively, and a further increase was seen during "moderate referred pain". The decreased sensitivity to innocuous cold, warmth, and pressure pain was bilateral, indicating activation of endogenous net inhibitory mechanisms interacting bilaterally. We found no influence of pain intensity on somatosensory thresholds restricted to the referred pain area and light touch was the only affected modality in the referred pain area only.

  14. An Ergonomic Study on Influence of Touch-screen Phone Size on Single-hand Operation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Touch-screen smart phones have gradually occupied the market of traditional Qwerty Phones and become the mainstream products of mobile phone industry. However, few ergonomics research has been conducted on the touch screens of smart phones, while it has led to tendosynovitis among users owing to the overuse of thumbs. Sizes of smart phones in market range from 3.0 to 7.0 inches. What’s more, 4.0 inches and above are the common size of current touch screens. Also, considering the users’ habits, one-hand operation is preferred when the other hand is occupied. This paper has collected hand parameters of 80 subjects and has adopted an experiment which includes the performance testing and surveys of subjective evaluation by means of usability evaluation. After analysing correlation between touch-screen sizes and operation performances, the result indicates that under one-hand operation, the size of touch screen affects the operation performance significantly. However, it’s hard to implement one-hand operation if the touch-screen size is over 5.7 inches. Additionally, the thickness of smart phones affects the degree of comfort remarkably.

  15. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors.

  16. Physical factors influencing pleasant touch during passive fingertip stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöcker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i the normal force of stimulus application (FN and (ii the stimulus temperature (TS. METHODS AND RESULTS: The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0, pleasant (scored 1, or unpleasant (scored 2. These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness. CONCLUSION: Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring

  17. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  18. Perceptions of Constraints Affecting Adoption of Women-in-Agriculture Programme Technologies in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniobong A. Akpabio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on constraints affecting the adoption ofinnovative agricultural technologies disseminated by theWomen-in-Agriculture (WIA unit of the Akwa Ibom AgriculturalDevelopment Programme (AKADEP to its women clientele.The study also ascertained the awareness and adoption levelsof such introduced technologies. Findings revealed that respondentswere aware of 61.9% of introduced technologies,while only 33.3% were fully adopted. The study also identifiedseven factors responsible for the non-adoption of womenfarmers’ related technologies. The three highest ranking constrainingfactors were revealed as; high cost of inputs, lowincome level of women farmers and lack of regular contactwith WIA extension agents. Reasons have been proffered forthe relatively low technologies’ adoption levels. Recommendationshave also been made to enhance the technologyadoption level. These include the necessity to introduce onlysocio- economically and culturally compatible technologies toWIA clientele, a wholesale focus on follow-up activities afterinitial group based technology introduction activities, and theattachment of a credit scheme to the WIA program.

  19. 宏基beTouch E140

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    看来宏基为进军手机市场费了不少心思。这款定位入门级的beTouch E140尽管并未成为众人瞩目的焦点,但硬件配置却毫不含糊,还搭载了Android OS v2.2系统。与它们一起发布的还有一款全键盘E210,喜欢全键盘的米饭不妨去关注一下。

  20. MEMS-based force-clamp analysis of the role of body stiffness in C. elegans touch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Bryan C; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A; Goodman, Miriam B; Pruitt, Beth L

    2013-06-01

    Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces <1 μN and indentation depths <1 μm. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans.

  1. The cutaneous rabbit illusion affects human primary sensory cortex somatotopically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Blankenburg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study neural correlates of a robust somatosensory illusion that can dissociate tactile perception from physical stimulation. Repeated rapid stimulation at the wrist, then near the elbow, can create the illusion of touches at intervening locations along the arm, as if a rabbit hopped along it. We examined brain activity in humans using fMRI, with improved spatial resolution, during this version of the classic cutaneous rabbit illusion. As compared with control stimulation at the same skin sites (but in a different order that did not induce the illusion, illusory sequences activated contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, at a somatotopic location corresponding to the filled-in illusory perception on the forearm. Moreover, the amplitude of this somatosensory activation was comparable to that for veridical stimulation including the intervening position on the arm. The illusion additionally activated areas of premotor and prefrontal cortex. These results provide direct evidence that illusory somatosensory percepts can affect primary somatosensory cortex in a manner that corresponds somatotopically to the illusory percept.

  2. Touch in Computer-Mediated Environments: An Analysis of Online Shoppers' Touch-Interface User Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sorim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most fundamental changes in current computer-mediated environments has been input devices, moving from mouse devices to touch interfaces. However, most studies of online retailing have not considered device environments as retail cues that could influence users' shopping behavior. In this research, I examine the…

  3. Sencha Touch 2 mobile JavaScript framework

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John Earl

    2013-01-01

    Full of explained code and enriched with screenshots, this book is the practical way to take your Sencha Touch skills to the next level.If you want to gain practical knowledge for using the Sencha Touch mobile web application framework, and you are familiar with HTML and CSS, then this book is for you. It is assumed that you know how to use touchscreens, touch events, and mobile devices such as Apple iOS and Google Android.

  4. Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Cody; Sharlin, Ehud; Woytiuk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Increasingly, the movements of players' physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based on this unconventional interaction technique re...

  5. Braille Touch : Mobile Touchscreen Text Entry for the Visually Impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Southern, Caleb; CLawson, James; Frey, Brian; Abowd, Gregory; Romero, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We present a demonstration of BrailleTouch, an accessible keyboard for blind users on a touchscreen smartphone (see Figure 1). Based on the standard Perkins Brailler, BrailleTouch implements a six-key chorded braille soft keyboard [1]. We will briefly introduce audience members to the braille code, and then allow them to hold the BrailleTouch prototype and enter text, with the aid of a visual chart of the braille alphabet. QC 20160418

  6. Using Sencha touch to build a mobile website

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Sencha Touch, an open source tool, fills the space between the HTML and the native app. Web apps are generally built using JavaScript but this short ebook shows you how to construct your mobile Web sites using Sencha Touch - you just need to be familiar with Javascript. Sencha Touch targets specific devices, namely iOS, Android 2.1+ and Blackberry 6 devices. Web Apps are a critical element of the future of mobile developmen find out how to easily construct them with this brief intro to Sencha Touch

  7. Touching Syllable Segmentation using Split Profile Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Pratap Reddy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The most challenging task of a character recognition system is associated with segmentation of individual components of the script with maximum efficiency. This process is relatively easy with regard to stroke based and standard scripts. Cursive scripts are more complex possessing a large number of overlapping and touching objects, where in the statistical behavior of the topological properties are to be studied extensively for achieving highest accuracy. Certain amount of similarity exists between unconstrained hand written text as well as South Indian scripts in terms of topology, component combinations, overlapping and merging characteristics. The concept of syllables and their formulations is an additive complexity with regard to Indian scripts. In this paper the statistical behavior of the cursive script, Telugu, is presented. The topological properties in terms of zones, component combinations, behavioural aspects of syllables are studied and adopted in the segmentation process. The statistical behaviour of cursive components are evaluated. Split Profile Algorithm is proposed while handling touching components. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on different fonts and sizes. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with two approaches methods viz aspect ratio and syllable width approaches.

  8. To touch the science through the experiment!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  9. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch.

  10. The magnetic touch illusion: A perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterstam, Arvid; Zeberg, Hugo; Özçiftci, Vedat Menderes; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-10-01

    To accurately localize our limbs and guide movements toward external objects, the brain must represent the body and its surrounding (peripersonal) visual space. Specific multisensory neurons encode peripersonal space in the monkey brain, and neurobehavioral studies have suggested the existence of a similar representation in humans. However, because peripersonal space lacks a distinct perceptual correlate, its involvement in spatial and bodily perception remains unclear. Here, we show that applying brushstrokes in mid-air at some distance above a rubber hand-without touching it-in synchrony with brushstrokes applied to a participant's hidden real hand results in the illusory sensation of a "magnetic force" between the brush and the rubber hand, which strongly correlates with the perception of the rubber hand as one's own. In eight experiments, we characterized this "magnetic touch illusion" by using quantitative subjective reports, motion tracking, and behavioral data consisting of pointing errors toward the rubber hand in an intermanual pointing task. We found that the illusion depends on visuo-tactile synchrony and exhibits similarities with the visuo-tactile receptive field properties of peripersonal space neurons, featuring a non-linear decay at 40cm that is independent of gaze direction and follows changes in the rubber hand position. Moreover, the "magnetic force" does not penetrate physical barriers, thus further linking this phenomenon to body-specific visuo-tactile integration processes. These findings provide strong support for the notion that multisensory integration within peripersonal space underlies bodily self-attribution. Furthermore, we propose that the magnetic touch illusion constitutes a perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space.

  11. Percepção do idoso dos comportamentos afetivos expressos pela equipe de enfermagem Percepción del anciano frente a los comportamientos afectivos expresados por el equipo de enfermería Perception of the elderly in the view of affective behaviors expressed by the nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Prochet

    2011-12-01

    recibido por los profesionales de enfermería en el que se refiere a la dimensión verbal, siendo el comportamiento más evidente la demostración de sinceridad. Las actitudes no verbales de ser oído/escuchado y tocado con delicadeza asumieron evaluación negativa. La afectividad en las acciones de enfermería es percibida por los ancianos, lo que interfiere en la evaluación de la calidad de la asistencia.Objective: To identify the perception of affective behavior, by the elderly hospitalized, from the care provided by the nursing team. Material and methodology: Quantitative study, cross-sectional and developed with 28 individuals. It was used a tool consisted of 21 types of verbal and nonverbal behavior. Results: The positive results of the actions included verbal behaviors to talk (57.2%, guide (60.7%, respect (50%, provide security (44.6% and demonstrate honesty (96.4%. The positive of non-verbal dimension joined aspects related to respect (63.4%, touching (46.4%, hearing / listening (23.2% and the look as a positive expression (71.4%. Conclusion: Most elderly people perceived as positive the affectivity of care received by the Nursing Team regarding the verbal dimension, with an emphasis on the honesty. The non-verbal attitudes of being heard/listened and touched gently turned into a negative assessment. The affection in nursing actions is perceived by the elderly and these interfere on the assessment of quality of care.

  12. The Effect of Maternal Touching on Infant Social Referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    Whether maternal touching of the infant while speaking to him or her about a stranger facilitates or interferes with social referencing is investigated in this study. Thirty-three 10-month-olds received positive or neutral nonverbal messages when their mothers spoke to them about a stranger. Infants whose mothers did not touch them while speaking…

  13. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  14. Analysis on the relations between piano touch and tone

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Lai-Mei

    2010-01-01

    In piano playing, different ways of touch lead to different tones. The effects of changing forces on keys are presented by changing interaction between hammer and string. The thesis focuses on several important variables in hammer-string system and draws conclusions to the question about piano touch and tone.

  15. Taking Your iPod touch to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Fast and fun to read, this title offers all the tips and techniques Apple iPod Touch users could ever think of to make the most of their device. Sadun reveals everything and more about the functionality of the iPod Touch.

  16. An Avionics Touch Screen based Control Display Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, M.; Damveld, H.J.; Borst, C.

    2012-01-01

    In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard

  17. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  18. Touched by robots: effects of physical contact and proactiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, H.; Amin, A.K.; Evers, V.; Kemper, N.

    2009-01-01

    Even though robots' physical embodiment makes it likely humans will come into physical contact with robots, the effects of touch on attitudes in human-robot interaction are still relatively unknown. This survey and video-based, experiment (N=199) investigates the effects of touch and robots interact

  19. A Generalized Carpenter's Rule Theorem for Self-Touching Linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Timothy G; Gassend, Blaise

    2009-01-01

    The Carpenter's Rule Theorem states that any chain linkage in the plane can be folded continuously between any two configurations while preserving the bar lengths and without the bars crossing. However, this theorem applies only to strictly simple configurations, where bars intersect only at their common endpoints. We generalize the theorem to self-touching configurations, where bars can touch but not properly cross. At the heart of our proof is a new definition of self-touching configurations of planar linkages, based on an annotated configuration space and limits of nontouching configurations. We show that this definition is equivalent to the previously proposed definition of self-touching configurations, which is based on a combinatorial description of overlapping features. Using our new definition, we prove the generalized Carpenter's Rule Theorem using a topological argument. We believe that our topological methodology provides a powerful tool for manipulating many kinds of self-touching objects, such as...

  20. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  1. A Touch of Reinforcement: The Effects of Contingent Teacher Touch on the Classroom Behaviour of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldall, Kevin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which the behaviors of four infant class teachers in England and their respective classes were observed and recorded. The aim of the studies was to examine the effects of contingent teacher touch behavior upon children's classroom behavior. Touch was found to increase on-task behavior and decrease disruptive behavior.…

  2. Perceptions of partners' problematic alcohol use affect relationship outcomes beyond partner self-reported drinking: alcohol use in committed romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Øverup, Camilla S; Overup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals' perceptions of their partner's alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one's perception of one's romantic partner's drinking as problematic on one's relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one's partner's drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner's drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor's perception of their partner's drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E

    2012-11-01

    Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (ptouch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology.

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Classic Art of Healingor the Therapeutic Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of presence in the body seems to be connected with many symptoms that can be readily reversed simply by sensitive touch. When touch is combined with therapeutic work on mind and feelings, holistic healing seems to be facilitated and many problems can be solved in a direct and easy way in the clinic without drugs. This paper gives examples of the strength of manual medicine or therapeutic touch in its most simple form, and points to the power of physical contact between physician and his patient in the context of the theory and practice of holistic healing. Intimacy seems highly beneficial for the process of healing and it is very important to distinguish clearly between intimacy and sexuality for the physician and his patent to be able to give and receive touch without fear and without holding back emotionally.

  5. Children’s Interaction Ability Towards Multi-Touch Gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hidayah Hussain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern, powerful and multi-touch technology has gained attention among younger users. The devices are not only limited to entertainment purposes, but is also increasingly introduced for learning purposes at kindergartens and preschool. However, the number of studies that address the interaction of multi-touch gestures among kindergarten children are still limited. In fact, such interactions foster great learning potential in developmental skills for children. This paper specifically focuses on the priority of children’s interaction abilities towards multi-touch gestures such as rotation, zoom-in and zoom-out. This study had involved ten kindergarten children in a kindergarten located in Kajang, Selangor between ages of four to six years old. A direct observation technique was used in this study. The findings show three items from the aspects of motor and cognitive skills (such as touch input unable to reach screen sensitivity, unintentional touches and fingers touching the object inaccurately are the interaction ability that should be prioritized. Thus, this study suggests that the development of an adaptive multi-touch gestures application should be adapted into to children’s motor and cognitive skills, besides the other aspects.  

  6. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  7. Mechanical touch responses of Arabidopsis TCH1-3 mutant roots on inclined hard-agar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guodong; Wang, Bochu; Liu, Junyu; Yan, Jie; Zhu, Liqing; Yang, Xingyan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

  8. Evaluation of touch-sensitive screen tablet terminal button size and spacing accounting for effect of fingertip contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, T; Doi, K; Fujimoto, H

    2015-08-01

    Touch-sensitive screen terminals enabling intuitive operation are used as input interfaces in a wide range of fields. Tablet terminals are one of the most common devices with a touch-sensitive screen. They have a feature of good portability, enabling use under various conditions. On the other hand, they require a GUI designed to prevent decrease of usability under various conditions. For example, the angle of fingertip contact with the display changes according to finger posture during operation and how the case is held. When a human fingertip makes contact with an object, the contact area between the fingertip and contact object increases or decreases as the contact angle changes. A touch-sensitive screen detects positions using the change in capacitance of the area touched by the fingertip; hence, differences in contact area between the touch-sensitive screen and fingertip resulting from different forefinger angles during operation could possibly affect operability. However, this effect has never been studied. We therefore conducted an experiment to investigate the relationship between size/spacing and operability, while taking the effect of fingertip contact angle into account. As a result, we have been able to specify the button size and spacing conditions that enable accurate and fast operation regardless of the forefinger contact angle.

  9. Force and touch make video games 'serious' for dexterity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Michele; Guandalini, Giovanni; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Computerized interfaces are able to represent 3D immersive simulations. Most of them make use of joystick, mouse, gloves, or grasp pressure transducers. Those have the drawback of 'filtering' the user interaction and/or de-locate the touch with respect to the visual stimulus. To overcome this we developed dexterity rehabilitation games on a novel touch interface that measures also force. The system allows dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions via the touch screen, the third by the force channel. Tactile feedback is provided with a vibration device mounted on the screen back.

  10. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  11. Perceptions of Partners’ Problematic Alcohol Use Affect Relationship Outcomes Beyond Partner Self-Reported Drinking: Alcohol Use in Committed Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Overup, Camilla S.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals’ perceptions of their partner’s alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one’s perception of one’s romantic partner’s drinking as problematic on one’s relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one’s partner’s drinking. Both partners ...

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis eKoukounari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.

  13. Taking Your iPod touch to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Unleash your iPhone and take it to the limit using secret tips and techniques from gadget hacker Erica Sadun. Fast and fun to read, Taking Your iPod touch 4 to the Max is fully updated to show you how get the most out of Apple's new OS 4. You'll find all the best undocumented tricks as well as the most efficient and enjoyable introduction to the iPhone available. Starting with an introduction to iPod touch 4 basics, you'll quickly move on to discover the iPod touch's hidden potential, like how to connect to a TV, get contract-free VOIP, and hack OS 4 so it will run apps on your iPod touch. Fro

  14. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  15. Can Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency Be Used to Characterize Students' Perceptions of the Affective Relationship with Their Teacher? Testing a New Child Measure in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jellesma, Francine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims: Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student…

  16. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students’ perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, H.M.Y.; Jellesma, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers’ perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middl

  17. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  18. 告别MyIE2 TouchNet Browser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逆刃刀

    2004-01-01

    刚刚接解Internet的时候,只知道用微软强加给我们的IE浏览器。后来逐渐了解了,开始选择更好的MyIE2,一直和MyIE2相守走过了N个日日夜夜,直到发现了TouchNet Browser(以下简称TouchNet)。

  19. Sticky-Finger Manipulation with a Multi-Touch Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    16 2.4.2 Simple Shape Gesture Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 vii 2.4.3 Collision...system. Depending on the multi-touch hardware used, the area and shape of each finger that 16 Figure 2.10: Simple Rectangle Gesture Recognition : The...to the capacitive touch-screen of the Ipad, which allows us to achieve consistent and robust results. 2.4.2 Simple Shape Gesture Recognition In

  20. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Lovato; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under ...

  1. Touch Screen based Speed Control of Single Phase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mallika

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief idea of touch screen technology and its interfacing with a controller to control the speed of single phase induction motor. Here touch screen technology and Programmable System on Chip (PSOC microcontroller concept is utilized which is less spaceconsumption and easy to design. The aim of this paper is to have remote sensing and speed control of an AC motor.

  2. The C. elegans touch response facilitates escape from predacious fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Sean M.; Clark, Christopher M.; Nunnari, John; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions are vital determinants in the natural selection of behavioral traits. However, we have few insights into both the neural mechanisms and the selective advantage of specific behavioral traits. Gentle touch to the anterior half of the body of Caenorhabditis elegans elicits an escape response in which the animal quickly reverses and suppresses exploratory head movements [1]. Even though the C. elegans touch response has provided one of the rare examples of how neural ne...

  3. Allina Health System's approach to high tech and high touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T A

    1997-01-01

    All health care providers, regardless of their integration status, must meet customer expectations to maintain market share and viability. The balance between high tech and high touch customer interactions is not a fad or trend. For integrated health systems with the full continuum of medical care, additional challenges are presented by the organization's competing health care delivery and financing components. Allina Health System describes its integrated health system approach to satisfying customer high tech and high touch needs.

  4. Touch and temporal behavior of grand piano actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Galembo, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the temporal behavior of grand piano actions from different manufacturers under different touch conditions and dynamic levels. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the sound signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``pressed touch'' versus ``struck touch'') over the entire dynamic range. Discrete measurements were extracted from the accelerometer data for each of the over 2300 recorded tones (e.g., finger-key, hammer-string, and key bottom contact times, maximum hammer velocity). Travel times of the hammer (from finger-key to hammer-string) as a function of maximum hammer velocity varied clearly between the two types of touch, but only slightly between pianos. A travel time approximation used in earlier work [Goebl W., (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 563-572] derived from a computer-controlled piano was verified. Constant temporal behavior over type of touch and low compression properties of the parts of the action (reflected in key bottom contact times) were hypothesized to be indicators for instrumental quality.

  5. Touch-less Fingerprint Analysis — A Review and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjot Kaur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Touch-less fingerprint recognition system is a reliable alternative to conventional touch-based fingerprint recognition system. Touch-less system is different from conventional system in the sense that they make use of digital camera to acquire the fingerprint image where as conventional system uses live-acquisition techniques. The conventional fingerprint systems are simple but they suffer from various problems such as hygienic, maintenance and latent fingerprints. In this paper we present a review of touch-less fingerprint recognition systems that use digital camera. We present some challenging problems that occur while developing the touch-less system. These problems are low contrast between the ridge and the valley pattern on fingerprint image, non-uniform lighting, motion blurriness and defocus, due to less depth of field of digital camera. The touch-less fingerprint recognition system can be divided into three main modules: preprocessing, feature extraction and matching. Preprocessing is an important step prior to fingerprint feature extraction and matching. In this paper we put our more emphasis on preprocessing so that the drawbacks stated earlier can be removed. Further preprocessing is divided into four parts: first is normalization, second is fingerprint Segmentation, third is fingerprint enhancement and last is the core point detection. Feature extraction can be done by Gabor filter or by minutia extraction and the matching can be done by Support Vector Machine or Principal Component Analysis and three distance method.

  6. The Will to Touch: David Copperfield’s Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, touch was considered to be a more privileged sense than has been generally noted, and the hand was pre-eminently the site of active touching. The hand comes newly to rival the face in descriptive significance in mid-nineteenth-century fiction, and reflects contemporary notions of the role of touch in the exercise of the will and the development of the sensorium. This article explores medical and philosophical understandings of embodied touch within the period, and examines why the hand emerged as a focal point for scientific, poetic, and popular discussion. Such scientists as Charles Bell, Herbert Spencer, and Alexander Bain tend to work within two paradigms: the hand as a site of sensory input that forms a conduit between inner and outer worlds, and the hand as an instrument of the will. The article explores Dickens's use of these ideas about touch and development in his 1850 'Bildungsroman', 'David Copperfield'. David struggles to establish his proper status as a middle-class male, in part by learning to use his hands to impose his own will and to resist the dominance of inappropriate others through touch.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200 µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10 s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3-aq, and O2-aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  8. The Slip Hypothesis: Tactile Perception and its Neuronal Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    The slip hypothesis of epicritic tactile perception interprets actively moving sensor and touched objects as a frictional system, known to lead to jerky relative movements called 'slips'. These slips depend on object geometry, forces, material properties, and environmental factors, and, thus, have the power to incorporate coding of the perceptual target, as well as perceptual strategies (sensor movement). Tactile information as transferred by slips will be encoded discontinuously in space and time, because slips sometimes engage only parts of the touching surfaces and appear as discrete and rare events in time. This discontinuity may have forced tactile systems of vibrissae and fingertips to evolve special ways to convert touch signals to a tactile percept.

  9. Technology that Touches Lives: Teleconsultation to Benefit Persons with Upper Limb Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Lynsay R; Wagner, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008), only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss. Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.

  10. Technology that Touches Lives: Teleconsultation to Benefit Persons with Upper Limb Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay R. Whelan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008, only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss.  Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.

  11. 双相机多点触控系统%Multi-touch System Using Two Cameras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌陶; 陈靖; 刘越; 王涌天

    2012-01-01

    To tackle the problems of high cost, low resolution, bulk mass and easily being affected by ambient light of Multi-touch system, a dual-camera multi-touch system was proposed which could achieve human-computer interaction by simply clicking and moving the fingers on the interaction surface. The proposed system detected the input of fingers by two cameras, obtained the positions of Multi-points in two cameras by image processing, and calculated the coordinates in screen coordinate by combining with calibration data, and finally obtained the Multi-points data by tracking the touch points. The experimental results of photo interactive platform show that this system can be used for Multi-touch with good accuracy.%为解决多点触控系统花费高、分辨率不足、体积庞大、容易受环境光影响等问题,提出了一种采用双摄像机的多点系统,通过多手指的点击和移动动作实现人机交互。该系统以双摄像机监控交互平面上的手指输入,利用图像处理技术得到触点在双相机中的位置,再结合标定数据进行差值计算得到触点的屏幕坐标,通过对触点的跟踪得到多点数据。图片浏览互动平台的实验结果表明,本文所提出的系统可用于多点触摸,并且具有很好的精确度。

  12. Millisecond Precision Spike Timing Shapes Tactile Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Mackevicius, Emily L.; Best, Matthew D.; Hannes P Saal; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2012-01-01

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequ...

  13. Haptics disambiguates vision in the perception of pictorial relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.; Volcic, R.; Pont, S.C.; Koenderink, J.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that touch decreases the ambiguity in a visual image. It has been previously found that visual perception of three-dimensional shape is subject to certain variations. These variations can be described by the affine transformation. While the visual system thus seems unabl

  14. Haptic perception of mutiple objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    In this thesis a series of investigations into haptic (touch) perception of multiple objects is presented. When we hold a collection of objects in our hand, we can extract different types of information about these objects. We can, for instance, identify which objects we are holding. The first chapters of this thesis aim at providing insight into how fast humans can find a certain object among other objects using touch and which specific features make an object stand out among the other objects. To this end human subjects were instructed to respond as fast as possible whether a certain target item was present among a varying number of distractor items. This way response times were measured as a function of the number of items. In chapters 2 and 3 subjects were asked to search a plane on which items could be placed. The results show that a rough item is highly salient among less rough items (chapter 2) and that in this produces ‘pop-out’ effect. In chapter 3 it is shown that very poor visual information can already guide haptic exploration effectively. In chapters 4 and 5 items consisted of three-dimensional shapes (spheres, cubes, tetrahedrons, cylinders and ellipsoids) that could be grasped together in the hand. We show that shapes with edges are highly salient and that there is a whole range of search slopes depending on the target -distractor combination. In addition to identifying the object we may hold in our hand, we can also determine how many objects we are holding. In chapters 6 to 8 we investigated haptic numerosity judgement. From vision it is known that numerosity judgment is fast and error-free up to 3 or 4 items, while for larger numbers response times and error-rates increase rapidly. The process used for assessing small numerosities has been labeled ‘subitizing’, while the process for larger numerosities is referred to as ‘counting’. In chapter 6 we show that subitizing also occurs in haptics when subjects are asked to determine the

  15. Auditory adaptation improves tactile frequency perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommett, Lexi E; Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Yau, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-11

    Our ability to process temporal frequency information by touch underlies our capacity to perceive and discriminate surface textures. Auditory signals, which also provide extensive temporal frequency information, can systematically alter the perception of vibrations on the hand. How auditory signals shape tactile processing is unclear: perceptual interactions between contemporaneous sounds and vibrations are consistent with multiple neural mechanisms. Here we used a crossmodal adaptation paradigm, which separated auditory and tactile stimulation in time, to test the hypothesis that tactile frequency perception depends on neural circuits that also process auditory frequency. We reasoned that auditory adaptation effects would transfer to touch only if signals from both senses converge on common representations. We found that auditory adaptation can improve tactile frequency discrimination thresholds. This occurred only when adaptor and test frequencies overlapped. In contrast, auditory adaptation did not influence tactile intensity judgments. Thus, auditory adaptation enhances touch in a frequency- and feature-specific manner. A simple network model in which tactile frequency information is decoded from sensory neurons that are susceptible to auditory adaptation recapitulates these behavioral results. Our results imply that the neural circuits supporting tactile frequency perception also process auditory signals. This finding is consistent with the notion of supramodal operators performing canonical operations, like temporal frequency processing, regardless of input modality.

  16. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation

  17. Philosophic reflections on the meaning of touch in nurse-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    In this paper I examine the meaning of physical touch as it occurs in the nurse-patient interaction. There are two aspects of the nurse-patient relationship that are found in most nurse-patient interactions which together have profound implications for nurses as practitioners and as individual human persons. The first is the clinical intimacy of the nurse-patient relationship where nurses touch, rub, smooth, clean, dress and otherwise physically interact with patients. The other is the existential crisis, the possibility of loss, suffering and death that lurks at the horizon of most, if not all, healthcare encounters. Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and more recently Robert Sokolowski argue that tactile sensations and resultant perceptions are fundamental to all sensory perception. Further, they argue that tactile sensation is fundamental for the ongoing constitution of 'my' self as a person and for the development and exercise of human intersubjectivity. If tactile interaction is crucial to the development of our very selves as persons and a significant aspect of our interaction with patients includes direct or observed tactile sensations and if further these sensations occur around the context of existential crises for our patients, then nurse's very selves as persons are being challenged by these interactions. Here, then I examine the philosophical argument for the role of tactile sensations in our human development and briefly look at contemporary neurophysiologic research that supports this philosophical account. I then suggest ways such physical intimacy can lead to a strengthening or weakening of the person of the nurse and the nursing interaction and end with some thoughts about ways to support nurses in these activities.

  18. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  19. Effect of consumers' ethic perceptions to convenience perceptions and purchasing intention in online stores

    OpenAIRE

    Orpana, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to gain knowledge of how consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers affect to consumers' online shopping attitudes, more specifically consumers' perceptions of online shopping convenience. Also ambition is to achieve deeper knowledge about consumer behaviour and especially consumers' perceptions towards online retailers. Besides connection between consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers and ...

  20. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  1. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Cristia

    Full Text Available Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  2. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  3. 非言语声音影响汉语听者言语声音的知觉%The Non-speech Sounds Affect the Perception of Speech Sounds in Chinese Listeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文理; 乐国安

    2012-01-01

    采用启动范式,以汉语听者为被试,考察了非言语声音是否影响言语声音的知觉.实验1考察了纯音对辅音范畴连续体知觉的影响,结果发现纯音影响到辅音范畴连续体的知觉,表现出频谱对比效应.实验2考察了纯音和复合音对元音知觉的影响,结果发现与元音共振峰频率一致的纯音或复合音加快了元音的识别,表现出启动效应.两个实验一致发现非言语声音能够影响言语声音的知觉,表明言语声音知觉也需要一个前言语的频谱特征分析阶段,这与言语知觉听觉理论的观点一致.%A long-standing debate in the field of speech perception concerns whether specialized processing mechanisms are necessary to perceive speech sounds. The motor theory argues that speech perception is a special process and non-speech sounds don't affect the perception of speech sounds. The auditory theory suggests that speech perception can be understood in terms of general auditory process, which is shared with the perception of non-speech sounds. The findings from English subjects indicate that the processing of non-speech sounds affects the perception of speech sounds. Few studies have been administered in Chinese. The present study administered two experiments to examine whether the processing of non-speech sounds could affect the perception of speech segments in Chinese listeners. In experiment 1, speech sounds were a continuum of synthesized consonant category ranging from /ba/ to /da/. Non-speech sounds were two sine wave tones, with frequency equal to the onset frequency of F2 of/ba/ and /da/, respectively. Following the two tones, the /ba/-/da/ series were presented with a 50ms ISI. Undergraduate participants were asked to identify the speech sounds. The results found that non-speech tones influenced identification of speech targets: when the frequency of tone was equal to F2 onset frequency of /ba/, participants were more likely to identify consonant

  4. The social and personality neuroscience of empathy for pain and touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria eBufalari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available First- and third-person experiences of bodily sensations, like pain and touch, recruit overlapping neural networks including sensorimotor, insular, and anterior cingulate cortices. Here we illustrate the peculiar role of these structures in coding the sensory and affective qualities of the observed bodily sensations. Subsequently we show that such neural activity is critically influenced by a range of social, emotional, cognitive factors, and importantly by inter-individual differences in the separate components of empathic traits. Finally we suggest some fundamental issues that social neuroscience has to address for providing a comprehensive knowledge of the behavioral, functional, and anatomical brain correlates of empathy.

  5. Haptics disambiguates vision in the perception of pictorial relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijntjes, M. W. A.; Volcic, R.; Pont, S. C.; Koenderink, J. J.; Kappers, A. M. L.

    2009-02-01

    In this study we demonstrate that touch decreases the ambiguity in a visual image. It has been previously found that visual perception of three-dimensional shape is subject to certain variations. These variations can be described by the affine transformation. While the visual system thus seems unable to capture the Euclidean structure of a shape, touch could potentially be a useful source to disambiguate the image. Participants performed a so-called 'attitude task' from which the structure of the perceived three-dimensional shape was calculated. One group performed the task with only vision and a second group could touch the stimulus while viewing it. We found that the consistency within the haptics+vision group was higher than in the vision-only group. Thus, haptics decreases the visual ambiguity. Furthermore, we found that the touched shape was consistently perceived as having more relief than the untouched the shape. It was also found that the direction of affine shear differences within the two groups was more consistent when touch was used. We thus show that haptics has a significant influence on the perception of pictorial relief.

  6. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  7. The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimrat eSingh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude towards physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10-20 Hz - and a beta-band response (25-30 Hz in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right-hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements.

  8. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  9. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  10. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  11. Segmentation of Telugu Touching Conjunct Consonants Using Overlapping Bounding Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bharathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Telugu is an ancient historic language. It is spoken by about 84.6 million people of Andhra Pradesh. The script has circular orthography with few horizontal and slant strokes. Huge literature exists for this language in printed form which needs to be preserved by scanning and converting it into editable form. Segmentation of touching characters is a major issue in any OCR system. Segmenting the wordsinto individual glyphs by Connected Component Analysis yields poor results due to touching characters. Touching conjunct consonants is the major component which needs to be properly addressed for improving the accuracy of an OCR system. In this paper an overlapping bounding box approach is presented for segmenting the conjunct consonants along with an algorithm for identifying the correcttouching location. An accuracy rate of 91.27% is achieved.

  12. Galaxy Tab Covers Samsung TouchWiz Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy Tab lets you work, play, read, and connect on the go, but mastering its TouchWiz interface and finding the best apps can be tricky-unless you have this Missing Manual. Gadget whiz Preston Gralla provides crystal-clear explanations and step-by-step instructions to get you up to speed quickly, whether you have the 3G/4G or Wi-Fi version of this amazing device. The important stuff you need to know: Design your experience. Add interactive widgets and mini-apps to your screen with TouchWiz.Satisfy your appetite. Download thousands of games and apps from the Android Market.Keep in touch. Ch

  13. Perception and Cognition Are Largely Independent, but Still Affect Each Other in Systematic Ways: Arguments from Evolution and the Consciousness-Attention Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Carlos; Haladjian, Harry H.

    2017-01-01

    The main thesis of this paper is that two prevailing theories about cognitive penetration are too extreme, namely, the view that cognitive penetration is pervasive and the view that there is a sharp and fundamental distinction between cognition and perception, which precludes any type of cognitive penetration. These opposite views have clear merits and empirical support. To eliminate this puzzling situation, we present an alternative theoretical approach that incorporates the merits of these views into a broader and more nuanced explanatory framework. A key argument we present in favor of this framework concerns the evolution of intentionality and perceptual capacities. An implication of this argument is that cases of cognitive penetration must have evolved more recently and that this is compatible with the cognitive impenetrability of early perceptual stages of processing information. A theoretical approach that explains why this should be the case is the consciousness and attention dissociation framework. The paper discusses why concepts, particularly issues concerning concept acquisition, play an important role in the interaction between perception and cognition. PMID:28174551

  14. 钻石魅力多普达Touch Diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    士心

    2008-01-01

    多普达Touch Diamond号称是"iPhone杀手"的Windows Mobile智能手机。机身背面独特的钻石切割设计元素让人耳目一新,融合了目前高端配置功能,不论是靓丽的VGA屏幕、Touch Flo 3D界面,还是重力感应或4GB机身内存,都吸引了市场的关注。

  15. Capacitive Touch User Interface and Implementation with Virtual Refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIT Academy of Engineering Global Technology and Engineering centre, Whirlpool of India

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed User Interface incorporates 14 Touch keys, including slider and wheeler functionality using self capacitance technology, 24 side throw LED with intensity controlled Fade-IN, Fade-OUT effects, Buzzer chime, Voltage regulator circuit, and communication circuitry for the control board. The major advantage that this User Interface is that the entire assembly is less than 10mm thick including PCB, components, light guide and graphics sticker. In this project the mentioned capacitive touch user Interface is interfaced with a Lab view system simulating a virtual refrigerator capable of responding to the commands from the User Interface.

  16. Explore the interactive design of touch interface Webpage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Zhen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the era of mobile touch,website HTML,CSS and JavaScript building have been changed.Especially the functional development of hypertext markup language HTML5 and touch interface not only enhances the speed of the Website,but also creates amazing user experiences.Therefore,now Webpage design focus on the transmission of information at the same time,more concerns itself about the personalized and interactive design of users,including visual experience,browsing expect and psychological interaction,etc.

  17. 基于服务接触理念的外卖O2O服务设计探讨%ANALYSIS OF TAKEOUT FROM ONLINE TO OFFLINE BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF TOUCH POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佩; 周美玉

    2015-01-01

    随着服务行业在社会经济中的地位与日俱增,服务设计正受到广泛关注。而服务接触即用户与服务系统要素之间的动态交互过程是服务设计的重要环节,其影响了用户对服务水平的整体感知。外卖O2O作为一种垂直的生活定制服务,其本质在于满足用户需求,提供最优化的餐饮解决方案。但在其发展过程中,出现了很多问题,如外卖不按时送达、食品不卫生等,严重影响了服务品质。为了探索外卖O2O的服务升级优化方向,本文从服务设计角度,基于服务接触理论,全面解析了外卖O2O流程中的服务接触点,并提出了优化服务体验的方法与建议。%With the status of service industry in the social and economic increasing, service design is received widespread attention. Touch point is an important part of service design, and is the dynamic interaction between the user and the service system, which affects the user's overal perception of the level of service. Takeout Online to Offline as a vertical kind of special life service, the essence of which is to meet the needs of users, providing the most optimized dining solution. But there are many problems in the process of development, such as the food is not delivered on time, the food is not health, etc., which seriously affect the quality of service. In order to explore the optimization direction of the Takeout online to offline service ,this paper, based on the theory of touch point ,fuly analyzes the touch point of the process of takeout online to offline service from the perspective of service design, and puts forward the methods and suggestions of optimization of service experience.

  18. Aristotle’s Illusion in Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence for Normal Interdigit Tactile Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorio, Mirta; Marotta, Angela; Ottaviani, Sarah; Pozzer, Lara; Tinazzi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sensory alterations, a common feature of such movement disorders as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia, could emerge as epiphenomena of basal ganglia dysfunction. Recently, we found a selective reduction of tactile perception (Aristotle’s illusion, the illusory doubling sensation of one object when touched with crossed fingers) in the affected hand of patients with focal hand dystonia. This suggests that reduced tactile illusion might be a specific feature of this type of dystonia and could be due to abnormal somatosensory cortical activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Aristotle’s illusion is reduced in the affected hand of patients with PD. We tested 15 PD patients, in whom motor symptoms were mainly localised to one side of the body, and 15 healthy controls. Three pairs of fingers were tested in crossed (evoking the illusion) or parallel position (not evoking the illusion). A sphere was placed in the contact point between the two fingers and the blindfolded participants had to say whether they felt one or two stimuli. Stimuli were applied on the affected and less or unaffected side of the PD patients. We found no difference in illusory perception between the PD patients and the controls, nor between the more affected and less/unaffected side, suggesting that Aristotle’s illusion is preserved in PD. The retained tactile illusion in PD and its reduction in focal hand dystonia suggest that the basal ganglia, which are dysfunctional in both PD and dystonia, may not be causally involved in this function. Instead, the level of activation between digits in the somatosensory cortex may be more directly involved. Finally, the similar percentage of illusion in the more affected and less or unaffected body sides indicates that the illusory perception is not influenced by the presence or amount of motor symptoms. PMID:24523929

  19. Aristotle's illusion in Parkinson's disease: evidence for normal interdigit tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorio, Mirta; Marotta, Angela; Ottaviani, Sarah; Pozzer, Lara; Tinazzi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sensory alterations, a common feature of such movement disorders as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia, could emerge as epiphenomena of basal ganglia dysfunction. Recently, we found a selective reduction of tactile perception (Aristotle's illusion, the illusory doubling sensation of one object when touched with crossed fingers) in the affected hand of patients with focal hand dystonia. This suggests that reduced tactile illusion might be a specific feature of this type of dystonia and could be due to abnormal somatosensory cortical activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Aristotle's illusion is reduced in the affected hand of patients with PD. We tested 15 PD patients, in whom motor symptoms were mainly localised to one side of the body, and 15 healthy controls. Three pairs of fingers were tested in crossed (evoking the illusion) or parallel position (not evoking the illusion). A sphere was placed in the contact point between the two fingers and the blindfolded participants had to say whether they felt one or two stimuli. Stimuli were applied on the affected and less or unaffected side of the PD patients. We found no difference in illusory perception between the PD patients and the controls, nor between the more affected and less/unaffected side, suggesting that Aristotle's illusion is preserved in PD. The retained tactile illusion in PD and its reduction in focal hand dystonia suggest that the basal ganglia, which are dysfunctional in both PD and dystonia, may not be causally involved in this function. Instead, the level of activation between digits in the somatosensory cortex may be more directly involved. Finally, the similar percentage of illusion in the more affected and less or unaffected body sides indicates that the illusory perception is not influenced by the presence or amount of motor symptoms.

  20. Aristotle's illusion in Parkinson's disease: evidence for normal interdigit tactile perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Fiorio

    Full Text Available Sensory alterations, a common feature of such movement disorders as Parkinson's disease (PD and dystonia, could emerge as epiphenomena of basal ganglia dysfunction. Recently, we found a selective reduction of tactile perception (Aristotle's illusion, the illusory doubling sensation of one object when touched with crossed fingers in the affected hand of patients with focal hand dystonia. This suggests that reduced tactile illusion might be a specific feature of this type of dystonia and could be due to abnormal somatosensory cortical activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Aristotle's illusion is reduced in the affected hand of patients with PD. We tested 15 PD patients, in whom motor symptoms were mainly localised to one side of the body, and 15 healthy controls. Three pairs of fingers were tested in crossed (evoking the illusion or parallel position (not evoking the illusion. A sphere was placed in the contact point between the two fingers and the blindfolded participants had to say whether they felt one or two stimuli. Stimuli were applied on the affected and less or unaffected side of the PD patients. We found no difference in illusory perception between the PD patients and the controls, nor between the more affected and less/unaffected side, suggesting that Aristotle's illusion is preserved in PD. The retained tactile illusion in PD and its reduction in focal hand dystonia suggest that the basal ganglia, which are dysfunctional in both PD and dystonia, may not be causally involved in this function. Instead, the level of activation between digits in the somatosensory cortex may be more directly involved. Finally, the similar percentage of illusion in the more affected and less or unaffected body sides indicates that the illusory perception is not influenced by the presence or amount of motor symptoms.

  1. Multi-Touch Collaborative Gesture Recognition Based User Interfaces as Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED HASSAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses UI (User Interface designing based on multi-touch collaborative gesture recognition meant for ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder - affected children. The present user interfaces (in the context of behavioral interventions for Autism Spectrum disorder are investigated in detail. Thorough comparison has been made among various groups of these UIs. Advantages and limitations of these interfaces are discussed and future directions for the design of such interfaces are suggested.

  2. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  3. Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new `conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing -- light as a geometric theory -- and human touching -- only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle -- plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable objects in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects -- as they occur in smaller entities -- appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  4. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.

  5. Keeping in Touch with Families All Year Long

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carol; Yang, Alice

    2009-01-01

    For many parents, a phone call home from a teacher means trouble. The result? When a teacher gets in touch, parents' anxiety levels and defensive barriers may automatically go up, reducing their potential to participate as partners in their children's education. But it does not have to be that way. Teachers can regularly contact students' families…

  6. Multimedia programming using Max/MSP and TouchDesigner

    CERN Document Server

    Lechner, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn how to use Max 6 and/or TouchDesigner, or work in audio-visual real-time processing, this is the book for you. It is intended for intermediate users of both programs and can be helpful for artists, designers, musicians, VJs, and researchers. A basic understanding of audio principles is advantageous.

  7. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  8. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources.

  9. Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Q.; Holme, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.; Jay, O.; Malchaires, J.; Piette, A.; Rintama, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfa

  10. Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

  11. A low cost touch-screen interface for image collage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idanis Díaz Bolaño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el diseño de una interfaz de bajo costo basada en interacción touch-screen para crear collage de imágenes. La interfaz fue diseñada para propósitos de rehabilitación, tales como la estimulación de desarrollo cognitivo, habilidades motoras, creatividad y expresividad. La interacción touch-screen de la interfaz se basa en la utilización de un control remoto de Wii. Para evaluar la eficiencia de la interfaz, el diseño touch-screen fue comparado con un diseño basado en interacción con el mouse. A pesar de los problemas inherentes a la baja resolución de la cámara infrarroja del Wii Remote, los resultados experimentales obtenidos muestran que la versión del sistema touch-screen permitió un mejor desempeño para realizar tareas que requieren habilidades motoras finas, tales como delinear la forma libre de una figura.

  12. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lovato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under three years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  13. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  14. Entanglement entropy of fermionic quadratic band touching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    The entanglement entropy has been proven to be a useful tool to diagnose and characterize strongly correlated systems such as topologically ordered phases and some critical points. Motivated by the successes, we study the entanglement entropy (EE) of a fermionic quadratic band touching model in (2 + 1) dimension. This is a fermionic ``spinor'' model with a finite DOS at k=0 and infinitesimal instabilities. The calculation on two-point correlation functions shows that a Dirac fermion model and the quadratic band touching model both have the asymptotically identical behavior in the long distance limit. This implies that EE for the quadratic band touching model also has an area law as the Dirac fermion. This is in contradiction with the expectation that dense fermi systems with a finite DOS should exhibit LlogL violations to the area law of entanglement entropy (L is the length of the boundary of the sub-region) by analogy with the Fermi surface. We performed numerical calculations of entanglement entropies on a torus of the lattice models for the quadratic band touching point and the Dirac fermion to confirm this. The numerical calculation shows that EE for both cases satisfy the area law. We further verify this result by the analytic calculation on the torus geometry. This work was supported in part by the NSF grant DMR-1064319.

  15. 78 FR 37998 - Electronic One Touch Bingo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... to IGRA, Class II bingo has three elements. First, it must be played for prizes, including monetary... statutory requirements for a game of bingo. The type of one touch game at issue here is played for prizes... policy toward technology, a key distinction for the Committee was that technological aids are...

  16. Mobile touch: NFC-like interaction with yesterday's phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, V.; Deventer, M.O. van; Staalduinen, M. van; Hartog, F.T.H. den

    2009-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) enables fast interactive mobile services as it allows two mobile devices to quickly and securely exchange information when they are within touching range. However, NFC-enabled phones are virtually absent on the market today, which impedes the break-through of these use

  17. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  18. Mutuality in the perception of affordances and the control of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carello, Claudia; Wagman, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    James Gibson introduced the concept of affordance to emphasize the importance of behavior in constraining perception. In this view, perception is not judged in terms of sensitivities to properties that are measured by physical instruments (photometers for brightness, scales for weight, etc.) but in terms of properties that matter to behaving systems (whether an object is appropriate to carry out some task). The affordance notion is brought to bear on understanding and motivating a variety of experimental phenomena in the study of dynamic touch, the domain of touch most concerned with using objects and interacting with surfaces.

  19. An optimal algorithm based on extended kalman filter and the data fusion for infrared touch overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, AiGuo; Cheng, ShuYi; Pan, Qiang Biao; Sun, Dong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current infrared touch overlay has problems on the touch point recognition which bring some burrs on the touch trajectory. This paper uses the target tracking algorithm to improve the recognition and smoothness of infrared touch overlay. In order to deal with the nonlinear state estimate problem for touch point tracking, we use the extended Kalman filter in the target tracking algorithm. And we also use the data fusion algorithm to match the estimate value with the original target trajectory. The experimental results of the infrared touch overlay demonstrate that the proposed target tracking approach can improve the touch point recognition of the infrared touch overlay and achieve much smoother tracking trajectory than the existing tracking approach.

  20. Dual innervation of neonatal Merkel cells in mouse touch domes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Niu

    Full Text Available Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH, innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK, Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons.

  1. Spatial patterns in tactile perception: is there a tactile field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Patrick; Giovagnoli, Giulia

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies of tactile spatial perception focussed either on a single point of stimulation, on local patterns within a single skin region such as the fingertip, on tactile motion, or on active touch. It remains unclear whether we should speak of a tactile field, analogous to the visual field, and supporting spatial relations between stimulus locations. Here we investigate this question by studying perception of large-scale tactile spatial patterns on the hand, arm and back. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between perception of tactile patterns and the identification of subsets of those patterns. The results suggest that perception of tactile spatial patterns is based on representing the spatial relations between locations of individual stimuli. Experiment 2 investigated the spatial and temporal organising principles underlying these relations. Experiment 3 showed that tactile pattern perception makes reference to structural representations of the body, such as body parts separated by joints. Experiment 4 found that precision of pattern perception is poorer for tactile patterns that extend across the midline, compared to unilateral patterns. Overall, the results suggest that the human sense of touch involves a tactile field, analogous to the visual field. The tactile field supports computation of spatial relations between individual stimulus locations, and thus underlies tactile pattern perception.

  2. Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

    2013-12-01

    Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia.

  3. Don’t touch! hands off! art, blindness and the conservation of expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Candlin, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    The embargo on touching in museums is increasingly being brought into question, not least by blind activists who are calling for greater access to collections. The provision of opportunities to touch could be read as a potential conflict between established optic knowledge and illicit haptic experience, between the conservation of objects and access to collections. Instead I suggest that touch is not necessarily other to the museum; rather, the status of who does the touching and knowing is c...

  4. Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

    2013-01-01

    What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

  5. Odorant-binding proteins OBP57d and OBP57e affect taste perception and host-plant preference in Drosophila sechellia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsuo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite its morphological similarity to the other species in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex, D. sechellia has evolved distinct physiological and behavioral adaptations to its host plant Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as Tahitian Noni. The odor of the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia originates from hexanoic and octanoic acid. D. sechellia is attracted to these two fatty acids, whereas the other species in the complex are repelled. Here, using interspecies hybrids between D. melanogaster deficiency mutants and D. sechellia, we showed that the Odorant-binding protein 57e (Obp57e gene is involved in the behavioral difference between the species. D. melanogaster knock-out flies for Obp57e and Obp57d showed altered behavioral responses to hexanoic acid and octanoic acid. Furthermore, the introduction of Obp57d and Obp57e from D. simulans and D. sechellia shifted the oviposition site preference of D. melanogaster Obp57d/e(KO flies to that of the original species, confirming the contribution of these genes to D. sechellia's specialization to M. citrifolia. Our finding of the genes involved in host-plant determination may lead to further understanding of mechanisms underlying taste perception, evolution of plant-herbivore interactions, and speciation.

  6. Exploring Effects of Multi-Touch Tabletop on Collaborative Fraction Learning and the Relationship of Learning Behavior and Interaction with Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shadiev, Rustam; Tseng, Chi-Wei; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study designed a learning system to facilitate elementary school students' fraction learning. An experiment was carried out to investigate how the system, which runs on multi-touch tabletop versus tablet PC, affects fraction learning. Two groups, a control and experimental, were assigned. Control students have learned fraction by using tablet…

  7. Epicritic sensation in cervical spinal cord injury: diagnostic gains beyond testing light touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Baumberger, Michael; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, Armin

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Applied as a bedside test of gross dorsal column function, the testing of light touch (LT) sensation is of high clinical value in the diagnosis of human spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the assessment of overall dorsal column deficit by testing only LT may be limited, because the dorsal column pathway conveys several large diameter afferent modalities (e.g., sensation of touch, two-point discrimination, and proprioception). Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the epicritic sensation assessed by LT, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), and electrical perception threshold (EPT) across cervical dermatomes (C3-C8) in individuals with cervical SCI. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed at 6 months after cervical SCI, applying combined measures of LT, SWM, and EPT, bilaterally over predefined key sensory points (C3-C8). A total of 300 left- and right-sided dermatomes were tested for each outcome measure in 25 participants. The percentage agreement between classifications according to LT and SWM/EPT testing for all dermatomes between C3 and C8 ranged from 95.5% to 36.2%. The degree of agreement showed considerably variable κ coefficients (-0.1≥kw≤0.7) for each dermatome between C3 and C8. The additional measurements of epicritic sensation by SWM and EPT increased sensitivity by detecting and quantifying differences in sensory thresholds above, at, and below the LT level of injury. This is relevant for early clinical trials (phase 1/2), in which disclosing any biological activity of an intervention may be revealed by subtle sensory changes that might gain a clinical relevance.

  8. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  9. The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

  10. A quantitative approach to defining "high-touch" surfaces in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huslage, Kirk; Rutala, William A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily; Weber, David J

    2010-08-01

    Fifty interactions between healthcare workers and patients were observed to obtain a quantifiable definition of "high-touch" (ie, frequently touched) surfaces based on frequency of contact. Five surfaces were defined as high-touch surfaces: the bed rails, the bed surface, the supply cart, the over-bed table, and the intravenous pump.

  11. Toddlers' Word Learning from Contingent and Noncontingent Video on Touch Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Choi, Koeun; Pempek, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers' ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24-36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch "anywhere" on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a…

  12. A Day in the Life of African American and European American College Students: Daily Affective Experience and Perceptions of Climate at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Nancy Adair

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the under-representation of African Americans in higher education and the lawsuits targeting affirmative action policies in college admissions, the purpose of this study was to examine the daily affective experiences of African American and European American students at a predominantly White institution, exploring the activities…

  13. A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

    2013-03-01

    For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the

  14. Touch screen performance by individuals with and without motor control disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Karen B; Savage, Anne B; Chourasia, Amrish O; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Sesto, Mary E

    2013-03-01

    Touch technology is becoming more prevalent as functionality improves and cost decreases. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to users with diverse abilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of button and gap size on performance by individuals with varied motor abilities. Participants with (n = 38) and without (n = 15) a motor control disability completed a digit entry task. Button size ranged from 10 to 30 mm and gap size was either 1 or 3 mm. Results indicated that as button size increased, there was a decrease in misses, errors, and time to complete tasks. Performance for the non-disabled group plateaued at button size 20 mm, with minimal, if any gains observed with larger button sizes. In comparison, the disabled group's performance continued to improve as button size increased. Gap size did not affect user performance. These results may help to improve accessibility of touch technology.

  15. Towards enhancing click-draw based graphical passwords using multi-touch behaviours on smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Kwok, Lam For

    2017-01-01

    not only on PCs, but also on smartphones to authenticate legitimate users and detect impostors. However, as compared to common computers, we identify that users are able to perform some distinct actions like multi-touch on smartphones. The multi-touch is a distinguished feature on current smartphones....... In the evaluation, we develop a multi-touch enabled CD-GPS on smartphones and conduct two major experiments with a total of 90 participants. The study results indicate that participants are more likely to use multi-touch features to create their secrets, and multi-touch can make a positive impact on creating...

  16. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  17. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  18. All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneissl, Fabian; Röttger, Richard; Sandner, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user to use the service as well as the snowboard manufacturer to equip his products with NFC tags. The end user benefits from meaningful product information which is enriched with comments from his friends or arbitrary...... users through the connection to Facebook. This information is more likely to represent an independent impression of the product than the manufacturer's description and thus it is more valuable. On the other hand, manufacturers profit from All-I-Touch as a tool for Viral Marketing and benefit from...... a highly relevant target group. To enhance the attractiveness of the Face book application we extended All-I-Touch to include Pieces, Places and People. Thus, the user can update his Facebook profile page instantly with information like where he has been and whom he met - and all that just by holding...

  19. Multi-Touch Screen Interfaces And Gesture Analysis: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula Nimbarte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The way how we handle computers today will soon change. The future technology will allow us tointeract with the computer on different level from the current technology what we are used to. The toolssuch as the mouse and the keyboard need to communicate with the computer will slowly disappearand be replaced with more comfortable and more natural tools for the human being to use. That future isalready here. The rate of how touch screen hardware and applications are used is growing rapidlyand will break new r e c o r ds in n e a r f ut u r e . This new technology requires different ways ofdetecting inputs from the user - inputs which will be made out of on- screen gestures rather than byclicking of buttons or scrolling mouse wheels. In this paper we s tudied the gestures defined formulti-touch screen interfaces, the methods used to detect them and how they are passed on to otherapplications.

  20. Intrinsic Low Hysteresis Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe a microfabr......Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe...... a microfabrication step that can be introduced in order to reduce drastically the hysteresis of this type of sensors without compromising their sensitivity. Medium-high range (0 to 10 bar absolute pressure) TMCPS with a capacitive signal span of over 100pF and less than 1 % hysteresis in the entire pressure range...

  1. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mateu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  2. Predicting Vaccination Intention and Benefit and Risk Perceptions: The Incorporation of Affect, Trust, and Television Influence in a Dual-Mode Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nien-Tsu Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Major health behavior change models tend to consider health decisions as primarily resulting from a systematic appraisal of relevant beliefs, such as the perceived benefits and risks of a pharmacological intervention. Drawing on research from the disciplines of risk management, communication, and psychology, this study proposed the inclusion of a heuristic route in established theory and tested the direction of influence between heuristic and systematic process variables. Affect and social trust were included as key heuristics in the proposed dual-mode framework of health decision making. Furthermore, exposure to health-related coverage on television was considered potentially influential over both heuristic and systematic process variables. To test this framework, data were collected from a national probability sample of 584 adults in the United States in 2012 regarding their decision to vaccinate against a hypothetical avian flu. The results provided some support for the bidirectional influence between heuristic and systematic processing. Affect toward flu vaccination and trust in the Food and Drug Administration were found to be powerful predictors of vaccination intention, enhancing intention both directly and indirectly via certain systematic process variables. The direction of influence between perceived susceptibility and severity, on the one hand, and affect, on the other, is less clear, suggesting the need for further research. Contrary to the opinion of media critics, exposure to televised health coverage was negatively associated with the perceived risks of vaccination. Results from this study carry theoretical and practical implications, and applying this model to the acceptance of different health interventions constitutes an area for future inquiries.

  3. Multi-Touch Interaction for Robot Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    which the centroid of each “ blob ” created by the finger touches is identified. This process has reportedly allowed for high frame-rate interaction with...time reflects the total task time (Zhai, 2004). To ameliorate any latent learning effects, each subject was given a set of warm - up trials before each...experiment. The time of the warm -up trials was not recorded. After each block, the participants were allowed to rest. The presentation of the conditions

  4. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  5. iPod touch vs. TI-Nspire

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Im Rahmen eines Unterrichtsprojekts in der zehnten Jahrgangsstufe konnten Schüler zunächst für drei Monate mit einem iPod Touch (mit Mathematik-Apps) und später über mehrere Monate mit dem TI Nspire CAS arbeiten. Im Anschluss erfolgten Beurteilung und Vergleich beider Geräte durch die Schüler hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für den Mathematikunterricht.

  6. Multi-touch rotation gestures : performance and ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggan, Eve; Williamson, John; Nacenta, Miguel; Kristensson, Per Ola; Lehtiö, Anu

    2013-01-01

    This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/H027408/1), the Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance, Max Planck Center for Visual Computing and Communications, Academy of Finland, Emil Aaltonen Foundation, and the Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki. Rotations performed with the index finger and thumb involve some of the most complex motor action among common multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the factors ...

  7. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  8. The posterior parietal cortex remaps touch into external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azañón, Elena; Longo, Matthew R; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-07-27

    Localizing tactile events in external space is required for essential functions such as orienting, haptic exploration, and goal-directed action in peripersonal space. In order to map somatosensory input into a spatiotopic representation, information about skin location must be integrated with proprioceptive information about body posture. We investigated the neural bases of this tactile remapping mechanism in humans by disrupting neural activity in the putative human homolog of the monkey ventral intraparietal area (hVIP), within the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), which is thought to house external spatial representations. Participants judged the elevation of touches on their (unseen) forearm relative to touches on their face. Arm posture was passively changed along the vertical axis, so that elevation judgments required the use of an external reference frame. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the rPPC significantly impaired performance compared to a control site (vertex). Crucially, proprioceptive judgments of arm elevation or tactile localization on the skin remained unaffected by rPPC TMS. This selective disruption of tactile remapping suggests a distinct computational process dissociable from pure proprioceptive and somatosensory localization. Furthermore, this finding highlights the causal role of human PPC, putatively VIP, in remapping touch into external space.

  9. A Genetic Algorithm for the Segmentation of Known Touching Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Scavino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Segmentation is the first and fundamental step in the process of computer vision and object classification. However, complicate or similar colour pattern add complexity to the segmentation of touching objects. The objective of this study was to develop a robust technique for the automatic segmentation and classification of touching plastic bottles, whose features were previously stored in a database. Approach: Our technique was based on the possibility to separate the two objects by means of a segment of straight line, whose position was determined by a genetic approach. The initial population of the genetic algorithm was heuristically determined among a large set of cutting lines, while further generations were selected based on the likelihood of the two objects with the images stored in the database. Results: Extensive testing, which was performed on random couples out of a population of 50 bottles, showed that the correct segmentation could be achieved in success rates above 90% with only a limited number of both chromosomes and iterations, thus reducing the computing time. Conclusion: These findings proved the effectiveness of our method as far as touching plastic bottles are concerned. This technique, being absolutely general, can be extended to any situation in which the properties of single objects were previously stored in a database.

  10. A touching compassion: Dürer’s haptic theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Brisman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In one of the final scenes of his 1511 woodcut sequence, The Small Passion, Albrecht Dürer depicts the newly risen Christ extending his forefinger towards the head of Mary Magdalen. As a moment of touching, the Noli me tangere belongs to a category of representations that attests to the indexical nature of Christ’s image. The stain of his face on Veronica’s cloth or the imprints of his feet on the mountain from which he ascended are testaments to his corporeal presence on earth. Throughout The Small Passion, Dürer expands the vocabulary of indexical transfer to a haptic theology and proves the suitability of prints as a language in which to tell the story of God’s mark on earth in the form of Christ. Yet, at the same time, subtle underminings of these moments of contact signal Christ’s touch as impermanent, a substitute for a more sustained embrace to come. In emphasising the transmission and dissemination of Christ’s contact through a visual vocabulary of touching, pressing, hugging and kissing, Dürer also finds a language with which to describe the process of printing itself and the power – and limitations – of a medium both widely reproducible and constrained in its durability as a corporeal substitute.

  11. The C. elegans touch response facilitates escape from predacious fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sean M; Clark, Christopher M; Nunnari, John; Pirri, Jennifer K; Alkema, Mark J

    2011-08-09

    Predator-prey interactions are vital determinants in the natural selection of behavioral traits. Gentle touch to the anterior half of the body of Caenorhabditis elegans elicits an escape response in which the animal quickly reverses and suppresses exploratory head movements [1, 2]. Here, we investigate the ecological significance of the touch response in predator-prey interactions between C. elegans and predacious fungi that catch nematodes using constricting hyphal rings. We show that the constricting rings of Drechslerella doedycoides catch early larval stages with a diameter similar to the trap opening. There is a delay between the ring entry and ring closure, which allows the animal to withdraw from the trap before being caught. Mutants that fail to suppress head movements in response to touch are caught more efficiently than the wild-type. This demonstrates that the coordination of motor programs allows C. elegans to smoothly retract from a fungal noose and evade capture. Our results suggest that selective pressures imposed by predacious fungi have shaped the evolution of C. elegans escape behavior.

  12. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases.

  13. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptan...

  14. Impact of coated windows on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    There is at present an architectural trend promoting the use of large glass facades in commercial and office buildings. These facades generate a large cooling and heating demand creating the need for combined solar-protective and low-emissitivity coated windows. This report describes the results...... of brightness and colours in a space. Overall, the study shows that coated glazings may moderately affect the perception details, slightly affect the perception of glare from window and do not affect the perception of shadows on and around objects in the room. The results also suggest that the perception...

  15. Changing Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  16. An active tactile perception system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriu, E.; Greenspan, M.; Gelinas, F.; McMath, W. S.; Yeung, S. K.

    System development and application aspects are described for an experimental robotic system for the tactile perception of the global geometric profile of object surfaces which are larger than the dimensions of the tactile sensor. Local cutaneous information provided by a tactile sensor is integrated with the kinesthetic position parameters of a robot arm, resulting in a 3D geometric model of the tactile sensor pose on the explored object surface. Currently available tactile sensors provide poor information on the geometric profile of 3D object surfaces. In order to maximize the information available for 3D analysis, an instrumented passive compliant wrist was used to attach a pressure measuring tactile probe to the robot arm carrier. Data was collected by a noncompliant planar sensing array in direct contact with an object surface. Information recorded includes the following: positional and orientation data on the robot arm manipulator, passive compliance kinesthetic data as measured by the kinematics of the wrist, and cutaneous tactile data represented by the binary image of the sensors pose on the object. The dimensions of the sensor array were found to be a critical factor in system performance. Use of a large array results in fewer touch poses being required to explore an object's surface, on the other hand a large planar array will touch fewer and higher peaks thus missing surface detail. To improve performance, there is a need to design tactile sensors specifically for geometric profile measuring.

  17. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  18. Integrating 2D Mouse Emulation with 3D Manipulation for Visualizations on a Multi-Touch Table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Luc; Collins, Christopher; Hancock, Mark; Nacenta, Miguel; Isenberg, Tobias; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2010-01-01

    We present the Rizzo, a multi-touch virtual mouse that has been designed to provide the fine grained interaction for information visualization on a multi-touch table. Our solution enables touch interaction for existing mouse-based visualizations. Previously, this transition to a multi-touch environm

  19. Somatosensory factors in taste perception: Effects of active tasting and solution temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Touch and temperature are recognized as important factors in food perception, but much remains to be learned about how they contribute to the perception of flavor. The present paper describes human psychophysical studies that investigated two recently discovered effects of mechanical and thermal stimulation on taste: (1) enhancement of the savory taste of MSG by active tongue and mouth movements, and (2) modulation of the rate of adaptation to sucrose sweetness by temperature. The first study...

  20. Dermo-optical perception: the non-synesthetic "palpability of colors" a comment on Larner (2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Brugger, P; Weiss, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    We comment on Larner's (2006) recent description of the seventeenth-century case of a blind man who could differentiate the color of objects by touch. This ability is generally known as "dermo-optical perception" and is due to the cutaneous temperature sense rather than to synesthetic processing. Although devoid of references to the phenomenon of dermo-optical perception, Larner's communication is highly valuable because it raises several issues relevant to present-day neurosciences. These co...

  1. Touching the Earth: the Role of Art in Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, geologists have used drawing as a tool not only to record observations but also to engage with the landscape and the materials from which it is constructed. Although geology students are still taught to keep field notebooks, the emphasis on drawing has given way to training in digital tools such as photography and GIS. Has this change altered our perception of our environment, and, thereby, affected the ways that we pursue scientific questions? We address this question through conversations - in the laboratory, studio and field - between artists and scientists that show that we (1) engage with the landscape both rationally and emotionally, (2) are attracted to earth materials because of their form, color, physical qualities and origin/history, (3) overcome technical challenges to realize an end result from an initial idea, (4) struggle to achieve a balance between critical faculties and creative insight, and (5) must communicate ideas, often before they are fully formed, to potential funders. Importantly, we find that the act of rendering (in 2D or 3D), and the ways in which the trace of the hand on paper (or manipulation of clay) engages a part of the brain that is not used in computer-based activities. At the same time, a geological understanding of earth materials enhances their metaphorical applications in the arts. Taken together, these conversations lead us to suggest that more cross-disciplinary training - training scientists in art and artists in science - would not only allow us to explore common themes from different perspectives, but could also create new ways of doing both art and science. Here we provide some examples, such as (1) the importance of drawing for moving from looking to seeing (observation to understanding), (2) ways of engaging perceptions through experimentation, (3) how to reveal the hidden by combining microscopic and macroscopic views of earth materials, and (4) using art as both a language and an interpretive tool

  2. Children's Perception of Learning with Educational Games Using iPod Touches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    The use of computer games on mobile devices in schools for learning is still relatively new and is constantly evolving. The successful integration of this emerging technology into education requires a longitudinal study into how they are being perceived by learners and teachers. Finding out what works well with children in the terms of technology…

  3. Weber's Illusion and Body Shape: Anisotropy of Tactile Size Perception on the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on a single skin surface is larger on regions of high tactile sensitivity than those with lower acuity, an effect known as "Weber's illusion". This illusion suggests that tactile size perception involves a representation of the perceived size of body parts preserving characteristics of the somatosensory…

  4. Non-perceptible body current ELF effects as defined by electric shock safety data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jack E

    2002-10-01

    Non-perceptible body currents that arise from contacting exposed conductors that are part of household appliances, are considered in the light of past electric shock safety studies. When these appliances are touched, the older, nongrounded appliances exhibited orders of magnitude greater in-tissue electric fields than the newer grounded appliances or other grounded, exposed, household conductors, such as water faucets.

  5. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  6. Illness perceptions of addiction and substance use patterns among psychology students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayu, A.P.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among psychologists. Perceptions of addiction might affect professionals’ attitudes towards patients. Personal substance use is associated with perceptions. Objective: To explore perceptions of addiction a

  7. [The art of touch. Elisabeth Caland and the physio-aesthetics of piano playing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgott, Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    The issue of how it is possible to play the piano without striking it was raised by Chopin: one must 'caresser' and not 'frapper' the piano. In her teachings on the art of piano playing, Elisabeth Caland (1862-1929) attempts to articulate a scientifically grounded solution to this complex (kin-)aesthetic problem. The solution turns on her intuitively discovered 'lowering of the shoulderblades' which was documented in 1904, through X-rays, by the Berlin physiologist René du Bois-Reymond, and recorded as a way of coordinating movement which had been unknown to physiology up to that time. Caland's physio-aesthetic of piano playing, which she worked out on the basis of du Bois-Reymond's observations, turns on the ideal of 'floating sound' put forward by her teacher Ludwig Deppe, and on Ferruccio Busoni's technique of piano playing. Her method makes essential use of what Feldenkrais would later call the 'sixth sense' (i.e. proprioceptive perception); in fact, it represents the first modern kinaesthetically based conception of piano playing. Caland's doctrine of touch was ahead of its time and it virtually disappeared from discussions of piano technique after 1930. But it has become accessible again through reprints of her most important writings: Deppe's doctrine of piano playing (1897), Sources of power in piano playing (1904), and Artistic piano playing (1910).

  8. Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabot, Gregg A; Dammann, John F; Berg, Joshua A; Tenore, Francesco V; Boback, Jessica L; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2013-11-05

    Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation--information about contact location, pressure, and timing--through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it.

  9. Robot-assisted assessment of vibration perception and localization on the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2013-03-01

    Sensory perception is crucial for motor learning and the control of fine manipulations. However, therapy after stroke still strongly focuses on the training of motor skills. Sensory assessments are often left out or provide only very subjective data from poorly controlled stimuli. This paper presents a vibration detection/localization test with the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a device that focuses entirely on the assessment and training of sensory function of the hand, with the aim of gaining insights into the prevalence and severity of sensory deficits after stroke, and to provide semiobjective data on absolute and difference perception thresholds in patients. An initial feasibility study investigated localization performance and reaction time during the discrimination of vibration stimuli presented in four locations on the dominant and nondominant hands of 13 healthy volunteers. High correct detection rates were observed (mean ± SD of 99.6% ± 0.6%), touch screen PC Robotic Sensory Trainer which were found to be significantly different between stimulus locations on the dominant hand. Average correct detection rates were not statistically different between dominant and nondominant hand. These data will serve as baseline for future measurements on elderly and stroke subjects, and suggest that data from the nonimpaired hand could be used to identify and assess sensory deficits in the affected hand of stroke patients.

  10. Control4 Portable WiFi Touch Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Control4提供了智能家居中的一站式控制方案,包括家庭自动化、背景音乐以及家庭影院等娱乐系统的控制,这款Portable WiFi Touch Screen控制器采用无线网络的连接方式,控制面板可以随时随地带在身边,同时它还提供了多个操作页面.

  11. Transparent biocompatible sensor patches for touch sensitive prosthetic limbs

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-12-26

    The paper presents the fabrication of transparent, flexible sensor patches developed using a casting technique with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as substrate and a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and PDMS as interdigital electrodes. The electrodes act as strain sensitive capacitor. The prototypes were used as touch sensitive sensors attached to the limbs. Experiments results show the sensitivity of the patches towards tactile sensing. The results are very promising and can play a key role in the development of a cost efficient sensing system attached to prosthetic limbs.

  12. Touch the World - and communicate the experience via Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    as a vehicle to enhance pupil’s learning by making their own documentation of their experiences and by communicating these experiences to fellow pupils. We argue that mobile phones have a potential to support these learning processes as a personalised tool for documentation and communication.......The paper presents a project involving school children’s use of mobile phones at Moesgaard Museum, in Aarhus, Denmark. A special anthropological exhibition called “Touch the World” is arranged around items supplied by UNESCO. The paper will discuss the pedagogical perspective of using mobile phones...

  13. Nikishin systems are perfect. Case of unbounded and touching supports

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Fidalgo; Lagomasino, G López

    2010-01-01

    K. Mahler introduced the concept of perfect systems in the theory of simultaneous Hermite-Pad\\'{e} approximation of analytic functions. Recently, we proved that Nikishin systems, generated by measures with bounded support and non-intersecting consecutive supports contained on the real line, are perfect. Here, we prove that they are also perfect when the supports of the generating measures are unbounded or touch at one point. As an application, we give a version of Stieltjes' theorem in the context of simultaneous Hermite-Pad\\'e approximation.

  14. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie; Braun, James E.; Langner, M. Rois

    2016-10-01

    The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.

  15. iOS Development using MonoTouch Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tavlikos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    The book is written in a cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This book is essential for C# and .NET developers with no previous experience in iOS development and Objective-C developers that want to make a transition to the benefits of MonoTouch and the C# language, for creating complete, compelling iPhone, iPod and iPad applications and deploying them to the App Store.

  16. Surface matching method for profile inspection with touch probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for rigid registration of 3-D point sets,which intends to match the feature points inspected using touch probe with the points on designed CAD surface.The alignment error is defined as the least square problem,and the sphere radius of the inspection probe is considered.In this framework,the matching problem is converted into acquiring six Euler variables problem by solving nonlinear equations.Thus,a matrix transformation of parameter separation is presented to get the...

  17. Algebra I Teachers’ Perceptions of Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on teachers’ perceptions of inclusion, there is a scarcity of subject-specific research on their perceptions of a specific disability. In this study, 63 Algebra I teachers in 27 school districts in Alabama were surveyed to uncover their perceptions of teaching students with learning disabilities (LD) and factors that might affect these perceptions. The results indicated that Algebra I teachers do not have an overall favorable perception of teaching stude...

  18. The Benefits of Single-Touch Screens in Intersubjective Meaning Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    What are the benefits of single-touch screens? The paper presents findings of one video extract from ten months of observation of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children. Recent studies of collaborative learning mediated by digital touch screens and tabletops emphasize...... the possibilities for equal levels of verbal and physical participation.Additionally, these studies suggest that multi-touch technologies offer more task-oriented activities compared to single-touch screen interaction, in which discussion about turn-taking is more prevalent from the outset. In contrast, applying...... the Embodied Interaction Analysis, we find that the constraints of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in their capacity of constraining the interaction. This “grain of sand” shows how children display and construct a shared work space through embodied interaction...

  19. Determination of minimum impact parameter by modified touching spheres schemes for intermediate energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun [DAV University, Physics Department, Jalandhar (India); Singh, Pradeep [Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Murthal (India); Kharab, Rajesh [Kurukshetra University, Department of Physics, Kurukshetra (India)

    2016-02-15

    The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)

  20. On the existence of touch points for first-order state inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    The appearance of touch points in state constrained optimal control problems with general vector-valued control is studied. Under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is regular, touch points for first-order state inequalities are shown to exist only under very special conditions. In many cases of practical importance these conditions can be used to exclude touch points a priori without solving an optimal control problem. The results are demonstrated on a simple example.