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Sample records for affects storage carbohydrate

  1. Photosynthesis, Carbohydrate Storage and Remobilization During Grain Filling as Affected by Sulphur Application in Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; YU Zhen-wen; XU Zhen-zhu

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthesis and carbohydrate storage and remobilization was investigated during grain filling of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Lumai 22) in sulphur application experiments where the available sulphur (S) content in the soil of 0-20 cm soil layer was 5.84 mg kg-1. Two levels of S were applied as S0 (0 kg S ha-1) and S1 (67.5 kg S ha-1). The results showed that net photosynthetic rate of flag leaf of S1 treatment was significantly higher than S0 treatment, and it increased gradually from anthesis to 35 DAA. Sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and sucrose content of S1 treatment were significantly higher than those of S0 treatment. The contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, fructose, glucose, DP3 and DP ≥ 4fructan in stem and sheath of S1 treatment were significantly higher than those of S0 treatment also. The amount of total soluble sugar and fructans remobilization from stem and sheath and the starch accumulating rate in grain of S1 treatment was significantly higher than those of S0 treatment. It is suggested that sulphur application increase photosynthate remobilization from stem and sheath to grain at later filling stage.

  2. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  3. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  4. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission. PMID:18055431

  5. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentration

  6. The factors affecting on estimation of carbohydrate content of meals in carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Takamura, Chihiro; Hirose, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Higashide, Takashi; Kashihara, Yoneo; Hashimura, Kayako; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors affecting on errors in carbohydrate (CHO) content estimation during CHO counting. Thirty-seven type 1 diabetes patients and 22 of their parents and 28 physicians/dieticians were enrolled in this study. CHO counting was counted in "Carb", with 1 Carb defined as 10 g of CHO. To evaluate the accuracy of CHO counting, 80 real-size photographs of cooked meals were presented to the subjects for Carb estimation. Carbs tended to be overestimated for foods containing relatively small amounts of Carbs. On the other hands, Carbs tended to be underestimated for foods with higher than 6 Carbs. Accurate estimation of the Carbs in food containing a large amount of rice was particularly difficult even in the subjects having the CHO counting experience. The Carb contents of high-calorie foods such as meats, fried foods, and desserts tended to be overestimated. This error was smaller in subjects having the CHO counting experience. In conclusion, misunderstanding of high-calorie dishes containing high amounts of CHO was observed in inexperienced subjects, indicating the efficacy of the current methodology of CHO counting. On the other hand it was difficult even for experienced subjects to assess the amount of seasoned rice, suggesting the need for a new methodology for accurate estimation. PMID:26568656

  7. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Mareček; Helena Frančáková; Tatiana Bojňanská; Martina Fikselová; Andrea Mendelová; Eva Ivanišová

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%). Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips). Best ...

  8. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is fine because they contain important vitamins and minerals. But your body rapidly digests the starch in white potatoes. This can raise your blood glucose level. Healthy carbohydrates include: Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Dietary fiber Starches in whole- ...

  9. Carbohydrate storage and light requirements of tropical moist and dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Kitajima, K.

    2007-01-01

    In many plant communities, there is a negative interspecific correlation between relative growth rates and survival of juveniles. This negative correlation is most likely caused by a trade-off between carbon allocation to growth vs. allocation to defense and storage. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC

  10. Absorption of omega-3 fats from carbohydrate and proteinaceous food matrices before and after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Barrett, Ann; Anderson, Danielle; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food matrix throughout storage could conceivably impact digestibility of the protein-based encapsulant thereby compromising n-3 bioavailability. We assessed the effect of prolonged high-temperature storage and variations in food matrix (proteinaceous or carbohydrate) on the time course and magnitude of blood fatty acids changes associated with ingestion of n-3 fortified foods. Low-protein (i.e., cake) and high-protein (i.e., meat sticks) items were supplemented with 600 mg encapsulated DHA+EPA, and frozen either immediately after production (FRESH) or after 6 months storage at 100°F (STORED). Fourteen volunteers consumed one item per week (randomized) for 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 h post-consumption were analyzed for circulating long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LCn3). There was no difference in LCn3 area under the curve between items. LCn3 in response to cakes peaked at 2-h (FRESH: 54.0 ± 16.8 μg/mL, +18%; STORED: 53.0 ± 13.2 μg/mL, +20%), while meats peaked at 4-h (FRESH: 51.9 ± 12.5 μg/mL, +22%; STORED: 53.2 ± 16.9 μg/mL, +18%). There were no appreciable differences in time course or magnitude of n-3 appearance in response to storage conditions for either food types. Thus, bioavailability of encapsulated DHA/EPA, within low- and high-protein food items, was not affected by high-temperature shelf-storage. A shelf-stable, low- or high-protein food item with encapsulated DHA/EPA is suitable for use in shelf-stable foods. PMID:25987994

  11. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  12. Pre-Workout Carbohydrate Supplementation does not Affect Measures of Selfassessed Vitality and Affect in College Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kathleen M.; WHITEHEAD, JAMES R.; Janice K. Goodwin

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37) participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days befo...

  13. Pre-Workout Carbohydrate Supplementation does not Affect Measures of Selfassessed Vitality and Affect in College Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Whitehead, James R; Goodwin, Janice K

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37) participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC) and statistical signficance was set at α = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p ≥ 0.15). Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers. Key pointsPre-workout carbohydrate did not affect post-workout measures of vitality or affect in collegiate swimmers.Avoidance of feeling nauseous/ill' and 'lack of time' were the most frequent reasons reported by swimmers for forgoing breakfast before morning swim practice.A longer trial of carbohydrate supplementation is needed to verify if there is indeed no effect of pre-workout carbohydrate on post-workout measures of vitality or affect in swimmers. PMID:24150621

  14. Single cell synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals a link between neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jamme

    Full Text Available In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins. We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated.

  15. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  16. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A.; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S.; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A. F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are ...

  17. PRE-WORKOUT CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT AFFECT MEASURES OF SELF-ASSESSED VITALITY AND AFFECT IN COLLEGE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Hill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37 participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC and statistical signficance was set at α = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p > 0.15. Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers

  18. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.

  19. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage. PMID:26824067

  20. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  1. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis) spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY) extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, ...

  2. Potato tuber expression of Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 increase triacylglycerol and membrane lipids while affecting central carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvander, Per; Ischebeck, Till; Turesson, Helle; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Feussner, Ivo; Carlsson, Anders S; Andersson, Mariette

    2016-09-01

    Tuber and root crops virtually exclusively accumulate storage products in the form of carbohydrates. An exception is yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in which tubers have the capacity to store starch and triacylglycerols (TAG) in roughly equal amounts. This suggests that a tuber crop can efficiently handle accumulation of energy dense oil. From a nutritional as well as economic aspect, it would be of interest to utilize the high yield capacity of tuber or root crops for oil accumulation similar to yellow nutsedge. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which in seed embryos induce fatty acid synthesis, has been shown to be a major factor for oil accumulation. WRINKLED1 was expressed in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers to explore whether this factor could impact tuber metabolism. This study shows that a WRINKLED1 transcription factor could induce triacylglycerol accumulation in tubers of transformed potato plants grown in field (up to 12 nmol TAG/mg dry weight, 1% of dry weight) together with a large increase in polar membrane lipids. The changes in metabolism further affected starch accumulation and composition concomitant with massive increases in sugar content. PMID:26914183

  3. Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhaus, A; Chantelau, E

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27 +/- 9 years; diabetes duration 13 +/- 8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22 +/- 5 months; means +/- SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two 6-week periods on self-selected refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets respectively. As a result, energy intake differed between the experimental diets (2372 +/- 669 kcal/day on unrefined diet vs 2757 +/- 654 kcal/day on refined diet, p = 0.04), as did the fibre intake (18 +/- 5 g/day with the refined carbohydrate diet vs 35 +/- 13 g/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, p = 0.02). The composition of nutrients was approximately 40% carbohydrate, 45% fat, and 13% protein with both diets. Body weight, HbA1c, daily mean blood glucose (7.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) and serum lipids remained virtually unchanged during the entire study. Insulin requirement varied between 40.1 +/- 7.9 U/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, and 42.5 +/- 10.1 U/day with the refined carbohydrate diet (NS). Thus, neither the refined nor the unrefined carbohydrate diet affected insulin requirement and metabolic control in these near-normoglycaemic, normolipaemic, non-obese, insulin-pump-treated Type 1 diabetic patients.

  4. Factors affecting use of industrial onsite gas storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, T.J.; Biederman, N.P.; Shikari, Y.A.

    1986-01-01

    Retention of the industrial market is critical to the growth of the gas industry, and competitive costs and supply reliability are the keys. Many industrial gas consumers use onsite gas storage or standby fuel storage to assure low cost and good reliability. The technological, economic and institutional factors that will affect the use of onsite storage for gas are examined. The natural gas storage methods that are now used, and new methods that may find use, are evaluated. The industrial gas consumers' requirements for onsite gas storage are defined, and the research needed to meet these requirements is identified. The R and D program of the Gas Research Institute is reviewed. 12 references, 10 figures.

  5. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Alexandre L., E-mail: aljordao@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA), Macapa, AP (Brazil); Nakano, Octavio, E-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Janeiro, Vanderly, E-mail: vjaneiro@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  6. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  7. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of dissolved carbohydrates in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Wang, Qi; Yang, Gui-Peng; Gao, Xian-Chi; Wu, Guan-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Carbohydrates are the largest identified fraction of dissolved organic carbon and play an important role in biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Seawater samples were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) during June and October 2012 to study the spatiotemporal distributions of total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHOs) constituents, including dissolved monosaccharides (MCHOs) and polysaccharides (PCHOs). The concentrations of TCHOs, MCHOs and PCHOs showed significant differences between summer and autumn 2012, and exhibited an evident diurnal variation, with high values occurring in the daytime. Phytoplankton biomass was identified as the primary factor responsible for seasonal and diurnal variations of dissolved carbohydrates in the ECS. The TCHOs, MCHOs and PCHOs distributions in the study area displayed similar distribution patterns, with high concentrations appearing in the coastal water. The influences of chlorophyll-a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these carbohydrates were examined. A carbohydrate enrichment in the near-bottom water was found at some stations, implying that there might be an important source of carbohydrate in the deep water or bottom sediment.

  8. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  9. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  10. Low-carbohydrate diets affect energy balance and fuel homeostasis differentially in lean and obese rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morens, C.; Sirot, V.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with increased prevalence of overweight people in affluent societies are individuals trying to lose weight, often using low-carbohydrate diets. Nevertheless, long-term metabolic consequences of those diets, usually high in (saturated) fat, remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-

  11. Carbohydrate determinants in ferret conjunctiva are affected by infection with influenza H1N1 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril; Aasted, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates often accomplish as cell-surface receptors for microorganisms and influenza virus preferentially binds to sialic acid through the viral haemagglutinin. The virus may attach not only to the epithelium in the airways, but also to the surface ocular epithelium....

  12. Interaction of storage carbohydrates and other cyclic fluxes with central metabolism: A quantitative approach by non-stationary 13C metabolic flux analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Mendez, C.A.; Hanemaaijer, M.; Ten Pierick, A.; Wolters, J.C.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    13C labeling experiments in aerobic glucose limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at four different growth rates (0.054; 0.101, 0.207, 0.307 h−1) are used for calculating fluxes that include intracellular cycles (e.g., storage carbohydrate cycles, exchange fluxes with amino acids), which are

  13. Exercise and deficient carbohydrate storage and intake as causes of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J B

    1989-03-01

    Exercise is associated with a marked increase in glucose uptake by muscle, which is initially supported by breakdown of hepatic glycogen and subsequently by increased gluconeogenesis. If hepatic glucose production is inadequate, hypoglycemia results. During exercise there is decreased plasma insulin and increased catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone, which contribute to but are not essential for the increased hepatic output of glucose. Although insulin concentrations fall, insulin sensitivity is increased. However, the augmented glucose uptake by muscle is due to other factors. The symptoms of exhaustion during exercise are not due to hypoglycemia, and prevention of hypoglycemia may not prolong the time of exercise to exhaustion. During severe caloric restriction, hepatic glucose production decreases and free fatty acids and ketone bodies become important sources of calories. Although under these circumstances hepatic gluconeogenesis is usually sufficient to prevent hypoglycemia, with very severe caloric restriction hypoglycemia can result. With starvation, insulin concentrations fall while growth hormone and glucagon increase. Frequently the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia are absent in individuals with hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction. Hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction has not been totally restricted to underdeveloped areas of the world. In such patients no endocrine abnormalities have been found, and hypoglycemia has persisted despite administration of large amounts of carbohydrate. Pregnancy and lactation could predispose to hypoglycemia in the face of inadequate caloric intake. PMID:2645124

  14. Analysis of carbohydrate storage granules in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welkie, David G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sherman, Debra M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chrisler, William B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orr, Galya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sherman, Louis A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-10-19

    The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece demonstrate oscillations in nitrogenase activity and H2 production when grown under 12h light-12h dark cycles. We established that Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 allows for the construction of knock-out mutants and our objective was to improve the growth characteristics of this strain and to identify the nature of the intracellular storage granules. We report the physiological and morphological effects of reduction in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BG-11 media on this strain. We developed a series of BG-11-derived growth media and monitored batch culture growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production, culture synchronicity, and intracellular storage content. Reduction in NaNO3 and K2HPO4 concentrations from 17.6 and 0.23 mM to 4.41 and 0.06 mM, respectively, improved growth characteristics such as cell size and uniformity, and enhanced the rate of cell division. Cells grown in this low NP BG-11 were less complex, a parameter that related to the composition of the intracellular storage granules. Cells grown in low NP BG-11 had less polyphosphate, fewer polyhydroxybutyrate granules and many smaller granules became evident. Biochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy using the histocytochemical PATO technique demonstrated that these small granules contained glycogen. The glycogen levels and the number of granules per cell correlated nicely with a 2.3 to 3.3-fold change from the minimum at L0 to the maximum at D0. The differences in granule morphology and enzymes between Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and Cyanothece PCC 7822 provide insights into the formation of large starch-like granules in some cyanobacteria.

  15. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  16. Carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, are affected by chromic oxide inclusion in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, S Y; Liang, H S

    1995-04-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to study the influence of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus. Two levels of chromic oxide (0.5 and 2%) were each incorporated into diets containing glucose or starch. Chromic oxide was added at 0 or 8 wk. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish weighing 1.11 +/- 0.05 g. Fish fed the starch diet had greater (P protein efficiency ratio, protein deposition and digestibility of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and dry matter than fish fed the glucose diet irrespective of the time and level of chromic oxide supplementation. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein deposition than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide. The ingredient digestibility estimated using 0.5% chromic oxide as the marker was greater than that estimated with 2% chromic oxide. Higher phosphofructokinase and lower glucose-6-phosphatase activity was found in fish fed the starch diet than in fish fed the glucose diet regardless of the time and level of chromic oxide inclusion. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher phosphofructokinase activity and lower tissue chromium concentration than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide irrespective of chromic oxide inclusion time. These data suggest that the level of chromic oxide in the diet alters glucose utilization by tilapia and affects nutrient digestibility by tilapia. The time of chromic oxide inclusion had no effect on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility.

  17. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage. PMID:10552497

  18. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  19. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  20. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleijn, David; Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass.Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N...

  1. Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. I. Chronic exposure to hypoxia affects the oxygen transport system and carbohydrate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlung Johannes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb, which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa, respectively. Results The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase, and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase. Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level. Conclusion Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism.

  2. Soluble carbohydrate allocation to roots, photosynthetic rate of leaves, and nitrate assimilation as affected by nitrogen stress and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1991-01-01

    Upon resupply of exogenous nitrogen to nitrogen-stressed plants, uptake rate of nitrogen is enhanced relative to nonstressed plants. Absorption of nitrogen presumably is dependent on availability of carbohydrates in the roots. A buildup in soluble carbohydrates thus should occur in roots of nitrogen-stressed plants, and upon resupply of exogenous nitrogen the increased uptake rate should be accompanied by a rapid decline in carbohydrates to prestress levels. To evaluate this relationship, three sets of tobacco plants growing in a complete hydroponic solution containing 1.0 mM NO3- were either continued in the complete solution for 21 d, transferred to a minus-nitrogen solution for 21 d, or transferred to a minus-nitrogen solution for 8-9 d and then returned to the 1.0 mM NO3- solution. These nitrogen treatments were imposed upon plants growing at photosynthetic photon flux densities of 700 and 350 micromoles m-2 s-1. Soluble carbohydrate levels in roots increased during onset of nitrogen stress to levels that were fourfold greater than in roots of non-stressed plants. Following resupply of external nitrogen, a rapid resumption of nitrogen uptake was accompanied by a decline in soluble carbohydrates in roots to levels characteristic of nonstressed plants. This pattern of soluble carbohydrate levels in roots during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress occurred at both irradiance levels. The response of net photosynthetic rate to nitrogen stress could be expressed as a nonlinear function of concentration of reduced nitrogen in leaves. The net photosynthetic rate at a given concentration of reduced nitrogen, however, averaged 10% less at the lower than at the higher irradiance. The decline in net photosynthetic rate per unit of reduced nitrogen in leaves at the lower irradiance was accompanied by an increase in the nitrate fraction of total nitrogen in leaves from 20% at the higher irradiance to 38% at the lower irradiance.

  3. Storage behavior of mango as affected by post harvest application of plant extracts and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nisha; Jain, S K

    2014-10-01

    The use of plant extracts could be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides in the post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of extracts obtained from four plants (neem, Pongamia, custard apple leaf and marigold flowers) on the extension of shelf life of mango fruits cv. Dashehri under two storage conditions (Cool store and ambient condition). The fruits were treated with 2 concentrations of each plant extracts (10 % and 20 %) were placed in perforated linear low density poly ethylene bags and stored in storage conditions viz., cool storage and ambient condition, respectively. The treatment of neem leaf extract in combination with cool storage gave encouraging results. Up to the end of the storage study the treatment combination of 20 % neem leaf extract and cool store completely inhibited the pathogens, and no spoilage was observed. There was minimum physiological loss in weight (6.24 %), minimum girth reduction (0.62 %), maximum ascorbic acid content (29.96 mg/ 100 g of pulp), maximum acidity (0.19 %), minimum pH (5.28), maximum total soluble solids (20.96 %), maximum total sugars (12.50 %), reducing sugars (4.12 %) and non- reducing sugars (7.96 %) and best organoleptic score (7.93/10) in this interaction. The inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract was ascribed to the presence of active principle azadirachtin. PMID:25328189

  4. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  5. INFLUENCE OF NEUROTIC AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS ON FORMATION OF PREDICTORS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Garganeyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors which influence the development and prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in 132 patients with neurotic and affective disorders are presented. The significance of predictors of IHD formation was evaluated with method of logistic regression. According to results of stepwise procedure the total score of prediction of IHD in male group was 93.7%. The influence of mental factors on disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which lead to persistent rise of level of blood glucose, lipid spectrum indices imbalance, promoting the progression of cardiovascular risk in IHD patients with anxiety, depressive, asthenic and other non-psychotic mental disorders, was ascertained.

  6. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  7. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noratto, Giuliana D.; Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro; Melissa Markel; Hercia S Martino; Yasushi Minamoto; Steiner, Jörg M.; David Byrne; Suchodolski, Jan S; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rat...

  8. Low and high dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy affect materno-fetal glucose metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C; Görs, Solvig; Lang, Iris S; Hammon, Harald M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Weitzel, Joachim M; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    Inadequate dietary protein during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation. Whether this is related to altered maternal and fetal glucose metabolism was examined in pregnant sows comparing a high-protein:low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 30% protein, 39% carbohydrates) with a moderately low-protein:high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 6.5% protein, 68% carbohydrates) and the isoenergetic standard diet (ST; 12.1% protein, 60% carbohydrates). During late pregnancy, maternal and umbilical glucose metabolism and fetal hepatic mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. During an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the LP-HC-fed sows had lower insulin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC), and higher glucose:insulin ratios than the ST- and the HP-LC-fed sows (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance were higher in the LP-HC sows compared with ST sows (P < 0.05). Glucagon concentrations during postabsorptive conditions and IVGTT, and glucose AUC during IVGTT, were higher in the HP-LC group compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). (13)C glucose oxidation was lower in the HP-LC sows than in the ST and LP-HC sows (P < 0.05). The HP-LC fetuses were lighter and had a higher brain:liver ratio than the ST group (P < 0.05). The umbilical arterial inositol concentration was greater in the HP-LC group (P < 0.05) and overall small fetuses (230-572 g) had higher values than medium and heavy fetuses (≥573 g) (P < 0.05). Placental lactate release was lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P < 0.05). Fetal glucose extraction tended to be lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P = 0.07). In the HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses, hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) was higher than in the ST fetuses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the HP-LC and LP-HC sows adapted by reducing glucose turnover and oxidation and having higher glucose utilization, respectively. The HP-LC and LP

  9. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  10. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Min; Fan, Weijuan; Firon, Nurit; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway in developing storage roots, leading to greater lignin content in the Lc transgenic lines, compared to the wild type. This was also evidenced by the enhanced lignification of vascular cells in the early storage roots. Furthermore, increased expression of the β-amylase gene in leaves and storage roots also accelerated starch degradation and increased the sugar use efficiency, providing more energy and carbohydrate sources for lignin biosynthesis in the Lc transgenic sweet potato. Lesser starch accumulation was observed in the developing storage roots at the initiation stage in the Lc plants. Our study provides experimental evidence of the basic carbohydrate metabolism underlying the development of storage roots, which is the transformation of lignin biosynthesis to starch biosynthesis. PMID:26727353

  11. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  12. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    information about the relative contribution of different nutrients to the total heat production (HE; Tauson et al. 1997). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of different provision of protein and carbohydrate on the energy metabolism and substrate oxidation of mink kits between 6 and 12 weeks......The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  13. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  14. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  15. Away-from-reactor storage of spent nuclear fuel: factors affecting demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes factors that affect the magnitude and timing of demand for government AFRs, relative to the demand for other storage options, to assist policymakers in predicting this demand. Past predictions of AFT demand range widely and often appear to conflict. This report helps to explain the apparent conflicts among existing demand predictions by demonstrating their sensitivity to changes in key assumptions. Specifically, the report analyzes factors affecting the demand for government AFR storage facilities; illustrates why demand estimates may vary; and identifies actions that may be undertaken by groups, within and outside the government, to influence the level and timing of demands

  16. Changes in chemical composition and anti nutritional factors in sesame seeds as affected by gamma and microwave radiations during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them and storage of sesame seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which cause the maximum reduction of anti nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without exerting significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 KGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min and the storage of seeds was at room temperature and Rh 50-55% for six months. The obtained results on the effect of gamma radiation and storage showed slight decrease in crude protein contents, significant decrease in total free amino acids, total lipids had either slightly or non-significantly changed, decreased total carbohydrates and slight changes in total soluble sugars content. Reduction of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were increased as the irradiation dose levels and storage time increased. Slightly decreases in tannin and phenol contents and significant decrease in phytic acid content were observed. The obtained results on the effect of microwave radiation and storage indicated non-significant effect on protein and total lipids contents, decrease in total free amino acids, slight changes in total carbohydrate content and non-significant changes in total soluble and reducing sugars. Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities were significantly reduced by microwave, while increasing the storage period decreased lipoxygenase activity. Significant changes were observed in tannin and phenol contents, while phytic acid was decreased

  17. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  18. Carbohydrate Stress Affecting Fruitlet Abscission and Expression of Genes Related to Auxin Signal Transduction Pathway in Litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Jin Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Auxin, a vital plant hormone, regulates a variety of physiological and developmental processes. It is involved in fruit abscission through transcriptional regulation of many auxin-related genes, including early auxin responsive genes (i.e., auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA, Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3 and small auxin upregulated (SAUR and auxin response factors (ARF, which have been well characterized in many plants. In this study, totally five auxin-related genes, including one AUX/IAA (LcAUX/IAA1, one GH3 (LcGH3.1, one SAUR (LcSAUR1 and two ARFs (LcARF1 and LcARF2, were isolated and characterized from litchi fruit. LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1, LcSAUR1, LcARF1 and LcARF2 contain open reading frames (ORFs encoding polypeptides of 203, 613, 142, 792 and 832 amino acids, respectively, with their corresponding molecular weights of 22.67, 69.20, 11.40, 88.20 and 93.16 kDa. Expression of these genes was investigated under the treatment of girdling plus defoliation which aggravated litchi fruitlet abscission due to the blockage of carbohydrates transport and the reduction of endogenous IAA content. Results showed that transcript levels of LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1 and LcSAUR1 mRNAs were increased after the treatment in abscission zone (AZ and other tissues, in contrast to the decreasing accumulation of LcARF1 mRNA, suggesting that LcAUX/IAA1, LcSAUR1 and LcARF1 may play more important roles in abscission. Our results provide new insight into the process of fruitlet abscission induced by carbohydrate stress and broaden our understanding of the auxin signal transduction pathway in this process at the molecular level.

  19. Color and sensory characteristics of chicken patties as affected by irradiation and storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prefried chicken patties were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 2, and 4 kGy using source and stored at 3 ±1°C and -10 ±1°C, separately for the evaluation of color and sensory characteristics. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy slightly darkened the internal color of chicken patties. Except for the internal portion of the frozen samples, an increase (p<0.05) in Hunter 'L' values was observed for both the surface and interior of patties during storage. Upon refrigerated storage, Hunter 'a' values, both on the surface and internally, decreased as the storage period progressed. Only storage period affected (p<0.05) the Hunter 'b' values of patty surfaces and interiors. No difference (p<0.05) in odor, taste, color, and texture of the patties was observed for irradiation dose and storage period as evaluated by triangle tests except between 2 kGy and 4 kGy irradiated samples before forzen storage. (author)

  20. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  1. Legal and regulatory issues affecting the aquifer thermal energy storage concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1980-10-01

    A number of legal and regulatory issus that potentially can affect implementation of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) concept are examined. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  2. Root carbohydrate storage in young saplings of an Amazonian tidal várzea forest before the onset of the wet season Armazenamento de carboidratos antecedendo à estação chuvosa em raízes de plantas jovens em floresta de várzea de estuário amazônico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rubio Scarano; José Henrique Cattânio; Robert M.M. Crawford

    1994-01-01

    Root starch and glucose content were measured for young saplings of 18 Amazonian tidal várzea tree species during a dry season. The pattern of carbohydrate storage depended on the type of plant involved and soil topography which is directly linked to flood regime. Most plants showed high root carbohydrate content at this point in the dry season, however, several typically flood-tolerant species (particularly palm trees) presented a low root carbohydrate content, suggesting a strategy of acqui...

  3. Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation – carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the seeds of a rice waxy mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ming-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding carbon partitioning in cereal seeds is of critical importance to develop cereal crops with enhanced starch yields for food security and for producing specified end-products high in amylose, β-glucan, or fructan, such as functional foods or oils for biofuel applications. Waxy mutants of cereals have a high content of amylopectin and have been well characterized. However, the allocation of carbon to other components, such as β-glucan and oils, and the regulation of the altered carbon distribution to amylopectin in a waxy mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we used a rice mutant, GM077, with a low content of amylose to gain molecular insight into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation to other end products and to amylopectin. We used carbohydrate analysis, subtractive cDNA libraries, and qPCR to identify candidate genes potentially responsible for the changes in carbon allocation in GM077 seeds. Results Carbohydrate analysis indicated that the content of amylose in GM077 seeds was significantly reduced, while that of amylopectin significantly rose as compared to the wild type BP034. The content of glucose, sucrose, total starch, cell-wall polysaccharides and oil were only slightly affected in the mutant as compared to the wild type. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH experiments generated 116 unigenes in the mutant on the wild-type background. Among the 116 unigenes, three, AGP, ISA1 and SUSIBA2-like, were found to be directly involved in amylopectin synthesis, indicating their possible roles in redirecting carbon flux from amylose to amylopectin. A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. Conclusion Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression

  4. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation...... when developing on the protein-enriched medium. Our study indicates that larval nutrition has a strong impact on the ability to cope with stress, and that the optimal nutrient composition varies with the type of stress...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Storage Vessels at New Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics Thermoplastic Chemical...

  6. Identity of the Growth-Limiting Nutrient Strongly Affects Storage Carbohydrate Accumulation in Anaerobic Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelwood, L.A.; Walsh, M.C.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OA Fund TU Delft Accumulation of glycogen and trehalose in nutrient-limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is negatively correlated with the specific growth rate. Additionally, glucose-excess conditions (i.e., growth limitation by nutrients other than glucose) are often implicated in high-lev

  7. Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-03-01

    Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05).

  8. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  9. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes or non-nutritive sweeteners. They can be used to sweeten food and drinks for less calories and carbohydrate when they replace sugar. Sugar and Desserts With diabetes, it's important to ...

  10. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  11. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  12. Carboidratos não estruturais em tubérculos de batata recondicionados após o armazenamento sob diferentes temperaturas Non-structural carbohydrates in potato tubers, and subsequent reconditioning after storage in different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Bacarin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram quantificados os teores de açúcares não estruturais em tubérculos de batata dos genótipos Atlantic, Pérola, Asterix e C-1786-6-94, armazenados nas temperaturas de 4; 12 e 20ºC, por 30 e 60 dias e, após 30 dias de armazenamento, recondicionados. Antes de cada coleta, os tubérculos foram processados e divididos em sub amostras e logo depois liofilizados. Do material liofilizado determinaram-se os teores de carboidratos solúveis totais e de açúcares redutores. Antes do armazenamento, o clone C-1786-6-94 apresentava a maior quantidade de carboidratos solúveis totais. Quando armazenados por 30 dias a 4ºC, todos os genótipos aumentaram os teores de carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores, havendo diferenças nas taxas de incremento. O armazenamento por mais 30 dias a 4ºC provocou respostas distintas entre os genótipos. O armazenamento a 12ºC por um período de 30 dias induziu aumento nos teores de açúcares; aos 60 dias de armazenamento houve uma tendência a diminuir açúcares redutores. No recondicionamento de 4 para 20ºC houve redução acentuada nos teores de açúcares redutores e carboidratos solúveis totais. O recondicionamento de 12 para 20ºC teve efeito expressivo na redução dos teores de açúcares redutores e carboidratos solúveis totais. No armazenamento a 20ºC pequenas flutuações ocasionais foram percebidas nos teores de açúcares com tendência a diminuir ao longo do armazenamento.The levels of total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars were quantified in tubers of potato genotypes (Atlantic, Pérola, Asterix and C-1786-6-94 stored under different temperatures (4, 12 and 20ºC for 30 and 60 days and after a reconditioning period of 30 days of storage. Before each harvest, the tubers were processed and divided in sub samples and then liofilizated. The liofilizated material was analyzed for total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars content. Higher amounts of total soluble

  13. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  14. Physiological and phytochemical quality of ready-to-eat rocket leaves as affected by processing, modified atmosphere and storage temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Ana Luísa; Pereira, Maria João; Carvalho, Susana; Vasconcelos, Marta; Pintado, Maria Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Rocket leaves are widely consumed as a ready-to-eat (RTE) leafy vegetable, valued by its wide range of health promoting phytonutrients, including vitamin C and phenolic compounds. Processing and storage conditions are known to affect quality of RTE rocket leaves, with package atmosphere and low temperature as key factors in quality maintenance throughout processing to consumption. However, information on rocket leaves nutritional quality as affected by modified atmosphere and storage...

  15. Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Caroline P; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-05-27

    Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were fed a diet containing either fish oil or rapeseed oil and with or without 200 mg/kg carotenoid (either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin). A total of six diets were obtained: (1) fish oil/astaxanthin; (2) vegetable oil/astaxanthin; (3) fish oil/canthaxanthin; (4) vegetable oil/canthaxanthin; (5) fish oil/no pigment; and (6) vegetable oil/no pigment. The fish were slaughtered and stored in polyethylene bags individually as butterfly fillets for up to 22 months at -20 °C. The composition of the fish muscle at slaughter and during frozen storage was evaluated by sampling after 4, 8, 13, 18, and 22 months. The carotenoid content in the muscle was found to be approximately 9-10 mg/kg of fish for both carotenoids. Primary oxidation lipid products (peroxides) as well as secondary oxidation products (volatiles) were measured. In addition, the level of protein carbonyl groups and the content of tocopherols and carotenoids in the muscle were also measured. To estimate the overall changes in sensory properties of the different samples during storage, a trained sensory panel also evaluated the samples. Both the sensory panel and the chemical analysis revealed that in this investigation fish fed fish oil were slightly more oxidized than fish fed vegetable oil. Results showed that canthaxanthin effectively protected both protein and lipid against oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, astaxanthin did not seem to have a clear and systematic effect. Results indicated that the feed composition influenced the fish muscle composition and subsequently the oxidative stability of the fish during frozen storage. Besides, other constituents in the feed might influence deposition of antioxidants in the tissue and consequently affect the oxidative stability of the muscle.

  16. Effects of Short-Term Dietary Change from High-Carbohydrate Diet to High-Fat Diet on Storage, Utilization, and Fatty Acid Composition of Rat Muscle Triglyceride during Swimming Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of a 3-day dietary change from a high-carbohydrate (C) to high-fat (F) diet on muscle triglyceride (MTG) storage and utilization during the swimming exercise in rats. Rats were meal-fed on either the F diet or the C diet for 11 days. For an additional 3 days, half of the rats in each group were fed the same diets and the other rats were switched to counterpart diets. On the final day, half of the rats in each group were killed before the exercise and the...

  17. FUNGAL POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED TO NETTING TISSUE OF GALIA MELONS AFFECTING QUALITY DURING STORAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M A; Aguilar, F W; Martínez, J A

    2015-01-01

    Galia melons are produced in southeast Spain and exported to other European countries. The main problem of melons during transport and storage consists of the development of epiphytic populations of fungi living inside the netting areas located on fruit surface. These areas are natural wounds which are covered by local suberin and lignin secretion induced by the plant in response to the natural skin wounds which occurs during fruit growing. These fungi are growing from the scarce organic matter and nutrients that are either deposited or segregated from the fruit. Several genera of fungi have commonly been associated to those areas such as some species of Fusarium, Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. and a few others. All microorganisms were living in an ecological equilibrium. However, when water was present inside the netting areas, the growth of Cladosporium sp. was exacerbated and then, the ecological equilibrium was broken, therefore these grey areas turned to green-dark colour due to hyphal development of this fungus. This process deteriorated visual quality of fruits, therefore the increase of losses during transport and storage were noticeable. A relative humidity very high, round 100% or a thinner layer of water condensed in these areas were sufficient to increase epiphytic development of Cladosporium without causing decay, even at refrigeration temperature. However, when relative humidity was lower than about 98%, no growth of aerial hyphae of Cladosporium was observed. In contrast, some brown stains round netting areas were developed due to the growth of the fungus through skin layers causing severe decay after 32 days of storage at 7 degrees C. When the affected fruits were transferred at ambient temperature, aerial mycelium of Cladosporium emerged from those brown skin areas exacerbating the losses. In conclusion, water condensation should be avoided to prevent epiphytic development of Cladosporium. If washing treatment of fruits is carried out during

  18. Characterizing the Glycocalyx of Poultry Spermatozoa: II. Low Temperature Storage of Turkey Semen and Sperm Mobility Phenotype Impact the Carbohydrate Component of Membrane Glycoconjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The turkey sperm glycocalyx is known to contain residues of sialic acid, alpha-mannose/alpha-glucose, alpha- and beta-galactose, alpha-fucose, alpha- and beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine, monomers and dimers of N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Potential changes in these carbohydrates during...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of... 63—Group 1 Storage Vessels at Existing Affected Sources Producing the Listed Thermoplastics Thermoplastic Chemical a Vessel capacity (cubic meters) Vapor pressure b (kilopascals) ASA/AMSAN c...

  20. Watershed Ecohydrology: How Do Vegetation Patterns and Climate Affect Watershed Storage and Connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippgen, F.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Topography and soils have long been recognized as mediators of runoff source areas, but the effect of vegetation patterns on subsurface throughflow is less well understood. While numerous studies have shown that vegetation removal generally leads to increases in streamflow, few studies have examined the intersection between patterns of evapotranspiration and topographically driven patterns of throughflow generation and connectivity. We applied a parsimonious but spatially distributed watershed modeling framework (WECOH: Watershed ECOHydrology Model) to a snow dominated watershed in central Montana to elucidate how different vegetation scenarios and climate forcing can affect the temporal evolution of storage distributions and watershed connectivity. We derived spatially distributed snowmelt and rainfall input from two NRCS SNOTEL sites located in the experimental watershed and actual evapotranspiration from a co-located eddy-covariance tower. We generated different vegetation scenarios to simulate forest harvesting and compared streamflow response, spatial distribution of storage, and runoff source areas across scenarios. Our work aims at better understanding how the intersection of vegetation and topography mediates hydrologic response.

  1. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCH...

  2. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  3. Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; J. E. Olesen; Porter, J R

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage.Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold storage warming-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in DEA following cold storage, suggesting a need to consider conditioning time when planning and interpreting results.

  4. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  5. Characterization of carbohydrate-protein matrices for nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2011-05-01

    Amorphous carbohydrates may show glass transition and crystallization as a result of thermal or water plasticization. Proteins often affect the state transitions of carbohydrates in carbohydrate-protein systems. Water sorption behavior and effects of water on glass transition and crystallization in freeze-dried lactose, trehalose, lactose-casein (3: 1), lactose-soy protein isolate (3:1), trehalose-casein (3:1), and trehalose-soy protein isolate (3:1) systems were studied. Water sorption was determined gravimetrically as a function of time, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) models were fitted to the experimental data. Glass transition temperature (T(g)) and instant crystallization temperature (T(ic)) in anhydrous and water plasticized systems were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to model water content dependence of the T(g) values. The critical water content and water activity (a(w)) at 24 °C were calculated and crystallization of lactose and trehalose in the systems was followed at and above 0.54 a(w). Carbohydrate-protein systems showed higher amounts of sorbed water and less rapid sugar crystallization than pure sugars. A greater sugar crystallization delay was found in carbohydrate-casein systems than in carbohydrate-soy protein isolate systems. The T(g) and T(ic) values decreased with increasing water content and a(w). However, higher T(ic) values for lactose-protein systems were found than for lactose at the same a(w). Trehalose showed lower T(ic) value than lactose at 0.44 a(w) but no instant crystallization was measured below 0.44 a(w). State diagrams for each system are useful in selecting processing parameters and storage conditions in nutrient delivery applications. PMID:22417357

  6. How does feed with different levels of vegetable origin affect the sensory quality of ice storage Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Holm, Jørgen

    such as soy oil or rapeseed oil combined with vegetable proteins. Such a change in feeding regime will result in a “green fish” and may affect flesh quality and eating quality. The objective was to study the effect of vegetable based feed on sensory of ice storage farmed rainbow trout. Experimental design...... Changes in sensory quality were determined by objective descriptive sensory methods using profiling carried out by a trained panel. The fish samples were thawed and ice storage for 3, 5, 7 and 12 days. Results The sensory characterization of the trout feed with 100% marine and 100% vegetable feed showed...... after 3 days of ice storage that the trout feed with marine fed were more firm, juicy and the texture was more flacky that trout feed with vegetable feed. This sensory difference increased with increasing ice storage....

  7. Worker safety for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study group under the auspices of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Labor Committee and the High-level Radioactive Waste/Hazardous Materials Transportation Task Force examined worker protection and safety programs for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials. Concern about the risks posed to people who live along spent nuclear fuel transportation routes has led to demands for redundant inspections of the transported spent fuel. It would also be prudent to examine the radiological risk to the inspectors themselves before state of federal regulations are promulgated which require redundant inspections. Other workers may also come close to a spent fuel cask during normal operations. The dose rate to which these inspectors and handlers are exposed is higher than the dose rate to which any other group is exposed during incident-free truck transportation and higher than the dose rate to the drivers when they are in the truck cab. This report consists of miscellaneous papers covering topics related to determining radiation doses to workers involved in the transport of radioactive materials

  8. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  9. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    James Wilfred Navalta; Brian Keith McFarlin; Scott Lyons; Scott Wesley Arnett; Mark Anthony Schafer

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: E...

  10. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto .; Dwi Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...

  11. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  12. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  13. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P < 0.05) the concentration of some biogenic amines (tyramine, agmatine, and spermine). Irrespective of the high processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  14. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  15. Factors affecting storage of compressed air in porous-rock reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Erikson, R.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents a review and evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of porous medium (aquifer) storage. These aspects include geologic, petrologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and geochemical characteristics of porous rock masses and their interactions with compressed air energy storage (CAES) operations. The primary objective is to present criteria categories for the design and stability of CAES in porous media (aquifers). The document will also describe analytical, laboratory, and field-scale investigations that have been conducted.

  16. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised.

  17. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  18. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuralay Atageldiyeva

    Full Text Available A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  19. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  20. Fillet texture of Rainbow trout as affected by feeding strategy, slaughtering procedure and storage post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgemand, J.; Rønsholdt, B.; Alsted, N.;

    1995-01-01

    Due to the enactment of environmental legislation in Denmark, feed expenditure by commercial aquaculture operations has been limited. This development has created a demand for high energy diets, which presently dominate the market place. Such diets limit waste load to the surrounding environment...... measurements were undertaken using an Instron Universal Testing Machine and sensory analysis. Results indicated that fillet fat content could be increased 20% without affecting texture. Storage time post mortem was found to be the single most important factor affecting fillet texture. Sensory analyses verified...

  1. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    controls (n = 8), which indicates a slow turnover rate of carbohydrate deficient transferrin. Food ingestion did not affect the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, and the analysis of carbohydrate deficient transferrin was almost unaffected by the presence of ethanol in plasma within...... alcohol intake, but the overlap is substantial in patients with cirrhosis. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has a low turnover rate in both patients with cirrhosis and normals....

  2. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  3. Stratification and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as Affected by Tillage Practices in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Kong, Fan-Lei; Chen, Fu; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Tillage practices can redistribute the soil profiles, and thus affects soil organic carbon (SOC), and its storage. The stratification ratio (SR) can be an indicator of soil quality. This study was conducted to determine tillage effects on the profile distribution of certain soil properties in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) systems in the North China Plain (NCP). Three tillage treatments, including no till (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and plow tillage (PT), were established in 2001 in Luancheng County, Hebei Province. The concentration, storage, and SR of SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN) were assessed in both the wheat and maize seasons. Compared with RT and PT, the mean SRs for all depth ratios of SOC under NT increased by 7.85% and 30.61% during the maize season, and by 14.67% and 30.91% during the wheat season, respectively. The SR of TN for 0–5:30–50 cm increased by 140%, 161%, and 161% in the maize season, and 266%, 154%, and 122% in the wheat season compared to the SR for 0–5:5–10 cm under NT, RT and PT, respectively. The data indicated that SOC and TN were both concentrated in the surface-soil layers (0–10 cm) under NT but were distributed relatively evenly through the soil profile under PT. Meanwhile, the storage of SOC and TN was higher under NT for the surface soil (0–10 cm) but was higher under PT for the deeper soil (30–50 cm). Furthermore, the storage of SOC and TN was significantly related to SR of SOC and TN along the whole soil profile (P<0.0001). Therefore, SR could be used to explain and indicate the changes in the storage of SOC and TN. Further, NT stratifies SOC and TN, enhances the topsoil SOC storage, and helps to improve SOC sequestration and soil quality. PMID:26075391

  4. Selection efficiency for raspberry postharvest shelf life affected by storage temperature and harvest season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved postharvest quality is an important goal for fresh-market raspberry breeding programs. To determine if warm or cold storage following harvest would better facilitate the breeding selection process for the assessment of postharvest decay and bleed, pesticide-free fruit from cultivars and bre...

  5. Drying and storage methods affect cyfluthrin concentrations in exposed plant samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard procedures exist for collection and chemical analyses of pyrethroid insecticides in environmental matrices. However, less detail is given for drying and potential storage methods of plant samples prior to analyses. Due to equipment and financial limitations, immediate sample analysis is n...

  6. Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10 min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10 min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments.

  7. 贮藏温度对彩色马蹄莲块茎糖类代谢与生长的影响%Effects of Storage Treatments on Growth and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Calia Lily Tubers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涤; 李瑞芳; 贾桂霞; 王贤; 卫尊征

    2011-01-01

    以彩色马蹄莲(Zantedeschia hybrids)的Black Magic为试材,研究其块茎经不同贮藏温度和时间处理后,块茎碳水化合物代谢及后期植株生长的变化.结果表明,贮藏温度越高,淀粉降解越快;各温度处理总可溶性糖含量与蔗糖含量变化趋势基本一致,9、12、15℃下,贮藏第28天总可溶性糖含量与蔗糖含量达到峰值后明显下降;12℃、15℃贮藏第56天淀粉酶活性达到峰值后明显下降,还原糖含量上升到较高水平,总可溶性糖含量处于较低水平;此阶段块茎萌芽率快速提高,萌芽伸长明显;块茎栽植后株高迅速增高、开花较多.贮藏第56天块茎休眠的打破、萌发与糖类物质变化密切相关.在本试验中,短期贮藏(56 d)以12℃为宜,长期贮藏(112 d)以12℃贮藏56 d再降低至6℃最佳.%Different temperature treatments on Calla lily were used to study the changes of carbohydrate metabolism in tubers, the germination and growth of Calla lily.The results indicated that starch content in tubers declined along with the increase of storage temperature, and the changes of sucrose content accorded with that of total soluble sugar, however, the changes of reducing sugar had the opposite trend at 56 d.Amylase activities decreased as the storage temperature increased.In this period tubers sprouted obviously, and plant height and flower numbers increased.It was suggested that the turning point of sugar contents should be related to the beginning of tuber sprout.The results indicated that the best treatments of short period storage is at 12 ℃ for 56 d, and long period storage is at 12 ℃ for 56 d,then turn to 6 ℃ for 56 d.

  8. Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fruits Affected By Various Loads Under Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil S. Albaloush

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fruits and vegetables are of interest to plant physiologists, horticulturalists, agricultural engineers and food engineers, due to different causes. the rheological properties are relevant to several aspects of the study of these materials, including the causes and extent of damage during harvesting, transport and storage; the human perception of product quality. The rheological constants of the four element Burgers model when tomatoes were subjected to various fixed loads (stresses on the main dimensions of the fruits were investigated .The rheological constants, K1(instantaneous elasticity, N/mm, K2 (retarded elasticity, N/mm, C1 (free viscous element,N.min/mm and C2 (retarded viscous element, N.min/mm were decreased significantly with storage time.

  9. Low-dose gamma irradiation and refrigerated storage in vacuo affect microbial flora of fresh pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum-packaged ground fresh pork samples absorbed gamma radiation doses of 0, 0.57, 1.91, 3.76, 5.52, or 7.25 kGy at 2 degrees C. Samples were analyzed after 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days storage at 2 degrees C for presence and number of aerobic and anaerobic mesophiles and endospore formers, and aerobic psychrotrophs. Conventional plate counts did not detect surviving microflora in any sample that received an absorbed dose of 1.91 kGy or higher, even after refrigerated storage for up to 35 days. The microflora in the control were predominantly Gram-positive for the first 21 days; however, Serratia predominated at 28 and 35 days. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and yeast species predominated in samples that received 0.57 kGy

  10. Compositional and functional dynamics of dried papaya as affected by storage time and packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Nagle, Marcus; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Latif, Sajid; Müller, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Papaya has been identified as a valuable source of nutrients and antioxidants, which are beneficial for human health. To preserve the nutritional properties after drying, appropriate storage specifications should be considered. This study aimed to investigate the quality and stability of air-dried papaya in terms of quality dynamics and behavior of bio-active compounds during storage for up to 9 months in two packaging materials: aluminum laminated polyethylene and polyamide/polyethylene. Samples with moisture content (MC) of 0.1328 g g(-1) and water activity (aw) of 0.5 were stored at 30 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 40-50%. The MC, aw, degree of browning (DB) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were found to notably increase as storage progressed. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS), total phenolic (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents. Packaging in aluminum laminated polyethylene under ambient conditions was found to better preserve bio-active compounds and retard increases in MC, aw and DB, when compared to polyamide/polyethylene. PMID:26593545

  11. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  12. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  13. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  14. PDF Weaving - Linking Inventory Data and Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis in the Study of how Disturbance Affects Forest Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, S. P.; Patterson, P.; Garrard, C.

    2014-12-01

    Altered disturbance regimes are likely a primary mechanism by which a changing climate will affect storage of carbon in forested ecosystems. Accordingly, the National Forest System (NFS) has been mandated to assess the role of disturbance (harvests, fires, insects, etc.) on carbon storage in each of its planning units. We have developed a process which combines 1990-era maps of forest structure and composition with high-quality maps of subsequent disturbance type and magnitude to track the impact of disturbance on carbon storage. This process, called the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), uses the maps to apply empirically calibrated carbon dynamics built into a widely used management tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). While ForCaMF offers locally specific insights into the effect of historical or hypothetical disturbance trends on carbon storage, its dependence upon the interaction of several maps and a carbon model poses a complex challenge in terms of tracking uncertainty. Monte Carlo analysis is an attractive option for tracking the combined effects of error in several constituent inputs as they impact overall uncertainty. Monte Carlo methods iteratively simulate alternative values for each input and quantify how much outputs vary as a result. Variation of each input is controlled by a Probability Density Function (PDF). We introduce a technique called "PDF Weaving," which constructs PDFs that ensure that simulated uncertainty precisely aligns with uncertainty estimates that can be derived from inventory data. This hard link with inventory data (derived in this case from FIA - the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program) both provides empirical calibration and establishes consistency with other types of assessments (e.g., habitat and water) for which NFS depends upon FIA data. Results from the NFS Northern Region will be used to illustrate PDF weaving and insights gained from ForCaMF about the role of disturbance in carbon

  15. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  16. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  17. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  18. Does the radiation from the interim storage in Gorleben affect the sex ratio of newborn children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the professional world but especially in public, the question is discussed whether ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities has a significant impact on the secondary sex ratio of newborn children in the vicinity of the plants. This issue is of exceptional importance in the region around Gorleben, where the opposition to nuclear facilities and activities for decades is particularly strong. At the site borders of the interim storage facility (TBL-G) of GNS the effective individual dose is about 0.2 mSv per year, mainly caused by neutron irradiation from 108 casks with high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing. In the surrounding villages there is no radiation measurable. Statistical studies allegedly have shown evidence that in some villages in the area and during certain periods, proportionately fewer girls were born in comparison to the average for the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on these purely statistical results henceforward was also alleged that neutron-induced secondary effects such as activation or secondary gamma radiation would be responsible for it. Monte Carlo calculations and special measurements yielded values of the dose at the plant border for activation products less than E-04 mSv/a and for secondary gamma radiation of about E-03 mSv/a. These results indicate that the ionizing radiation from the Gorleben interim storage facility cannot be held accountable for shifts of the secondary sex ratio.

  19. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  20. Burden of lysosomal storage disorders in India: experience of 387 affected children from a single diagnostic facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Jayesh; Mistri, Mehul; Sheth, Frenny; Shah, Raju; Bavdekar, Ashish; Godbole, Koumudi; Nanavaty, Nidhish; Datar, Chaitanya; Kamate, Mahesh; Oza, Nrupesh; Ankleshwaria, Chitra; Mehta, Sanjeev; Jackson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered to be a rare metabolic disease for the national health forum, clinicians, and scientists. This study aimed to know the prevalence of different LSDs, their geographical variation, and burden on the society. It included 1,110 children from January 2002 to December 2012, having coarse facial features, hepatomegaly or hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal dysplasia, neuroregression, leukodystrophy, developmental delay, cerebral-cerebellar atrophy, and abnormal ophthalmic findings. All subjects were screened for I-cell disease, glycolipid storage disorders (Niemann-Pick disease A/B, Gaucher), and mucopolysaccharide disorders followed by confirmatory lysosomal enzymes study from leucocytes and/or fibroblasts. Niemann-Pick disease-C (NPC) was confirmed by fibroblasts study using filipin stain. Various storage disorders were detected in 387 children (34.8 %) with highest prevalence of glycolipid storage disorders in 48 %, followed by mucopolysaccharide disorders in 22 % and defective sulfatide degradation in 14 % of the children. Less common defects were glycogen degradation defect and protein degradation defect in 5 % each, lysosomal trafficking protein defect in 4 %, and transport defect in 3 % of the patients. This study demonstrates higher incidence of Gaucher disease (16 %) followed by GM2 gangliosidosis that includes Tay-Sachs disease (10 %) and Sandhoff disease (7.8 %) and mucopolysaccharide disorders among all LSDs. Nearly 30 % of the affected children were born to consanguineous parents and this was higher (72 %) in children with Batten disease. Our study also demonstrates two common mutations c.1277_1278insTATC in 14.28 % (4/28) and c.964G>T (p.D322Y) in 10.7 % (3/28) for Tay-Sachs disease in addition to the earlier reported c.1385A>T (p.E462V) mutation in 21.42 % (6/28). PMID:23852624

  1. Factors affecting immunoreactivity in long-term storage of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Federica; Pigozzi, Simona; Ceriolo, Paola; Calamaro, Paola; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Antigen decay in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections for immunohistochemistry is a well-known phenomenon which may have repercussions on translational and research studies and length of storage time appears fundamental. The aim of this study was to evaluate all possible factors which may lead to antigen decay on a prospective standardized collection of human tissues with a panel of 14 routinely used antibodies. Serial slide sections from FFPE control tissues were stored using different methods (routine storage at room temperature, Parafilm(®) protected, paraffin coated and cold stored at 4 °C) and for different time periods: 1, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 36 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed at each time cutoff simultaneously on stored sections and on freshly cut sections using a panel of 14 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was compared with immunoreactions performed at time zero. Reduction in immunostaining was observed for a subset of antibodies (CD3, CD 31, CD117, estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, p53, TTF-1, vimentin) while for others (smooth muscle actin, keratins 7, 20, AE1/AE3, 34βE12), no antigen decay was observed. Loss of antigenicity was proportional to tissue section age and was dependent on mode of storage with cold storage slides being the least affected. All antigens with reductions in immunosignal were nuclear or membranous, and they all required heat pre-treatment for antigen retrieval. In contrast to results from other studies, when pre-analytical factors are strictly controlled and standardized, antigen decay seems to be restricted to nuclear or membrane antigens which require heat antigen retrieval.

  2. Stratification and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as Affected by Tillage Practices in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Kong, Fan-Lei; Chen, Fu; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Tillage practices can redistribute the soil profiles, and thus affects soil organic carbon (SOC), and its storage. The stratification ratio (SR) can be an indicator of soil quality. This study was conducted to determine tillage effects on the profile distribution of certain soil properties in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) systems in the North China Plain (NCP). Three tillage treatments, including no till (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and plow tillage (PT), were established in 2001 in Luancheng County, Hebei Province. The concentration, storage, and SR of SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN) were assessed in both the wheat and maize seasons. Compared with RT and PT, the mean SRs for all depth ratios of SOC under NT increased by 7.85% and 30.61% during the maize season, and by 14.67% and 30.91% during the wheat season, respectively. The SR of TN for 0-5:30-50 cm increased by 140%, 161%, and 161% in the maize season, and 266%, 154%, and 122% in the wheat season compared to the SR for 0-5:5-10 cm under NT, RT and PT, respectively. The data indicated that SOC and TN were both concentrated in the surface-soil layers (0-10 cm) under NT but were distributed relatively evenly through the soil profile under PT. Meanwhile, the storage of SOC and TN was higher under NT for the surface soil (0-10 cm) but was higher under PT for the deeper soil (30-50 cm). Furthermore, the storage of SOC and TN was significantly related to SR of SOC and TN along the whole soil profile (Psoil quality.

  3. Does feed composition affect oxidation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during frozen storage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    by sampling after 4, 8, 13, 18, and 22 months. The carotenoid content in the muscle was found to be approximately 9-10 mg/kg of fish for both carotenoids. Primary oxidation lipid products (peroxides) as well as secondary oxidation products (volatiles) were measured. In addition, the level of protein carbonyl......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed a diet containing either fish oil or rapeseed oil and with or without 200 mg/kg carotenoid (either astaxanthin or canthaxanthin). A total of six diets were obtained: (1) fish oil/astaxanthin; (2) vegetable oil/astaxanthin; (3) fish oil/canthaxanthin; (4...... that in this investigation fish fed fish oil were slightly more oxidized than fish fed vegetable oil. Results showed that canthaxanthin effectively protected both protein and lipid against oxidation during frozen storage. In contrast, astaxanthin did not seem to have a clear and systematic effect. Results indicated...

  4. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  5. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  6. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  7. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite...... endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ~56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also...

  8. Latitudinal Variation in Carbon Storage Can Help Predict Changes in Swamps Affected by Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  9. Preservação in vitro da batata com ácido acetilsalicílico e duas fontes de carboidrato In vitro storage of potato under acetyl salicylic acid and two carbohydrate sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Renan de Luces Fortes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de carboidratos e do ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS na preservação in vitro da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Brotações de 1,5 a 2,0 cm de comprimento foram transferidas para meio de MS, acrescido de mio-inositol (100 mg L-1 e ágar (6 g L-1. Testaram-se duas fontes de carboidrato, sacarose e manitol (87,6 mM, e cinco concentrações de AAS (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 mg L-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições por tratamento e cada repetição formada por oito tubos de ensaio com uma brotação. O material foi mantido à temperatura de 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e radiação de 19 miE m-2 s-1. O crescimento e o número de gemas nas hastes foram avaliados por três meses. Passados nove meses, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos também foram avaliados. O uso de manitol, associado às concentrações a partir de 30 mg L-1 de AAS, proporcionou menor crescimento e formação de gemas nas hastes. No meio suplementado com sacarose, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos foram maiores, independentemente das concentrações de AAS utilizadas, após nove meses de cultivo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA during the in vitro storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Stems derived from in vitro cultures were cut into 1.5 to 2.0 cm segments and inoculated in a MS medium supplemented with myo-inositol (100 mg L-1 and agar (6 g L-1. Sucrose and mannitol 87.6 mM and five ASA concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L-1 were tested. The stems were cultured on 10 mL medium in test tubes (20 x 150 mm and incubated in a growth chamber at 25±2ºC, 16 hour photoperiod and 19 muE m-2 s-1 radiation. The growth and the bud number formed in the stems for a period of three months were evaluated. Nine months later the survival percentage and the number of microtubers formed

  10. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  11. Storage temperature affects distribution of carbon, VFA, ammonia, phosphorus, copper and zinc in raw pig slurry and its separated liquid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Olga; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-08-01

    Chemical-mechanical separation of pig slurry into a solid fraction rich in dry matter, P, Cu and Zn and a liquid fraction rich in inorganic N but poor in dry matter may allow farmers to manage surplus slurry by exporting the solid fraction to regions with no nutrient surplus. Pig slurry can be applied to arable land only in certain periods during the year, so it is commonly stored prior to field application. This study investigated the effect of storage duration and temperature on chemical characteristics and P, Cu and Zn distribution between particle size classes of raw slurry and its liquid separation fraction. Dry matter, VFA, total N and ammonium content of both slurry products decreased during storage and were affected by temperature, showing higher losses at higher storage temperatures. In both products, total P, Cu and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by storage duration or temperature. Particle size distribution was affected by slurry separation, storage duration and temperature. In raw slurry, particles larger than 1 mm decreased, whereas particles 250 μm-1 mm increased. The liquid fraction produced was free of particles >500 μm, with the highest proportions of P, Cu and Zn in the smallest particle size class (particles particle size classes followed a similar pattern to dry matter. PMID:22591817

  12. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P packaging.

  13. Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Packman, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of solute and sediment have been studied, including surface water exchange between the main channel and side pools, hyporheic flow through shallow and deep subsurface flow paths, and sediment transport during both baseflow and floods. A significant challenge arises from non-linear and scale-dependent transport resulting from natural, fractal fluvial topography and associated broad, multi-scale hydrologic interactions. Connections between processes and linkages across scales are not well understood, imposing significant limitations on system predictability. The whole-stream tracer experimental approach is popular because of the spatial averaging of heterogeneous processes; however the tracer results, implemented alone and analyzed using typical models, cannot usually predict transport beyond the very specific conditions of the experiment. Furthermore, the results of whole stream tracer experiments tend to be biased due to unavoidable limitations associated with sampling frequency, measurement sensitivity, and experiment duration. We recommend that whole-stream tracer additions be augmented with hydraulic and topographic measurements and also with additional tracer measurements made directly in storage zones. We present examples of measurements that encompass interactions across spatial and temporal scales and models that are transferable to a wide range of flow and geomorphic conditions. These results show how the competitive effects between the different forces driving hyporheic flow, operating at different spatial scales, creates a situation

  14. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any ...

  15. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  16. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  17. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  18. Sports Nutrition for the Primary Care Physician: The Importance of Carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Keith B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between nutrition and fatigue and how carbohydrates and timing of carbohydrate consumption can affect fatigued athletes. Nutrition plays a significant role in successful training and competition. Key concerns are the specific needs of athletes for carbohydrates before, during, and after exercise. (Author/SM)

  19. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and ...

  20. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology–cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and ...

  1. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  2. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  3. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  4. Lipid peroxidation in chicken meat during chilled storage as affected by antioxidants combined with low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TBA values and carbonyl content for irradiated samples of ground chicken meat were higher than for nonirradiated samples. Addition of antioxidants tocopherol (natural) or BHT (synthetic) resulted in retardation of oxidative rancidity (p0.05). Meat treated with antioxidants prior to irradiation had lower TBA values as compared to untreated irradiated counterparts. Free fatty acid (FFA) values decreased after irradiation. Addition of antioxidants prior to irradiation showed a synergistic effect in decreasing FFA content. TLC of muscle lipids indicated a reduction in the triacylglcerols content with concomitant increases in FFA of all samples during storage. All irradiated meats were acceptable for consumption up to 4 wk of storage

  5. Altered Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in the Maize Lc-Expressed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Affects Storage Root Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Wang; Jun Yang; Min Zhang; Weijuan Fan; Nurit Firon; Sitakanta Pattanaik; Ling Yuan; Peng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    There is no direct evidence of the effect of lignin metabolism on early storage root development in sweet potato. In this study, we found that heterologous expression of the maize leaf color (Lc) gene in sweet potato increased anthocyanin pigment accumulation in the whole plant and resulted in reduced size with an increased length/width ratio, low yield and less starch content in the early storage roots. RT-PCR analysis revealed dramatic up-regulation of the genes involved in the lignin biosy...

  6. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  7. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  8. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Wasim Ahmad Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco for a period of 120 days (85%–90% relative humidity at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS, total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.

  9. Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata) as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Jahangir, Muhammad; Qaisar, Muhammad; Khan, Sher Aslam; Mahmood, Talat; Saeed, Muhammad; Farid, Abid; Liaquat, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco) for a period of 120 days (85%-90% relative humidity) at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C. PMID:26694344

  10. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  11. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  12. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  13. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB₁ content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B₁ increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG₁ and AFG₂ contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed.

  14. The probability of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked salmon and tryptic soy broth as affected by salt, smoke compound, and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-An

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine and model the probability of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked salmon containing salt and smoke (phenol) compound and stored at various temperatures. A growth probability model was developed, and the model was compared to a model developed from tryptic soy broth (TSB) to assess the possibility of using TSB as a substitute for salmon. A 6-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into minced cooked salmon and TSB containing 0-10% NaCl and 0-34 ppm phenol to levels of 10(2-3) cfu/g, and the samples were vacuum-packed and stored at 0--25 degrees C for up to 42 days. A total 32 treatments, each with 16 samples, selected by central composite designs were tested. A logistic regression was used to model the probability of growth of L. monocytogenes as a function of concentrations of salt and phenol, and storage temperature. Resulted models showed that the probabilities of growth of L. monocytogenes in both salmon and TSB decreased when the salt and/or phenol concentrations increased, and at lower storage temperatures. In general, the growth probabilities of L. monocytogenes were affected more profoundly by salt and storage temperature than by phenol. The growth probabilities of L. monocytogenes estimated by the TSB model were higher than those by the salmon model at the same salt/phenol concentrations and storage temperatures. The growth probabilities predicted by the salmon and TSB models were comparable at higher storage temperatures, indicating the potential use of TSB as a model system to substitute salmon in studying the growth behavior of L. monocytogenes may only be suitable when the temperatures of interest are in higher storage temperatures (e.g., >12 degrees C). The model for salmon demonstrated the effects of salt, phenol, and storage temperature and their interactions on the growth probabilities of L. monocytogenes, and may be used to determine the growth probability of L. monocytogenes in smoked

  15. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of diet foods. These foods may contain extra sugar as a substitute for fat calories. Try to include your child or teen as you evaluate and select healthy carbohydrate-containing foods. With ... blood sugar. By taking a smart approach to balancing carbohydrates, ...

  16. Prolonged Cold Storage Affects Pollen Viability and Germination along with Hydrogen Peroxide and Nitric Oxide Content in Rosa hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MACOVEI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roses (Rosa hybrida are the most important ornamental cut-flowers and breeders’ main focus is to develop new desirable modern cultivars. Rose breeding programs center on the introduction of new flower colors, thornless stems, higher production and good post-harvest performance. The study of the main pollen traits, such as pollen quantity and quality, viability, longevity, morphological homogeneity, germination and tube growth, is important for building suitable breeding programs. Recently, a number of studies have shown that reactive oxygen species, like hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, are involved in a wide range of signaling processes including pollen tube growth and pollen-pistil recognition. Pollen viability after anther dehiscence is crucial for successful crossbreeding. In the present work, pollen grains from 5 hybrid tea rose cultivars were stored at -20 °C up to 12 months. Pollen viability and germination rate was monitored in order to provide useful information about pollen storage length. Additionally, pollen grains were tested for their content in hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide by using a novel approach where the fluorescence is read in a quantitative RealTime PCR (qRT-PCR machine. Pollen viability and in vitro pollen germination capacity varied among the rose genotypes, while a progressive decrease was evidenced during 12 months of storage at low temperature. Both hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production were found to be genotypedependent, whilst accumulation of the two molecules was observed during the storage period. A putative detrimental effect of these molecules during pollen conservation is hypothesized.

  17. Invariant Natural Killer T cells are not affected by lysosomal storage in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C

    OpenAIRE

    Speak, Anneliese O; Platt, Nicholas; Salio, Mariolina; te Vruchte, Danielle Taylor; Smith, David A.; Shepherd, Dawn; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Simmons, Louise; Imrie, Jackie; Wraith, James E.; Lachmann, Robin; Hartung, Ralf; Runz, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a specialised subset of T cells that are restricted to the MHC class I like molecule, CD1d. The ligands for iNKT cells are lipids, with the canonical superagonist being α-galactosylceramide, a non-mammalian glycosphingolipid. Trafficking of CD1d through the lysosome is required for the development of murine iNKT cells. Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by dysfunction in either of two lysosomal proteins, NPC1 or...

  18. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter.

  19. Quality changes of pomegranate arils throughout shelf life affected by deficit irrigation and pre-processing storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Galindo, Alejandro; Gómez, Perla A

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the influence of sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 78% less water supply than the reference evapotranspiration, ET0) compared to a control (100% ET0) on the physicochemical and sensory qualities and health-promoting compounds of pomegranate arils stored for 14days at 5°C. Prior to processing, the fruits were stored for 0, 30, 60 or 90days at 5°C. The effect of the pre-processing storage duration was also examined. Physicochemical and sensory qualities were kept during the storage period. Arils from SDI fruit had lower punicalagin-α and ellagic acid losses than the control (13% vs 50%). However, the anthocyanin content decreased during the shelf-life (72%) regardless of the treatment. The ascorbic acid slight decreased. Arils from SDI experienced glucose/fructose ratio loss (19%) lower than that of the control (35%). In general, arils from SDI showed better quality and health attributes during the shelf-life than did the control samples. PMID:27173567

  20. Oral carbohydrate loading with 18% carbohydrate beverage alleviates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative 12.6% oral carbohydrate loading is an element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol aimed at alleviating postoperative insulin resistance; however, in Japan, beverages with 18% carbohydrate content are generally used for preoperative carbohydrate loading. We investigated the effect of 18% carbohydrate loading on alleviating insulin resistance. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover-randomized study and were segregated into 2 groups: volunteers in the carbohydrate-loading group (group A) who fasted from after 9 pm and ingested 375 mL of a beverage containing 18% carbohydrate (ArginaidWaterTM; Nestle, Tokyo, Japan) between 9 pm and 12 pm, and 250 mL of the same liquid at 6:30 am. Volunteers in control group (group B) drank only water. At 8:30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) and levels of ketone bodies and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) before clamping were evaluated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Levels of blood glucose, insulin, and cytokines at the start of the clamp were similar in both the groups. The GIR in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (11.5±2.4 vs 6.2±2.2 mg/kg/min, p=0.005), while blood ketone body levels were significantly lower in group A (22±4 vs 124±119 μmol/L, p=0.04). Preoperative 18% carbohydrate loading could prevent the decrease in insulin sensitivity and suppress catabolism in healthy volunteers. Thus, carbohydrate loading with a beverage with 18% carbohydrate content might contribute to improvements in perioperative management. PMID:23353610

  1. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  2. Boron nutrition affects the carbon metabolism of silver birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuhola, Teija; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Lehto, Tarja

    2011-11-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient whose deficiency is common both in agriculture and in silviculture. Boron deficiency impairs the growth of plants and affects many metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism. Boron deficiency and also excess B may decrease the sink demand by decreasing the growth and sugar transport which may lead to the accumulation of carbohydrates and down-regulation of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of B nutrition on the soluble and storage carbohydrate concentrations of summer leaves and autumn buds in a deciduous tree species, Betula pendula Roth. In addition, we investigated the changes in the pools of condensed tannins between summer and autumn harvests. One-year-old birch seedlings were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution containing three different levels of B: 0, 30 and 100% of the standard level for complete nutrient solution. Half of the seedlings were harvested after summer period and another half when leaves abscised. The highest B fertilization level (B100) caused an accumulation of starch and a decrease in the concentrations of hexoses (glucose and fructose) in summer leaves, whereas in the B0 seedlings, hexoses (mainly glucose) accumulated and starch decreased. These changes in carbohydrate concentrations might be related to the changes in the sink demand since the autumn growth was the smallest for the B100 seedlings and largest for the B30 seedlings that did not accumulate carbohydrates. The autumn buds of B30 seedlings contained the lowest levels of glucose, glycerol, raffinose and total polyols, which was probably due to the dilution effect of the deposition of other substances like phenols. Condensed tannins accumulated in high amounts in the birch stems during the hardening of seedlings and the largest accumulation was detected in the B30 treatment. Our results suggest that B nutrition of birch seedlings affects the carbohydrate and phenol metabolism and may play an important

  3. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  4. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  5. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  6. Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    OpenAIRE

    M.L.L. Ferrarese; C. R. S. Baleroni; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    1998-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos cap...

  7. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  8. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  9. Stability of lyophilized human platelets loaded with small molecule carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Yang, C; Wan, W; Liu, M X; Ren, S P; Quan, G B; Han, Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-term preservation of platelets is a great challenge for blood transfusion centers, due to the required narrow storage temperature arange (22 ± 2 degree C). Short shelf life and potential bacterial growth often lead to the shortage of high-quality platelets. Freeze-dried preservation is thus believed to be a potential solution for long-term platelet storage without losing the hemostasis function. Here we report a new platelet preservation method, which uses small molecule carbohydrates to extend storage time and to maintain platelet function. The activities of lyophilized platelets that were stabilized with small molecule carbohydrate (e.g., cell viability, mean platelet volume, activation characteristics, and aggregation kinetics) were maintained after storage of 30, 60, and 90 days at room temperature, 4 degree C, and -20 degree C. The recovery of freeze-dried platelets was 87 percent in comparison to fresh platelets. The mean platelet volume of rehydrated platelets increased (from 6.8 fl to 8.0 fl). About 40 percent of rehydrated platelets was in the early-activated stage (PCA-1 positive) and 30 percent was in the terminal-activated stage (CD62P positive). The cell viability was about 60 percent as measured with CMFDA vital probes. The aggregation rate of rehydrated platelets after 90-day storage was similar to fresh platelets stored at 22 degree C ± 2 degree C.

  10. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  11. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  12. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  13. Investigations of Reactive Carbohydrates in Glycosidic Bond Formation and Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuckendorff, Mads

    was to develop new synthetic methods to evolve the field of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. In addition, easy methods for obtaining complex oligosaccharides are needed to accommodate biochemical research and drug development. Furthermore, the aim was to shed light on the complex mechanisms of glycosylation...... and hy rolysis of glycosides. This mechanistic insight can then be used to develop new synthetic methods and obtain a better understanding of already existing methods. In Chapter 1 general aspects of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry is described with an emphasis on elements that affects reactivity...

  14. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching is associated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent that the loss of the cellulose DP (degree ofpolymisation)is strongly affected by the extent of the delignification. A strong linear correlation can be established between the DP of cellulose chains and the residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growth concept and Percolation Theory for heterogenous system can be combined to formulate kinetic models for both the delignification and the degradation of carbohydrate. The models prediction is statistically robust and can be applied to different pulps at different bleaching conditions.

  15. Effects of warming on chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate accumulation of Alpine herbaceous species during plant senescence on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changguang Shi

    Full Text Available Plant senescence is a critical life history process accompanied by chlorophyll degradation and has large implications for nutrient resorption and carbohydrate storage. Although photoperiod governs much of seasonal leaf senescence in many plant species, temperature has also been shown to modulate this process. Therefore, we hypothesized that climate warming would significantly impact the length of the plant growing season and ultimate productivity. To test this assumption, we measured the effects of simulated autumn climate warming paradigms on four native herbaceous species that represent distinct life forms of alpine meadow plants on the Tibetan Plateau. Conditions were simulated in open-top chambers (OTCs and the effects on the degradation of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N concentration in leaves and culms, total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC in roots, growth and phenology were assessed during one year following treatment. The results showed that climate warming in autumn changed the senescence process only for perennials by slowing chlorophyll degradation at the beginning of senescence and accelerating it in the following phases. Warming also increased root TNC storage as a result of higher N concentrations retained in leaves; however, this effect was species dependent and did not alter the growing and flowering phenology in the following seasons. Our results indicated that autumn warming increases carbohydrate accumulation, not only by enhancing activities of photosynthetic enzymes (a mechanism proposed in previous studies, but also by affecting chlorophyll degradation and preferential allocation of resources to different plant compartments. The different responses to warming can be explained by inherently different growth and phenology patterns observed among the studied species. The results implied that warming leads to changes in the competitive balance among life forms, an effect that can subsequently shift vegetation distribution and

  16. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  17. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    evidence that long-term weight loss with a very-low-carbohydrate diet does not adversely affect renal function compared with a high-carbohydrate diet in obese individuals with normal renal function.

  19. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  20. Processes Affecting the Trihalomethane Concentrations Associated with the Third Injection, Storage, and Recovery Test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Fujii, Roger; Clark, Jordan F.

    2003-01-01

    The formation and fate of trihalomethanes (THM) during the third injection, storage, and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, were investigated as part of a program to assess the long-term feasibility of using injection, storage, and recovery as a water-supply method and as a way to reduce water-level declines and land-subsidence in the Antelope Valley. The program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency. The water used for injection, storage, and recovery must be disinfected before injection and thus contains THMs and other disinfection by-products. THMs (chloroform, CHCl3, bromodichloromethane, CHCl2Br, dibromochloromethane, CHClBr2, and bromoform, CHBr3) are formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the disinfection step of the drinking water treatment process. THMs are carcinogenic compounds, and their concentrations in drinking water are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. During previous cycles of the Lancaster program, extracted water still contained measurable concentrations of THMs long after continuous pumping had extracted a greater volume of water than had been injected. This raised concerns about the potential long-term effect of injection, storage, and recovery cycles on ground-water quality in Antelope Valley aquifers. The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine (1) what controlled continued THM formation in the aquifer after injection, (2) what caused of the persistence of THMs in the extracted water, even after long periods of pumping, (3) what controlled the decrease of THM concentrations during the extraction period, and (4) the potential for natural attenuation of THMs in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments on biodegradation of THMs in microcosms of aquifer materials indicate that aquifer

  1. Fluorous-based carbohydrate quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Guosong

    2015-03-20

    Fluorous chemistry has brought many applications from catalysis to separation science, from supramolecular materials to analytical chemistry. However, fluorous-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has not been reported so far. In the current paper, fluorous interaction has been firstly utilized in QCM, and carbohydrate-protein interaction and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction have been detected afterward. PMID:25541017

  2. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  3. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core struc...

  4. Long-Term Storage of Endocrine Tissues at −80°C Does Not Adversely Affect RNA Quality or Overall Histomorphology

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasson, Adam; Kiss, Nimrod B.; Juhlin, C. Christofer; Höög, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background: Today, no consensus exists regarding how human tissues are best preserved for long-term storage. Very low temperature storage in liquid nitrogen is often advocated as the superlative method for extended periods, but storage in −80 degrees Celsius (−80°C) freezers, while sometimes debated, is a possible alternative. RNA is the most easily degradable component of a biological sample in a molecular biology context and the quality can reliably be measured.

  5. Is carbohydrate mouth rinsing a novel approach to maintain exercise performance during Ramadan fasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available About a decade ago, carbohydrate mouth rinsing was shown to enhance endurance exercise performance. This improvement was more pronounced in a fasted compared to a fed state, suggesting that the ergogenic effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse is dependent on endogenous carbohydrate storage. Hence, indirectly highlights the potential use of carbohydrate mouth rinse as a potential strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of exercise during Ramadan fasting. To date, only one study has been carried out to explore the potential benefit of carbohydrate mouth rinse on exercise performance during Ramadan fasting. This single observation showed that a 10-km time trial performance was enhanced when performing mouth rinsing with either a carbohydrate or a placebo solution as compared with not performing mouth rinsing. While one study had acknowledged that the practice of mouth rinsing do have a positive effect on exercise performance during Ramadan fasting, future studies is warranted in order to have a better understanding on the underlying mechanisms associated with carbohydrate mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting.

  6. Vina-Carb: Improving Glycosidic Angles during Carbohydrate Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedha, Anita K; Thieker, David F; Makeneni, Spandana; Hu, Huimin; Woods, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Molecular docking programs are primarily designed to align rigid, drug-like fragments into the binding sites of macromolecules and frequently display poor performance when applied to flexible carbohydrate molecules. A critical source of flexibility within an oligosaccharide is the glycosidic linkages. Recently, Carbohydrate Intrinsic (CHI) energy functions were reported that attempt to quantify the glycosidic torsion angle preferences. In the present work, the CHI-energy functions have been incorporated into the AutoDock Vina (ADV) scoring function, subsequently termed Vina-Carb (VC). Two user-adjustable parameters have been introduced, namely, a CHI- energy weight term (chi_coeff) that affects the magnitude of the CHI-energy penalty and a CHI-cutoff term (chi_cutoff) that negates CHI-energy penalties below a specified value. A data set consisting of 101 protein-carbohydrate complexes and 29 apoprotein structures was used in the development and testing of VC, including antibodies, lectins, and carbohydrate binding modules. Accounting for the intramolecular energies of the glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharides during docking led VC to produce acceptable structures within the top five ranked poses in 74% of the systems tested, compared to a success rate of 55% for ADV. An enzyme system was employed in order to illustrate the potential application of VC to proteins that may distort glycosidic linkages of carbohydrate ligands upon binding. VC represents a significant step toward accurately predicting the structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the described approach is conceptually applicable to any class of ligands that populate well-defined conformational states. PMID:26744922

  7. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  8. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wilfred Navalta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: Endurance trained male and female (N = 10 athletes were randomly assigned to one of two groups based on either a correct or incorrect cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake. In the incorrect group, the subjects were informed that they were receiving the carbohydrate beverage but actually received the placebo beverage. Participants completed a 60-min ride on a cycle ergometer at 80% VO2peak under carbohydrate and placebo supplemented conditions. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after exercise and were used to determine the plasma glucose concentration, lymphocyte count, and extent of lymphocyte apoptosis. Cognitive awareness, either correct or incorrect, did not have an effect on any of the measured variables. RESULTS: Carbohydrate supplementation during exercise did not have an effect on lymphocyte count or apoptotic index. Independent of drink type, exercise resulted in significant lymphocytosis and lymphocyte apoptosis (apoptotic index at rest = 6.3 ± 3% and apoptotic index following exercise = 11.6 ± 3%, P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Neither carbohydrate nor placebo supplementation altered the typical lymphocyte apoptotic response following exercise. While carbohydrate supplementation generally has an immune-boosting effect during exercise, it appears that this influence does not extend to the mechanisms that govern exercise-induced lymphocyte cell death.

  9. Dynamics of Storage Carbohydrates Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of chemicals via biotechnological routes are becoming rapidly an alternative to oil-based processes. Several microorganisms including yeast, bacteria, fungi and algae can transform feedstocks into high-value molecules at industrial scale. Improvement of the bioprocess performance is a key

  10. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-01

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  11. Enhanced carbohydrate production by Southern Ocean phytoplankton in response to in situ iron fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, T; Veldhuis, MJW; Gorbunov, MY; Nishioka, J; van Leeuwe, MA; de Baara, HJW; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates (e.g., water-extractable beta-1,3-D-glucan in diatoms) are of key importance for phytoplankton growth in a variable light climate, because they facilitate continued growth of the cells in darkness by providing energy and carbon skeletons for protein synthesis. Here, we tested t

  12. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. PMID:27184288

  13. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.

  14. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with added sugar provide calories, but they lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Because they lack nutrients, these foods ... foods. In addition to calories, whole foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. By making smart food choices, you ...

  15. Soil-Gas Identification of Environmental Factors Affecting CO2 Concentrations Beneath a Playa Wetland: Implications for Soil-Gas Monitoring at Carbon Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanak, K.; Bennett, P.

    2009-12-01

    significant carbonate dissolution resulting from reaction of CO2 with infiltrating water and soil carbonate. Results of the study show that the degree of carbon reactivity within a near-surface environment limits the effectiveness of shallow subsurface and surface-flux soil-gas monitoring at engineered carbon repositories. When carbon reactivity is at a maximum, CO2 cycling is complex and input of exogenous CO2 into the system is difficult to constrain and quantify. A summary of the factors that define carbon reactivity and their affects on near-surface soil-gas monitoring at geologic carbon storage sites is presented, along with recommendations for site evaluation with regard to near-surface monitoring.

  16. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.LNguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching isassociated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent thatthe loss of the cellulose DPis strongly affected by(degree ofpolymisation) the extent of thedelignification. A strong linear correlation can beestablished between the DP of cellulose chains andthe residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growthconcept and Percolation Theory for heterogenoussystem can be combined to formulate kinetic modelsfor both the delignification and the degradation ofcarbohydrate. The models prediction is statisticallyrobust and can be applied to different pulps atdifferent bleachin~ conditions.

  17. Biochemical changes in garlic (Allium sativum L. ) during storage following [gamma]-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Orioli, G.A. (Univ. Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Univ. Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate an acute dose of [gamma]-rays (10 Gy) on post-dormant garlic seed cloves in terms of total DNA, total RNA, total protein and soluble carbohydrates in order to correlate these levels with sprouting inhibition induced by [gamma]-irradiation. Decreases in total DNA content were found in inner sprouts immediately and 100 days after irradiation. The total RNA and protein contents and the carbohydrate content of the storage leaf or the inner sprout were not affected by [gamma]-irradiation. The results support the notion that in post-dormant garlic seed cloves, DNA content and its behaviour seem to be among the sensitive cellular responses to radiation. (author).

  18. Biochemical changes in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage following γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) on post-dormant garlic seed cloves in terms of total DNA, total RNA, total protein and soluble carbohydrates in order to correlate these levels with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation. Decreases in total DNA content were found in inner sprouts immediately and 100 days after irradiation. The total RNA and protein contents and the carbohydrate content of the storage leaf or the inner sprout were not affected by γ-irradiation. The results support the notion that in post-dormant garlic seed cloves, DNA content and its behaviour seem to be among the sensitive cellular responses to radiation. (author)

  19. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969

  20. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969

  1. Effect of Low ph on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. ph affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri), representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low ph, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low ph ocean.

  2. Effect of Low pH on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. O. Thornton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. pH affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri, representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low pH, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low pH ocean.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  4. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  5. Influence of orocaecal transit time on hydrogen excretion after carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Hamberg, O; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in orocaecal transit time (OCTT) affect the magnitude of the breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after ingestion of unabsorbable carbohydrate. We studied eight healthy subjects by interval sampling of end expiratory H2 concentration for 12 ...... studies estimates of the degree of carbohydrate malabsorption on the basis of breath H2 concentration may be valid in spite of differences in OCTT....

  6. Effect of Different Irrigation Patterns on Transportation and Allocation of Carbohydrate During Grain Filling of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-sheng; TAO Long-xing; WANG Xi; HUANG Xiao-lin; TAN Hui-juan; CHENG Shi-hua; MIN Shao-kai

    2005-01-01

    Using intersubspecific hybrid rice Xieyou 9308 and Liangyou Peijiu as the tested materials, the effects of different irrigation patterns on transportation and allocation of carbohydrate during grain filling stage was observed by the design with three level of soil water content in irrigated field. The results showed that in the conventional flooding and the alternate dry-watering cultivations, the exported rate of stored carbohydrate from stem and photophate from the leaves were 60 and 90 % respectively. The exported rate of carbohydrate was decreased significantly (P<0.01) in the non-flooding cultivation. There was no significant difference between the conventional flooding and dry-wet alternation treatments in term of the exported rate of carbohydrate. The filling grains were the major sinks for carbohydrate storage during grain filling stage. Grains received nearly 50% of stored carbohydrate from leaf sheath and 80% of photophate from leaves. At the non-flooding condition the absorbing rates of grains were significantly decreased by 10 % from leaf sheath and 20 %from leaves photophate. Water stress leaded much decrease in absorbing ability for inferior grains, which might be one of the main causes for low seed-settling rate in non-flooding cultivation.

  7. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  8. Role of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) carbohydrates in resistance to budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, J; Cates, R G

    1994-02-01

    The current year's growth of Douglas fir contains galactose, unusual in that this carbohydrate makes up 78.7% of the total carbohydrate fraction. An agar diet study was undertaken to determine the effects of galactose, other carbohydrates, and terpenes on western spruce budworm larval mortality, growth rate, and adult biomas production. All concentrations of the carbohydrates and terpenes tested, as well as other mineral elements not tested, were typical of the current year's foliage of Douglas fir. In experiment I, the diet containing 5.61% total carbohydrate did not significantly affect larval mortality when compared to the control diet. However, diets containing 9.45% and 15% total carbohydrate concentrations significantly increased larval mortality 64% and 96.1%, respectively, when compared to the control. Also in experiment I, terpenes alone (78.9% morality) and terpenes in combination with 9.45% and 15% total carbohydrates significantly increased larval mortality (97.2% and 100%, respectively) when compared to mortality on the control diet (44%). To determine which carbohydrate was causing the adverse effect, 6% glucose, 6% fructose, and 6% galactose were placed individually and in combination with terpenes in diets in experiment II. The 6% galactose diet significantly increased larval mortality and reduced growth rate when compared to the control, glucose, and fructose diets. Glucose resulted in 16% less larval mortality, significantly enhanced female larval growth rate and pupal weight, but did not affect male larval growth rate and pupal weight, when compared to the control. Fructose resulted in a significant decrease in larval mortality and a general trend of enhanced female and male larval growth rate and pupal weight. Larval mortality on terpenes alone was not significantly different from the control, but terpenes with 6% galactose increased larval mortality and decreased female and male growth rate and pupal weight significantly when compared to

  9. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  10. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  11. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  12. Derivatization Reaction of Carbohydrates with Urea as the Reagent and Fluorimetric Determination of Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Jing-He(杨景和); CAO,Xi-Hui(曹西慧); WANG,Min(王敏); WU,Xia(吴霞); SUN,Chang-Xia(孙长侠)

    2002-01-01

    It is found that in the presence of sulfuric acid carbohydrates condense with urea to afford the condensation products, which emit fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensities of system are proportional to the concentrations of carbohydrates. Based on this linear relationship,quantitative determination of kinds of carbohydrates has been made. Among an the carbohydrates tested, the sensitivity of α-rhamnose is the highest and its limits of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-8 mol/L. So α-rhamnose can be selectively determed in the presence of other carbohydrates. A interaction mechanism is also discussed.

  13. Carbohydrate-mediated inhibition of ice recrystallization in cryopreserved human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Luke K; Tokarew, Jacqueline M; Chaytor, Jennifer L; von Moos, Elizabeth; Li, Yuhua; Palii, Carmen; Ben, Robert N; Allan, David S

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB) typically involves the cryoprotectant dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), however, infusional toxicity and reductions in cell viability remain a concern. Ice recrystallization (IR) is an important source of cryopreservation-induced cellular injury and limits the stem cell dose in UCB units. Carbohydrates have wide-ranging intrinsic IR inhibition (IRI) activity related to structural properties. We investigated the impact of carbohydrate IRI on cell viability, induction of apoptosis and hematopoietic progenitor function in cryopreserved UCB. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) from UCB were cryopreserved in storage media containing specific carbohydrates (200mM) and compared to 5% DMSO. Samples were analyzed under conditions of high IR ('slow' thaw) and low IR ('fast' thaw). Thawed samples were analyzed for viability and apoptosis by flow cytometry and hematopoietic function using colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. IRI of carbohydrate solutions was determined using the 'splat cooling' assay. Greater IRI capacity of carbohydrates correlated with increased yield of viable MNCs (r(2)=0.92, p=0.004) and CD34(+) cells (r(2)=0.96, p=0.019) after thawing under conditions of high IR. The correlations were less apparent under conditions of low IR. Carbohydrates with greater IRI modulate the induction of early apoptosis during thawing, especially in CD34+ cells (r(2)=0.96, p=0.0001) as compared to total mononuclear cells (p=0.006), and preserve CFU capacity in vitro (r(2)=0.92, p=<0.0001). Our results suggest that carbohydrates with potent IRI increase the yield of non-apoptotic and functional hematopoietic progenitors and provide a foundation for the development of novel synthetic carbohydrates with enhanced IRI properties to improve cryopreservation of UCB.

  14. Storage on maternal plants affects light and temperature on requirements during germination in two small seeded halophytes in the arabian deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds are either stored in a soil seed bank or retained on maternal plants until they are released (aerial seed bank). Though there are extensive studies on the germination requirements of seeds in soil banks of saline habitats, studies conducted for halophytes with aerial seed banks are rare. We assessed the impact of aerial and room-temperature storages on the light and temperature requirements during germination in two small-seeded halophytes: Halocnmum strobilaceum having a short-term aerial seed bank (less than one year) and Halopeplis perfoliata having a longer term aerial seed bank (up to two years). Seed storage in the aerial bank reduced the germination in H. strobilaceum, but either increased it (5-months storage) or had no effect (17-months storage) in H. perfoliata. Seeds of both species that were stored in aerial bank germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, indicating that considerable portions of the seed populations are light sensitive. Seeds of H. perfoliata attained less than 5.0 percentage germination in darkness at higher temperatures, compared to more than 90.0 percentage in light. The results support the hypothesis that the aerial seed bank is an adaptive strategy for survival in the saline habitats of the two species. (author)

  15. In vitro cold-storage duration of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) shoots is affected by carbon source and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cold storage of fruit crop germplasm is useful for preservation of heritage or commercial cultivars. Shoot cultures of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars Dolgozdannaya, Moya Radost and Zukovskaya, were cold stored at 4°C in either five-section tissue-culture bags or in 150 ml glass j...

  16. Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

  17. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummedal, Dag [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Doran, Kevin [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Sitchler, Alexis [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); McCray, John [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mouzakis, Katherine [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Glossner, Andy [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mandernack, Kevin [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gutierrez, Marte [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Pranter, Matthew [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Rybowiak, Chris [Trustees Of The Colorado School Of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    This multitask research project was conducted in anticipation of a possible future increase in industrial efforts at CO2 storage in Colorado sedimentary basins. Colorado is already the home to the oldest Rocky Mountain CO2 storage site, the Rangely Oil Field, where CO2-EOR has been underway since the 1980s. The Colorado Geological Survey has evaluated storage options statewide, and as part of the SW Carbon Sequestration Partnership the Survey, is deeply engaged in and committed to suitable underground CO2 storage. As a more sustainable energy industry is becoming a global priority, it is imperative to explore the range of technical options available to reduce emissions from fossil fuels. One such option is to store at least some emitted CO2 underground. In this NETL-sponsored CO2 sequestration project, the Colorado School of Mines and our partners at the University of Colorado have focused on a set of the major fundamental science and engineering issues surrounding geomechanics, mineralogy, geochemistry and reservoir architecture of possible CO2 storage sites (not limited to Colorado). Those are the central themes of this final report and reported below in Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 6. Closely related to these reservoir geoscience issues are also legal, environmental and public acceptance concerns about pore space accessibility—as a precondition for CO2 storage. These are addressed in Tasks 1, 5 and 7. Some debates about the future course of the energy industry can become acrimonius. It is true that the physics of combustion of hydrocarbons makes it impossible for fossil energy to attain a carbon footprint anywhere nearly as low as that of renewables. However, there are many offsetting benefits, not the least that fossil energy is still plentiful, it has a global and highly advanced distribution system in place, and the footprint that the fossil energy infrastructure occupies is

  18. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  19. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  20. Levorotatory carbohydrates and xylitol subdue Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Eugenio; Ionescu, Andrei C; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Ottobelli, Marco; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Dietary carbohydrates and polyols affect the microbial colonization of oral surfaces by modulating adhesion and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a select group of l-carbohydrates and polyols on either Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro. S. mutans or C. albicans suspensions were inoculated on polystyrene substrata in the presence of Tryptic soy broth containing 5% of the following compounds: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-glucose, l-mannose, d- and l-glucose (raceme), d- and l-mannose (raceme), l-glucose and l-mannose, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Microbial adhesion (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated using MTT-test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Xylitol and l-carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d-carbohydrates relative to their l-carbohydrate counterparts. These results elucidate, hitherto undescribed, interactions of the individually tested strains with l- and d-carbohydrates, and how they impact fungal and bacterial colonization. In translational terms, our data raise the possibility of using l-form of carbohydrates and xylitol for dietary control of oral plaque biofilms. PMID:26456320

  1. Levorotatory carbohydrates and xylitol subdue Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Eugenio; Ionescu, Andrei C; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Ottobelli, Marco; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Dietary carbohydrates and polyols affect the microbial colonization of oral surfaces by modulating adhesion and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a select group of l-carbohydrates and polyols on either Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro. S. mutans or C. albicans suspensions were inoculated on polystyrene substrata in the presence of Tryptic soy broth containing 5% of the following compounds: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-glucose, l-mannose, d- and l-glucose (raceme), d- and l-mannose (raceme), l-glucose and l-mannose, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Microbial adhesion (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated using MTT-test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Xylitol and l-carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d-carbohydrates relative to their l-carbohydrate counterparts. These results elucidate, hitherto undescribed, interactions of the individually tested strains with l- and d-carbohydrates, and how they impact fungal and bacterial colonization. In translational terms, our data raise the possibility of using l-form of carbohydrates and xylitol for dietary control of oral plaque biofilms.

  2. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. PMID:24875870

  3. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  4. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality

  5. A look at new key performance criteria that could most affect the safety of long term storage of nuclear waste. A case study commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting research work to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as a few centuries. This goal is a significant departure from current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study in which MUTADIS Consultants and CEPN were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods of time - one dating back to the end of the 18th century - and identified off the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behaviour and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were and are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result the study group obtained a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered when technical studies are conducted. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality. (author)

  6. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  7. The role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including α-mannosidase, #betta#-N-acetylglucosaminidase, #betta#-galactosidase and α-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of 125I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA. (Author)

  8. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  9. Molecular simulations of carbohydrate-protein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Sameh Mansour Abbas

    2013-01-01

    I. Generation and validation of a free-energy model for carbohydrate binding. Carbohy-drates play a key role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and, hence, represent a rich source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Being able to predict binding mode and binding affinity is an essential, yet lacking, aspect of the stru-cture-based design of carbohydrate-based ligands. To this end, we assembled a diverse data set of 316 carbohydrate–protein crystal structu...

  10. Comparative study of two table grape varieties with contrasting texture during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Balic, Iván; Sanhueza, Dayan; Barria, Romina; Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel; Prieto, Humberto; Defilippi, Bruno G; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS) variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety with higher berry firmness. Biochemical analysis revealed a greater amount of calcium in the cell wall of the NN107 variety and less reduction of uronic acids than TS during cold storage. In addition, the activity of polygalacturonase was higher in TS than NN107 berries; meanwhile pectin methylesterase activity was similar in both varieties. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) suggests a differential pectin metabolism during prolonged cold storage. Results revealed lower pectin fragments in TS after 60 days of cold storage and shelf life (SL) compared to 30 days of cold storage and 30 + SL, while NN107 maintained the same fragment profile across all time points evaluated. Our results suggest that these important differences in cell wall metabolism during cold storage could be related to the differential berry firmness observed between these contrasting table grape varieties. PMID:25711424

  11. Comparative Study of Two Table Grape Varieties with Contrasting Texture during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Ejsmentewicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety with higher berry firmness. Biochemical analysis revealed a greater amount of calcium in the cell wall of the NN107 variety and less reduction of uronic acids than TS during cold storage. In addition, the activity of polygalacturonase was higher in TS than NN107 berries; meanwhile pectin methylesterase activity was similar in both varieties. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE suggests a differential pectin metabolism during prolonged cold storage. Results revealed lower pectin fragments in TS after 60 days of cold storage and shelf life (SL compared to 30 days of cold storage and 30 + SL, while NN107 maintained the same fragment profile across all time points evaluated. Our results suggest that these important differences in cell wall metabolism during cold storage could be related to the differential berry firmness observed between these contrasting table grape varieties.

  12. Survival of Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria after Processing and during Storage: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-07-26

    The use of live probiotic bacteria as food supplement has become popular. Capability of probiotic bacteria to be kept at room temperature becomes necessary for customer's convenience and manufacturer's cost reduction. Hence, production of dried form of probiotic bacteria is important. Two common drying methods commonly used for microencapsulation are freeze drying and spray drying. In spite of their benefits, both methods have adverse effects on cell membrane integrity and protein structures resulting in decrease in bacterial viability. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria has been a promising technology to ensure bacterial stability during the drying process and to preserve their viability during storage without significantly losing their functional properties such acid tolerance, bile tolerance, surface hydrophobicity, and enzyme activities. Storage at room temperatures instead of freezing or low temperature storage is preferable for minimizing costs of handling, transportation, and storage. Concepts of water activity and glass transition become important in terms of determination of bacterial survival during the storage. The effectiveness of microencapsulation is also affected by microcapsule materials. Carbohydrate- and protein-based microencapsulants and their combination are discussed in terms of their protecting effect on probiotic bacteria during dehydration, during exposure to harsh gastrointestinal transit and small intestine transit and during storage. PMID:25853290

  13. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback

  15. Qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia' em função da temperatura e da atmosfera de armazenamento Quality of 'Laetitia' plums as affected by temperature and storage atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani de Oliveira Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura e de atmosferas de armazenamento sobre a manutenção da qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados constituíram-se na combinação de duas temperaturas (-0,5ºC e 0,5ºC, com três atmosferas de armazenamento: armazenamento refrigerado (AR, com 21,0 kPa de O2 + 0,03 kPa de CO2; atmosfera controlada (AC, com 1,0 kPa de O2 + 3,0 kPa de CO2; e AC, com 2,0 kPa de O2 + 5,0 kPa de CO2. Após 60 dias de armazenamento, foram avaliadas: taxas respiratória e de produção de etileno, acidez titulável (AT, firmeza de polpa, atributos de textura, índice de cor vermelha e ângulo 'hue' (hº da casca, e incidência de rachaduras, podridões e degenerescência da polpa. O armazenamento refrigerado a -0,5ºC resultou em menores valores para o índice de cor vermelha, taxa respiratória e de produção de etileno e incidência de frutos rachados. Em ambas as condições de AC, a temperatura de 0,5ºC resultou em menor índice de cor vermelha, cor da epiderme mais verde, maior firmeza de polpa e menor taxa de produção de etileno, tanto na abertura da câmara como após quatro dias em condição ambiente. As condições de AC retardaram o amadurecimento dos frutos e reduziram a incidência de degenerescência de polpa. O armazenamento em AC, com 2,0 kPa de O2 + 5,0 kPa de CO2, a 0,5ºC, proporcionou menor taxa respiratória e menor incidência de podridões na saída da câmara, mas maior AT e força para penetração da polpa, após quatro dias em condição ambiente. No entanto, o armazenamento da ameixa 'Laetitia', nas condições de AC avaliadas, por um período de 60 dias, não reduziu a incidência de degenerescência da polpa.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature and storage atmospheres on the quality of 'Laetitia' plums. The treatments were obtained from the combination of two temperatures (-0.5ºC and 0.5ºC with three storage atmospheres: cold

  16. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  17. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  18. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11–24%) and sorghum (7–36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8–19%) and sorghum (9–27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9–21%) and sorghum (16–27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15–18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. PMID:27375668

  19. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  20. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  1. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  2. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  3. Does the radiation from the interim storage in Gorleben affect the sex ratio of newborn children?; Beeinflusst die Strahlung aus dem Zwischenlager in Gorleben das Geschlechterverhaeltnis von Neugeborenen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, H.W.; Schulze, H.; Wede, S. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Gorleben (Germany); Mueller, S. [Studsvik GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the professional world but especially in public, the question is discussed whether ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities has a significant impact on the secondary sex ratio of newborn children in the vicinity of the plants. This issue is of exceptional importance in the region around Gorleben, where the opposition to nuclear facilities and activities for decades is particularly strong. At the site borders of the interim storage facility (TBL-G) of GNS the effective individual dose is about 0.2 mSv per year, mainly caused by neutron irradiation from 108 casks with high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing. In the surrounding villages there is no radiation measurable. Statistical studies allegedly have shown evidence that in some villages in the area and during certain periods, proportionately fewer girls were born in comparison to the average for the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on these purely statistical results henceforward was also alleged that neutron-induced secondary effects such as activation or secondary gamma radiation would be responsible for it. Monte Carlo calculations and special measurements yielded values of the dose at the plant border for activation products less than E-04 mSv/a and for secondary gamma radiation of about E-03 mSv/a. These results indicate that the ionizing radiation from the Gorleben interim storage facility cannot be held accountable for shifts of the secondary sex ratio.

  4. The effect of the interaction between glucose tolerance and breakfasts varying in carbohydrate and fibre on mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabb, Samantha L; Benton, David

    2006-01-01

    As a glucose containing drink has been reported to improve memory, and missing breakfast has been reported to adversely influence memory late in the morning, meals designed to differ in their ability to release glucose into the blood stream were contrasted. Using a factorial design, breakfasts containing 15, 30 or 50 g of carbohydrate and 1.5, 6 or 13 g of fibre were compared. The glucose tolerance of participants proved to be an important factor. Those with better tolerance reported better mood. Those eating breakfasts containing greater amounts of carbohydrate reported feeling tired rather than energetic. The amount of carbohydrate did not negatively affect memory in those with better glucose tolerance, however, the consumption of more carbohydrate resulted in more forgetting in those with poorer glucose tolerance. The effect with reactions times differed from memory in that a greater intake of carbohydrate resulted in faster responses later in the morning. PMID:17176639

  5. Soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens contain carbohydrate moieties important for immune reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Jensen, J B;

    1987-01-01

    The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from ....... The results might have important implications for the strategy of developing a malaria vaccine.......The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from...

  6. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  7. Nutritional balance of essential amino acids and carbohydrates of the adult worker honeybee depends on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Pier P; Donley, Dion; Stabler, Daniel; Saseendranath, Anumodh; Nicolson, Susan W; Simpson, Stephen J; Wright, Geraldine A

    2014-06-01

    Dietary sources of essential amino acids (EAAs) are used for growth, somatic maintenance and reproduction. Eusocial insect workers such as honeybees are sterile, and unlike other animals, their nutritional needs should be largely dictated by somatic demands that arise from their role within the colony. Here, we investigated the extent to which the dietary requirements of adult worker honeybees for EAAs and carbohydrates are affected by behavioural caste using the Geometric Framework for nutrition. The nutritional optimum, or intake target (IT), was determined by confining cohorts of 20 young bees or foragers to liquid diets composed of specific proportions of EAAs and sucrose. The IT of young, queenless bees shifted from a proportion of EAAs-to-carbohydrates (EAA:C) of 1:50 towards 1:75 over a 2-week period, accompanied by a reduced lifespan on diets high in EAAs. Foragers required a diet high in carbohydrates (1:250) and also had low survival on diets high in EAA. Workers exposed to queen mandibular pheromone lived longer on diets high in EAA, even when those diets contained 5× their dietary requirements. Our data show that worker honeybees prioritize their intake of carbohydrates over dietary EAAs, even when overeating EAAs to obtain sufficient carbohydrates results in a shorter lifespan. Thus, our data demonstrate that even when young bees are not nursing brood and foragers are not flying, their nutritional needs shift towards a diet largely composed of carbohydrates when they make the transition from within-hive duties to foraging.

  8. Carbohydrate malabsorption in patients with non-specific abdominal complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Non-specific abdominal complaints are a considerable problem worldwide. Many patients are affected and many differential diagnoses have to be considered.Among these, carbohydrate malabsorption seems to play an important role. However, so far, only incomplete absorption of lactose is broadly accepted, while the malabsorption of fructose and sorbitol is still underestimated, although in many parts of the world it is much more frequent. Despite the success of dietary interventions in many patients, there are still a lot of unanswered questions that make further investigations necessary.

  9. Tracing the flow of plant carbohydrates into the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the flow of 13C labeled CO2 from plant sugars in leaves, stems and roots into rhizospheric organisms, respired CO2 and soil organic matter in order to better understand the role of the plant-microorganism-soil-continuum for ecosystem carbon cycling. We compared trees and grassland species that had different sugar transport strategies, storage compartments, community compositions and environmental stresses. We used short but highly enriched 13C pulses at controlled CO2 concentrations and temperatures that avoided non-physiological plant responses. We used compound specific 13C measurements of sugars and phospholipids (PLFA) to calculate the carbon turnover of plant sugars and rhizospheric microorganisms. Our results unexpectedly identified transport limitations in the root-shoot carbohydrate transfer, diurnal variations in label respiration and community effects in the carbon transfer to microbial groups. Our results highlight that sophisticated experimental setups and analytical techniques are necessary to gain new knowledge on ecosystem carbon cycling under climate change.

  10. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  11. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  12. New Insights into the Influence of Structural Controls Affecting Groundwater Flow and Storage Within an Ocean Island Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.; Wallin, E.; Pierce, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within Saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. In 2013, the project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl near the center of the Saddle, and has now completed a second borehole at an elevation of 1645 m on the western edge of the Saddle. Although the stratigraphy of the rocks is similar, dominantly pahoehoe lava flows with somewhat fewer a'a lavas and occasional dike rock intervals, the hydrologic character of the formation in the latter is distinctly different from the former. Whereas the former test hole encountered a few high elevation perched aquifers that were underlain by an inferred regional, dike-impounded, water table at an elevation of 1390 m amsl, the latter bore encountered a sequence of confined aquifers with heads substantially higher than depth of entry. The shallowest of the confined aquifers was encountered at an elevation of 1340 m and showed a hydrostatic head of >160 m when the capping formation was breached. Deeper confined aquifers showed initial heads of > 400 m although none had heads sufficient to discharge at the surface. Most of the confined aquifers were associated with clay-rich ash beds that mantled the more permeable lavas however one of the deeper confined zones, that showed the highest head, was associated with a highly compacted breccia zone that has tentatively been ascribed to an explosive deposit. Chemical analysis of the clasts within this layer is underway to determine whether this deposit is associated with explosive activity of Mauna Kea or with another volcano on the island. Previous geophysical surveys have suggested that these confined aquifers may extend well down the leeward slopes of Mauna Kea. Evidence of multiple confining layers within the flanks of Mauna Kea suggest that its

  13. Storage and Remobilization of Nitrogen by Chinese Jujube (Z.jujuba Mill.var.inermis Rehd) Seedling as Affected by Timing of 15N Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Deng-chao; JIANG Yuan-mao; PENG Fu-tian; ZHANG Jin; ZHANG Xu; SUI Jing; HE Nai-bo

    2006-01-01

    Winter jujube orchard nitrogen (N) management aims at increasing N reserves to meet the tree's growth requirements.Fertilization strategies should maximize the efficiency of fertilizers,including the choice of the optimal timing of N supply.15N-urea was applied to winter jujubes on Jinsixiaozao jujubes rootstock to evaluate the effect of application timing on N-storage and remobilization in mature trees in pot culture. The treatments consisted of ground application before budding (BB), during fruit core-hardening stage (FCH), and fruit rapid-swelling stage (FRS). Nitrogen-use efficiency of treatments were significantly different, which were 2.42% (BB), 9.77% (FCH), and 9.01% (FRS) in the dormant and 5.20% (BB), 16.16%(FCH), and 10.30% (FRS) in the following full-bloom. N supply in the pre-harvest helped to increase N-reserves of trees and then translocate to the new growth organs the following year. The largest amount of 15N was detected in the roots and trunks. In all the treatments, the partition rates were highest in coarse roots, which were 30.43% (BB), 38.61% (FCH),and 40.62% (FRS), respectively. 15N stored in roots and trunks was used by jujube trees to sustain new growth in the following full-bloom. 15N applied before budding resulted in lower Ndff% in perennial organs (trunks and coarse roots)sampled in the following full-bloom, but fine roots had highest Ndff% (1.28%). Other organs recovered similar amount of Ndff%. In contrast, FCH and FRS treatments led to higher Ndff% (4.01-5.15%) in the new growth organs (new growth branches, deciduous spurs, leaves and flowers), but lower Ndff% in perennial branches (1.49-2.89%). With the delay of 15N-urea application time, 15N increased the partitioning to roots. FCH treatment increased N-storage in perennial organ during winter, which should be remobilized to sustain new growth the following spring.

  14. Lipids in hepatic glycogen storage diseases : pathophysiology, monitoring of dietary management and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G. J.; van Rijn, Margreet

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSD) underscore the intimate relationship between carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The hyperlipidemias in hepatic GSD reflect perturbed intracellular metabolism, providing biomarkers in blood to monitor dietary management. In different types of GSD, hyperlipidemi

  15. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  16. Variations in grain lipophilic phytochemicals, proteins and resistance to Fusarium spp. growth during grain storage as affected by biological plant protection with Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowska, Urszula; Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona

    2016-06-16

    Modern agriculture relies on an integrated approach, where chemical treatment is reduced to a minimum and replaced by biological control that involves the use of active microorganisms. The effect of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans on proteins and bioactive compounds (alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) in winter wheat grain and on the colonization of wheat kernels by fungal microbiota, mainly Fusarium spp. pathogens, was investigated. Biological treatment contributed to a slight increase contents of tocols, alkylresorcinols and sterols in grain. At the same time, the variation of wheat grain proteins was low and not significant. Application of A. pullulans enhanced the natural yeast colonization after six months of grain storage and inhibited growth of F. culmorum pathogens penetrating wheat kernel. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach of wheat grain protection with the use of the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans reduced kernel colonization by Fusarium spp. pathogens and increased the content of nutritionally beneficial phytochemicals in wheat grain without a loss of gluten proteins responsible for baking value. PMID:27055191

  17. Impact of carbohydrate supply on stem growth, wood and respired CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C : assessment by experimental girdling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury-Danger, F. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Paul Verlaine-Metz Univ., Metz (France). Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes; Fresneau, C.; Eglin, T.; Berveiller, D.; Francois, C.; Damesin, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Laboratoire Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay CEDEX (France); AgroParisTech, Paris (France); Lelarge-Trouverie, C. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay Cedex (France). Inst. de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome

    2010-07-15

    In trees, carbohydrate storage and remobilization may affect the carbon isotope signals of sugars exported from leaves, tree organic matter and respired carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study characterized the impact of a change in the carbon (C) source used for stem functioning on the {delta}{sup 13} C of stem organic matter and respired CO{sub 2}. Girdling experiments were carried out on 2-year old oaks that consisted in removing the bark and phloem around the stem so that the sap would cease to flow. The stem was therefore forced to use its own C reserves to maintain metabolic activity. Trees were girdled at 3 different periods, notably just after budburst, during stem growth, and just after cessation of stem radial growth. Stem radial growth and respiration rate were measured throughout the year. Other measured variables included {delta}{sup 13} C of respired CO{sub 2} and contents of starch and water-soluble fraction in stems and leaves. The study showed that girdling stopped growth, even early in the growing season, leading to a decrease in stem CO{sub 2} efflux. The study demonstrated that leaf carbohydrate supply versus reserve use could be an important factor controlling stem growth and {delta}{sup 13} C of both ring and stem CO{sub 2} efflux. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress. PMID:25804808

  19. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress.

  20. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin R. Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  2. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  3. Proteinase 3 carries small unusual carbohydrates and associates with αlpha-defensins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoega, Morten; Ravnsborg, Tina; Højrup, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    with carbohydrates at Asn 102 and 147 carrying unusual small moieties indicating heavy processing. Mass spectrometric analysis and immuno blotting revealed strong association of highly purified PR3 with α-defensins and oligomers hereof. Irreversible inhibition of PR3 by α1-antitrypsin did not affect its association...

  4. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  5. PERUBAHAN KARAKTERISTIK SURIMI IKAN CUCUT DAN IKAN PARI AKIBAT PENGARUH PENGKOMPOSISIAN DAN PENYIMPANAN DINGIN DAGING LUMAT [Characteristic Changes of Shark and Stingray Surimi as Affected by Compositioning and Chill Storage of the Mince Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Santoso1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of leaching, compositioning, and chill storage of mince fish on the characteristic changes of surimi from shark and stingray fish. Three times leaching of mince fish could reduce the urea contents of the shark and stingray as much as 88% and 100%, respectively; with the salt soluble protein contents were 13.52% and 13.24%, respectively. Mixture of mince shark and stingray in proportion of 25% : 75% (A1B2 gave the highest value of gel strength being 209.29 g.cm in comparison with others composition. During chill storage, deterioration process still occurred as indicated by increasing value of acidity and contents of base volatile compounds i.e. total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN and tri-methyl amine (TMA; and also decreasing contents of urea and salt soluble protein. Deterioration process of mince fish also affected the physical characteristic of surimi i.e. decreasing values of gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC, and colour (whiteness.

  6. Effects of soaking period on the growth and carbohydrate content of young corn seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hatata; Michel Farah

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 12-, 24- and 36-hour soaking periods on the growth and carbohydrate content of corn seedlings grown either in distilled water or in nutrient solution have been studied. The soaking period of the seeds was found to affect the regularity of the growth rate, the extent of root elongation, fresh and oven-dry weight and carbohydrate content of different parts of corn seedlings. A period of 24 hours soaking was most suitable to obtain regular growth of corn seedlings whether in disti...

  7. Effects of soaking period on the growth and carbohydrate content of young corn seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hatata

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 12-, 24- and 36-hour soaking periods on the growth and carbohydrate content of corn seedlings grown either in distilled water or in nutrient solution have been studied. The soaking period of the seeds was found to affect the regularity of the growth rate, the extent of root elongation, fresh and oven-dry weight and carbohydrate content of different parts of corn seedlings. A period of 24 hours soaking was most suitable to obtain regular growth of corn seedlings whether in distilled water or in nutrient solution.

  8. Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma glutamine during prolonged exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; Wagenmakers, A J

    1998-01-01

    Muscle glycogen and glucose have been suggested to be carbon-chain precursors for glutamine synthesis in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether carbohydrate supplementation affects plasma glutamine and other amino acids during exercise and 7 h of recovery......%) decreased below the pre-exercise level. The plasma alanine and the total amino acid concentration was still suppressed after 7 h of recovery. In conclusion, carbohydrate supplementation had neither an effect during exercise nor during recovery on the concentration of plasma glutamine or other amino acids...

  9. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments. PMID:27487514

  10. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  11. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  12. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Investment into Offspring Number, Size, and Condition in a Social Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill D Wills

    Full Text Available Resource availability can determine an organism's investment strategies for growth and reproduction. When nutrients are limited, there are potential tradeoffs between investing into offspring number versus individual offspring size. In social insects, colony investment in offspring size and number may shift in response to colony needs and the availability of food resources. We experimentally manipulated the diet of a polymorphic ant species (Solenopsis invicta to test how access to the carbohydrate and amino acid components of nectar resources affect colony investment in worker number, body size, size distributions, and individual percent fat mass. We reared field-collected colonies on one of four macronutrient treatment supplements: water, amino acids, carbohydrates, and amino acid and carbohydrates. Having access to carbohydrates nearly doubled colony biomass after 60 days. This increase in biomass resulted from an increase in worker number and mean worker size. Access to carbohydrates also altered worker body size distributions. Finally, we found a negative relationship between worker number and size, suggesting a tradeoff in colony investment strategies. This tradeoff was more pronounced for colonies without access to carbohydrate resources. The monopolization of plant-based resources has been implicated in the ecological success of ants. Our results shed light on a possible mechanism for this success, and also have implications for the success of introduced species. In addition to increases in colony size, our results suggest that having access to plant-based carbohydrates can also result in larger workers that may have better individual fighting ability, and that can withstand greater temperature fluctuations and periods of food deprivation.

  13. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  14. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23177152

  15. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  16. The diagenesis of carbohydrates by hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Frank D.

    1983-08-01

    Carbohydrates react with hydrogen sulfide under low temperature (100° to 200°C) yielding a variety of organosulfur compounds including thiophenes, thiols, sulfides and sulfones. A polymer is also produced, whose elemental composition is within the range of natural coals. When reductive dehydration is carried out in the presence of hydrocarbon, organosulfur compounds are formed in the carbon number range of the hydrocarbon used. In these processes, an active hydrogen transfer catalyst is produced which facilitates the passage of hydrogen between normal paraffins and saccharide units, distributing sulfur between these two families primarily in the form of thiophene rings. The simplicity of these systems - H 2S, carbohydrates, H 2O, hydrocarbon - and the facility of the chemistry would suggest that the carbohydrates and hydrogen sulfide may be important agents in the diagenetic processes leading to petroleum and coal. Carbohydrate reduction by hydrogen sulfide may constitute an important route through which certain organosulfur compounds found in petroleum and coal entered these materials in early diagenesis.

  17. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in obs

  18. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  19. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  20. Synthesis of Carbohydrate Capped Silicon Nanoparticles and their Reduced Cytotoxicity, In Vivo Toxicity, and Cellular Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Behray, Mehrnaz; Webster, Carl A; Wang, Qi; Sherwood, Victoria; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Chao, Yimin

    2015-08-26

    The development of smart targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that can identify and deliver drugs at a sustained rate directly to cancer cells may provide better efficacy and lower toxicity for treating primary and advanced metastatic tumors. Obtaining knowledge of the diseases at the molecular level can facilitate the identification of biological targets. In particular, carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognitions using nano-vehicles are likely to increasingly affect cancer treatment methods, opening a new area in biomedical applications. Here, silicon NPs (SiNPs) capped with carbohydrates including galactose, glucose, mannose, and lactose are successfully synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis shows an extensive reduction in toxicity of SiNPs by functionalizing with carbohydrate moiety both in vitro and in vivo. Cellular uptake is investigated with flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. The results show the carbohydrate capped SiNPs can be internalized in the cells within 24 h of incubation, and can be taken up more readily by cancer cells than noncancerous cells. Moreover, these results reinforce the use of carbohydrates for the internalization of a variety of similar compounds into cancer cells. PMID:26121084

  1. Synthesis of Carbohydrate Capped Silicon Nanoparticles and their Reduced Cytotoxicity, In Vivo Toxicity, and Cellular Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Behray, Mehrnaz; Webster, Carl A; Wang, Qi; Sherwood, Victoria; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Chao, Yimin

    2015-08-26

    The development of smart targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that can identify and deliver drugs at a sustained rate directly to cancer cells may provide better efficacy and lower toxicity for treating primary and advanced metastatic tumors. Obtaining knowledge of the diseases at the molecular level can facilitate the identification of biological targets. In particular, carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognitions using nano-vehicles are likely to increasingly affect cancer treatment methods, opening a new area in biomedical applications. Here, silicon NPs (SiNPs) capped with carbohydrates including galactose, glucose, mannose, and lactose are successfully synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis shows an extensive reduction in toxicity of SiNPs by functionalizing with carbohydrate moiety both in vitro and in vivo. Cellular uptake is investigated with flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. The results show the carbohydrate capped SiNPs can be internalized in the cells within 24 h of incubation, and can be taken up more readily by cancer cells than noncancerous cells. Moreover, these results reinforce the use of carbohydrates for the internalization of a variety of similar compounds into cancer cells.

  2. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon. T...

  3. Energy and carbohydrate for training and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Loucks, Anne B; Broad, Nick

    2006-07-01

    Soccer players should achieve an energy intake that provides sufficient carbohydrate to fuel the training and competition programme, supplies all nutrient requirements, and allows manipulation of energy or nutrient balance to achieve changes in lean body mass, body fat or growth. Although the traditional culture of soccer has focused on carbohydrate intake for immediate match preparation, top players should adapt their carbohydrate intake on a daily basis to ensure adequate fuel for training and recovery between matches. For players with a mobile playing style, there is sound evidence that dietary programmes that restore and even super-compensate muscle glycogen levels can enhance activity patterns during matches. This will presumably also benefit intensive training, such as twice daily practices. As well as achieving a total intake of carbohydrate commensurate with fuel needs, the everyday diet should promote strategic intake of carbohydrate and protein before and after key training sessions to optimize the adaptations and enhance recovery. The achievement of the ideal physique for soccer is a long-term goal that should be undertaken over successive years, and particularly during the off-season and pre-season. An increase in lean body mass or a decrease in body fat is the product of a targeted training and eating programme. Consultation with a sports nutrition expert can assist soccer players to manipulate energy and nutrient intake to meet such goals. Players should be warned against the accidental or deliberate mismatch of energy intake and energy expenditure, such that energy availability (intake minus the cost of exercise) falls below 125 kJ (30 kcal) per kilogram of fat-free mass per day. Such low energy availability causes disturbances to hormonal, metabolic, and immune function. PMID:16766497

  4. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ≤ 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - γ-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative.

  5. Change in carbohydrate and enzymes from harvest to sprouting in garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Kambiz; Mohammadi Chiane, Siamak; Mianabadi, Manizheh; Ghaderifar, Farshid; Mousavizadeh, Seyyed Javad

    2016-05-01

    Changes in carbohydrates, enzymes, and pigments were investigated in the Red Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Azarshahr bulbs in storage from harvest to sprouting. For storage period, garlic cloves of the same diameter with 3-4 g weight were arranged in dark condition and exposed to 4 and 21°C, separately. Soluble sugar, total sugar, glucose, sucrose, fructose, starch, chlorophyll a, b, ab, carotenoid, anthocyanin, lipase, α-amylase, and protease were measured every 2 weeks up to sprouting time. Result revealed that starch, lipase, and protease levels declined at the end of storage when clove sprouting started at both 4 and 21°C storage temperature. Starch, glucose, chlorophyll a, b, ab, and carotenoid content during the first 14 days and sucrose at 42 days showed a decreasing trend. Anthocyanin showed an increasing trend 14 and 42 days after harvesting and then decreased at the end of storage (when sprouting began) at both 4 and 21°C storage periods. Finally, starch, glucose, and sucrose measurement can be used as a criterion to predict sprouting time of garlic, due to the decrease in the levels of starch, lipase, and protease, and increase in the levels of α-amylase, glucose, and sucrose in garlic cloves under storage. PMID:27247767

  6. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakomori Senitiroh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kinases and proteolipids; "type 2" having O-linked mucin-type glycoprotein associated with Src family kinases; and "type 3" having N-linked integrin receptor complexed with tetraspanin and ganglioside. Different cell types are characterized by presence of specific types of glycosynapse or their combinations, whose adhesion induces signal transduction to either facilitate or inhibit signaling. E.g., signaling through type 3 glycosynapse inhibits cell motility and differentiation. Glycosynapses are distinct from classically-known microdomains termed "caveolae", "caveolar membrane", or more recently "lipid raft", which are not involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion. Type 1 and type 3 glycosynapses are resistant to cholesterol-binding reagents, whereas structure and function of "caveolar membrane" or "lipid raft" are disrupted by these reagents. Various data indicate a functional role of glycosynapses during differentiation, development, and oncogenic transformation.

  7. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  8. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  9. Evaluation of heat shock protein (HSP-60) induction on accumulation of carbohydrate in Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, H.; Wolfe, M.; Tell, J.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    Primary levels of the marine food chain may play an important role in the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in both chemically dispersed and un-dispersed oil spills. HSP-60 proteins, members of the chaperonin family of stress proteins, are induced in response to a wide variety of environmental agents, including UV light, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. Increased production and storage of carbohydrate in I. galbana has been associated with aging and stress. Thus, HSP-60 and carbohydrate storage were selected as sublethal endpoints of exposure to the primary producer, I. galbana, a golden brown, unicellular algae, and a significant component of the marine phytoplankton community. The authors have found that I. galbana cultures exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), and PBCO/dispersant preparations efficiently induce HSP-60. Studies indicated that WAF produced a dose-related response in I. galbana, which increased as a function of time. Dispersant alone showed the greatest induction, while combined WAF-dispersant showed less induction, suggesting a possible competition between crude oil and algae for dispersant interaction. In addition, they have demonstrated that I. galbana accumulates carbohydrates in response to exposure to WAF and PBCO/dispersant preparations and therefore represents another index of stress in this organism. They were interested in determining if induction of stress proteins and HSP60 in particular represented an adaptive-mechanism, allowing this algae to better cope with exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons released in the marine environment during an oil spill. In an effort to determine if stress protein induction serves as a protective adaptive response to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons they examined the effect of heat shock induction on the accumulation of carbohydrates by these organisms in response to exposure to WAF and dispersed oil preparations.

  10. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  11. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. PMID:22480785

  12. Carbohydrate drugs%糖类药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓光; 耿美玉

    2011-01-01

    As an important biological information molecules and high-density information carriers, sugar chain involved in almost all life processes in living beings, especially in cell differentiation, development, immunity, aging, cancer, signal transduction and other basic life activities and diseases. For the bioactivities of carbohydrates, carbohydrate drugs had been widely used in anti-tumor, Alzheimer's disease, immune, anti-virus, and other diseases. And the use of carbohydrates is still expanding. Therefore, the various bioactivities and low toxicity endow carbohydrates broad prospects.%糖链作为重要的生物信息分了和高密度的信息载体,参与细胞生物几乎所有的生命过程,特别是在细胞分化、发育、免疫、老化、癌变、信息传递等生命基础活动和重大疾病过程中起着特异性的识别、介导与调控作用.由于糖类物质的多种多样的生物活性,糖类药物在抗肿瘤、老年痴呆、免疫、抗病毒等多个重大疾病领域广泛应用,而且其使用范围还在不断开拓中.因此,糖类药物生物活性多样,毒副作用低,具有广阔的发展前景.

  13. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  14. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  15. Effects of carbohydrate dose and frequency on metabolism, gastrointestinal discomfort, and cross-country skiing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B; Betts, J A; McGawley, K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated carbohydrate ingestion of varied doses and frequencies during a simulated cross-country skiing time trial. Ten men and three women (age: 30 ± 7 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 59.6 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) completed four, 30-km classic technique roller skiing time trials on a treadmill. A 1:1 maltodextrin-fructose carbohydrate solution was provided at high (2.4 g/min; HC) and moderate (1.2 g/min; MC) ingestion rates, each at high (six feeds; HF) and low (two feeds; LF) frequencies. In the LF trials, blood glucose was elevated following carbohydrate ingestion (at 4 and 19 km) but was reduced at 14 and 29 km compared with HF strategies (P ≤ 0.05). Gastrointestinal discomfort was higher in HC-LF compared with all other trials (P ≤ 0.05). Whole-body lipid oxidation was lower and carbohydrate oxidation was higher in LF compared with HF trials (P ≤ 0.05). While performance time was not significantly different between trials (140:11 ± 15:31, 140:43 ± 17:40, 139:12 ± 15:32 and 140:33 ± 17:46 min:s in HC-HF, HC-LF, MC-HF, and MC-LF, respectively; P > 0.05), it was improved with trial order (P  0.05). Altering carbohydrate dose or frequency does not affect cross-country ski performance. However, low-frequency carbohydrate ingestion resulted in poorer maintenance of euglycemia, reduced lipid oxidation, and increased gastrointestinal discomfort.

  16. Nutritional balance of essential amino acids and carbohydrates of the adult worker honeybee depends on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Pier P; Donley, Dion; Stabler, Daniel; Saseendranath, Anumodh; Nicolson, Susan W; Simpson, Stephen J; Wright, Geraldine A

    2014-06-01

    Dietary sources of essential amino acids (EAAs) are used for growth, somatic maintenance and reproduction. Eusocial insect workers such as honeybees are sterile, and unlike other animals, their nutritional needs should be largely dictated by somatic demands that arise from their role within the colony. Here, we investigated the extent to which the dietary requirements of adult worker honeybees for EAAs and carbohydrates are affected by behavioural caste using the Geometric Framework for nutrition. The nutritional optimum, or intake target (IT), was determined by confining cohorts of 20 young bees or foragers to liquid diets composed of specific proportions of EAAs and sucrose. The IT of young, queenless bees shifted from a proportion of EAAs-to-carbohydrates (EAA:C) of 1:50 towards 1:75 over a 2-week period, accompanied by a reduced lifespan on diets high in EAAs. Foragers required a diet high in carbohydrates (1:250) and also had low survival on diets high in EAA. Workers exposed to queen mandibular pheromone lived longer on diets high in EAA, even when those diets contained 5× their dietary requirements. Our data show that worker honeybees prioritize their intake of carbohydrates over dietary EAAs, even when overeating EAAs to obtain sufficient carbohydrates results in a shorter lifespan. Thus, our data demonstrate that even when young bees are not nursing brood and foragers are not flying, their nutritional needs shift towards a diet largely composed of carbohydrates when they make the transition from within-hive duties to foraging. PMID:24623119

  17. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johan B.C.; Khatib, Mohammed G.; Koelmans, Wabe W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data chan

  18. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  19. Lectin staining of epithelia lining the uterovaginal junction and sperm-storage tubules in chicken hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most mammals sperm are subject to a transient storage period in the caudal region of the oviduct during which they undergo cellular and molecular modifications associated with capacitation. During this storage period sperm bind to a terminal carbohydrate moiety associated with a glycoconjugate o...

  20. Quantitative solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric analyses of wood xylen: effect of increasing carbohydrate content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A.L.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Isolated lignin with a low carbohydrate content was spiked with increasing amounts of alpha-cellulose, and then analysed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using cross-polarization with magic angle spinning (CPMAS) and dipolar dephasing methods in order to assess the quantitative reliability of CPMAS measurement of carbohydrate content and to determine how increasingly intense resonances for carbohydrate carbons affect calculations of the degree of lignin's aromatic ring substitution and methoxyl carbon content. Comparisons were made of the carbohydrate content calculated by NMR with carbohydrate concentrations obtained by phenol-sulfuric acid assay and by the calculation from the known amounts of cellulose added. The NMR methods used in this study yield overestimates for carbohydrate carbons due to resonance area overlap from the aliphatic side chain carbons of lignin. When corrections are made for these overlapping resonance areas, the NMR results agree very well with results obtained by other methods. Neither the calculated methoxyl carbon content nor the degree of aromatic ring substitution in lignin, both calculated from dipolar dephasing spectra, change with cellulose content. Likewise, lignin methoxyl content does not correlate with cellulose abundance when measured by integration of CPMAS spectra. ?? 1992.

  1. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  2. Changes of carbohydrate metabolism and enzyme activities of dormancy-breaking calla lily's tubers at different storage temperatures%不同贮藏温度下彩色马蹄莲块茎解除休眠的养分代谢和酶活性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涤; 卫尊征; 王贤; 熊敏; 贾桂霞

    2012-01-01

    The Calla lily hybrid 'Black Magic' was used as a test material,and variations of its tubers' starch,total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents,and amylase,peroxidase(POD),superox-ide dismutase(SOD)and catalase(CAT)activities were studied under 0,28,56,84 and 112 d storage at 6,9,12 and 15 ℃ . The results indicated that the starch content and the 4 enzyme activities gradually decreased with storage time; the higher the storage temperature, the more obvious the decrease of POD,SOD and CAT activities;and those 3 enzyme activities were negatively correlated to the germination rate of the tubers.%以彩色马蹄莲(Zantedeschia hybrids)品种‘Black Magic’为试材,在6、9、12、15℃贮藏0、28、56、84、112 d条件下,研究其块茎的淀粉、可溶性总糖、还原糖含量以及淀粉酶、过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性变化.结果表明:淀粉含量以及4种酶的活性变化均呈现出随贮藏时间的增加而逐渐下降的趋势;贮藏温度越高,块茎内POD、SOD和CAT酶活性下降越明显;这3种酶活.性与块茎萌芽率呈负相关.

  3. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  4. Role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitelman, A.K.; Berezin, V.A.; Kharitonenkov, I.G. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow)

    1981-01-01

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including ..cap alpha..-mannosidase, ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase, ..beta..-galactosidase and ..cap alpha..-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of /sup 125/I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA.

  5. Trade Liberalization, Exchange Rate Changes, and the Competitiveness of Carbohydrate Staple Markets in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maduabuchi Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of trade liberalization andexchange rate changes on carbohydrate staples in Nigeria.Secondary data published from 1974 to 2006 on cassava exportsand rice imports as well as non-tradable carbohydrate stapleswere used. It was hypothesized that exchange rate changes andtrade liberalization via price relatives, trade intensity and nominalprotection coefficient have affected prices of carbohydrate staplesin Nigeria. Results show that the effects of trade liberalizationon prices of non tradable carbohydrate staples were mixed.Trade liberalization accounted for most changes in the price ofnon tradable rice than other crops. World prices positivelyaffected the prices of maize and non tradable rice. Also increasingexchange rate will lead to increase in price of non tradable ricedue to price competition with imported rice. The intensificationof liberalization exercise from the removal of quantitativerestriction to use of tariff, among other recommendations, shouldbe encouraged because it can be a remedy to the negativeimpact of increase in the trade intensity and erosion of nominalprotection coefficient on prices of the non tradable crops.

  6. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  7. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  8. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  9. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  10. Should we use carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker for alcohol abusers?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is one of the conventional markers for chronic alcohol consumption, is used by researchers and clinicians. A number of enzymes are affected by ethanol intake. The induction or inhibition of sialyl transferase and plasma sialidase may be involved in the CDT level elevation. An alteration of protein transport during post-translational modification could be a primary mechanism in the impairment of protein metabolism associated with chronic alcohol abuse. ...

  11. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during on...

  12. Dietary ratio of protein to carbohydrate induces plastic responses in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen James;

    2010-01-01

    Some vertebrates change the size of their digestive system in response to quantity and fibre content of ingested food, but the effects of dietary nutrients on gut structure remain poorly understood. Here we investigate how the protein to carbohydrate ratio of diets affects the mass of the gastroi...... an example of plasticity in the differential allocation of resources to organ function, which is triggered by variation in resource quality...

  13. High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet Limit Fear and Aggression in Göttingen Minipigs

    OpenAIRE

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen; Dorte Bratbo Sørensen; Peter Sandøe; Lindsay R Matthews; Malene Muusfeldt Birck; Johannes Josef Fels; Arne Astrup

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and im...

  14. The Effects of Different Pruning Treatments on Seasonal Variation of Carbohydrates in Hacihaliloglu Apricot Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Naim M. DEMIRTAS; Bolat, Ibrahim; Sezai ERCISLI; Ikinci, Ali; Handan OLMEZ; Sahin, Mustafa; Mustafa ALTINDAG; Belgin CELIK

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-year-old apricot trees from the Hacihaliloglu apricot cultivar were pruned in a series of five treatments. In all treatments, one-third of annual shoots (33.3%) were removed between 1999 and 2003. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves were determined. The starch, total sugar, reducing sugar and sucrose contents in shoots were also determined. In addition, seasonal variation of carbohydrates was studied. The treatments did not affect the c...

  15. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Alcaraz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow. Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca: three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components.

  16. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  17. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of novel carbocyclic carbohydrate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Christopher William

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate analogues play an indispensible role in the study of glycan processing enzymes. These compounds have attracted attention as probes of enzyme mechanisms, as chemical tools for the elucidation of enzyme function and as potential pharmaceuticals. The development of organocatalytic aldol chemistry has fundamentally altered the way chemists approach the synthesis of carbohydrate analogues. In this thesis I highlight a novel strategy toward the synthesis of carbocyclic carbohydrate ana...

  19. Nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions on Tifton-85 pastures overseeded with annual winter and summer forage species in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Luciane Moreira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during the 2001-2002 winter-spring-summer to determine the nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions in Tifton-85 pastures exclusively or overseeded with oats, millet and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. The treatments were Tifton-85 overseeded with millet + bristle oat; sorghum-sudangrass + bristle oat, on 06/19/2002 and 07/02/2002, respectively; and Tifton-85 (Control. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications. Nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions were affected by the nitrogen and total carbohydrate contents observed in the pasture overseeded at different seeding times, and by the different growth periods. The highest nitrogen fractions (A + B1 were observed in the early growth periods. Overseeding affected the forage nitrogen and carbohydrate fraction contents positively. The high solubility of both carbohydrate and protein from millet + bristle oat and bristle oat + sorghum-sudangrass mixtures indicates the quality of these forages and their potential use as an important supplement in forage systems based on tropical pastures.

  20. The least-cost low-carbohydrate diet is expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of operations research methods to study the minimum possible cost of a low-carbohydrate diet. The study compares this cost to the minimum cost of a diet with no limitation on carbohydrate. The rationale for this study is the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diets and their perceived high cost. The method used was an operations research approach to find a set of least cost diets, varying the required carbohydrate. This method was chosen to avoid potential concerns with real diets that may be nutritionally deficient or could be had for a lower cost. The major finding is that the cheapest possible low-carbohydrate diet costs about triple the cost of the cheapest diet with no constraint on carbohydrate. Furthermore, the minimum cost of a diet low in both carbohydrate and fat is 5 to 10 times the cost of the cheapest diet, depending on the relative amounts of these nutrients. As carbohydrate and fat are constrained, cost increases dramatically and nonlinearly. The study identifies which nutrients had the greatest effect on cost for a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

  1. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  2. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  3. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Törrönen, Riitta; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Pekkinen, Jenna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-03-31

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  4. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  5. Glycosylated Conductive Polymer: A Multimodal Biointerface for Studying Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Qu, Ke; Rehman, Abdul

    2016-09-20

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions occur through glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides displayed on the cell surface with lectins. However, studying these interactions is challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of the cell surface, the inherent structural complexity of carbohydrates, and the typically weak affinities of the binding reactions between the lectins and monovalent carbohydrates. The lack of chromophores and fluorophores in carbohydrate structures often drives such investigations toward fluorescence labeling techniques, which usually require tedious and complex synthetic work to conjugate fluorescent tags with additional risk of altering the reaction dynamics. Probing these interactions directly on the cell surface is even more difficult since cells could be too fragile for labeling or labile dynamics could be affected by the labeled molecules that may interfere with the cellular activities, resulting in unwanted cell responses. In contrast, label-free biosensors allow real-time monitoring of carbohydrate-protein interactions in their natural states. A prerequisite, though, for this strategy to work is to mimic the coding information on potential interactions of cell surfaces onto different biosensing platforms, while the complementary binding process can be transduced into a useful signal noninvasively. Through carbohydrate self-assembled monolayers and glycopolymer scaffolds, the multivalency of the naturally existing simple and complex carbohydrates can be mimicked and exploited with label-free readouts (e.g., optical, acoustic, mechanical, electrochemical, and electrical sensors), yet such inquiries reflect only limited aspects of complicated biointeraction processes due to the unimodal transduction. In this Account, we illustrate that functionalized glycosylated conductive polymer scaffolds are the ideal multimodal biointerfaces that not only simplify the immobilization process for surface fabrication via electrochemical

  6. Self-recognition and Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate cell adhesion provide clues to the cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Körnig, André; Bucior, Iwona; Burger, Max M; Anselmetti, Dario

    2009-11-01

    The Cambrian explosion of life was a relatively short period approximately 540 Ma that marked a generalized acceleration in the evolution of most animal phyla, but the trigger of this key biological event remains elusive. Sponges are the oldest extant Precambrian metazoan phylum and thus a valid model to study factors that could have unleashed the rise of multicellular animals. One such factor is the advent of self-/non-self-recognition systems, which would be evolutionarily beneficial to organisms to prevent germ-cell parasitism or the introduction of deleterious mutations resulting from fusion with genetically different individuals. However, the molecules responsible for allorecognition probably evolved gradually before the Cambrian period, and some other (external) factor remains to be identified as the missing triggering event. Sponge cells associate through calcium-dependent, multivalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions of the g200 glycan found on extracellular proteoglycans. Single molecule force spectroscopy analysis of g200-g200 binding indicates that calcium affects the lifetime (+Ca/-Ca: 680 s/3 s) and bond reaction length (+Ca/-Ca: 3.47 A/2.27 A). Calculation of mean g200 dissociation times in low and high calcium within the theoretical framework of a cooperative binding model indicates the nonlinear and divergent characteristics leading to either disaggregated cells or stable multicellular assemblies, respectively. This fundamental phenomenon can explain a switch from weak to strong adhesion between primitive metazoan cells caused by the well-documented rise in ocean calcium levels at the end of Precambrian time. We propose that stronger cell adhesion allowed the integrity of genetically uniform animals composed only of "self" cells, facilitating genetic constitutions to remain within the metazoan individual and be passed down inheritance lines. The Cambrian explosion might have been triggered by the coincidence in time of primitive animals

  7. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  8. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.

  9. Performance Comparison of IP-Networked Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Dapeng; LIU Chuanyi; WANG Dongsheng; LIU Hong; TANG Zhizhong

    2009-01-01

    Dramatically increasing amounts of digital data are placing huge requirements on storage systems.IP-networked storage systems,such as the network file system (NFS)-based network-attached storage (NAS) systems and the iSCSI-storage area network (SAN) systems,have become increasingly common in today's local area network (LAN) environments.The emergence of new storage techniques,such as object-based storage (OBS) and content aware storage (CAS),significantly improves the functionality of storage devices to meet further needs for storage sub-systems.However,these may impact system performance.This paper compares the performance of NFS,iSCSI storage,object-based storage devices (OSDs),and CAS-based storage systems in an environment with no data sharing across host machines.A gigabit ethernet network is used as the storage network.Test results demonstrate that the performances of these systems are comparable with CAS being much better than the others for write operations.The performance bottlenecks in these systems are analyzed to provide insight into how future storage systems may be improved and possible optimization methods.The analysis shows how the I/O interfaces in these systems affect the application performance and that network-based storage systems require optimized I/O latency and reduced network and buffer processing in the servers.

  10. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Z; Moeser, A J; Vreman, K; van Diepen, J T; van Kempen, T; Canh, T T; Jongbloed, A W

    2000-12-01

    A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 24 finishing pigs (Yorkshire x [Finnish Landrace x Dutch Landrace]) to determine the effects of dietary buffering capacity (BC) and carbohydrate sources on apparent total tract digestibility (TD), N retention, and manure characteristics. Twelve of these pigs were fitted with steered ileo-cecal value cannulas to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (ID) of N. Experimental variables were two levels of BC (High = 600 mEq/kg and Low = 530 mEq/kg) and three dietary carbohydrates (tapioca [28%], soybean hulls [25%], and sugar beet pulp [25%]). The two levels of BC were achieved by adjusting the amounts of alkalogenic limestone and acidogenic Ca sulfate in the diet. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.4 x maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy (418 kJ ME/BW(0.75)). Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Feces and urine were collected over 5 d for nutrient balance and in vitro measurements of pH and ammonia emission over 7 d. No significant interactions between BC and dietary carbohydrates on the ID, TD, N retention, or manure characteristics were observed. Lowering BC with Ca sulfate did not affect digestibility of most nutrients, except for a negative impact on the TD of Ca (P = 0.015) and Mg (P = 0.003). Although all pigs receiving Ca sulfate had more acidic urine (by 0.49 pH units; P = 0.001), ammonia emission from manure was not lowered, irrespective of the carbohydrate source. Carbohydrates affected significantly the ID and TD of most nutrients, whereas N retention remained similar (P > 0.10). Urinary N:fecal N ratios in manure of pigs fed diets with tapioca, soybean hulls, and beet pulp were 2.09, 1.35, and 1.67, respectively. These ratios corresponded with in vitro ammonia emission (169, 125, and 148 mmol/7 d; P = 0.023). In conclusion, these results indicate that the acidification of urine in pigs fed Ca sulfate in the presence of NSP-rich carbohydrates was achieved. However, acidity of manure and

  11. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-08-26

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts.

  12. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  13. Effect of top pruning on stem carbohydrates reserves and foliar 14CO2 assimilation in mulberry trees during autumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of shoot tops from mulberry plants in autumn hastened the accumulation of starch in the stems even though photosynthesis in the remaining uppermost leaves was supressed. The proportion of the amount of 14CO2 assimilate taken into the veins and the contents of foliar carbohydrates and protein were not affected by pruning. (author)

  14. Attenuated cardiovascular adjustment to sustained static exercise after carbohydrate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamoto, T; Kusano, M; Yamagiwa, T

    2000-05-12

    We examined whether a higher plasma lactic acid (LA) concentration resulting from carbohydrate (CHO)-loading affects the cardiovascular responses to exercise through a greater activation of LA-induced metaboreflex. Before and after CHO-loading, LA concentration, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), rating perceived exertion (RPE), and integrated electromyogram (iEMG) of the vastus lateralis were studied during a sustained static knee extension of single legs in 16 volunteers. The CHO-loading comprised an exhaustive bout of one-legged cycling (73+/-3% of maximal oxygen uptake for 130-160 min) and consuming a low-CHO diet for 2-3 days and a high-CHO diet for the next 3 days. In the leg that performed the exercise (the experimental leg), the LA concentration after CHO-loading was significantly increased, but the magnitude of MAP, HR, and CO responses during static exercise was significantly decreased in parallel with a significant reduction of RPE and iEMG. In the control leg, there were no changes in the variables before and after CHO-loading. These results suggest that the increased LA concentration resulting from CHO-loading did not affect the cardiovascular adjustment to the sustained exercise. Other mechanisms related to the reduction of RPE and iEMG seem to be responsible for the attenuated cardiovascular responses observed in the experimental leg after CHO-loading.

  15. improving citric acid production from some carbohydrates by-products using irradiated aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty strains of A. niger were isolated from different sources, screened for their capacity to produce citric acid. All the isolated strains were able to produce citric acid in different quantities at different time intervals i.e. 4, 8 and 12 days on indicator medium. The best incubation period for production for all isolates was 12 days. The most potent strains for production were A1, A4 and A5, while A8, A16, A18 and A19 recorded weak production on that medium. Citric acid productivity were obtained by all strains when using different concentrations of four carbohydrate by-products (maize straw, potato peel wastes, sugar beet pulp and molasses) when each used alone without any additions after 12 days incubation and the production enhanced when the fermentation medium amended with the same concentrations of the mentioned substrates. Type and concentration of carbohydrate by-product affect the production of citric acid by A. niger strains under the study. Increasing substrate concentration led to increase in production, the best concentration for production was 25% for all carbohydrate by-products. As recorded with indicator medium, A1, A4 and A5 are also the most potent strains for production when growing on the four carbohydrate by-products supplemented to the basal medium, while A8, A6, A18 and A19 recorded the weak production with the carbohydrate by-products used.production of the parental isolates A1, A4 and A5 on indicator medium were: 0.96, 0.95 and 0.99 (mg/ml) respectively after 12 days incubation, while maximum production by the obtaining resulting isolates (Treated by UV irradiation) were: 1.78, 1.70 and 1.73 (mg/ml) from A4T2 (5 min.), A4T1 (10 min.) and A1T1 (5 min.), respectively.

  16. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  17. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  18. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  19. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  20. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  1. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  2. Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wu-jun; WANG Shao-hua; WU Long-mei; DING Yan-feng; WENG Fei; WU Xiao-ran; LI Gang-hua; LIU Zheng-hui; TANG She; DING Cheng-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Lodging is an important factor limiting rice yield and quality by bending or breaking stem injaponica rice (Oryza sativaL.) production. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanism of lodging resistance injaponica rice as affected by carbohydrate components, especialy its related arrangement in culm tissue and response to top-dressing nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Field experiments were conducted in Danyang County, Jiangsu Province, China, by using twojaponica rice vari-eties Wuyunjing 23 (lodging-resistance variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety) with three top-dressing N fertilizer rates (0, 135 and 270 kg N ha–1) in 2013 and 2014. Lodging related physical parameters, morphological characteristics and stem carbohydrate components were investigated at 30 d after ful heading stage. Results showed that with increasing N fertilizer rates, the lodging rate and lodging index increased rapidly primarily due to signiifcant reduction of breaking strength in twojaponica rice varieties. Correlation analysis revealed that breaking strength was signiifcantly and positively correlated with bending stress, but negatively correlated with section modulus, except for signiifcant correlation at W3668 in 2014. Higher stem plumpness status and structural carbohydrate contents signiifcantly enhanced stem stiffness, despite of lower non-structural carbohydrate. With higher N fertilizer rate, the culm wal thickness was almost identical, and culm diameter increased slightly. The structural carbohydrates, especialy for lignin content in culm, reduced signiifcantly under high N rate. Further histochemical staining analysis revealed that high N treatments decreased the lignin deposition rapidly in the sclerenchyma cels of mechanical tissue, large vascular bundle and smal vascular bundle region, which were consistent with reduction of bending stress, especialy for W3668 and thus, resulted in poor stem strength and higher lodging index. These results suggested that

  3. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  4. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  5. Structural and Functional Studies of Peptide-Carbohydrate Mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Pinto, B. Mario

    Certain peptides act as molecular mimics of carbohydrates in that they are specifically recognized by carbohydrate-binding proteins. Peptides that bind to anti-carbohydrate antibodies, carbohydrate-processing enzymes, and lectins have been identified. These peptides are potentially useful as vaccines and therapeutics; for example, immunologically functional peptide molecular mimics (mimotopes) can strengthen or modify immune responses induced by carbohydrate antigens. However, peptides that bind specifically to carbohydrate-binding proteins may not necessarily show the corresponding biological activity, and further selection based on biochemical studies is always required. The degree of structural mimicry required to generate the desired biological activity is therefore an interesting question. This review will discuss recent structural studies of peptide-carbohydrate mimicry employing NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, as well as relevant biochemical data. These studies provide insights into the basis of mimicry at the molecular level. Comparisons with other carbohydrate-mimetic compounds, namely proteins and glycopeptides, will be drawn. Finally, implications for the design of new therapeutic compounds will also be presented.

  6. Carbohydrate loading in the preoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L T; Miller, M G A

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition support is an evolving field, and modern clinical nutrition practice should actively incorporate strategies to enhance various clinical outcomes. In surgical patients, clinical benefits can be maximised by nutritional support protocols that minimise and manage the perioperative fasting period. This approach, which includes the perioperative provision of clear carbohydrate-containing fluids, has been shown to be safe, is evidence based, and is supported by many professional societies. Such a strategy has been shown to aid the anaesthetic process and maintain an optimal metabolic state, including improved insulin sensitivity and blunted muscle catabolic activity. Some important consequences of this improved metabolic control include shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. A proactive multidisciplinary team approach is essential to use this nutrition support strategy with success across a hospital's surgical service. PMID:26294840

  7. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  8. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol;

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...... for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon...... resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding...

  9. Sensitive LC MS quantitative analysis of carbohydrates by Cs+ attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatsky, Eduard; Jayatillake, Harsha; Goswami, Gayotri; Tomuta, Vlad; Stein, Daniel

    2005-11-01

    The development of a sensitive assay for the quantitative analysis of carbohydrates from human plasma using LC/MS/MS is described in this paper. After sample preparation, carbohydrates were cationized by Cs(+) after their separation by normal phase liquid chromatography on an amino based column. Cesium is capable of forming a quasi-molecular ion [M + Cs](+) with neutral carbohydrate molecules in the positive ion mode of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode, and transitions [M + 133] --> 133 were monitored (M, carbohydrate molecular weight). The new method is robust, highly sensitive, rapid, and does not require postcolumn addition or derivatization. It is useful in clinical research for measurement of carbohydrate molecules by isotope dilution assay. PMID:16182559

  10. Mining anaerobic digester consortia metagenomes for secreted carbohydrate active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo;

    . To gain insight into both the degradation of the carbohydrates and the various roles of the microbes in the ADs we have mined metagenomes from both types of ADs for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases, auxiliary activities, and carbohydrate binding modules. The mining...... thermophilic and mesophilic ADs a wide variety of carbohydrate active enzyme functions were discovered in the metagenomic sequencing of the microbial consortia. The most dominating type of glycoside hydrolases were β-glucosidases (up to 27%), α-amylases (up to 10%), α-glucosidases (up to 8%), α......-galactosidases (up to 9%) and β-galactosidases (up to 7%). For carbohydrate esterases the by far most dominating type was acetylxylan esterases (up to 59%) followed by feruloyl esterases (up to 16%). Less than 15 polysaccharide lyases were identified in the different metagenomes and not surprisingly...

  11. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  12. Relationship of carbohydrate molecular spectroscopic features in combined feeds to carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    To date, there is no study on the relationship between carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structures and nutrient availability of combined feeds in ruminants. The objective of this study was to use molecular spectroscopy to reveal the relationship between CHO molecular spectral profiles (in terms of functional groups (biomolecular, biopolymer) spectral peak area and height intensity) and CHO chemical profiles, CHO subfractions, energy values, and CHO rumen degradation kinetics of combined feeds of hulless barley with pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) at five different combination ratios (hulless barley to pure wheat DDGS: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100). The molecular spectroscopic parameters assessed included: lignin biopolymer molecular spectra profile (peak area and height, region and baseline: ca. 1539-1504 cm-1); structural carbohydrate (STCHO, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485-1186 cm-1) mainly associated with hemi- and cellulosic compounds; cellulosic materials peak area (centered at ca. 1240 cm-1 with region and baseline: ca. 1272-1186 cm-1); total carbohydrate (CHO, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1186-946 cm-1). The results showed that the functional groups (biomolecular, biopolymer) in the combined feeds are sensitive to the changes of carbohydrate chemical and nutrient profiles. The changes of the CHO molecular spectroscopic features in the combined feeds were highly correlated with CHO chemical profiles, CHO subfractions, in situ CHO rumen degradation kinetics and fermentable organic matter supply. Further study is needed to investigate possibility of using CHO molecular spectral features as a predictor to estimate nutrient availability in combined feeds for animals and quantify their relationship.

  13. Carbohydrate nutrition and anthocyanin accumulation in light grown and etiolated shoot cultures of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinterhalter Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins was studied in shoot cultures of carob at high (45.9 μmol s-1m-2 and low (9.2 μmol s-1m-2 irradiance levels and in darkness in relation to carbohydrate nutrition. Anthocyanin production was stimulated by light, but it also occurred in etiolated shoot cultures which developed in darkness. Anthocyanins were present in both leaves and shoot tips. The major factor affecting anthocyanin production was carbohydrate nutrition, with sucrose as a choice superior to fructose and glucose. The carbohydrate effect was clearly osmotic in nature, since anthocyanin production increased even at supraoptimal concentrations detrimental to the growth of shoot cultures. This conclusion was further confirmed in experiments in which sucrose was partly replaced with the sugar alcohols sorbitol and mannitol.

  14. A central role of abscisic acid in stress-regulated carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kempa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and development. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. However, apart from the well established role of ABA in regulating gene expression programmes, little is known about its function in plant stress metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an integrative multiparallel approach of metabolome and transcriptome analyses, we studied the dynamic response of the model glyophyte Arabidopsis thaliana to ABA and high salt conditions. Our work shows that salt stress induces complex re-adjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and that ABA triggers the initial steps of carbon mobilisation. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings open new perspectives on how high salinity and ABA impact on central carbohydrate metabolism and highlight the power of iterative combinatorial approaches of non-targeted and hypothesis-driven experiments in stress biology.

  15. Influence of Grape Maturity on Complex Carbohydrate Composition of Red Sparkling Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Williams, Pascale; Doco, Thierry

    2016-06-22

    This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages. The total glycosyl content of oligosaccharides decreased during the whole period of aging on yeast lees. The reduction of polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose and rhamnogalacturonans type II during the aging was more pronounced in mature samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the polysaccharide and oligosaccharide composition of red sparkling wines. PMID:27226011

  16. Reduced cerebral oxygen–carbohydrate index during endotracheal intubation in vascular surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas; Overgaard, Anders; Winther-Olesen, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    aortic surgery, arterial to internal jugular venous (a-v) concentration differences for oxygen versus lactate and glucose were determined from before anaesthesia to when the patient left the recovery room. Intravenous anaesthesia was supplemented with thoracic epidural anaesthesia for open aortic surgery......Brain activation reduces balance between cerebral consumption of oxygen versus carbohydrate as expressed by the so-called cerebral oxygen-carbohydrate-index (OCI). We evaluated whether preparation for surgery, anaesthesia including tracheal intubation and surgery affect OCI. In patients undergoing...... (n = 5) and infiltration with bupivacaine for endovascular procedures (n = 14). The a-v difference for O2 decreased throughout anaesthesia and in the recovery room (1.6 ± 1.9 versus 3.2 ± 0.8 mmol l(-1), mean ± SD), and while a-v glucose decreased during surgery and into the recovery (0.4 ± 0...

  17. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were carbohydrate levels ranged from 48.59% to 69.36%. In the same conditions of thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey.

  18. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  19. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  20. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  1. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  2. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  3. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  4. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: I. Autotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the microalgae-growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on accumulation of total carbohydrates and starch in two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella sorokiniana), when the bacterium and each microalga were jointly immobilized in alginate beads was studied under autotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic medium. The interaction of the bacterium with the microalgae enhanced accumulation of total carbohydrate and starch. Cells of Chlorella accumulated the highest amounts of carbohydrate after incubation for 24h. Yet, this did not coincide with the highest affinity and volumetric productivity measured in these cultures. However, after incubation for 72 h, mainly in jointly immobilized treatments of both microalgae species, the cultures reached their highest total carbohydrate content (mainly as starch) and also the highest affinity and volumetric productivity. These results demonstrate the potential of A. brasilense to affect carbohydrates and starch accumulation in Chlorella spp. when both microorganisms are co-cultured, which can be an important tool for applications of microalgae.

  5. Effects of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shuyan; Nie, Qin; Miao, Huijun; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-08-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:LIP) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (initial body weight 8.75 g ± 0.04 g). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic low protein level (39%) diets were formulated with increasing ratios of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (2:18, 6:18, 18:12 and 28:6). A high protein level (50%) diet with the 2:12 ratio of carbohydrate to lipid was used as the control. Results showed that the survival rate, contents of moisture, crude protein and ash in muscle were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. With the dietary CHO:LIP ratio increased from 2:18 to 18:12, weight gain rate significantly increased ( P diet with 2:12 or 2:18 CHO:LIP ratio was significantly lower than those fed with the other three diets ( P carbohydrate. Furthermore, the appropriate ratio of dietary carbohydrate to lipid was important to the growth and feed utilization of turbot. The proper CHO:LIP ratio based on the growth performance in the present study was determined to be 18:12 when the dietary protein level was 39%.

  6. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  7. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  8. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  9. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  10. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  11. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  12. Sugar for my honey: carbohydrate partitioning in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Grunze, Nina; Willmann, Martin; Reich, Marlis; Küster, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Simple, readily utilizable carbohydrates, necessary for growth and maintenance of large numbers of microbes are rare in forest soils. Among other types of mutualistic interactions, the formation of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between tree roots and certain soil fungi, is a way to overcome nutrient and carbohydrate limitations typical for many forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhiza formation is typical for trees in boreal and temperate forests of the northern hemisphere and alpine regions world-wide. The main function of this symbiosis is the exchange of fungus-derived nutrients for plant-derived carbohydrates, enabling the colonization of mineral nutrient-poor environments. In ectomycorrhizal symbiosis up to 1/3 of plant photoassimilates could be transferred toward the fungal partner. The creation of such a strong sink is directly related to the efficiency of fungal hexose uptake at the plant/fungus interface, a modulated fungal carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhiza, and the export of carbohydrates towards soil growing hyphae. However, not only the fungus but also the plant partner increase its expression of hexose importer genes at the plant/fungus interface. This increase in hexose uptake capacity of plant roots in combination with an increase in photosynthesis may explain how the plant deals with the growing fungal carbohydrate demand in symbiosis and how it can restrict this loss of carbohydrates under certain conditions to avoid fungal parasitism. PMID:17078984

  13. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K; Siezen, Roland J; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  14. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  15. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  16. Carbohydrate – protein complex of the waste of climacoptera obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seitimova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from Climacoptera obtusifolia family Chenopodiaceae has antidiabetic activity. For the first time carbohydrate-protein complex of the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia was studied. It was found that the quantity of extractive substances with 80% ethanol in aerial part – 52;6% and in the waste – 12;35%. The technique of separation of the carbohydrate-protein complex from the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia is developed by means of classical and physical-chemical methods. The composition of carbohydrate-protein complex was identified: oligosaccharide; polysaccharide and two glycoproteins.

  17. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre;

    2012-01-01

    Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  18. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  19. Bioethanol Production by Carbohydrate-Enriched Biomass of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgakakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the potential of bioethanol production using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was studied. For the saccharification of the carbohydrate-enriched biomass, four acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl and H3PO4 were investigated. Each acid were used at four concentrations, 2.5 N, 1 N, 0.5 N and 0.25 N, and for each acid concentration the saccharification was conducted under four temperatures (40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C and 100 °C. Higher acid concentrations gave in general higher reducing sugars (RS yields (%, gRS/gTotal sugars with higher rates, while the increase in temperature lead to higher rates at lower acid concentration. The hydrolysates then were used as substrate for ethanolic fermentation by a salt stress-adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The bioethanol yield (%, gEtOH/gBiomass was significantly affected by the acid concentration used for the saccharification of the carbohydrates. The highest bioethanol yields of 16.32% ± 0.90% (gEtOH/gBiomass and 16.27% ± 0.97% (gEtOH/gBiomass were obtained in hydrolysates produced with HNO3 0.5 N and H2SO4 0.5 N, respectively.

  20. Protein-carbohydrate complex reveals circulating metastatic cells in a microfluidic assay

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2013-02-11

    Advances in carbohydrate sequencing technologies reveal the tremendous complexity of the glycome and the role that glycomics might have to bring insight into the biological functions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions, in particular, are known to be crucial to most mammalian physiological processes as mediators of cell adhesion and metastasis, signal transducers, and organizers of protein interactions. An assay is developed here to mimic the multivalency of biological complexes that selectively and sensitively detect carbohydrate-protein interactions. The binding of β-galactosides and galectin-3 - a protein that is correlated to the progress of tumor and metastasis - is examined. The efficiency of the assay is related to the expression of the receptor while anchoring to the interaction\\'s strength. Comparative binding experiments reveal molecular binding preferences. This study establishes that the assay is robust to isolate metastatic cells from colon affected patients and paves the way to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Glycosylation of dengue virus glycoproteins and their interactions with carbohydrate receptors: possible targets for antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Fakhriedzwan; Muharram, Siti Hanna; Diah, Suwarni

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus, an RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, affects 50 million individuals annually, and approximately 500,000-1,000,000 of these infections lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. With no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatments available to prevent dengue infection, dengue is considered a major public health problem in subtropical and tropical regions. The virus, like other enveloped viruses, uses the host's cellular enzymes to synthesize its structural (C, E, and prM/M) and nonstructural proteins (NS1-5) and, subsequently, to glycosylate these proteins to produce complete and functional glycoproteins. The structural glycoproteins, specifically the E protein, are known to interact with the host's carbohydrate receptors through the viral proteins' N-glycosylation sites and thus mediate the viral invasion of cells. This review focuses on the involvement of dengue glycoproteins in the course of infection and the virus' exploitation of the host's glycans, especially the interactions between host receptors and carbohydrate moieties. We also discuss the recent developments in antiviral therapies that target these processes and interactions, focusing specifically on the use of carbohydrate-binding agents derived from plants, commonly known as lectins, to inhibit the progression of infection. PMID:27068162

  2. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY.

  3. Synthesis of Heterocylic Compounds of Biological Interest from Carbohydrate Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Martinez Esperón; Fascio, M. L.; N. B. D’Accorso

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of some isoxazolic compounds from carbohydrate derivatives is described. These products are obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and their functionalization leads to derivatives with potential biological activities.

  4. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... that increasing the protein content of the diet from 15% up to 20–30%, at the expense of carbohydrate, increases the satiating effect of the diet, and induces a spontaneous weight loss, and this could turn out to be a preferred option for patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes....

  5. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... zucchini. Foods that do not contain carbohydrates include meat, fish, and poultry; most types of cheese; nuts; ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  6. Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID; Suazette

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types,disease states,protein functions,and developmental states.Carbohydrate"binders"that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents.In this review,we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.Examples are arranged based on disease categories including(1) infectious diseases,(2) cancer,(3) inflammation and immune responses,(4) signal transduction,(5) stem cell transformation,(6) embryo development,and(7) cardiovascular diseases,though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.

  7. Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency on Leaf Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates Partitioning in Two Rice Genotypes with Contrasting Low Phosphorus Susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-fu; LUO An-cheng; Muhammad Jaffar HASSAN; WEI Xing-hua

    2006-01-01

    To study the effect of phosphorus (P) deficiency on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrates partitioning and to determine whether the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrates partitioning are related to iow P tolerance in rice plants, a hydroponic culture experiment supplied with either sufficient P (10 mg/L) or deficient P (0.5 mg/L) was conducted by using two rice genotypes different in their responses to low P stress. Results showed that the plant growth of Zhenongda 454 (low P tolerant genotype) was less affected by P deficiency compared with Sanyang'ai (low P sensitive genotype). Under P-deficient conditions,photosynthetic rates of Zhenongda 454 and Sanyang'ai were decreased by 16% and 35%, respectively, and Zhenongda 454 showed higher photosynthetic rate than Sanyang'ai. Phosphorus deficiency decreased the stomatal conductance for both genotypes, but had no significant influence on leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci), suggesting that the decrease in leaf photosynthetic rate of rice plants induced by P deficiency was not due to stomatal limitation. Phosphorus deficiency increased the concentration of soluble carbohydrates and sucrose in shoots and roots for both genotypes, and also markedly increased the allocation of soluble carbohydrates and sucrose to roots. Under deficient P supply, Zhenongda 454 had higher root/shoot soluble carbohydrates content ratio and root/shoot sucrose content ratio than Sanyang'ai. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased the concentration of starch in roots for both genotypes, whereas had no effect on the content of starch in shoots or roots. Compared to genotype Sanyang'ai, the better tolerance to low-P stress of Zhenongda 454 can be explained by the fact that Zhenongda 454 maintains a higher photosynthetic rate and a greater ability to allocate carbohydrates to the roots under P deficiency.

  8. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens. PMID:25859152

  9. Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

    2011-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink

  10. In vitro TNF-α- and noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis is impaired in adipocytes from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Daniel D S; Dos Santos, Maísa P; Buzelle, Samyra L; Pereira, Mayara P; de França, Suélem A; Garófalo, Maria A R; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Froelich, Mendalli; de Almeida, Fhelipe J S; Frasson, Danúbia; Chaves, Valéria E; Kawashita, Nair H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and noradrenaline (NE)-stimulated lipolysis in retroperitoneal (RWAT) and epididymal (EAT) white adipose tissue as a means of understanding how low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats maintain their lipid storage in a catabolic environment (marked by increases in serum TNF-α and corticosterone and sympathetic flux to RWAT and EAT), as previously observed. Adipocytes or tissues from the RWAT and EAT of rats fed an LPHC diet and rats fed a control (C) diet for 15 days were used in the experiments. The adipocytes from both tissues of the LPHC rats exhibited lower TNF-α- stimulated lipolysis compared to adipocytes from the C rats. The intracellular lipolytic agents IBMX, DBcAMPc and FSK increased lipolysis in both tissues from rats fed the C and LPHC diets compared to basal lipolysis; however, the effect was approximately 2.5-fold lower in adipocytes from LPHC rats. The LPHC diet induced a marked reduction in the β3 and α2-AR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) content in RWAT and EAT. The LPHC diet did not affect TNF-α receptor 1 content but did induce a reduction in ERK p44/42 in both tissues. The present work indicates that RWAT and EAT from LPHC rats have an impairment in the lipolysis signaling pathway activated by NE and TNF-α, and this impairment explains the reduced response to these lipolytic stimuli, which may be fundamental to the maintenance of lipid storage in LPHC rats.

  11. Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-06-16

    Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (≥0.8 OD600 nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

  12. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  13. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  14. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  15. Assessing the Impacts of Low Carbohydrate Related Health Information on the Market Demand for US Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.

    2005-01-01

    An Almost Ideal Demand System was estimated to examine the impacts of low carbohydrate information on the market demand for US vegetables. Analysis was extended to examine the performance of alternative carbohydrate information indexes. Study shows significant robust impacts of low carbohydrate information across all included vegetables. Results favor the general and weighted carbohydrate information index.

  16. Carbohydrate-Based Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors Increase Infectivity and Thermostability of Viral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M.; Balcerzak, Anna K.; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Mironov, Gleb G.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Briard, Jennie G.; Ben, Robert N.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2014-07-01

    The inability of vaccines to retain sufficient thermostability has been an obstacle to global vaccination programs. To address this major limitation, we utilized carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) to eliminate the cold chain and stabilize the potency of Vaccinia virus (VV), Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes virus-1 (HSV-1). The impact of these IRIs was tested on the potency of the viral vectors using a plaque forming unit assay following room temperature storage, cryopreservation with successive freeze-thaw cycles and lyophilization. Viral potency after storage with all three conditions demonstrated that N-octyl-gluconamide (NOGlc) recovered the infectivity of shelf stored VV, 5.6 Log10 PFU mL-1 during 40 days, and HSV-1, 2.7 Log10 PFU mL-1 during 9 days. Carbon-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogue ornithine-glycine-glycine-galactose (OGG-Gal) increases the recovery of VV and VSV more than 1 Log10 PFU mL-1 after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. In VSV, cryostorage with OGG-Gal maintains high infectivity and reduces temperature-induced aggregation of viral particles by 2 times that of the control. In total, OGG-Gal and NOGlc preserve virus potency during cryostorage. Remarkably, NOGlc has potential to eliminate the cold chain and permit room temperature storage of viral vectors.

  17. Carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors increase infectivity and thermostability of viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M; Balcerzak, Anna K; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Mironov, Gleb G; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Briard, Jennie G; Ben, Robert N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2014-01-01

    The inability of vaccines to retain sufficient thermostability has been an obstacle to global vaccination programs. To address this major limitation, we utilized carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) to eliminate the cold chain and stabilize the potency of Vaccinia virus (VV), Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes virus-1 (HSV-1). The impact of these IRIs was tested on the potency of the viral vectors using a plaque forming unit assay following room temperature storage, cryopreservation with successive freeze-thaw cycles and lyophilization. Viral potency after storage with all three conditions demonstrated that N-octyl-gluconamide (NOGlc) recovered the infectivity of shelf stored VV, 5.6 Log₁₀ PFU mL(-1) during 40 days, and HSV-1, 2.7 Log₁₀ PFU mL(-1) during 9 days. Carbon-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogue ornithine-glycine-glycine-galactose (OGG-Gal) increases the recovery of VV and VSV more than 1 Log₁₀ PFU mL(-1) after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. In VSV, cryostorage with OGG-Gal maintains high infectivity and reduces temperature-induced aggregation of viral particles by 2 times that of the control. In total, OGG-Gal and NOGlc preserve virus potency during cryostorage. Remarkably, NOGlc has potential to eliminate the cold chain and permit room temperature storage of viral vectors.

  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF OBESITY AND THEIR INTERRELATION WITH VIOLATIONS OF A CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY EXCHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Salikhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article deals with biological issues of obesity, a global epidemic of XXI century. Adipose tissue is considered not only an energy-storage tissue, but as an endocrine organ as well which secretes a variety of bioactive substances (adipokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6. Cardiovascular diseases represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with excessive weight and obese patients. Atherosclerotic lesions represent a pathological substrate of these illnesses. The aim of our study was to analyze corelations between some specific adipocytokines (such as leptine and some nonspecific cytokines (such as IL-6, TNFα with indicators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The study group included 123 persons (100 subjects with overweight and obesity, 23 persons with normal weight.The article present results of studying immune parameters of patients with obesity, including cytokine levels, major classes of immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subpopulations in blood serum, and their interrelations with disturbances of carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

  19. Fermentation of carbohydrate in rat ileal excreta is enhanced with cecal inocula compared with fecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, D J; Marlett, J A

    1996-02-01

    The differential fermentative capacities of microflora from two regions of the large bowel and how fermentation was altered by prior exposure of the microflora to the substrate to be fermented were studied using an in vitro fermentation system. Bacterial inocula were prepared from cecal contents and feces from three groups of rats fed purified diets containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas or psyllium seed husk, or a nonpurified diet containing 170 g/kg dietary fiber. The substrate for all fermentations was ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed a purified diet containing 100 g/kg dietary fiber from canned peas. Anaerobic fermentations were conducted for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h. Sugars of the unfermented polysaccharides were measured by gas chromatography following acid hydrolysis; disappearance was the measure of fermentation. Independent of inoculum source, > 90% of the starch and arabinose and 75% of the uronic acids, but psyllium seed husk fermented starch faster (P < 0.05) and non-starch glucose, arabinose and uronic acids more slowly (P < 0.05) than inocula adapted to peas or nonpurified diet. Bacterial efficiency of carbohydrate utilization, the increase in muramic acid/mole carbohydrate fermented, was greatest (P < 0.05) with cecal inocula adapted to peas. We conclude that using cecal microflora as the inoculum source provides a more accurate index of fermentation during transit through the large bowel and that noncellulosic and storage polysaccharides of the plant cell wall are utilized before cellulose. PMID:8632231

  20. Zinc status specifically changes preferences for carbohydrate and protein in rats selecting from separate carbohydrate-, protein-, and fat-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, T M; Shay, N F

    1995-11-01

    This study examined how macronutrient intake preferences were specifically altered in the loss of appetite caused by experimentally produced zinc deficiency. Outbred female rats were allowed to freely select from simultaneously provided carbohydrate-, protein-, and fat-rich diets to provide themselves with an acceptable total diet. Rats were divided into two groups and provided the three diets containing either adequate (30 mg/kg; Zn+) or deficient (1 mg/kg; Zn-) levels of zinc (Zn). After 28 d, rats offered the Zn- diet were returned to a Zn+ diet (Zn repletion). Intakes from each of the three macronutrient diets were measured to determine macronutrient preferences of Zn-adequate, Zn-deficient, and Zn-repleted rats. In two 28-d studies involving a total of 66 rats, total metabolizable energy intake in Zn deficient rats was between 20 and 35% lower than in Zn+ rats, and carbohydrate intake accounted for essentially 100% of the lower energy intake. Fat and protein intakes were not affected by Zn deficiency. When Zn-deficient rats were repleted with Zn by providing diets containing adequate Zn, carbohydrate intake was restored to normal levels after 1 d of feeding. A transient difference in protein intake was noted during the repletion period, peaking during d 2-4 of repletion. Protein intake increased by more than 50% during this period. We hypothesize that specific changes in macronutrient intake patterns during development and recovery from Zn deficiency may be reflections, at least in part, of Zn-mediated changes in the central control of appetite. PMID:7472669

  1. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  2. Dietary carbohydrate source influences molecular fingerprints of the rat faecal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Poulsen, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    ) or oligofructose (a short-chained fructan). Fructans are, opposite sucrose and starches, not digestible by mammalian gut enzymes, but are known to be fermentable by specific bacteria in the large intestine. Results: Animals fed with diets containing potato starch, or either of the fructans had a significantly (p...... and are not expected to reach the large intestine, the DGGE band patterns obtained indicated that these carbohydrates indeed affected the composition of bacteria in the large gut. Also the two fructans resulted in completely different molecular fingerprints of the faecal microbiota, indicating that even though...

  3. The effect of paper industry effluent on growth, pigments, carbohydrates and proteins of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R N; Behera, P K

    1991-01-01

    The effect of paper industry effluent on the growth and content of certain macromolecules of seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kesari-82K) has been examined. The effects were investigated in relation to both concentration of effluent and time of exposure to the effluent. Percentage of germination, water imbibing capacity, growth, pigment, carbohydrate and protein content showed a decreasing trend with increase in effluent concentration and time. Protein content was the most sensitive macromolecule affected by effluent. Measurement of protein and protein enzymes might therefore provide a useful criterion for the evaluation of the phytotoxicity of effluent released from the pulp and paper industries. PMID:15092110

  4. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  5. The role of non-structural carbohydrate reserves in trees under climatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, G.; Koerner, C.

    2012-12-01

    The storage of non-structural carbon (C) reserves is an indispensable process for all plants. Diverting parts of their photoassimilates into storage pools (e.g. starch and storage lipids) ensures plants to survive periods when the requirement for C (i.e. the sum of all C-sink activities) exceeds their photosynthetic capacity (C-source activity). Over the last decade, research delivered clear evidence that under the current atmospheric CO2 concentrations, tree growth is generally limited by the availability of resources other than C (e.g. soil nutrients) under most conditions. Whether climatic stresses, like cold temperature or drought, can induce C-limitation in trees is currently vividly debated. We will thus address the following questions: 1) do low temperatures at alpine treelines or drought lead to situations where photosynthesis is limiting growth, and 2) what is the role of non-structural C reserves under such conditions? Trees at the alpine treeline as well as under hydraulic constraints accumulate, rather than use up their non-structural carbohydrate reserves with increasing stress. We propose that this observed increase of C stores results from a stress related decline in growth (C-sink activity) relative to C-supply. Hence, the higher C reserve concentrations found in trees under cold and dry conditions are very likely a direct physiological response to the environmental stress (diversion to storage), reflecting relatively higher availability of photoassimilates compared to sink demand. Previous experiments with trees and crops showed that in cold and dry environments, meristematic growth is generally limited more severely and at an earlier stage than photosynthesis. While cell division and differentiation are close to zero at about 5 °C even in cold adapted species, rates of photosynthesis are still reaching up to 80 % of maximum rates. Similarly, structural growth generally ceases at much less negative water potentials than does photosynthesis, which

  6. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  7. The use of low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes – benefits and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Czyżewska-Majchrzak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes is increasingly being supported by the recommendation of an appropriate diet. The purpose of this study is to identify the potential benefits and risks arising from the use of one of the modern models of low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research shows that diet can favourably affect the health of diabetic patients. It has been shown that diet affects positively the concentration of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and also contributes to the reduction of insulin taken in the course of drug therapy. At the same time, short-term studies have demonstrated a positive relationship of nutrition with reduction in body weight, as well as favourable changes in lipid profile of HDL cholesterol and levels of triglyceride. Attention is also drawn to the negative health effects of a low-carbohydrate diet; these include an increased risk of mineral deficiency, hypovitaminosis and reduced intake of dietary fibres. This diet may be associated with very high levels of protein which, in turn, raises the risk of renal dysfunction and the appearance of irregularities in the water and electrolyte balance. The impact of changes in the skeletal system and the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis is also observed. Besides the positive impact of this model of diet on the lipid profile parameters, its use significantly increases the risk of adverse changes in other markers predisposing to atherosclerosis occurring in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In composing a nutrition model for diabetes patients, both the benefits and potential risks of a low-carbohydrate diet should therefore take into account. At the same time, it is important to individualize the diet used, based on the current state of health, used pharmacological treatments, as well as taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.

  8. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  9. Promiscuity of the Euonymus Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els J.M. Van Damme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize small amounts of carbohydrate-binding proteins on exposure to stress. For example, on exposure to drought, high salt, wounding and by treatment with some plant hormones or by pathogen attack. In contrast to the ‘classical’ plant lectins that are mostly located in the vacuolar compartment, this new class of inducible lectins is present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Taking into account that any physiological role of plant lectins most likely relies on their specific carbohydrate-binding activity and specificity, the discovery of these stress-related lectins provides strong evidence for the importance of protein-carbohydrate-interactions in plant cells. Hitherto, six families of such nucleocytoplasmic lectins have been identified in plants. This review will focus on the nucleocytoplasmic lectins with one or more Euonymus lectin (EUL domain(s. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of EUL proteins from a monocot, a dicot and a lower plant has been compared. Furthermore, modeling of the different EUL domains revealed a similar ß-trefoil fold consisting of three bundles of ß-sheet organized around a pseudo three-fold symmetry axis. Despite the sequence similarity and the conserved amino acids in the binding site, glycan array analyses showed that the EUL domain has a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site capable of accommodating high mannose N-glycans, blood group B related structures and galactosylated epitopes.

  10. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  11. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well.

  12. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  13. Impact of carbohydrate supplementation during endurance training on glycogen storage and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Pedersen, K.; Christensen, B.;

    2009-01-01

    ingestion. Methods: In previously untrained males performance and various muscular adaptations were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of supervised endurance training conducted either with (n = 8; CHO group) or without (n = 7; placebo) glucose supplementation. Results: The two groups achieved similar.......05), while resting muscle glycogen increased (P supplementation consumed during exercise training influences various muscular training adaptations, but improvements...

  14. Resprouting as a persistence strategy of tropical forest trees: relations with carbohydrate storage and shade tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Kitajima, K.; Mercado, P.; Chubina, J.; Melgar, I.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Resprouting is an important persistence strategy for woody species and represents a dominant pathway of regeneration in many plant communities with potentially large consequences for vegetation dynamics, community composition and species coexistence. Most of our knowledge on resprouting strategies c

  15. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  16. Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shaun M

    2012-10-01

    knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040

  17. The Effects of Different Pruning Treatments on Seasonal Variation of Carbohydrates in Hacihaliloglu Apricot Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim M. DEMIRTAS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve-year-old apricot trees from the Hacihaliloglu apricot cultivar were pruned in a series of five treatments. In all treatments, one-third of annual shoots (33.3% were removed between 1999 and 2003. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves were determined. The starch, total sugar, reducing sugar and sucrose contents in shoots were also determined. In addition, seasonal variation of carbohydrates was studied. The treatments did not affect the carotenoid content of leaves, but they statistically affected the total chlorophyll content. The highest total chlorophyll content in leaves was 5.27 mg/g, and it was found in the post-harvest summer/winter pruning treatment. The highest average total sugar content (6.25% was observed in the post-harvest summer pruning treatment, while the lowest (2.56% was found in the post-harvest summer/winter and control treatments. The highest starch content (8.18% was found in October from the post-harvest summer/winter treatment, whereas the lowest value (3.59% was obtained in March from the winter pruning treatment. Summer pruning treatments promoted an accumulation of carbohydrates.

  18. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.;

    2002-01-01

    participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined......OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  19. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    ) and soluble NSP will influence the release of insulin, the hormone that facilitate nutrient uptake by tissues, organs and cells, and thus play a critical and essential role in protein synthesis and muscle growth as well as lipid synthesis and adipose tissue growth. In conclusion, polymeric carbohydrates......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and levels of polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms; first, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (digestible...

  20. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    , organs, and cells, and thus plays a critically essential role in protein synthesis and muscle growth, as well as lipid synthesis and adipose tissue growth. In conclusion, polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through events in the gut and direct and indirect effects of different...... carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms. First, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (i.e., DE, ME, and NE); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality. Second, the proportion...... of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (i.e., glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation. Third and finally, the type of starch (i.e., types A, B, and C) and soluble NSP will influence the release of insulin, the hormone that facilitates nutrient uptake by tissues...

  1. Carbohydrate mimetics and scaffolds: sweet spots in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; La Ferla, Barbara; Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Orsato, Alexandre; Shaikh, Nasrin; Russo, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Several glycoprocessing enzymes and glycoreceptors have been recognized as important targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept has inspired the development of important classes of therapeutics, such as anti-influenza drugs inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting lectin-sialyl-Lewis X interaction and glycosidase inhibitors against HIV, Gaucher's disease, hepatitis and cancer. These therapeutics are mainly carbohydrate mimics in which proper modifications permit stronger interactions with the target protein, higher stability, better pharmacokinetic properties and easier synthesis. Furthermore, the conformational rigidity and polyfunctionality of carbohydrates stimulate their use as scaffolds for the generation of libraries by combinatorial decoration with different pharmacophores. This mini-review will present examples of how to exploit carbohydrates mimics and scaffolds in drug research. PMID:21426009

  2. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide.

  3. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-13

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  5. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  6. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code “NT”); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code “HB12”); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code “TT8”). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also

  7. The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud N.; Petie, Mischa; Heinsbroek, Leon T.N.; Verreth, Johan A.J.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 ×

  8. Effects of Storage Losses and Grain Management Practices on Storage: Evidence from Maize Production in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kadjo, Didier; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob E.; Alexander, Corinne E.; Tahirou, Abdoulaye

    2013-01-01

    This study uses nationally representative data from 360 farm households in Benin to estimate how access to storage technologies and storage losses from insects affects a smallholder African farmer’s decision to hold grain from production, in an environment of high price variability. We find that access to storage chemicals increases the average amount stored by 196 kilograms with results approaching statistical significance. Farmers who use plastic bags store 293 kilograms less grain on avera...

  9. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  10. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  11. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment. PMID:26978392

  12. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  13. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming;

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  14. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  15. Combined effects of defoliation and water stress on pine growth and non-structural carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jean-Sébastien; Bosc, Alexandre; O'Grady, Anthony; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    Climate change is expected to increase both pest insect damage and the occurrence of severe drought. There is therefore a need to better understand the combined effects of biotic and abiotic damage on tree growth in order to predict the multi-factorial effect of climate change on forest ecosystem productivity. Indeed, the effect of stress interactions on tree growth is an increasingly important topic that greatly lacks experiments and data, and it is unlikely that the impact of combined stresses can be extrapolated from the outcomes of studies that focused on a single stress. We developed an original manipulative study under real field conditions where we applied artificial defoliation and induced water stress on 10-year-old (∼10 m high) maritime pine trees (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Tree response to combined stresses was quantitatively assessed following tree secondary growth and carbohydrate pools. Such a design allowed us to address the crucial question of combined stresses on trees under stand conditions, sharing soil supplies with neighboring trees. Our initial hypotheses were that (i) moderate defoliation can limit the impact of water stress on tree growth through reduced transpiration demand by a tree canopy partly defoliated and that (ii) defoliation results in reduced non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools, affecting tree tolerance to drought. Our results showed additive effects of defoliation and water stress on tree growth and contradict our initial hypothesis. Indeed, under stand conditions, we found that partial defoliation does not limit the impact of water stress through reduced transpiration. Our study also highlighted that, even if NSC in all organs were affected by defoliation, tree response to water stress was not triggered. We found that stem NSC were maintained or increased during the entire growing season, supporting literature-based hypotheses such as an active maintenance of the hydraulic system or another limiting resource for tree growth

  16. Basil conservation affected by cropping season, harvest time and storage period Armazenamento e conservação de manjericão após diferentes épocas e horários de colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceli da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is used in food, phytotherapic industry, and in traditional therapeutic, due to its essential oil content and composition. Nevertheless basil can not be kept for long periods after harvest and its quality can be reduced. This work aimed to assess the influence of the season and harvest time in the postharvest conservation of basil stored for different periods. Basil was harvested at 8 am and 4 pm both in August/1999 and January/2000. Cuttings were conditioned in PVC packages and stored for 3, 6, and 9 days. During storage, chlorophyll content, essential oil content and composition were determined as well as microbiological analyses were carried out. Harvest season and the days of storage influenced the final content of essential oil. There was a linear decrease in the content of essential oil, in the chlorophyll content and in the number of mold and yeast colonies during storage. There was no effect of cropping season or harvest hour on essential oil composition, but the eugenol and linalool content increased during storage. Coliforms were under 0.3 MPN g-1 and the number of Staphylococcus aureus was under 1.0x10² UFC g-1.O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é empregado tanto na indústria culinária quanto fitoterápica e na medicina tradicional, devido ao teor e composição de seu óleo essencial. No entanto, o manjericão não pode ser conservado por longo período após a colheita e sua qualidade pode ser prejudicada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da época e do horário de colheita sobre a conservação de manjericão armazenado por diferentes períodos. O manjericão foi colhido às 8h e às 16h em agosto/1999 e em janeiro/2000. Os ramos foram acondicionados em filmes de PVC e armazenados por 3, 6 e 9 dias. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de clorofila, e o teor e a composição do óleo essencial foram determinados e foram conduzidas análises microbiológicas. A época de colheita

  17. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates. PMID:27176786

  18. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose. PMID:21255472

  19. Breakfast high in whey protein or carbohydrates improves coping with workload in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2013-11-14

    Dietary components may affect brain function and influence behaviour by inducing the synthesis of neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of consumption of a whey protein-containing breakfast drink v. a carbohydrate drink v. control on subjective and physiological responses to mental workload in simulated work. In a randomised cross-over design, ten healthy subjects (seven women, median age 26 years, median BMI 23 kg/m(2)) participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The subjects performed demanding work-like tasks after having a breakfast drink high in protein (HP) or high in carbohydrate (HC) or a control drink on separate sessions. Subjective states were assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and the modified Profile of Mood States. Heart rate was recorded during task performance. The ratio of plasma tryptophan (Trp) to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and salivary cortisol were also analysed. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio was 30 % higher after the test drinks HP (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) and HC (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) than after the control drink (median 0·10 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)). The increase in heart rate was smaller after the HP (median 2·7 beats/min) and HC (median 1·9 beats/min) drinks when compared with the control drink (median 7·2 beats/min) during task performance. Subjective sleepiness was reduced more after the HC drink (median KSS - 1·5) than after the control drink (median KSS - 0·5). There were no significant differences between the breakfast types in the NASA-TLX index, cortisol levels or task performance. We conclude that a breakfast drink high in whey protein or carbohydrates may improve coping with mental tasks in healthy subjects. PMID:23591085

  20. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  1. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  2. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  3. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions

  4. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M;

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, includin...

  5. Sulfurised carbohydrates: An important sedimentary sink for organic carbon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kok, M.D.; Koster, J.; Schouten, S.

    1998-01-01

    In contrast to the general belief that carbohydrate carbon (CCHO) is preferentially degraded and is not extensively preserved in the sedimentary record, it is shown here that CCHO forms a large fraction of the organic matter (OM) of the total organic carbon (TOC)-rich upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay

  6. Martini Coarse-Grained Force Field : Extension to Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Cesar A.; Rzepiela, Andrzej J.; de Vries, Alex H.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Huenenberger, Philippe H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the Martini coarse-grained force field to carbohydrates. The parametrization follows the same philosophy as was used previously for lipids and proteins, focusing on the reproduction of partitioning free energies of small compounds between polar and nonpolar phases. The car

  7. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  8. Architectures of Multivalent Glycomimetics for Probing Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Martina

    Well-defined multivalent glycoconjugates are valued tools in glycoscience and they are particularly valuable for the investigation of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In addition to the relatively globularly shaped glycodendrimers many other designs have been realized. This chapter gives an overview on the common different architectures and their chemical synthesis by focussing on the achievements made since 2001.

  9. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  10. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  11. Advancing Analytical Methods for Characterization of Anionic Carbohydrate Biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslay, Derek Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on the development of improved analytical methods for the characterization of anionic carbohydrate biopolymers. Our goal is to extract important information from complex mixtures of heterogeneous polysaccharides by characterizing their substituent oligosaccharides in terms of monosaccharide composition and primary and secondary structure. This work focuses on the application of two major analytical platforms: spectroscopy and chromatography. The development ...

  12. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  13. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  14. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  15. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  16. Syntheses of Novel Highly Symmetric Carbohydrates Bearing Diacylhydrazine Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; ZHANG Shu-sheng; LI Hui-xiang; LI Ji-zhi; JIAO Kui

    2005-01-01

    Several novel highly symmetric carbohydrates bearing a diacylhydrazine framework have been synthesized via a five-step procedure by utilizing D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose as the starting materials, respectively. The target compounds have been characterized with IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis.

  17. Effects of specific carbohydrates on the intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lene; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.;

    The current screening study aimed at testing a set of well-characterized carbohydrates derived from pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from sugar beet for their specific effect on intestinal microbiotas derived from healthy people and from patients suffering from the inflammatory bowel disease...

  18. Differences in carbohydrate profiles in batch culture grown planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata Wm. Sm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    modes of growth, the concentration of total carbohydrates, carbohydrate fractions, neutral carbohydrates, uronic acids and amino sugars in planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata were measured. The results showed that the distribution...

  19. Water and carbohydrate content at leafs of plants used in medicine during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of carbohydrate content with cryoprotective function to the end of vegetation period was shown. The accumulation of carbohydrates in plants on Lake Baikal shores region was greater than it in Irkutsk region.

  20. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  1. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roskjær, Ann B; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ronneby, Helle;

    2015-01-01

    of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic...... control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic...... pregnancy. In type 1 diabetes pregnancy, a moderately low carbohydrate diet with 40% carbohydrates has been suggested; however, a minimum intake of 175 g carbohydrate daily is recommended. Despite limited evidence the combination of a low-glycaemic index diet with a moderately low carbohydrate intake, using...

  2. Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Womack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1. Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage, high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat, or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat. After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial. Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05, and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min, HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min. Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  4. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  5. Effect of storage of rice seeds on solute leaching and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) seeds of early varieties 'Ratna' and 'Jaya' and late varieties 'Suakalma' and 'Pankaj' remained viable for 12 to 16 months in normal storage. Conductivity of pooled leachates, leaching of soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen increased with duration of storage. While 32P uptake in isolated embryos and endosperms of fresh, 1-year and 2-year-old seeds showed a declining trend, its incorporation in nucleic acids did not vary significantly. The content of nucleic acid of seeds, however, decreased with an increase in the storage period. (auth.)

  6. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  7. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  8. Distribution of dissolved carbohydrates and uronic acids in a tropical estuary, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwas B Khodse; Narayan B Bhosle; S G Prabhu Matondkar

    2010-08-01

    Carbohydrates including uronic acids are among the active components of dissolved organic carbon, and play an important role in biogeochemical cycling of organic carbon in marine environments. In order to understand their distribution, concentrations of total dissolved carbohydrate (TCHO), dissolved polysaccharide (PCHO), dissolved monosaccharide (MCHO), and dissolved uronic acid (URA) were measured in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India during the monsoon and premonsoon seasons. The estuary experienced nearly fresh water condition during the monsoon season and marine condition during the pre-monsoon season. Concentrations of TCHO, MCHO and URA ranged from 17.7 to 67.3 M C, 4.1 to 15.5 M C and 2.3 to 10.8 M C, and their contribution to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied from ∼11 to 60%, 2.5 to 9.7%, and 1.8 to 5.3%, respectively. PCHO accounted for ∼52 to 92% of the TCHO. Generally, concentrations and yields of TCHO species were greater during the monsoon season. Phytoplankton abundance and bacterial cell numbers influenced the distribution of TCHO in the pre-monsoon season but not during the monsoon season. Transport of TCHO rich (11 to 60%) dissolved organic matter from the Mandovi estuary to the coastal waters during the monsoon season may affect ecosystem function by fueling biological activity of heterotrophic micro-organisms.

  9. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC; carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO; placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE; placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE. Blood lactate (BLa, blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138±9, 124±6, and 121±6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3- values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3- was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  10. Determination of cellular carbohydrates in peanut fungal pathogens and baker's yeast by capillary electrophoresis and electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Melouk, H A; Chenault, K; El Rassi, Z

    2001-11-01

    In this work, the quantitation of cellular carbohydrates, namely chitin and glucan, in peanut fungal pathogens and baker's yeast was carried out by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The chitin and glucan of the fungi were hydrolyzed by the enzymes chitinase and glucanase, respectively, to their corresponding sugar monomers N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucose (Glc). These two monosaccharides were then tagged with 6-aminoquinoline (6-AQ) to allow their separation and detection in CE and CEC. The 6-AQ derivatives of GlcNAc and Glc formed the basis for the determination by CE and CEC of chitin and glucan in peanut fungi and baker's yeast. Several parameters affecting the separation of the 6-AQ derivatives of GlcNAc and Glc, including the separation voltage and the composition of the running electrolyte, were investigated. Under the optimized separation conditions, the contents of cellular carbohydrates including N-acetylglucosamine, chitin, glucose, and glucan in some fungi, such as Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii, and baker's yeast, were successfully determined. The method described here allowed the assessment of genetic differences in Sclerotium rolfsii isolates from various locations. PMID:11714314

  11. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  12. DMPD: Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet....csml) Show Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet p...references of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. Authors van Vliet SJ, S

  13. Structural analysis of the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the structural analysis by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrate chains obtained from glycoproteins. In the chapters 1 to 6 the structural analysis of N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains is described. The chapters 7 to 10 describe the structural analysis of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains. 381 refs.; 44 figs.; 24 tabs.; 7 schemes

  14. 21 CFR 172.866 - Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of carbohydrates. 172.866 Section 172.866 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates. Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates may be safely used in food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) It shall contain not...

  15. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2015-11-01

    To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease.One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, Salazar-Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention.Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; -9.3 [-10.6, -8.0] kg) and blood pressure (-6 [-9, -4]/-6[-8, -5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [-1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC -4 [-6, -2], HC -2 [-3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC --2.4 [-6, 1.2], HC -1.8 [-5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30-300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks.Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese adults with T2DM and no preexisting kidney disease.

  16. Novel anti-carbohydrate autoantibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: are they useful for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lukas, Milan; Donoval, Robert; Sandova, Petra; Janatkova, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of novel anti-carbohydrate assays in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, namely in Crohn's disease. These carbohydrate assays are based on oligosaccharide chitobioside carbohydrate - anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibodies (ACCA), laminaribioside carbohydrate anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and mannobioside carbohydrate - anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA). We compared these assays with the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) assay. The results of this study suggest that ASCA are still the best serological marker for Crohn's disease. Further studies are required to explore the clinical utility of ACCA, ALCA and AMCA.

  17. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, body weight, and energy status in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T

    2013-08-01

    The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.

  18. Massive Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Feng; Hai Jin

    2006-01-01

    To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2-3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the Virtual Interface Storage Architecture (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only

  19. Coordinate regulation/localization of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP) by two nuclear export signal sites: Discovery of a new leucine-rich nuclear export signal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is responsible for conversion of dietary carbohydrate to storage fat in liver by coordinating expression of the enzymes that channel glycolytic pyruvate into lipogenesis. The activation of ChREBP in response to high glucose is nuclear localization and transcription, and the inactivation of ChREBP under low glucose involves export from the nucleus to the cytosol. Here we report a new nuclear export signal site ('NES1') of ChREBP. Together these signals provide ChREBP with two NES sequences, both the previously reported NES2 and now the new NES1 coordinate to interact together with CRM1 (exportin) for nuclear export of the carbohydrate response element binding protein.

  20. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  1. Radioactive material storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make a spent fuel accommodating box movable and accommodate spent fuels at a position farther than the side wall of the storage installation and to draw the spent fuel near to the side wall with the lapse of the storage time, thereby attenuating the radiation effectively and increasing the storage capacity. Constitution: A space (box) accommodating radioactive materials is made movable, and the radiation is effectively shielded by the attenuation of the radioactive materials in storage due to the lapse of the storage time and the shielding of the radiation due to the liquefied shielding material up to the shielding wall of the storage installation, whereby the shielding wall of the storage installation is made thin and the capacity in the installation is enlarged, thus the accommodation capacity, that is, the storage capacity being increased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors: Pattern Recognition and Involvement of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Porgador

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, expressed by natural killer (NK cells, trigger NK lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells on interaction with cell-surface ligands of these target cells. We have determined that viral hemagglutinins expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells are involved in the recognition by the NCRs, NKp44 and NKp46. Recognition of tumor cells by the NCRs NKp30 and NKp46 involves heparan sulfate epitopes expressed on the tumor cell membrane. Our studies provide new evidence for the identity of the ligands for NCRs and indicate that a broader definition should be applied to pathological patterns recognized by innate immune receptors. Since nonmicrobial endogenous carbohydrate structures contribute significantly to this recognition, there is an imperative need to develop appropriate tools for the facile sequencing of carbohydrate moieties.

  3. Template free synthesis of natural carbohydrates functionalised fluorescent silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Berenjian, Aydin; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Template-assisted synthesis is one of the most recognised techniques for fabrication of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). However, this process is time consuming, toxic and expensive. In this study, the authors report a completely novel approach for the green and facile synthesis of AgNCs using Matricaria chamomilla, without any additional template. Fluorescent and colloidally stable AgNCs with average particle size of 2.4 nm were successfully produced. They found that carbohydrates from Matricaria chamomilla act as an ideal template to generate fluorescent AgNCs. Moreover, oxygen-bearing functional groups were validated to be the active groups for anchoring and reducing of Ag(+) ions. The novel carbohydrate coating method makes the prepared nanoclusters completely hydrophilic and stable in aqueous matrices. PMID:27256890

  4. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-dilution methods have been developed to identify and estimate the small amount of products formed when carbohydrates are irradiated in aqueous solution with Co60 gamma-radiation. Conventional analytical methods proved inadequate. After irradiation of C14-sugar solutions, the autoradiographs prepared after paper chromatography indicated extensive degradation. Using a reverse isotope-dilution procedure involving the addition of known carriers, and conversion of the fragments into crystalline derivatives, various constituents were quantitatively determined. It is possible to distinguish between d- and Z-isomers, and estimate each isomer independently. The method is applicable to other analytical problems in carbohydrate chemistry. A new method for scanning and recording the radioactivity along paper-chromatogram strips, which involves an inexpensive modification to conventional counting equipment, is described. (author)

  5. Vaccines based on the cell surface carbohydrates of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycoconjugate vaccines, in which a cell surface carbohydrate from a micro-organism is covalently attached to an appropriate carrier protein are proving to be the most effective means to generate protective immune responses to prevent a wide range of diseases. The technology appears to be generic and applicable to a wide range of pathogens, as long as antibodies against surface carbohydrates help protect against infection. Three such vaccines, against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis Group C and seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, have already been licensed and many others are in development. This article discusses the rationale for the development and use of glycoconjugate vaccines, the mechanisms by which they elicit T cell-dependent immune responses and the implications of this for vaccine development, the role of physicochemical methods in the characterisation and quality control of these vaccines, and the novel products which are under development.

  6. Orchestration of carbohydrate processing for crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2016-06-01

    The production of phosphoenolpyruvate as a substrate for nocturnal CO2 uptake represents a significant sink for carbohydrate in CAM plants which has to be balanced with the provisioning of carbohydrate for growth and maintenance. In starch-storing CAM species, diversification in chloroplast metabolite transporters, and the deployment of both phosphorolytic and hydrolytic routes of starch degradation accommodate a division of labour in directing C-skeletons towards nocturnal carboxylation or production of sucrose for growth. In soluble-sugar storing CAM plants, the vacuole plays a central role in managing carbon homeostasis. The molecular identities of various types of vacuolar sugar transporters have only been identified for C3 species within the last 10 years. The recent availability of CAM genomes enables the identification of putative orthologues of vacuolar sugar transporters which represent strategic targets for orchestrating the diel provisioning of substrate for nocturnal carboxylation and growth. PMID:27101569

  7. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara;

    2009-01-01

    , and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty......Thymann T, Moller HK, Stoll B, Stoy AC, Buddington RK, Bering SB, Jensen BB, Olutoye OO, Siggers RH, Molbak L, Sangild PT, Burrin DG. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297: G1115-G1125, 2009. First published October...... 1, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00261.2009. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis...

  8. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H;

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...... maximally expressed at the early stages of development, but may later be modified either by sialylation or fucosylation into blood group H or Lex, or by Ley substances, respectively. The orderly and well-defined changes observed during skin differentiation are in agreement with other studies, which have...

  9. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A;

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P metabolic ratio decreased to an equally low level (3.2 +/- 0.3) and the surplus uptake of glucose equivalents was not significantly different (7 +/- 1 mmol; P = 0.08). A time-dependent cerebral surplus uptake of carbohydrate was not substantiated...... with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade by metoprolol. Exhaustive exercise (24.8 +/- 6.1 min; mean +/- SE) decreased the cerebral metabolic ratio from a resting value of 5.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.4 (P

  10. Carbohydrates in diversity-oriented synthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, E; Menchi, G; Trabocchi, A

    2016-01-21

    Over the last decade, Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) has become a new paradigm for developing large collections of structurally diverse small molecules as probes to investigate biological pathways, and to provide a larger array of the chemical space. Drug discovery and chemical biology are taking advantage of DOS approaches to exploit highly-diverse and complex molecular platforms, producing advances in both target and ligand discovery. In this view, carbohydrates are attractive building blocks for DOS libraries, due to their stereochemical diversity and high density of polar functional groups, thus offering many possibilities for chemical manipulation and scaffold decoration. This review will discuss research contributions and perspectives on the application of carbohydrate chemistry to explore the accessible chemical space through appendage, stereochemical and scaffold diversity.

  11. Template free synthesis of natural carbohydrates functionalised fluorescent silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Berenjian, Aydin; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Template-assisted synthesis is one of the most recognised techniques for fabrication of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). However, this process is time consuming, toxic and expensive. In this study, the authors report a completely novel approach for the green and facile synthesis of AgNCs using Matricaria chamomilla, without any additional template. Fluorescent and colloidally stable AgNCs with average particle size of 2.4 nm were successfully produced. They found that carbohydrates from Matricaria chamomilla act as an ideal template to generate fluorescent AgNCs. Moreover, oxygen-bearing functional groups were validated to be the active groups for anchoring and reducing of Ag(+) ions. The novel carbohydrate coating method makes the prepared nanoclusters completely hydrophilic and stable in aqueous matrices.

  12. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  13. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  14. Tunable Nanocarrier Morphologies from Glycopolypeptide-based Amphiphilic Biocompatible Star Copolymers and Their Carbohydrate Specific Intracellular Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Pati, Debasis

    2015-12-21

    Nano-carriers with carbohydrates on the surface represent a very interesting class of drug delivery vehicles since carbohydrates are involved in bio-molecular recognition events in vivo. We have synthesized biocompatible miktoarm star copolymers comprising glycopolypeptide and poly(ε-caprolactone) chains, using ring opening polymerization and ‘click chemistry’. The amphiphilic copolymers were self-assembled in water into morphologies such as nanorods, polymersomes and micelles with carbohydrates displayed on the surface. We demonstrate that, the formation of nanostructure could be tuned by chain length of the blocks and was not affected by the type of sugar residue. These nanostructures were characterized in detail using a variety of techniques such as TEM, AFM, cryogenic electron microscopy, spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging and dye encapsulation techniques. We show that it is possible to sequester both hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic dyes within the nanostructures. Finally, we show that these non-cytotoxic manno-sylated rods and polymersomes were selectively and efficiently taken up by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells demonstrating their potential as nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  15. Effects of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shuyan; Nie, Qin; Miao, Huijun; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-08-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:LIP) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (initial body weight 8.75 g ± 0.04 g). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic low protein level (39%) diets were formulated with increasing ratios of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (2:18, 6:18, 18:12 and 28:6). A high protein level (50%) diet with the 2:12 ratio of carbohydrate to lipid was used as the control. Results showed that the survival rate, contents of moisture, crude protein and ash in muscle were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. With the dietary CHO:LIP ratio increased from 2:18 to 18:12, weight gain rate significantly increased ( P lipid was important to the growth and feed utilization of turbot. The proper CHO:LIP ratio based on the growth performance in the present study was determined to be 18:12 when the dietary protein level was 39%.

  16. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepburn Juanita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Because low carbohydrate diets have been shown to reduce insulin resistance, this pilot study investigated the six-month metabolic and endocrine effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD on overweight and obese women with PCOS. Results Eleven women with a body mass index >27 kg/m2 and a clinical diagnosis of PCOS were recruited from the community. They were instructed to limit their carbohydrate intake to 20 grams or less per day for 24 weeks. Participants returned every two weeks to an outpatient research clinic for measurements and reinforcement of dietary instruction. In the 5 women who completed the study, there were significant reductions from baseline to 24 weeks in body weight (-12%, percent free testosterone (-22%, LH/FSH ratio (-36%, and fasting insulin (-54%. There were non-significant decreases in insulin, glucose, testosterone, HgbA1c, triglyceride, and perceived body hair. Two women became pregnant despite previous infertility problems. Conclusion In this pilot study, a LCKD led to significant improvement in weight, percent free testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, and fasting insulin in women with obesity and PCOS over a 24 week period.

  17. Effects of roasting temperatures and gamma irradiation on the content of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and soluble carbohydrates of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two varieties of Puerto Rican coffee, Coffea canephora L. var. Robusta, and Coffea arabica L. var. Borbon, were subjected to four different doses of radiation and roasted at two different temperatures. Aqueous extracts of the ground coffee beans were analyzed for chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid at 324 nm and 360 nm wavelength settings, respectively. Samples subjected to the roasting treatments in conjuction with irradiation treatments were treated with basic lead acetate prior to the colorimetric analyses in order to eliminate interfering substances. The total carbohydrate content was also determined by colorimetric techniques with anthrone reagent. The total nitrogen content of the pulverized samples were determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method. While roasting treatments caused a reduction in the concentrations of the chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and the carbohydrates, the radiation treatments increased the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates without affecting the concentrations of chlorogenic acid or caffeic acid. It therefore appears that radiation treatments seem to cause degradation of the acid-polysaccharide complexes liberating soluble sugars. There were no noticable changes in the total content of nitrogen caused by roasting or the radiation treatments as indicated by the statistical analysis employing the split plot design. (author)

  18. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  19. Carbohydrate Provision in the Era of Tight Glucose Control

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Keith R.; Lawson, Christy M; Smith, Vance L.; HARBRECHT, BRIAN G

    2011-01-01

    Glycemic control in the critically ill patient has remained a controversial issue over the last decade. Several large trials, with widely varying results, have generated significant interest in defining the optimal target for blood-glucose control necessary for improving care while minimizing morbidity. Nutritional support has evolved into an additional area of critical care where appropriate practices have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Carbohydrate provision can impact bloo...

  20. Compositional Analysis of Carbohydrates of a Family of Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Raghothama, Arvind; Hamaker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Legumes, most commonly identified as beans or lentils, provide a good source of both protein and carbohydrates. Many legumes contain the polysaccharide arabinogalactans, classified as dietary fiber and have unique functional properties in foods. However, these, and other plant polysaccharides have not been well characterized. A preliminary collaborative study between Florida State University and the Whistler Center at Purdue indicated that isolated legume arabinogalactans appear to have high ...