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Sample records for affects spontaneous locomotor

  1. Deletion of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially affects spontaneous behaviour and cocaine-induced locomotor activity, reward and CREB phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; George, Susan R; Cheng, Regina; O'Dowd, Brian F

    2005-10-01

    Co-localization of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors in striatal neurons suggests that these two receptors interact at a cellular level in mediating dopaminergic function including psychostimulant-induced behaviour. To study D1 and D3 receptor interactions in cocaine-mediated effects, cocaine-induced locomotion and reward in mice lacking either D1, D3 or both receptors were analysed. Spontaneous locomotor activity was increased in D1-/- and D1-/-D3-/- mice and D1-/-D3-/- mice did not exhibit habituation of spontaneous rearing activity. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) increased locomotor activity in wild-type and D3-/- mice, failed to stimulate activity in D1-/- mice and reduced activity in D1-/-D3-/- mice. In the conditioned place preference, all groups exhibited reward at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of cocaine. D1-/-D3-/- mice did not demonstrate preference at 2.5 mg/kg of cocaine although preference was observed in wild-type, D1-/- and D3-/- mice. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is activated by phosphorylation in striatal regions following dopamine receptor activation. Striatal pCREB levels following acute cocaine were increased in wild-type and D3-/- mice and decreased in D1-/- and D1-/-D3-/- mice. After repeated administration of 2.5 mg/kg of cocaine, D1-/- mice had lower pCREB levels in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that, although spontaneous and cocaine-induced horizontal activity depended mainly on the presence of the D1 receptor, there may be crosstalk between D1 and D3 receptors in rearing habituation and the perception of cocaine reward at low doses of the drug. Furthermore, alterations in pCREB levels were associated with changes in cocaine-induced locomotor activity but not reward. PMID:16197514

  2. Locomotor Experience Affects Self and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ichiro; Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David; Frankel, Carl B.; Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. "Visual proprioception" refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls and ceiling. In…

  3. Locomotor Experience Affects Self and Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiyama, Ichiro; Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David; Frankel, Carl B.; Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. Visual proprioception refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls and ceiling. In Study 1, creeping infants and prelocomotor/walker infants showed significantly greater postural compensation and emotional responses to side wall moveme...

  4. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity in bovine GH transgenic mice involves peripheral mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooly-Y, M; Olsson, B; Gritli-Linde, A; Brusehed, O; Isaksson, O G; Ohlsson, C; Söderpalm, B; Törnell, J; Ola, B

    2001-10-01

    Clinical and experimental studies indicate a role for GH in mechanisms related to anhedonia/hedonia, psychic energy, and reward. Recently we showed that transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH display increased spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study, we investigated whether this behavioral change is owing to a direct action of GH in the central nervous system or to peripheral GH actions. A transgenic construct, containing the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter directing specific expression of bovine GH to the central nervous system, was designed. The central nervous system-specific expression of bovine GH in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice was confirmed, but no effect on spontaneous locomotor activity was observed. Serum bovine GH levels were increased in glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice but clearly lower than in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. In contrast to the transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH mice did not display any difference in serum IGF-I levels. The levels of free T(3) and the conversion of the free T(4) to free T(3) were only increased in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, but serum corticosterone levels were similarly increased in both transgenic models. These results suggest that free T(3) and/or IGF-I, affecting dopamine and serotonin systems in the central nervous system, may mediate the enhanced locomotor activity observed in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. PMID:11564723

  5. Electro-acupuncture stimulation improves spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity in MPTP intoxicated mice.

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    Haomin Wang

    Full Text Available Bradykinesia is one of the major clinical symptoms of Parkinson`s disease (PD for which treatment is sought. In most mouse models of PD, decreased locomotor activity can be reflected in an open field behavioral test. Therefore the open field test provides a useful tool to study the clinic symptoms of PD patients. Our previous work demonstrated that 100 Hz electro-acupuncture (EA stimulation at ZUSANLI and SANYINJIAO protected the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system of C57BL/6 mice from MPTP toxicity, indicating that acupuncture might be an effective therapy for PD sufferers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 100 Hz EA stimulation on the spontaneous locomotor activity in MPTP injured mice. Here we found that, in MPTP treated mice, the total movements significantly decreased and the movement time, velocity and distance dramatically increased, although the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system was devastated, revealed by immunohistochemistry and HPLC-ECD. After 12 sessions of 100 Hz EA stimulation, the total movements elevated and the movement time, velocity and distance decreased, in MPTP mice. 100 Hz EA increased striatal dopamine content in MPTP mice by 35.9%, but decreased its striatal dopamine turnover. We assumed that the injury of other regions in the brain, such as the A11 group in diencephalon, might be involved in the hypermotility in MPTP mice. The effects of 100 Hz EA on spontaneous locomotor activity in MPTP mice might not relate with the striatal dopamine, but with its neuroprotective and regulatory effects on motor circuits in the brain. Our study suggests that EA might be a promising treatment for neurological disorders including PD.

  6. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of 3H-WB 4101, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  7. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Jacob; Denton, Manuel Enríquez; Stecina, Katinka;

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study...... central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2) and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs) in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent...... or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves), with a slow rate (periods 9-104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD). Profound modulation...

  8. Spontaneous locomotor activity and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia are not linked in 6-OHDA parkinsonian rats

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    Stefania Sgroi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradykinesia (slowness of movement and other characteristic motor manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD are alleviated by treatment with L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA. Long-term L-DOPA treatment, however, is associated with complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia that severely impair the quality of life. It is unclear whether the effect of L-DOPA on spontaneous motor activity and its dyskinesia-inducing effect share a common mechanism. To investigate the possible connection between these two effects, we analyzed the spontaneous locomotor activity of parkinsonian rats before surgery (unilateral injection of 6-OHDA in the right medial forebrain bundle, before treatment with L-DOPA, during L-DOPA treatment (the “ON” phase, and after the end of L-DOPA treatment (the “OFF” phase. We correlated the severity of dyskinesia (AIM scores with locomotor responses in the ON/OFF phases of chronic L-DOPA treatment at two different doses. We treated three groups of parkinsonian animals with chronic injections of 8 mg/kg L-DOPA, 6 mg/kg L-DOPA, and saline solution and one group of non-lesioned animals with 8 mg/kg L-DOPA. At the end of the experiment, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity was analyzed in the striatum of all parkinsonian rats. We found no correlation between the severity of dyskinesia and spontaneous locomotor activity in the ON or OFF phase of L-DOPA treatment. The only observed correlation was between the pathological rotation induced by L-DOPA at the highest dose and locomotor activity in the ON phase of L-DOPA treatment. In addition, a L-DOPA withdrawal effect was observed, with worse motor performance in the OFF phase than before the start of L-DOPA treatment. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the effect of L-DOPA on spontaneous motor activity and its dyskinesia-inducing effect, with a different dose-response relationship for each of these two effects.

  9. Chronotype and stability of spontaneous locomotor activity rhythm in BMAL1-deficient mice.

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    Pfeffer, Martina; Korf, Horst-Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2015-02-01

    Behavior, physiological functions and cognitive performance change over the time of the day. These daily rhythms are either externally driven by rhythmic environmental cues such as the light/dark cycle (masking) or controlled by an internal circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which can be entrained to the light/dark cycle. Within a given species, there is genetically determined variability in the temporal preference for the onset of the active phase, the chronotype. The chronotype is the phase of entrainment between external and internal time and is largely regulated by the circadian clock. Genetic variations in clock genes and environmental influences contribute to the distribution of chronotypes in a given population. However, little is known about the determination of the chronotype, the stability of the locomotor rhythm and the re-synchronization capacity to jet lag in an animal without a functional endogenous clock. Therefore, we analyzed the chronotype of BMAL1-deficient mice (BMAL1-/-) as well as the effects of repeated experimental jet lag on locomotor activity rhythms. Moreover, light-induced period expression in the retina was analyzed to assess the responsiveness of the circadian light input system. In contrast to wild-type mice, BMAL1-/- showed a significantly later chronotype, adapted more rapidly to both phase advance and delay but showed reduced robustness of rhythmic locomotor activity after repeated phase shifts. However, photic induction of Period in the retina was not different between the two genotypes. Our findings suggest that a disturbed clockwork is associated with a late chronotype, reduced rhythm stability and higher vulnerability to repeated external desynchronization. PMID:25216070

  10. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    both sediment and pore water, acute toxicity and physicochemical properties. Besides the mentioned evaluation factors, Sulphur mustard (Yperite) degradation products will have emphasis as the majority of the dumped CWAs is the sulphur mustard gas. The chronic toxicity will be described by spontaneous......-2008) and CHEMSEA (2011-2014), the area has been screened for the presence of parent compounds and metabolites including the concentrations they are found in. The majority of the detected compounds has been found in the sediment and a minor part in the pore water. The (eco)toxicity of these compounds remain...

  11. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  12. Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van der Steeg (Jan Willem); P. Steures (Pieternel); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); P.G. Hompes (Peter); J.M. Burggraaff (Jan); G.J.E. Oosterhuis (Jur); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); F. Veen (Fulco); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS: We evaluated whether obesity

  13. Substrate diameter and compliance affect the gripping strategies and locomotor mode of climbing boa constrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C

    2010-12-15

    Arboreal habitats pose unique challenges for locomotion as a result of their narrow cylindrical surfaces and discontinuities between branches. Decreased diameter of branches increases compliance, which can pose additional challenges, including effects on stability and energy damping. However, the combined effects of substrate diameter and compliance are poorly understood for any animal. We quantified performance, kinematics and substrate deformation while boa constrictors (Boa constrictor) climbed vertical ropes with three diameters (3, 6 and 9 mm) and four tensions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 body weights). Mean forward velocity decreased significantly with both decreased diameter and increased compliance. Both diameter and compliance had numerous effects on locomotor kinematics, but diameter had larger and more pervasive effects than compliance. Locomotion on the largest diameter had a larger forward excursion per cycle, and the locomotor mode and gripping strategy differed from that on the smaller diameters. On larger diameters, snakes primarily applied opposing forces at the same location on the rope to grip. By contrast, on smaller diameters forces were applied in opposite directions at different locations along the rope, resulting in increased rope deformation. Although energy is likely to be lost during deformation, snakes might use increased surface deformation as a strategy to enhance their ability to grip. PMID:21113006

  14. Spontaneous arteriorrhexis in affected lower limb following total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-feng; JIANG Qing; WANG Jun-fei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Total knee arthroplasty ( TKA) is now a standard treatment for serious osteoarthritis all over the world. Although it is a standard treatment, it has many complications, among which deep vein thrombosis ( DVT) is the exclusive blood vessel complication that has been reported.1,2 However, we found a new blood vessel complication of TKA in this study, which is spontaneous arteriorrhexis in the affected lower limb.

  15. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present. PMID:26329924

  16. Early maternal separation affects ethanol-induced conditioning in a nor-BNI insensitive manner, but does not alter ethanol-induced locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Fabio, Ma Carolina; Spear, Norman E

    2012-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol's reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol's appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD 1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

  17. Temperature affects longevity and age-related locomotor and cognitive decay in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Dario R; Terzibasi, Eva; Cattaneo, Antonino; Domenici, Luciano; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2006-06-01

    Temperature variations are known to modulate aging and life-history traits in poikilotherms as different as worms, flies and fish. In invertebrates, temperature affects lifespan by modulating the slope of age-dependent acceleration in death rate, which is thought to reflect the rate of age-related damage accumulation. Here, we studied the effects of temperature on aging kinetics, aging-related behavioural deficits, and age-associated histological markers of senescence in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri. This species shows a maximum captive lifespan of only 3 months, which is tied with acceleration in growth and expression of aging biomarkers. These biological peculiarities make it a very convenient animal model for testing the effects of experimental manipulations on life-history traits in vertebrates. Here, we show that (i) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C increases both median and maximum lifespan; (ii) life extension is due to reduction in the slope of the age-dependent acceleration in death rate; (iii) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C retards the onset of age-related locomotor and learning deficits; and (iv) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C reduces the accumulation of the age-related marker lipofuscin. We conclude that lowering water temperature is a simple experimental manipulation which retards the rate of age-related damage accumulation in this short-lived species. PMID:16842500

  18. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  19. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

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    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  20. Does Methylphenidate Affect Cystometric Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Park, Geun Ho; Cho, Sung Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is limited research on its effects on lower urinary tract function. This study investigated changes in cystometric parameters after intragastric administration of MPH in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Fourteen- to 16-week-old male SHRs (n=10), weighing between 280 and 315 g, were used. Th...

  1. Spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2014-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) represents the second most common type of malignant renal epithelial tumor (represents the 10% of the kidney’s carcinoma) and can be subclassified in the basophile type I and eosinophile type II. We report a clinical case of spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal (42 tumors foci) pRCC in a young man 53 years old, without showing earlier specific cancer signs and symptoms. Prognosis for type I pRCC is better than type II pRCC, but it is a...

  2. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Antihypertensive Treatment Differentially Affects Vascular Sphingolipid Biology in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.A. Spijkers; B.J.A. Janssen; J. Nelissen; M.J.P.M.T. Meens; D. Wijesinghe; C.E. Chalfant; J.G.R. de Mey; A.E. Alewijnse; S.L.M. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that essential hypertension in humans and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), is associated with increased levels of ceramide and marked alterations in sphingolipid biology. Pharmacological elevation of ceramide in isolated carotid arteries of SHR leads to vas

  4. Non-motorized voluntary running does not affect experimental and spontaneous metastasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of non-motorized voluntary running on experimental metastasis of B16BL/6 melanoma and spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice. After 9 weeks of running, mice (n = 30 per group) received an intravenous injection of B16BL/6 c...

  5. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano Hiroaki; Kaiya Hisanobu; Takimoto Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi Hiroe; Yoshiuchi Kazuhiro; Sakamoto Noriyuki; Yamamoto Yoshiharu; Akabayashi Akira

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity...

  6. Panic disorder and locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano Hiroaki

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder is one of the anxiety disorders, and anxiety is associated with some locomotor activity changes such as "restlessness". However, there have been few studies on locomotor activity in panic disorder using actigraphy, although many studies on other psychiatric disorders have been reported using actigraphy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between panic disorder and locomotor activity pattern using a wrist-worn activity monitor. In addition, an ecological momentary assessment technique was used to record panic attacks in natural settings. Methods Sixteen patients with panic disorder were asked to wear a watch-type computer as an electronic diary for recording panic attacks for two weeks. In addition, locomotor activity was measured and recorded continuously in an accelerometer equipped in the watch-type computer. Locomotor activity data were analyzed using double cosinor analysis to calculate mesor and the amplitude and acrophase of each of the circadian rhythm and 12-hour harmonic component. Correlations between panic disorder symptoms and locomotor activity were investigated. Results There were significant positive correlations between the frequency of panic attacks and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.55 and between HAM-A scores and mesor calculated from double cosinor analysis of locomotor activity (r = 0.62. Conclusion Panic disorder patients with more panic attacks and more anxiety have greater objectively assessed locomotor activity, which may reflect the "restlessness" of anxiety disorders.

  7. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    OpenAIRE

    Shigihara Yoshihito; Tanaka Masaaki; Ishii Akira; Kanai Etsuko; Funakura Masami; Watanabe Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fat...

  8. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Womersley Jacqueline S; Hsieh Jennifer H; Kellaway Lauriston A; Gerhardt Greg A; Russell Vivienne A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alte...

  9. Alterations in locomotor activity after microinjections of GBR-12909, selective dopamine antagonists or neurotensin into the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, R A; Erwin, V G

    1996-06-01

    It has been postulated that increased dopamine (DA) activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exerts an inhibitory influence over DA release in the nucleus accumbens and, thus, also over locomotor activity. Experiments were designed to examine the role of mPFC DA and neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide which interacts with DA, in spontaneous locomotor activity. LS/IBG mice were injected bilaterally with either GBR-12909, a selective DA uptake blocker, the DA D1 receptor antagonist R-(+)-SCH-23390, the DA D2 receptor antagonist epidepride, NT or a combination of drugs. GBR-12909 produced a U-shaped dose-response curve with a maximum inhibition of 47% of control. Postmortem tissue levels of DA, 5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine and their major metabolites were determined after microinjections of GBR-12909. Tissue levels of these compounds were not significantly affected by GBR-12909. However, the ratios of homovanilic acid/DA and homovanilic acid + 3,4-dihyroxyphenylacetic acid/DA were significantly decreased, whereas the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio was not affected by GBR-12909, suggesting a selective effect on DAergic processes. By itself, R-(+)-SCH-23390 had no effect on locomotor activity except at a very high dose which caused locomotor inhibition (49% of control). Epidepride caused a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity with a maximum inhibition of 49% of control. When coinjected with an inhibitory dose of GBR-12909, both epidepride and R-(+)-SCH-23390 attenuated the GBR-12909 effect in a dose-dependent manner. A broad range of doses of NT was found to have no consistent effect on locomotor activity. However, when coinjected with an inhibitory dose of GBR-12909, NT attenuated the GBR-12909-induced inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that stimulation of DA receptors in the mPFC, both DA D1 and DA D2 receptors mediates locomotor inhibition. Furthermore, stimulation of NT receptors appears to

  10. EARLY MATERNAL SEPARATION AFFECTS ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONING IN A nor-BNI INSENSITIVE MANNER, BUT DOES NOT ALTER ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Fabio, Ma. Carolina; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol’s reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol’s appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed...

  11. Antihypertensive treatment differentially affects vascular sphingolipid biology in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon J A Spijkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that essential hypertension in humans and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, is associated with increased levels of ceramide and marked alterations in sphingolipid biology. Pharmacological elevation of ceramide in isolated carotid arteries of SHR leads to vasoconstriction via a calcium-independent phospholipase A(2, cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane synthase-dependent release of thromboxane A(2. This phenomenon is almost absent in vessels from normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats. Here we investigated whether lowering of blood pressure can reverse elevated ceramide levels and reduce ceramide-mediated contractions in SHR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this purpose SHR were treated for 4 weeks with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan or the vasodilator hydralazine. Both drugs decreased blood pressure equally (SBP untreated SHR: 191±7 mmHg, losartan: 125±5 mmHg and hydralazine: 113±14 mmHg. The blood pressure lowering was associated with a 20-25% reduction in vascular ceramide levels and improved endothelial function of isolated carotid arteries in both groups. Interestingly, losartan, but not hydralazine treatment, markedly reduced sphingomyelinase-induced contractions. While both drugs lowered cyclooxygenase-1 expression, only losartan and not hydralazine, reduced the endothelial expression of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2. The latter finding may explain the effect of losartan treatment on sphingomyelinase-induced vascular contraction. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study corroborates the importance of sphingolipid biology in blood pressure control and specifically shows that blood pressure lowering reduces vascular ceramide levels in SHR and that losartan treatment, but not blood pressure lowering per se, reduces ceramide-mediated arterial contractions.

  12. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alan Kannape

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants. We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations. Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  13. Sensory-evoked perturbations of locomotor activity by sparse sensory input: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Tuan V; Brownstone, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Sensory inputs from muscle, cutaneous, and joint afferents project to the spinal cord, where they are able to affect ongoing locomotor activity. Activation of sensory input can initiate or prolong bouts of locomotor activity depending on the identity of the sensory afferent activated and the timing of the activation within the locomotor cycle. However, the mechanisms by which afferent activity modifies locomotor rhythm and the distribution of sensory afferents to the spinal locomotor networks have not been determined. Considering the many sources of sensory inputs to the spinal cord, determining this distribution would provide insights into how sensory inputs are integrated to adjust ongoing locomotor activity. We asked whether a sparsely distributed set of sensory inputs could modify ongoing locomotor activity. To address this question, several computational models of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) that were mechanistically diverse and generated locomotor-like rhythmic activity were developed. We show that sensory inputs restricted to a small subset of the network neurons can perturb locomotor activity in the same manner as seen experimentally. Furthermore, we show that an architecture with sparse sensory input improves the capacity to gate sensory information by selectively modulating sensory channels. These data demonstrate that sensory input to rhythm-generating networks need not be extensively distributed. PMID:25673740

  14. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  15. Temperature and Population Density Effects on Locomotor Activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T. M.; Faurby, S.; Kjærsgaard, A.;

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomotor...

  16. Spontaneous increase of transforming growth factor beta production by bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases affecting the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The spontaneous increase in the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) gene in bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune diseases affecting the lung has been shown by northern blot assay and a nuclear run on transcription assay. Transcription of the TGF beta gene in bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune diseases affecting the lung was increased 10 times compared with normal healthy subjects or patients with bronchial asthma ...

  17. Bovine growth hormone transgenic mice display alterations in locomotor activity and brain monoamine neurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderpalm, B; Ericson, M; Bohlooly, M; Engel, J A; Törnell, J

    1999-12-01

    Recent clinical and experimental data indicate a role for GH in mechanisms related to anhedonia/hedonia, psychic energy, and reward. In the present study we have investigated whether bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice and nontransgenic controls differ in spontaneous locomotor activity, a behavioral response related to brain dopamine (DA) and reward mechanisms, as well as in locomotor activity response to drugs of abuse known to interfere with brain DA systems. The animals were tested for locomotor activity once a week for 4 weeks. When first exposed to the test apparatus, bGH transgenic animals displayed significantly more locomotor activity than controls during the entire registration period (1 h). One week later, after acute pretreatment with saline, the two groups did not differ in locomotor activity, whereas at the third test occasion, bGH mice were significantly more stimulated by d-amphetamine (1 mg/kg, ip) than controls. At the fourth test, a tendency for a larger locomotor stimulatory effect of ethanol (2.5 g/kg, ip) was observed in bGH transgenic mice. bGH mice displayed increased tissue levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in several brain regions, decreased DA levels in the brain stem, and decreased levels of the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the mesencephalon and diencephalon, compared with controls. In conclusion, bGH mice display more spontaneous locomotor activity than nontransgenic controls in a novel environment and possibly also a disturbed habituation process. The finding that bGH mice were also more sensitive to d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity may suggest that the behavioral differences observed are related to differences in brain DA systems, indicating a hyperresponsiveness of these systems in bGH transgenic mice. These findings may constitute a neurochemical basis for the reported psychic effects of GH in humans. PMID:10579325

  18. Possibility of using tracer gases to determine the coal mass in the outbreak of spontaneous combustion and related affecting factors

    OpenAIRE

    Guřanová, Pavla; Zubíček, Václav; Fiurášková, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal mass is a very actual problem in underground coal mines. Professional research workplaces have investigated the problem since the first half of the twentieth century. Spontaneous combustion of coal in the form of endogenous fires is a reason of extraordinary events whose consequences are serious both in terms of economic losses, and in the field of security, because in the worst cases they are accompanied by the loss of human lives. Tracer gases are associated m...

  19. Exposure to ultrafine carbon particles at levels below detectable pulmonary inflammation affects cardiovascular performance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we sought to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs following inhalation of UfCPs (24 h, 172 μg·m-3, to assess whether compromised animals (SHR exhibit a different response pattern compared to the previously studied healthy rats (WKY. Methods Cardiophysiological response in SHRs was analyzed using radiotelemetry. Blood pressure (BP and its biomarkers plasma renin-angiotensin system were also assessed. Lung and cardiac mRNA expressions for markers of oxidative stress (hemeoxygenase-1, blood coagulation (tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and endothelial function (endothelin-1, and endothelin receptors A and B were analyzed following UfCPs exposure in SHRs. UfCPs-mediated inflammatory responses were assessed from broncho-alveolar-lavage fluid (BALF. Results Increased BP and heart rate (HR by about 5% with a lag of 1–3 days were detected in UfCPs exposed SHRs. Inflammatory markers of BALF, lung (pulmonary and blood (systemic were not affected. However, mRNA expression of hemeoxygenase-1, endothelin-1, endothelin receptors A and B, tissue factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor showed a significant induction (~2.5-fold; p Conclusion Our finding shows that UfCPs exposure at levels which does not induce detectable pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, triggers distinct effects in the lung and also at the systemic level in compromised SHRs. These effects are characterized by increased activity of plasma renin-angiotensin system and circulating white blood cells together with moderate increases in the BP, HR and decreases in heart rate variability. This systemic effect is associated with pulmonary, but not cardiac, mRNA induction of biomarkers reflective of oxidative stress; activation of vasoconstriction

  20. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. Here we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to...... modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence non-specific learning during...... walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 years, N = 20) could learn a specific sequence of...

  1. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino;

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra-re...

  2. Right Atrial Pressure Affects the Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Right Ventricular Function in Spontaneously Breathing COPD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boerrigter, B.G.; Trip, P.; Bogaard, H.J.; Groepenhoff, H.; Oosterveer, F.; Westerhof, N.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary...

  3. Right atrial pressure affects the interaction between lung mechanics and right ventricular function in spontaneously breathing COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Boerrigter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary interactions are influenced by right atrial pressure. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with COPD underwent simultaneous measurements of intrathoracic, right atrial and pulmonary artery pressures during spontaneous breathing at rest and during exercise. Intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure were used to calculate right atrial filling pressure. Dynamic changes in pulmonary artery pulse pressure during expiration were examined to evaluate changes in right ventricular output. RESULTS: Pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreased up to 40% during expiration reflecting a decrease in stroke volume. The decline in pulse pressure was most prominent in patients with a low right atrial filling pressure. During exercise, a similar decline in pulmonary artery pressure was observed. This could be explained by similar increases in intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure during exercise, resulting in an unchanged right atrial filling pressure. CONCLUSIONS: We show that in spontaneously breathing COPD patients the pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreases during expiration and that the magnitude of the decline in pulmonary artery pulse pressure is not just a function of intrathoracic pressure, but also depends on right atrial pressure.

  4. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  5. Kinematic study of locomotor recovery after spinal cord clip compression injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluin, Olivier; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Leblond, Hugues; Fehlings, Michael G; Rossignol, Serge

    2011-09-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), precise assessment of motor recovery is essential to evaluate the outcome of new therapeutic approaches. Very little is known on the recovery of kinematic parameters after clinically-relevant severe compressive/contusive incomplete spinal cord lesions in experimental animal models. In the present study we evaluated the time-course of kinematic parameters during a 6-week period in rats walking on a treadmill after a severe thoracic clip compression SCI. The effect of daily treadmill training was also assessed. During the recovery period, a significant amount of spontaneous locomotor recovery occurred in 80% of the rats with a return of well-defined locomotor hindlimb pattern, regular plantar stepping, toe clearance and homologous hindlimb coupling. However, substantial residual abnormalities persisted up to 6 weeks after SCI including postural deficits, a bias of the hindlimb locomotor cycle toward the back of the animals with overextension at the swing/stance transition, loss of lateral balance and impairment of weight bearing. Although rats never recovered the antero-posterior (i.e. homolateral) coupling, different levels of decoupling between the fore and hindlimbs were measured. We also showed that treadmill training increased the swing duration variability during locomotion suggesting an activity-dependent compensatory mechanism of the motor control system. However, no effect of training was observed on the main locomotor parameters probably due to a ceiling effect of self-training in the cage. These findings constitute a kinematic baseline of locomotor recovery after clinically relevant SCI in rats and should be taken into account when evaluating various therapeutic strategies aimed at improving locomotor function. PMID:21770755

  6. Dissociation of locomotor and cerebellar deficits in a murine Angelman syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Caroline F; Schonewille, Martijn; Gao, Zhenyu; Aronica, Eleonora M A; Judson, Matthew C; Philpot, Benjamin D; Hoebeek, Freek E; van Woerden, Geeske M; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Elgersma, Ype

    2015-11-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurological disorder that is associated with prominent movement and balance impairments that are widely considered to be due to defects of cerebellar origin. Here, using the cerebellar-specific vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) paradigm, we determined that cerebellar function is only mildly impaired in the Ube3am-/p+ mouse model of AS. VOR phase-reversal learning was singularly impaired in these animals and correlated with reduced tonic inhibition between Golgi cells and granule cells. Purkinje cell physiology, in contrast, was normal in AS mice as shown by synaptic plasticity and spontaneous firing properties that resembled those of controls. Accordingly, neither VOR phase-reversal learning nor locomotion was impaired following selective deletion of Ube3a in Purkinje cells. However, genetic normalization of αCaMKII inhibitory phosphorylation fully rescued locomotor deficits despite failing to improve cerebellar learning in AS mice, suggesting extracerebellar circuit involvement in locomotor learning. We confirmed this hypothesis through cerebellum-specific reinstatement of Ube3a, which ameliorated cerebellar learning deficits but did not rescue locomotor deficits. This double dissociation of locomotion and cerebellar phenotypes strongly suggests that the locomotor deficits of AS mice do not arise from impaired cerebellar cortex function. Our results provide important insights into the etiology of the motor deficits associated with AS. PMID:26485287

  7. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  8. The K-Ras 4A isoform promotes apoptosis but does not affect either lifespan or spontaneous tumor incidence in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ras proteins function as molecular switches in signal transduction pathways, and, here, we examined the effects of the K-ras4A and 4B splice variants on cell function by comparing wild-type embryonic stem (ES) cells with K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A (exon 4A knock-out) ES cells which express K-ras4B only and K-ras -/- (exons 1-3 knock-out) ES cells which express neither splice variant, and intestinal epithelium from wild-type and K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A mice. RT-qPCR analysis found that K-ras4B expression was reduced in K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A ES cells but unaffected in small intestine. K-Ras deficiency did not affect ES cell growth, and K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect intestinal epithelial proliferation. K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A and K-ras -/- ES cells showed a reduced capacity for differentiation following LIF withdrawal, and K-ras -/- cells were least differentiated. K-Ras4A deficiency inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in ES cells and intestinal epithelial cells. However, K-ras tmΔ4A/tmΔ4A ES cells were more resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis than K-ras -/- cells. The results indicate that (1) K-Ras4A promotes apoptosis while K-Ras4B inhibits it, and (2) K-Ras4B, and possibly K-Ras4A, promotes differentiation. The findings raise the possibility that alteration of the K-Ras4A/4B isoform ratio modulates tumorigenesis by differentially affecting stem cell survival and/or differentiation. However, K-Ras4A deficiency did not affect life expectancy or spontaneous overall tumor incidence in aging mice

  9. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  10. Spontaneous Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  11. Development of a spinal locomotor rheostat

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Issberner, Jon; Sillar, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Locomotion in immature animals is often inflexible, but gradually acquires versatility to enable animals to maneuver efficiently through their environment. Locomotor activity in adults is produced by complex spinal cord networks that develop from simpler precursors. How does complexity and plasticity emerge during development to bestow flexibility upon motor behavior? And how does this complexity map onto the peripheral innervation fields of motorneurons during development? We show in postemb...

  12. Mephedrone interactions with cocaine: prior exposure to the 'bath salt' constituent enhances cocaine-induced locomotor activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ryan A; Tallarida, Christopher S; Reitz, Allen B; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent use of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; MEPH) and established drugs of abuse is now commonplace, but knowledge about interactions between these drugs is sparse. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that prior MEPH exposure enhances the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH). For cocaine experiments, rats pretreated with saline, cocaine (15 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) for 5 days were injected with cocaine after 10 days of drug absence. For METH experiments, rats pretreated with saline, METH (2 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) were injected with METH after 10 days of drug absence. Cocaine challenge produced greater locomotor activity after pretreatment with cocaine or MEPH than after pretreatment with saline. METH challenge produced greater locomotor activity after METH pretreatment than after saline pretreatment; however, locomotor activity in rats pretreated with MEPH or saline and then challenged with METH was not significantly different. The locomotor response to MEPH (15 mg/kg) was not significantly affected by pretreatment with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or METH (0.5, 2 mg/kg). The present demonstration that cocaine-induced locomotor activation is enhanced by prior MEPH exposure suggests that MEPH cross-sensitizes to cocaine and increases cocaine efficacy. Interestingly, MEPH cross-sensitization was not bidirectional and did not extend to METH, suggesting that the phenomenon is sensitive to specific psychostimulants. PMID:24126218

  13. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  14. Spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results for spontaneous fission half-lives and fission fragment mass and kinetic-energy distributions and other properties of the fragments are reviewed and compared with recent theoretical models. The experimental data lend support to the existence of the predicted deformed shells near Z = 108 and N = 162. Prospects for extending detailed studies of spontaneous fission properties to elements beyond hahnium (element 105) are considered. (orig.)

  15. Locomotor hypoactivity and motor disturbances--behavioral effects induced by intracerebellar microinjections of dopaminergic DA-D2/D3 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiewicz, W; Maj, J

    2001-01-01

    In the light of recent findings, DA-D3 dopamine receptors with an unclear physiological function are present in the cerebellar cortex. Our preliminary results seem to indicate that bilateral injection of 7-OH-DPAT, a DA-D2/D3 receptor agonist (1 and 10 microg/0.5 microl), to lobule 9/10 of rat cerebellar cortex reduces spontaneous locomotor activity (hypolocomotor effects) and induces balance and motor coordination disturbances, respectively. Similar effects can be observed in the case of analogous microinjection of the DA-D3/D2 agonist pramipexole. In earlier studies, peripheral (ip) injection of nafadotride (0.6 mg/kg), a D3 receptor antagonist, neither affected per se spontaneous motor activity, nor modified the above described effects of 7-OH-DPAT. Participation of cerebellar DA-D3 and DA-D2 receptors in hypolocomotor effects, as well as putative participation of other receptors in the generation of motor disturbances, has been discussed. PMID:11990070

  16. Contrasting effects of leptin on food anticipatory and total locomotor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Obese, leptin deficient obob mice have profoundly decreased activity and increased food seeking behavior. The decreased activity has been attributed to obesity. In mice, we tested the hypothesis that leptin increases total locomotor activity but inhibits food anticipatory activity. We also sought to determine if leptin induced increases in total locomotor activity are independent of changes in body weight and obesity. We studied obob mice and also created a novel transgenic mouse where leptin is over-expressed in a tetracycline-off system and can be abruptly and non-invasively suppressed by doxycycline within few hours. The studies were performed using two independent behavioral assays: home cage activity (HCA and running wheel activity (RWA. Systemic administration of leptin (150 ng/hr to obob mice produced a 122%±30% (mean ± SEM increase (p≤0.01 in locomotor activity within 2 days In addition, cerebroventricular administration of leptin (5 ng/hr also produced an early and progressive increase in total locomotor activity beginning on the 1st day (+28±8%; p≤0.05 and increasing to +69±23% on day 3 without a decrease in body weight during this time. The increase in activity was restricted to the dark phase. Conversely, in a tet-off transgenic obob mouse line, acute leptin suppression reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. To further define activities that are leptin regulated, we assayed food anticipatory activity (FAA and found that it was markedly augmented in obob mice compared to wild type mice (+38±6.7 in obob vs +20±6.3% in wild type at peak; mean ± SEM; p≤0.001 and abolished by leptin. Although melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R reportedly mediate FAA, we found augmented FAA and preserved inhibitory effects of leptin on FAA in MC3R-/-obob mice. In summary, this study demonstrates that total activity and FAA are regulated independently by leptin. Leptin, acting in the central nervous system and at physiologic levels, produces early

  17. Is Habitat Preference Associated with Locomotor Performance in Multiocellated Racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) from a Desert Steppe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhuai BI; Yang WANG; Shuran LI; Zhigao ZENG

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor performance in lizards is strongly affected by structural habitat. Understanding this relationship allows us to predict species distributions across habitat types. However, little information is available about the ecological role of the locomotion of multiocellated racerunner (Eremias multiocellata) in the desert steppe ecosystem of Inner Mongolia, China. Herein, we studied the effects of habitat structure on the locomotor performance of this lizard species in the field. We found that the sprint speed of this lizard declined significantly with increasing vegetation coverage. Manipulative experiments were further conducted to examine the effects of branch barriers and surface substrates on the sprint speed of the lizard. We found that the sprint speed was significantly influenced by the surface substrates and branch barriers, and there were no interactions between them. Branch barriers impeded sprint speed, and E. multiocellata showed better locomotor performance on sandy rather than loamy substrates. Our results indicate that E. multiocellata tends to occupy open areas with sandy substrates, but its locomotor performance is not closely associated with habitat preference.

  18. Modelling the locomotor energetics of extinct hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, P A

    1999-10-01

    Bipedality is the defining characteristic of Hominidae and, as such, an understanding of the adaptive significance and functional implications of bipedality is imperative to any study of human evolution. Hominid bipedality is, presumably, a solution to some problem for the early hominids, one that has much to do with energy expenditure. Until recently, however, little attention could be focused on the quantifiable energetic aspects of bipedality as a unique locomotor form within Primates because of the inability to measure empirically the energy expenditure of non-modern hominids. A recently published method provides a way of circumventing the empirical measurement dilemma by calculating energy expenditure directly from anatomical variables and movement profiles. Although the origins of bipedality remain clouded, two discernible forms of locomotor anatomy are present in the hominid fossil record: the australopithecine and modern configurations. The australopithecine form is best represented by AL 288-1, a partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis, and is characterized as having short legs and a wide pelvis. The modern form is represented by modern humans and has long legs and a narrow pelvis. Human walking is optimized to take advantage of the changing levels of potential and kinetic energy that occur as the body and limbs move through the stride cycle. Although this optimization minimizes energy expenditure, some energy is required to maintain motion. I quantify this energy by developing a dynamic model that uses kinematic equations to determine energy expenditure. By representing both configurations with such a model, I can compare their rates of energy expenditure. I find that the australopithecine configuration uses less energy than that of a modern human. Despite arguments presented in the anthropological literature, the shortness of the legs of AL 288-1 provides no evidence that she was burdened with a compromised or transitional locomotor anatomy

  19. [Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedbrand, Charlotte; Lange, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema, also known as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, is defined as radiologically detected free air in the mediastinum, without preceding trauma. It is a rare condition, mainly affecting young adults. It can be caused by coughing, strenuous sports or cocaine inhalation, however, 40% are idiopatic. Common symptoms are chest pain and dyspnoea. 75-90% can be diagnosed with a chest X-ray, and 100% with a computed tomography. Treatment is symptomatic and complications are rare, however, pneumothorax and pneumorrachis have been reported. PMID:26750190

  20. Spontaneous loss of Yr2 avirulence in two lineages of Puccinia striiformis did not affect pathogen fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chris Khadgi; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    Fitness costs associated with the emergence of virulence (loss of avirulence) have been a subject of much debate in plant pathology. Here, differences in fitness between two pairs of wild types and spontaneous virulence mutants in Puccinia striiformis were studied. The mutants differed from their...

  1. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Wakai, Abel P

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is defined as air entering the pleural space without any provoking factor, such as trauma, surgery, or diagnostic intervention. Incidence is 24/100,000 a year in men, and 10/100,000 in women in England and Wales, and the major contributing factor is smoking, which increases the likelihood by 22 times in men and by 8 times in women.While death from spontaneous pneumothorax is rare, rates of recurrence are high, with one study of men in the US finding a total recurre...

  2. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Wakai, Abel P

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is defined as air entering the pleural space without any provoking factor, such as trauma, surgery, or diagnostic intervention. Incidence is 24/100,000 a year in men, and 10/100,000 a year in women in England and Wales, and the major contributing factor is smoking, which increases the likelihood by 22 times in men and by 8 times in women.While death from spontaneous pneumothorax is rare, rates of recurrence are high, with one study of men in the US finding a total ...

  3. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (pexercise performance and spontaneous locomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. PMID:25479573

  4. Development of a spinal locomotor rheostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Issberner, Jon; Sillar, Keith T

    2011-07-12

    Locomotion in immature animals is often inflexible, but gradually acquires versatility to enable animals to maneuver efficiently through their environment. Locomotor activity in adults is produced by complex spinal cord networks that develop from simpler precursors. How does complexity and plasticity emerge during development to bestow flexibility upon motor behavior? And how does this complexity map onto the peripheral innervation fields of motorneurons during development? We show in postembryonic Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles that swim motorneurons initially form a homogenous pool discharging single action potential per swim cycle and innervating most of the dorsoventral extent of the swimming muscles. However, during early larval life, in the prelude to a free-swimming existence, the innervation fields of motorneurons become restricted to a more limited sector of each muscle block, with individual motorneurons reaching predominantly ventral, medial, or dorsal regions. Larval motorneurons then can also discharge multiple action potentials in each cycle of swimming and differentiate in terms of their firing reliability during swimming into relatively high-, medium-, or low-probability members. Many motorneurons fall silent during swimming but can be recruited with increasing locomotor frequency and intensity. Each region of the myotome is served by motorneurons spanning the full range of firing probabilities. This unfolding developmental plan, which occurs in the absence of movement, probably equips the organism with the neuronal substrate to bend, pitch, roll, and accelerate during swimming in ways that will be important for survival during the period of free-swimming larval life that ensues. PMID:21709216

  5. Oxidized trilinoleate and tridocosahexaenoate induce pica behavior and change locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Fuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Umeno, Aya; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Kurata, Kenji; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Pica behavior, a behavior that is characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and the variations of locomotor activity of rats after eating deteriorated fat and oil extracted from instant noodles were examined in our previous study. The result shows that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV) increase pica behavior and decrease locomotor activity. In the present study, the same two behaviors were measured using autoxidized trilinoleate (tri-LA) and tridocosahexaenoate (tri-DHA) as a model of vegetable and fish oil, respectively, to compare fatty acid differences against the induction of two behaviors. The oxidized levels of tri-LA and tri-DHA were analyzed with PV and p-anisidine value (AnV), the method to analyze secondary oxidized products. The oxidation levels of respective triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were carefully adjusted to make them having almost the same PV and AnV. As the results, 600 or more meq/kg in PV of both TAGs significantly increased the consumption of kaolin pellets compared to the control group. Furthermore, 300 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-LA and 200 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-DHA demonstrated significant decrease in locomotor activity compared to control group. These results would indicate that the oxidized TAG having the same PV and/or AnV would induce the same type of pica behavior and locomotor activity. Furthermore, that the structure of oxidized products might not be important and the amount of hydroperoxide group and/or aldehyde group in deteriorated fats and oils might affect the pica behavior and locomotor activity were thought. PMID:23535307

  6. Behavioral and Locomotor Measurements Using an Open Field Activity Monitoring System for Skeletal Muscle Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body sy...

  7. Effect of caffeine on cocaine locomotor stimulant activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A L; Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B

    1986-03-01

    The effect of caffeine on the locomotor stimulant activity induced by intravenous cocaine in rats was investigated. Low doses of caffeine (20 mg/kg IP) potentiated the locomotor activity induced by 1, 2.5 mg/kg intravenous doses of cocaine and higher doses of caffeine (50, 100 mg/kg IP) had no significant effect. The locomotor stimulant effect of 20 mg/kg IP dose of caffeine per se in vehicle was significantly higher and that with 100 mg/kg dose significantly lower than that of the vehicle control. Thus caffeine produced dose-dependent effects on cocaine-induced locomotor stimulant activity, with low dose potentiating and higher doses having no significant effect on such activity. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors did not appear to play a role in potentiation of cocaine locomotor stimulant activity by caffeine. PMID:3703910

  8. Effects of 3-O-methyldopa, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine metabolite, on locomotor activity and dopamine turnover in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onzawa, Yoritaka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Uzuhashi, Kengo; Shirasuna, Megumi; Hirosawa, Tasuku; Taogoshi, Takanori; Kihira, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    It has been well known that 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) is a metabolite of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) formed by catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), and 3-OMD blood level often reaches higher than physiological level in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving long term L-DOPA therapy. However, the physiological role of 3-OMD has not been well understood. Therefore, in order to clarify the effects of 3-OMD on physiological function, we examined the behavioral alteration in rats based on locomotor activity, and measured dopamine (DA) and its metabolites levels in rats at the same time after 3-OMD subchronic administration. The study results showed that repeated administrations of 3-OMD increased its blood and the striatum tissue levels in those rats, and decreased locomotor activity in a dose dependent manner. Although 3-OMD subchronic administration showed no significant change in DA level in the striatum, DA metabolite levels, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly decreased. After 3-OMD washout period (7 d), locomotor activity and DA turnover in those rats returned to normal levels. Furthermore, locomotor activity and DA turnover decreased by 3-OMD administration were recovered to normal level by acute L-DOPA administration. These results suggested that 3-OMD affect to locomotor activity via DA neuron system. In conclusion, 3-OMD itself may have a disadvantage in PD patients receiving L-DOPA therapy. PMID:22863920

  9. Spatial memory in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Thomas-A; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory. However, the data on spatial working memory deficits in SHRs are not consistent. It has been suggested that the reported cognitive deficits of SHRs may be related to the SHRs' locomotor activity. We have used a holeboard (COGITAT) to study both cognition and activity in order to evaluate the influence of the activity on the cognitive performance of SHRs. In comparison to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, SHRs did not have any impairment in spatial working memory and reference memory. When the rats' locomotor activity was taken into account, the SHRs' working memory and reference memory were significantly better than in WKY rats. The locomotor activity appears to be a confounding factor in spatial memory tasks and should therefore be controlled for in future studies. In the SHR model of ADHD, we were unable to demonstrate an impairment of working memory which has been reported in patients with ADHD. PMID:24009775

  10. A case of ovarian torsion in a patient carrier of a FSH receptor gene mutation previously affected by spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, C; Savoia, F; Fabozzi, A; Gargano, V; Nappi, C

    2015-02-01

    We here report a case of ovarian torsion in a patient with an history of two previous episodes of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome during her two pregnancies. A mutation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr) gene was identified in this patient and in other members of the family. Two years after her successful second pregnancy, the patient showed signs of severe thyroiditis during administration of oral contraceptive, with suppressed TSH and increased thyreoglobulin, in the absence of any abnormalities of the auto-antibodies. In few days, she developed severe pelvic pain and ultrasonographic evidence of increased ovarian volume. She underwent laparoscopy with unilateral adnexectomy for ovarian ischemic necrosis due to adnexal torsion. Our experience suggests that patients' carrier of a mutation of FSHr gene are at risk of ovarian pathologies also when non-pregnant and in the presence of low TSH levels. Further investigations are needed for an appropriate knowledge of typical and atypical manifestations of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:25495063

  11. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  12. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  13. Locomotor and pyretic effects of MDMA-ethanol associations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Jeltsch, Hélène; Koenig, Julie; Jones, Byron C

    2004-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine [(MDMA) or ecstasy] is a popular club drug often used in combination with ethanol. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MDMA and ethanol combinations on locomotor activity and body temperature of rats. For four consecutive days, male Long-Evans rats were treated daily with a 10-mg/kg dose of MDMA with or without a 1.5-g/kg dose of ethanol. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine increased spontaneous activity (on average +1,140%), and this increase was potentiated by ethanol on all days (on average +1,710%). Moreover, ethanol inhibited the MDMA-induced hyperthermia (on average -1.3 degrees C) by the first day of treatment, but not on subsequent treatment days, supporting the suggestion that this effect may undergo tolerance. These observations seem to indicate that combined ethanol-MDMA may induce effects on locomotor activity and thermoregulation that involve separate mechanisms, the first one being less sensitive to tolerance than the second one might be. Results of our study have important implications for understanding the motivation and the health risks of polydrug abusers combining ecstasy and ethanol. PMID:15902924

  14. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Chronic Pain in the Locomotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most pains from the locomotor system arise due to involuntary, chronic tensions in the muscles or other tissues. When the patient is motivated, the pain is easily cured in most of the cases by using the tools of consciousness-based medicine, primarily therapeutic touch, conversation, and coaching the patient in a positive philosophy of life. The pains are often caused by “blockages” that may cause problems other than just pain. Often it turns out that the blocked areas develop actual physical damage over time: a slipped disk in the back, articular degeneration, or osteoarthritis when the cartilage is affected, can often be explained in this way. Apparently, the exact areas where the blockage is situated cause cellular problems, disrupting cellular order. The holistic process theory of healing and the related quality of life theories state that return to the natural state of being is possible, whenever the person gets the resources needed for existential healing. The resources needed are “holding” in the dimensions of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment, and acceptance with support and processing in the dimensions of feeling, understanding, and letting go of negative attitudes and beliefs. The preconditions for holistic healing are trust and the intention for the healing to take place. Case stories of holistic treatment of patients with chronic back pain, low back pain, muscle problems, knee pain, and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are discussed with exercises relevant for patients with these conditions in the holistic clinic.

  15. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior. PMID:27469058

  16. The effects of inhaled isoparaffins on locomotor activity and operant performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S E; Balster, R L

    1998-11-01

    Very little is known qualitatively or quantitatively about the acute central nervous system effects of isoparaffin solvents that are widely used in household and commercial applications. Four isoparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent products differing in predominant carbon number and volatility (ISOPAR-C, -E -G, -H) were tested for their acute effects on locomotor activity and operant performance after inhalation exposure in mice. For both measures, concentration-effect curves were obtained for 30-min exposures using a within-subject design. The more volatile products, ISOPAR-C and -E, were as easily vaporized under our conditions as vapors such as toluene and TCE, which have acute effects on human behavior and are abused. ISOPAR-G was slowly volatilized and ISOPAR-H could not be completely volatilized within our 30-min exposures, suggesting that acute human exposures may be less likely and that it may be more difficult to abuse them. ISOPAR-C, -E, and -G produced reversible increases in locomotor activity of mice at 4000 and 6000 ppm while ISOPAR-C and -E produced reversible concentration-dependent decreases in rates of schedule-controlled operant behavior in approximately the same concentration range as they affected locomotor activity. The fact that only locomotor activity increases were observed with these isoparaffins provides evidence that they produce a different pattern of effects than those reported for abused solvents such as toluene and TCE. Further research will be needed to determine if this different pattern of effects on animal behavior between isoparaffins and abused solvents is correlated with a different pattern of acute intoxication and abuse potential in humans. PMID:9768561

  17. Stabilizing the Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling Using a Metronome to Save Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villard Sébastien J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC is often evidenced by phase- or frequency-locking patterns. The model of the sine circle map is used here to characterize LRC. Several studies have suggested that a sound emitted by an external metronome can stabilize the LRC. Participants in our task were asked during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus corresponding to their preferred respiratory and pedaling frequencies respectively. Our results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure when participants breathed in sync with the auditory stimulation, but not accompanied by a change in the stabilization of LRC. A large within- as well as between-participants LRC variability, together with the spontaneous adoption of the most stable pace, contributes to explain this result.

  18. Effects of caffeine on locomotor activity of horses: determination of the no-effect threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Neto, A; Zamur, G; Carregaro, A B; Mataqueiro, M I; Salvadori, M C; Azevedo, C P; Harkins, J D; Tobin, T

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is the legal stimulant consumed most extensively by the human world population and may be found eventually in the urine and/or blood of race horses. The fact that caffeine is in foods led us to determine the highest no-effect dose (HNED) of caffeine on the spontaneous locomotor activity of horses and then to quantify this substance in urine until it disappeared. We built two behavioural stalls equipped with juxtaposed photoelectric sensors that emit infrared beams that divide the stall into nine sectors in a 'tic-tac-toe' fashion. Each time a beam was interrupted by a leg of the horse, a pulse was generated; the pulses were counted at 5-min intervals and stored by a microcomputer. Environmental effects were minimized by installing exhaust fans producing white noise that obscured outside sounds. One-way observation windows prevented the animals from seeing outside. The sensors were turned on 45 min before drug administration (saline control or caffeine). The animals were observed for up to 8 h after i.v. administration of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 5.0 mg caffeine kg(-1). The HNED of caffeine for stimulation of the spontaneous locomotor activity of horses was 2.0 mg kg(-1). The quantification of caffeine in urine and plasma samples was done by gradient HPLC with UV detection. The no-effect threshold should not be greater than 2.0 microg caffeine ml(-1) plasma or 5.0 microg caffeine ml(-1) urine. PMID:11404835

  19. Factors affecting accumulation of thallium and other trace elements in two wild Brassicaceae spontaneously growing on soils contaminated by tailings dam waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Lepp, N W

    2007-02-01

    Thallium is a scarce, highly toxic element. There are several investigations that report Tl accumulation in plants of the family Brassicaceae. These plants could pose a risk in areas where Tl is present at higher concentrations than normal soils. The present study reports analyses of two wild Brassicaceae, Hirschfeldia incana and Diplotaxis catholica, growing spontaneously at five sampling sites moderately polluted with Tl and other trace elements in the Green Corridor of the Guadiamar river, Seville, S. Spain. In general, trace element content was unremarkable in all part plants, despite the concentrations present in soil. Thallium was the only element whose concentration in both plant species was above normal for plants (maximum values of 5.00 mgkg(-1) in H. incana flowers). There were significant positive correlations between total Tl in soil and Tl in both plant species. Transfer Coefficients (TC) for all elements were, in general, <1 for both species, except for Tl in flowers and fruits at some sites. The highest Enrichment Factor (EF) was found for Tl in H. incana fruits (EF = 607) and D. catholica flowers (EF = 321). H. incana was studied in a previous growing season (2004) in the same area, although the rainfall was 3 times more than in the year of the present study (2005), giving a maximum Tl content of 46.5 mgkg(-1) in H. incana flowers. The data presented here show that Tl content of plants growing in semi-arid conditions can be significantly influenced by precipitation. In dry years, plant Tl accumulation may be significantly reduced. PMID:17123576

  20. The Nicotine-Evoked Locomotor Response: A Behavioral Paradigm for Toxicity Screening in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos and Eleutheroembryos Exposed to Methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X.; Svoboda, Kurt R.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This study is an adaptation of the nicotine-evoked locomotor response (NLR) assay, which was originally utilized for phenotype-based neurotoxicity screening in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos do not exhibit spontaneous swimming until roughly 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), however, a robust swimming response can be induced as early as 36 hours post-fertilization (hpf) by means of acute nicotine exposure (30–240μM). Here, the NLR was tested as a tool for early detection of locomotor phenotypes in 36, 48 and 72 hpf mutant zebrafish embryos of the non-touch-responsive maco strain; this assay successfully discriminated mutant embryos from their non-mutant siblings. Then, methylmercury (MeHg) was used as a proof-of-concept neurotoxicant to test the effectiveness of the NLR assay as a screening tool in toxicology. The locomotor effects of MeHg were evaluated in 6 dpf wild type eleutheroembryos exposed to waterborne MeHg (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1μM). Afterwards, the NLR assay was tested in 48 hpf embryos subjected to the same MeHg exposure regimes. Embryos exposed to 0.01 and 0.03μM of MeHg exhibited significant increases in locomotion in both scenarios. These findings suggest that similar locomotor phenotypes observed in free swimming fish can be detected as early as 48 hpf, when locomotion is induced with nicotine. PMID:27123921

  1. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  2. Preservation of common rhythmic locomotor control despite weakened supraspinal regulation after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn eKlarner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic pattern of arm and leg movement during rhythmic locomotor tasks is supported by common central neural control from spinal and supraspinal centers in neurologically intact participants. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that following a cerebrovascular accident, shared systems from interlimb cutaneous networks facilitating arm and leg coordination persist across locomotor tasks. Twelve stroke participants (>6 months post CVA performed arm and leg (A&L cycling using a stationary ergometer and walking on a motorized treadmill. In both tasks cutaneous reflexes were evoked via surface stimulation of the nerves innervating the dorsum of the hand (superficial radial; SR and foot (superficial peroneal; SP of the less affected limbs. Electromyographic (EMG activity from the tibialis anterior, soleus, flexor carpi radialis, and posterior deltoid were recorded bilaterally with surface electrodes. Full-wave rectified and filtered EMG data were separated into eight equal parts or phases and aligned to begin with maximum knee extension for both walking and A&L cycling. At each phase of movement, background EMG data were quantified as the peak normalized response for each participant and cutaneous reflexes were quantified as the average cumulative reflex over 150 ms following stimulation. In general, background EMG was similar between walking and A&L cycling, seen especially in the distal leg muscles. Cutaneous reflexes were evident and modified in the less and more affected limbs during walking and A&L cycling and similar modulation patterns were observed suggesting activity in related control networks between tasks. After a stroke common neural patterning from conserved subcortical regulation is seen supporting the notion of a common core in locomotor tasks involving arm and leg movement. This has translational implications for rehabilitation where A&L cycling could be usefully applied to improve walking function.

  3. Locomotor Behaviour of Blattella germanica Modified by DEET

    OpenAIRE

    Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A.; Eduardo N Zerba; Raúl A Alzogaray

    2013-01-01

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active principle of most insect repellents used worldwide. However, its toxicity on insects has not been widely studied. The aim of this work is to study the effects of DEET on the locomotor activity of Blattella germanica. DEET has a dose-dependent repellent activity on B. germanica. Locomotor activity was significantly lower when insects were pre-exposed to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET for 20 or 30 minutes, but it did not change when pre-exposure was shorte...

  4. Effects of zacopride and BMY25801 (batanopride) on radiation-induced emesis and locomotor behavior in the ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G.L.; Landauer, M.R. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The antiemetic and locomotor effects of two substituted benzamides, zacopride and batanopride (BMY25801), were compared in ferrets after bilateral 60Co irradiation at 2, 4 or 6 Gy. Both zacopride and BMY25801 were effective against emesis and related signs. Zacopride, tested at several doses (0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg), appeared to be more potent because it abolished emesis at 100-fold lower doses than did BMY25801 (3 mg/kg). The ED50 value for the antiemetic effect of zacopride was 0.026 mg/kg (confidence levels = 0.0095, 0.072 mg/kg). However, analysis of emetic parameters recorded from vomiting animals (e.g., latency to first emesis) demonstrated that BMY25801 provided greater antiemetic protection in this population than zacopride without any apparent side effects. Locomotor activity was significantly depressed by both radiation (all doses) and zacopride alone (0.03 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg). BMY25801 alone did not affect locomotor activity, and protected against the radiation-induced locomotor decrement. Although zacopride potentiated the locomotor decrement to radiation, no clear dose-response relationship was evident. Bilateral abdominal vagotomy significantly increased the latency to the first emetic episode and significantly reduced the number of retches, but did not alter the duration of the prodromal response to 4-Gy irradiation. Unilateral vagotomies had no effect. Zacopride (at 0.03 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg) remained an effective antiemetic in animals that received a bilateral vagotomy, abolishing emesis in four of eight and two of eight ferrets, respectively. These data suggest that the antiemetic action of zacopride does not fully depend on intact vagal innervation and also acts via other pathways.

  5. Reliability of instrumented movement analysis as outcome measure in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Results from a multitask locomotor protocol

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ferrarin; Bovi, G.; Rabuffetti, M.; Mazzoleni, P; Montesano, A.; Moroni, I.; Pagliano, E.; A. Marchi; C. Marchesi; E. Beghi; Pareyson, D

    2011-01-01

    Some neurodegenerative diseases at early stage may not drastically affect basic gait ability, whereas more demanding locomotor tasks are more prone to disease-induced abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the interday test–retest reliability, 4–6 weeks apart, of instrumented movement analysis on a group of 20 subjects with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease considering a set of kinematic and kinetic curves and related parameters obtained during natural walking (NW) and faster walking, hee...

  6. NMR imaging of locomotor apparatus in sporting pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR imaging is, from the whole of imaging applicable to the locomotor apparatus, this one which gives an image the most global possible. We took two examples: the knee with kneecap, tendons and cartilages, and an osseous lesion of ankle-bone. 4 figs

  7. Locomotor Experience and Use of Social Information Are Posture Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Ishak, Shaziela; Karasik, Lana B.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants' perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation--descending steep and shallow slopes--while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable…

  8. Study of Locomotor Disability due to Various Types of Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Rameshrao Dhole

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Trauma contributes not only to significant number of disabilities, but also to severity of disability. Road traffic accidents and railway accidents are major causes of traumatic locomotor disability and young persons are the usual victims of such disasters. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 194-198

  9. Anatomía del Aparato Locomotor, 2010-11

    OpenAIRE

    Juanes Méndez, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: 1.Sistema Oseo. Las Articulaciones: definición, clasificaciones; 2.Esqueleto Axial; 3.Esqueleto Apendicular; 4. Organización del sistema nervioso periférico. Inervación del Aparato Locomotor; 5. Sistema muscular. II. Bibliografía y atlas

  10. The Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral and Bone Disorder on the Locomotor System and Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FOUAD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD -BMD is a worldwide challenge in hemodialysis patients (HD. Widespread use and improved methods of HD may have changed the spectrum of locomotor system disorders in this population. Locomotor system disorders have an impact on health-related quality of life (QOL. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of CKD-BMD on the locomotor system (bone, joint, muscle, tendon and bursa and document the prevalence of locomotor system disorders in HD populations and its impact in QOL. MATERIAL and METHODS: 550 HD patients were enrolled in this study. Each HD patient received complete locomotor system examination and specific diagnostic investigation. iPTH level classified study population into three groups. Group 1. (149 patients iPTH level 300 pg/ mL, high turnover bone disease. Patients were offered a self-administered QOL questionnaire, which assessed various QOL variables. RESULTS: 75% of hemodialysis patients suffered from one or more locomotor system disorders and the commonest was bone pain 60%, followed by muscle cramps 36%, proximal muscle weakness 30%, osteoarthritis 25%, osteoporosis 16%, rotator cuff syndrome15%, gout pre-HD 12.5%, carpal tunnel syndrome 12%, bone fracture 7%, fibromyalgia 7%, tenosynovitis 6%, periarticular calcification 5%, Dupuytren’s contracture 2%, septic arthritis 0.9% and osteomyelitis 0.9%. The three studied groups were represented by 27%, 23% and 50% respectively. The prevalence of osteoarthritis, muscle cramps, bone pain, spontaneous bone fracture and osteoporosis were higher in the third group. 30% of our HD patients completed the QOL questionnaire without assistance and their mean functional status, psychological status, pain scale, fatigue scale, global assessment and joint count were 3.24±2.24, 3.13 ±1.67, 4.07 ±1.7, 4.95 ±1. 8, 3.97 ±1.55 and 9.65±9.95 respectively. QOL variables pronouncedly worsen in HD patients, however the

  11. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  12. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  13. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  14. MDMA (ecstasy) modulates locomotor and prefrontal cortex sensory evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kristal; Burks, Tilithia; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-12-11

    Ingestion of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to heightened response to sensory stimulation; thus, MDMA is referred to as "ecstasy" because it produces pleasurable enhancement of such sensation. There have been no electrophysiological studies that report the consequences of MDMA on sensory input. The present study was initiated to study the effects of acute and chronic MDMA on locomotor activity and sensory evoked field potential from freely behaving rats previously implanted with permanent electrodes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The main findings of this study are that: (1) acute MDMA augments locomotor behavior and attenuates the incoming sensory input, (2) chronic treatment of MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization, (3) chronic administration of MDMA results in attenuation of the baseline activity of the sensory evoked field potential, and (4) administration of rechallenge MDMA result in enhancement of the PFC sensory evoked field potential. PMID:19769950

  15. Force wave transmission through the human locomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshin, A; Wosk, J; Brull, M

    1981-02-01

    A method to measure the capability of the human shock absorber system to attenuate input dynamic loading during the gait is presented. The experiments were carried out with two groups: healthy subjects and subjects with various pathological conditions. The results of the experiments show a considerable difference in the capability of each group's shock absorbers to attenuate force transmitted through the locomotor system. Comparison shows that healthy subjects definitely possess a more efficient shock-absorbing capacity than do those subjects with joint disorders. Presented results show that degenerative changes in joints reduce their shock absorbing capacity, which leads to overloading of the next shock absorber in the locomotor system. So, the development of osteoarthritis may be expected to result from overloading of a shock absorber's functional capacity. PMID:7253613

  16. Two Components of Nocturnal Locomotor Suppression by Light

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Lawrence P; Lituma, Pablo J.; Studholme, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    In nocturnal rodents, millisecond light (“flash”) stimuli can induce both a large circadian rhythm phase shift and an associated state change from highly active to quiescence followed by behavioral sleep. Suppression of locomotion (“negative masking”) is an easily measured correlate of the state change. The present mouse studies used both flashes and longer light stimuli (“pulses”) to distinguish initiation from maintenance effects of light on locomotor suppression and to determine whether th...

  17. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.

  18. A wider pelvis does not increase locomotor cost in humans, with implications for the evolution of childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Warrener

    Full Text Available The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion. This trade-off, known as the obstetrical dilemma, is invoked to explain the relative difficulty of human childbirth and differences in locomotor performance between men and women. The basis for the obstetrical dilemma is a standard static biomechanical model that predicts wider pelves in females increase the metabolic cost of locomotion by decreasing the effective mechanical advantage of the hip abductor muscles for pelvic stabilization during the single-leg support phase of walking and running, requiring these muscles to produce more force. Here we experimentally test this model against a more accurate dynamic model of hip abductor mechanics in men and women. The results show that pelvic width does not predict hip abductor mechanics or locomotor cost in either women or men, and that women and men are equally efficient at both walking and running. Since a wider birth canal does not increase a woman's locomotor cost, and because selection for successful birthing must be strong, other factors affecting maternal pelvic and fetal size should be investigated in order to help explain the prevalence of birth complications caused by a neonate too large to fit through the birth canal.

  19. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected

  20. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD......) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity...... within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these...

  1. Effect of 1 GeV/n Fe particles on cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M.; Bruneus, M.; Gatley, J.; Russell, S.; Billups, A.

    placing mice in a plexiglass box fitted with arrays of photocells. A mouse placed in the box exhibits exploratory behavior that diminishes to a low level over the course of about 20 min. Iron particle irradiation caused dose related reductions in locomotor activity stimulated by cocaine, as evidenced by the group data presented here. The impairments after HZE radiation appeared to be persistent. Irradiation using a 137Co source also led to alterations in cocaine-stimulated locomotion at early times, but, unlike the situation for HZE radiation, these disappeared at later times. These studies were very recently terminated and data analysis is not yet complete. For example, spontaneous activity was also monitored, and it is possible that comparison of stimulated and spontaneous locomotion for each animal may expose larger changes. Most of the mice were sacrificed and their brains stored for histology and neurochemistry. Ex vivo determination of dopamine transporter status in striata of some of the mice indicated no large decrease in this marker of pre-synaptic dopamine terminals, supporting an earlier pilot study in rats.

  2. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  3. Spontaneous Hemothorax: Analysis of 5 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Fuat Sayır; Ufuk Çobanoğlu; Bünyamin Sertoğullarından; Duygu Mergan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Spontan hemothorax is disease that bleeding in the pleural space, because of nontrauma. Generally, the underlying cause is a primary pathology. It can be life-threatening. We reviewed the relevant literature 5 patients developed hemothorax without a history of trauma. Material and Method: In our clinic between 2005 and 2011 were treated 220 cases of hemothorax. In 5 cases (2.2%) were detected spontaneous hemothorax. The patients were evaluated according to age, gender, the affected area,...

  4. Enhanced susceptibility to spontaneous seizures of noda epileptic rats by loss of synaptic zn(2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn(2+ signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn(2+. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30-100 mg/kg and TPEN (1 mg/kg. The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+ measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (5-10 mg/kg, an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER.

  5. Enhanced susceptibility to spontaneous seizures of noda epileptic rats by loss of synaptic zn(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Iida, Masashi; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old) exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn(2+) signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ) and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn(2+). The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30-100 mg/kg) and TPEN (1 mg/kg). The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg) was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (5-10 mg/kg), an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER. PMID:23951148

  6. Respiratory and locomotor stimulation by low doses of dermorphin - a Mu1-receptor mediated effect

    OpenAIRE

    Paakkari, P.; Paakkari, I.; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Feuerstein, G

    2012-01-01

    The selective opioid mu receptor agonist dermorphin increased the locomotor activity of rats dose dependently at 1 0 to 1 00 pmolfkg i.c.v. Respiratory rate, relative tidal volume and respiratory minute volume also increased unrelated to changes in locomotor activity. Higher doses, on the other hand, produced catalepsy and respiratory depression. Pretreatment of the rats with the mu,-selective antagonist naloxonazine (10 mgfkg i.v.) blocked the stimulant locomotor and respiratory effects of l...

  7. "EFFECT OF APAMIN ON TOLERANCE TO COCAINE-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN MICE"

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Jamshidi; M. Rezayat M. R. Zarrindast

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of apamin (potassium channel blocker) on tolerance to cocaine-induced locomotor activity in mice has been investigated. Locomotor activity was measured by locomotor activity meter, Animax, type S (LKB, Farrad). Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of different doses of cocaine (2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent locomotor activity in mice.Animals were treated with a dose of cocaine (60 mg/kg, IP) once daily, for 2, 3 or 4 days in order to produce toler...

  8. Development of a Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Locomotor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Evidence for the potential efficacy of an adaptive generalization gait training program can be obtained from numerous studies in the motor learning literature which have demonstrated that systematically varying the conditions of training enhances the ability of the performer to learn and retain a novel motor task. These variable practice training approaches have been used in applied contexts to improve motor skills required in a number of different sports. The central nervous system (CNS) can produce voluntary movement in an almost infinite number of ways. For example, locomotion can be achieved with many different combinations of joint angles, muscle activation patterns and forces. The CNS can exploit these degrees of freedom to enhance motor response adaptability during periods of adaptive flux like that encountered during a change in gravitational environment. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to normal. Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensory and motor subsystems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after long duration space flight. Indeed, this approach has been proposed as a basic feature underlying effective neurological rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in an adaptive

  9. Sound stabilizes locomotor-respiratory coupling and reduces energy cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A natural synchronization between locomotor and respiratory systems is known to exist for various species and various forms of locomotion. This Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC is fundamental for the energy transfer between the two subsystems during long duration exercise and originates from mechanical and neurological interactions. Different methodologies have been used to compute LRC, giving rise to various and often diverging results in terms of synchronization, (de-stabilization via information, and associated energy cost. In this article, the theory of nonlinear-coupled oscillators was adopted to characterize LRC, through the model of the sine circle map, and tested it in the context of cycling. Our specific focus was the sound-induced stabilization of LRC and its associated change in energy consumption. In our experimental study, participants were instructed during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus whose rhythm corresponded to their individual preferential breathing or cycling frequencies. Results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure with auditory stimulation, accompanied by a stabilization of LRC. The sound-induced effect was asymmetrical, with a better stabilizing influence of the metronome on the locomotor system than on the respiratory system. A modification of the respiratory frequency was indeed observed when participants cycled in synchrony with the tone, leading to a transition toward more stable frequency ratios as predicted by the sine circle map. In addition to the classical mechanical and neurological origins of LRC, here we demonstrated using the sine circle map model that information plays an important modulatory role of the synchronization, and has global energetic consequences.

  10. Locomotor energetics and leg length in hominid bipedality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, P A; Eck, G G

    2000-05-01

    Because bipedality is the quintessential characteristic of Hominidae, researchers have compared ancient forms of bipedality with modern human gait since the first clear evidence of bipedal australopithecines was unearthed over 70 years ago. Several researchers have suggested that the australopithecine form of bipedality was transitional between the quadrupedality of the African apes and modern human bipedality and, consequently, inefficient. Other researchers have maintained that australopithecine bipedality was identical to that of Homo. But is it reasonable to require that all forms of hominid bipedality must be the same in order to be optimized? Most attempts to evaluate the locomotor effectiveness of the australopithecines have, unfortunately, assumed that the locomotor anatomy of modern humans is the exemplar of consummate bipedality. Modern human anatomy is, however, the product of selective pressures present in the particular milieu in which Homo arose and it is not necessarily the only, or even the most efficient, bipedal solution possible. In this report, we investigate the locomotion of Australopithecus afarensis, as represented by AL 288-1, using standard mechanical analyses. The osteological anatomy of AL 288-1 and movement profiles derived from modern humans are applied to a dynamic model of a biped, which predicts the mechanical power required by AL 288-1 to walk at various velocities. This same procedure is used with the anatomy of a composite modern woman and a comparison made. We find that AL 288-1 expends less energy than the composite woman when locomoting at walking speeds. This energetic advantage comes, however, at a price: the preferred transition speed (from a walk to a run) of AL 288-1 was lower than that of the composite woman. Consequently, the maximum daily range of AL 288-1 may well have been substantially smaller than that of modern people. The locomotor anatomy of A. afarensis may have been optimized for a particular ecological niche

  11. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  12. Designing Functional Clothes for Persons with Locomotor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curteza Antonela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The life quality improvement issue is a problem of national and international interest. This acquires total different values when it is to refer to a series of disadvantaged categories, that is the persons with locomotor disabilities. It is an inevitable social responsibility to create equal opportunities for disabled people, to prevent any intentional or unintentional discrimination that they face and apply positive discrimination if necessary to improve their living standards and to let them have an equal share from social development as productive individuals of society.

  13. Using Tests Designed to Measure Individual Sensorimotor Subsystem Perfomance to Predict Locomotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. T.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Guined, J. R.; DeDios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Gadd, N. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functions during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The way each individual's brain synthesizes the available visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is likely the basis for much of the variation. Identifying the presence of biases in each person's use of information available from these sensorimotor subsystems and relating it to their ability to adapt to a novel locomotor task will allow us to customize a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Eight tests are being used to measure sensorimotor subsystem performance. Three of these use measures of body sway to characterize balance during varying sensorimotor challenges. The effect of vision is assessed by repeating conditions with eyes open and eyes closed. Standing on foam, or on a support surface that pitches to maintain a constant ankle angle provide somatosensory challenges. Information from the vestibular system is isolated when vision is removed and the support surface is compromised, and it is challenged when the tasks are done while the head is in motion. The integration and dominance of visual information is assessed in three additional tests. The Rod & Frame Test measures the degree to which a subject's perception of the visual vertical is affected by the orientation of a tilted frame in the periphery. Locomotor visual dependence is determined by assessing how much an oscillating virtual visual world affects a treadmill-walking subject. In the third of the visual manipulation tests, subjects walk an obstacle course while wearing up-down reversing prisms. The two remaining tests include direct

  14. UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance by impairing muscle function but not mitochondrial ATP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Ensiyeh; Franklin, Craig E; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) can reduce swimming performance by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. High concentrations of ROS can damage mitochondria, resulting in reduced ATP production. ROS can also damage muscle proteins, thereby leading to impaired muscle contractile function. We have shown previously that UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) without affecting metabolic scope. Our aim was therefore to test whether UV-B influences swimming performance of mosquitofish by ROS-induced damage to muscle proteins without affecting mitochondrial function. In a fully factorial design, we exposed mosquitofish to UV-B and no-UV-B controls in combination with exposure to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus no-NAC controls. We used NAC, a precursor of glutathione, as an antioxidant to test whether any effects of UV-B on swimming performance were at least partly due to UV-B-induced ROS. UV-B significantly reduced critical sustained swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, and it increased ROS-induced damage (protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation) in muscle. However, UV-B did not affect the activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA), an enzyme associated with muscle calcium cycling and muscle relaxation. UV-B did not affect ADP phosphorylation (state 3) rates of mitochondrial respiration, and it did not alter the amount of ATP produced per atom of oxygen consumed (P:O ratio). However, UV-B reduced the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio. Under UV-B exposure, fish treated with NAC showed greater swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, higher glutathione concentrations, and lower protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation than untreated fish. Tail beat amplitude was not affected by any treatment. Our results showed, firstly, that the effects of UV-B on locomotor performance were mediated by ROS and, secondly, that reduced swimming performance was not caused by

  15. Locomotor behavior and long bone morphology in individual free-ranging chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristian J; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Hunt, Kevin D; Nishida, Toshisada; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Boesch, Christophe

    2006-04-01

    We combine structural limb data and behavioral data for free-ranging chimpanzees from Taï (Ivory Coast) and Mahale National Parks (Tanzania) to begin to consider the relationship between individual variation in locomotor activity and morphology. Femoral and humeral cross sections of ten individuals were acquired via computed tomography. Locomotor profiles of seven individuals were constructed from 3387 instantaneous time-point observations (87.4 hours). Within the limited number of suitable chimpanzees, individual variation in locomotor profiles displayed neither clear nor consistent trends with diaphyseal cross-sectional shapes. The percentages of specific locomotor modes did not relate well to diaphyseal shapes since neither infrequent nor frequent locomotor modes varied consistently with shapes. The percentage of arboreal locomotion, rather than estimated body mass, apparently had comparatively greater biological relevance to variation in diaphyseal shape. The mechanical consequences of locomotor modes on femoral and humeral diaphyseal shapes (e.g., orientation of bending strains) may overlap between naturalistic modes more than currently is recognized. Alternatively, diaphyseal shape may be unresponsive to mechanical demands of these specific locomotor modes. More data are needed in order to discern between these possibilities. Increasing the sample to include additional free-ranging chimpanzees, or primates in general, as well as devoting more attention to the mechanics of a greater variety of naturalistic locomotor modes would be fruitful to understanding the behavioral basis of diaphyseal shapes. PMID:16376413

  16. Daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.

    OpenAIRE

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Daily variations in core temperature (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5...

  17. Spontaneous Resolution of Massive Spontaneous Tubercular Pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Kant; Saheer, S.; Hassan, G; Jabeed Parengal

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old female presented with complaints of fever and productive cough of three weeks duration. Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed bacteriologically and she was prescribed antituberculosis drugs. During follow-up she developed massive pneumothorax, for which patient refused surgical management and was managed conservatively. After six months there was complete spontaneous resolution of pneumothorax. The unusual presentation and unexpected outcome prompted us to report this case.

  18. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Gang; CHAI Ying

    2007-01-01

    @@ Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM),reported firstly by Hamman in 1939,is an uncommon,and usually benign,and self-limiting clinical disorder found in young people often without apparent precipitating factors or diseases.

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mallah; Tahere Eftekhar; Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated he...

  20. Scale-Free Fluctuations in Behavioral Performance: Delineating Changes in Spontaneous Behavior of Humans with Induced Sleep Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ochab, Jeremi K.; Jacek Tyburczyk; Ewa Beldzik; Chialvo, Dante R.; Aleksandra Domagalik; Magdalena Fafrowicz; Ewa Gudowska-Nowak; Tadeusz Marek; Nowak, Maciej A.; Halszka Oginska; Jerzy Szwed

    2014-01-01

    The timing and dynamics of many diverse behaviors of mammals, e.g., patterns of animal foraging or human communication in social networks exhibit complex self-similar properties reproducible over multiple time scales. In this paper, we analyze spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded in two different conditions: during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. After separating activity from rest with a pre-defined activity threshold, we hav...

  1. Effect of thermal acclimation on thermal preference, resistance and locomotor performance of hatchling soft-shelled turtle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xian WU,Ling-Jun HU, Wei DANG, Hong-Liang LU, Wei-Guo DU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant influence of thermal acclimation on physiological and behavioral performance has been documented in many ectothermic animals, but such studies are still limited in turtle species. We acclimated hatchling soft-shelled turtles Pelodiscus sinensis under three thermal conditions (10, 20 and 30 °C for 4 weeks, and then measured selected body temperature (Tsel, critical thermal minimum (CTMin and maximum (CTMax, and locomotor performance at different body temperatures. Thermal acclimation significantly affected thermal preference and resistance of P. sinensis hatchlings. Hatchling turtles acclimated to 10 °C selected relatively lower body temperatures and were less resistant to high temperatures than those acclimated to 20 °C and 30 °C. The turtles’ resistance to low temperatures increased with a decreasing acclimation temperature. The thermal resistance range (i.e. the difference between CTMax and CTMin, TRR was widest in turtles acclimated to 20 °C, and narrowest in those acclimated to 10 °C. The locomotor performance of turtles was affected by both body temperature and acclimation temperature. Hatchling turtles acclimated to relatively higher temperatures swam faster than did those acclimated to lower temperatures. Accordingly, hatchling turtles acclimated to a particular temperature may not enhance the performance at that temperature. Instead, hatchlings acclimated to relatively warm temperatures have a better performance, supporting the “hotter is better” hypothesis [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 718–724, 2013 ].

  2. Intranasal haloperidol-loaded miniemulsions for brain targeting: Evaluation of locomotor suppression and in-vivo biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; Ibrahim, A B; Amin, Maha M; Khowessah, Omneya M; Elzanfaly, Eman S

    2016-09-20

    Haloperidol is a commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug currently administered as oral and injectable preparations. This study aimed to prepare haloperidol intranasal miniemulsion helpful for psychiatric emergencies and exhibiting lower systemic exposure and side effects associated with non-target site delivery. Haloperidol miniemulsions were successfully prepared by spontaneous emulsification adopting 2(3) factorial design. The effect of three independent variables at two levels each namely; oil type (Capmul®-Capryol™90), lipophilic emulsifier type (Span 20-Span 80) and HLB value (12-14) on globule size, PDI and percent locomotor activity inhibition in mice was evaluated. The optimized formula (F4, Capmul®, Tween 80/Span 20, HLB 14) showed globule size of 209.5±0.98nm, PDI of 0.402±0.03 and locomotor inhibition of 83.89±9.15% with desirability of 0.907. Biodistribution study following intranasal and intravenous administration of the radiolabeled (99m)Tc mucoadhesive F4 revealed that intranasal administration achieved 1.72-fold higher and 6 times faster peak brain levels compared with intravenous administration. Drug targeting efficiency percent and brain/blood exposure ratios remained above 100% and 1 respectively after intranasal instillation compared to a maximum brain/blood exposure ratio of 0.8 post intravenous route. Results suggested the CNS delivery of major fraction of haloperidol via direct transnasal to brain pathway that can be a promising alternative to oral and parenteral routes in chronic and acute situations. Haloperidol concentration of 275.6ng/g brain 8h post intranasal instillation, higher than therapeutic concentration range of haloperidol (0.8 to 5.15ng/ml), suggests possible sustained delivery of the drug through nasal route. PMID:27154259

  3. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult dermatomyositis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J D

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum has not been reported in adult polymyositis or dermatomyositis, either in conjunction with spontaneous pneumothorax or in isolation. Spontaneous pneumothorax has been rarely reported as a complication of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and childhood dermatomyositis. It is associated with active, progressive pulmonary involvement and a poor prognosis. We describe an adult with dermatomyositis and spontaneous pneumomediastinum with ...

  4. Spontaneous inflammatory pain model from a mouse line with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tsung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis was used to induce a point mutation in C57BL/6 J mice. Pain-related phenotype screening was performed in 915 G3 mice. We report the detection of a heritable recessive mutant in meiotic recombinant N1F1 mice that caused an abnormal pain sensitivity phenotype with spontaneous skin inflammation in the paws and ears. Methods We investigated abnormal sensory processing, neuronal peptides, and behavioral responses after the induction of autoinflammatory disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and polymerase chain reaction product sequencing were used to identify the mutation site. Results All affected mice developed paw inflammation at 4–8 weeks. Histological examinations revealed hyperplasia of the epidermis in the inflamed paws and increased macrophage expression in the spleen and paw tissues. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive response thresholds were reduced in the affected mice. Locomotor activity was decreased in affected mice with inflamed hindpaws, and this reduction was attributable to the avoidance of contact of the affected paw with the floor. Motor strength and daily activity in the home cage in the affected mice did not show any significant changes. Although Fos immunoreactivity was normal in the dorsal horn of affected mice, calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity significantly increased in the deep layer of the dorsal horn. The number of microglia increased in the spinal cord, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex in affected mice, and the proliferation of microglia was maintained for a couple of months. Two hundred eighty-five SNP markers were used to reveal the affected gene locus, which was found on the distal part of chromosome 18. A point mutation was detected at A to G in exon 8 of the pstpip2 gene, resulting in a conserved tyrosine residue at amino acid 180 replaced by cysteine (Y180 C. Conclusions The data provide definitive evidence that a mutation

  5. Dopamine: A parallel pathway for modulation of locomotor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick John Whelan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord contains networks of neurons that can produce locomotor patterns. To readily respond to environmental conditions, these networks must be flexible yet at the same time robust. Neuromodulators play a key role in contributing to network flexibility in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks. For example, neuromodulators contribute to altering intrinsic properties and synaptic weights that, in extreme cases, can lead to neurons switching between networks. Here we focus on the role of dopamine in the control of stepping networks in the spinal cord. We first review the role of dopamine in modulating rhythmic activity in the stomatogastric ganglion and the leech, since work from these preparations provides a foundation to understand its role in vertebrate systems. We then move to a discussion of dopamine’s role in modulation of swimming in aquatic species such as the larval xenopus, lamprey and zebrafish. The control of terrestrial walking in vertebrates by dopamine is less studied and we review current evidence in mammals with a focus on rodent species. We discuss data suggesting that the source of dopamine within the spinal cord is mainly from the A11 area of the diencephalon, and then turn to a discussion of dopamine’s role in modulating walking patterns from both in vivo and in vitro preparations. Similar to the descending serotonergic system, the dopaminergic system may serve as a potential target to promote recovery of locomotor function following spinal cord injury; evidence suggests that dopaminergic agonists can promote recovery of function following spinal cord injury (SCI. We discuss pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches that could be deployed in SCI and their potential tractability. Throughout the review we draw parallels with both noradrenergic and serotonergic modulatory effects on spinal cord networks. In all likelihood, a complementary monoaminergic enhancement strategy should be deployed following

  6. MK-801 increases locomotor activity in a context-dependent manner in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Fulcher, Niveen; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for behavioral neuroscience with an increasing number of studies examining the effects of pharmacological compounds targeting the brain. Exposure to MK-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist has been shown to increase locomotor activity in zebrafish. However, others have failed to replicate this finding as several contradicting studies report no changes in locomotor activity following exposure to similar doses. In the current study we reconcile these behavioral reports by demonstrating that zebrafish do not exhibit changes in locomotor activity during exposure to non-sedative doses of MK-801. Interestingly, zebrafish do exhibit significant increases in locomotion if pre-treated with MK-801 followed by subsequent testing in a novel environment, which suggests the effects of MK-801 are context-dependent. In addition, we examine the potential role of the dopaminergic system in mediating MK-801's locomotor stimulant effect by quantifying the levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the brains of zebrafish following a 30 min exposure to 10 μM of MK-801 (the dose found to induce the largest increase in locomotor activity). Our findings indicate that the MK-801-induced increase in locomotor activity is not accompanied by changes in whole-brain levels of dopamine or DOPAC. Overall, our results suggest that MK-801's context-dependent locomotor stimulant effect may be independent of whole-brain dopaminergic activation. PMID:26318934

  7. Mode of action and functional significance of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone stimulating locomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo eHaraguchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies over the past two decades have demonstrated that the brain and other nervous systems possess key steroidogenic enzymes and produces pregnenolone and other various neurosteroids in vertebrates in general. Recently, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a novel bioactive neurosteroid, was identified in the brain of newts and quail. Importantly, this novel neurosteroid is produced from pregnenolone through the enzymatic activity of cytochrome P4507alpha and acts on brain tissue as a neuronal modulator to stimulate locomotor activity in these vertebrates. Subsequently, the mode of action of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone was demonstrated. 7alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone stimulates locomotor activity through activation of the dopaminergic system. To understand the functional significance of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in the regulation of locomotor activity, diurnal and seasonal changes in 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis were further characterized. Melatonin derived from the pineal gland and eyes regulates 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, thus inducing diurnal locomotor changes. Prolactin, an adenohypophyseal hormone, regulates 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, and also induces seasonal locomotor changes. In addition, 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone mediates corticosterone action to modulate locomotor activity under stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the mode of action and functional significance of 7alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, a newly identified bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity.

  8. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  9. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial. PMID:25286313

  10. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Yildizhan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  11. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, J M; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2009-01-30

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulations of food deprivation and presentation. In the current study, c-Fos counts in both basolateral and central amygdalar nuclei were observed to increase in rats 12- and 36-h food deprived (relative to 0-h controls)-an effect reversed by the presentation of either a small or large meal (2.5 or 20g of food). In another experiment, rats working on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement exhibited elevated break-points as a function of food deprivation, a result consistent with the view that the feeding manipulations increased the subjects' level of motivation. In contrast, food deprivation reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity of rats, presumably as a result of an inherent energy-conservation strategy when no food is readily available. These data suggest that the state of food deprivation is associated with: (a) enhanced behavioral output only when food is attainable (increased goal-directed behavior, but decreased spontaneous activity), and (b) increased synaptic engagement in neuronal circuits involved in affective valuation and related decision-making (increased c-Fos counts in the amygdala). PMID:18706934

  12. Spontaneous regression of osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Manabu; Takami, Masatsugu; Hashimoto, Ryouji; Okamoto, Takashi; Yanagida, Ikuhisa; Matsumura, Akira; Noguchi, Kazuko [Yodogawa Christian Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Spontaneous regression of an osteochondroma is an infrequent event. In this report, two cases with spontaneous regression of osteochondromas are presented. The first case was a solitary osteochondroma of the pedunculated type involving the right proximal humerus in a 7-year-old boy. This lesion resolved over 15 months of observation. The second case was a 3-year-old girl with multiple osteochondromatosis, in whom sessile osteochondromas of the right tibia and left fibula regressed over 33 months.The mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed with a review of previous reports. Regarding treatment, careful observation may be acceptable for typical osteochondromas, especially in young children. (orig.)

  13. Controlling spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    Control over spontaneous emission of light is of great importance in quantum optics. It is essential for diverse applications such as miniature lasers, light-emitting diodes, and single-photon sources for quantum information. We present experimental studies on spontaneous emission of CdSe quantum...... dots (QDs) embedded in 3D photonic crystals consisting of air spheres in titanium dioxide. Performing time-resolved experiments, we show that the photonic crystals control the emission decay rate of excitons confined in the QDs1,2. By varying the lattice parameter of the photonic crystals, we...

  14. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  15. Analysis of the locomotor activity of a nocturnal desert lizard (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Teratoscincus scincus) under varying moonlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé; Anderson, Steven C; Autumn, Kellar; Bouskila, Amos; Saf, Rachel; Tuniyev, Boris S; Werner, Yehudah L

    2007-01-01

    1. This project seeks to identify determinants of the variation observed in the foraging behavior of predatory animals, especially in moonlight, using a lizard as a model. 2. Moonlight generally enhances the foraging efficiency of nocturnal visual predators and often depresses the locomotor activity of prey animals. Previous evidence has indicated for three different nocturnal species of smallish gecko lizards that they respond to moonlight by increasing their activity. 3. In this study some aspects of the foraging activity of the somewhat larger nocturnal psammophilous Teratoscincus scincus, observed near Repetek and Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, were significantly depressed by moonlight, while several confounding factors (sex, maturity, size, sand temperature, hour, prior handling and observer effect) were taken into account. 4. This behavioral difference may relate to the eye size of the various species. 5. Additionally, a novel method of analyzing foraging behavior shows that in this species the duration of moves increases the duration of subsequent stationary pauses. Measurement of locomotor speed, yielding an average speed of 220% of the maximum aerobic speed, indicates a need for these pauses. Secondarily, pause duration decreases the duration of subsequent moves, precluding escalation of move duration. 6. The results of this and related projects advocate the taking into account of physiological and environmental factors that may affect an animal's foraging behavior. PMID:17408939

  16. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27233823

  17. Examination of the combined effects of chondroitinase ABC, growth factors and locomotor training following compressive spinal cord injury on neuroanatomical plasticity and kinematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Alluin

    Full Text Available While several cellular and pharmacological treatments have been evaluated following spinal cord injury (SCI in animal models, it is increasingly recognized that approaches to address the glial scar, including the use of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC, can facilitate neuroanatomical plasticity. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that combinatorial strategies are key to unlocking the plasticity that is enabled by ChABC. Given this, we evaluated the anatomical and functional consequences of ChABC in a combinatorial approach that also included growth factor (EGF, FGF2 and PDGF-AA treatments and daily treadmill training on the recovery of hindlimb locomotion in rats with mid thoracic clip compression SCI. Using quantitative neuroanatomical and kinematic assessments, we demonstrate that the combined therapy significantly enhanced the neuroanatomical plasticity of major descending spinal tracts such as corticospinal and serotonergic-spinal pathways. Additionally, the pharmacological treatment attenuated chronic astrogliosis and inflammation at and adjacent to the lesion with the modest synergistic effects of treadmill training. We also observed a trend for earlier recovery of locomotion accompanied by an improvement of the overall angular excursions in rats treated with ChABC and growth factors in the first 4 weeks after SCI. At the end of the 7-week recovery period, rats from all groups exhibited an impressive spontaneous recovery of the kinematic parameters during locomotion on treadmill. However, although the combinatorial treatment led to clear chronic neuroanatomical plasticity, these structural changes did not translate to an additional long-term improvement of locomotor parameters studied including hindlimb-forelimb coupling. These findings demonstrate the beneficial effects of combined ChABC, growth factors and locomotor training on the plasticity of the injured spinal cord and the potential to induce earlier neurobehavioral recovery. However

  18. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  19. Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, El Romyssa; Profant, Milan

    2011-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus with literature review is described. A young sportsman experienced headache and fluctuating mass in his occiput during increased physical activity. A large extradural intracranial pneumocephalus with corresponding emphysema was imaged on a CT scan. Transmastoid identification and plugging of temporal bone defect solved the problem with complete pneumocephalus and emphysema resorption. PMID:21254960

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF RAT PUPS EXPOSED TO HEAVY METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd), triethyltin (TET), and trimethyltin (TMT) are heavy metals which are neurotoxic to developing animals. In the present experiment, preweaning assessment of locomotor activity was used to detect and differentiate between the developmental toxicity of these metals. On ...

  1. Modern aspects of application of tree-phase bone scan in diagnosis of locomotor system disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of 3-phase bone scan is featured; the investigations to its applications to its application are described. The peculiarities of scintigraphy data and their interpreting at some benign pathological processes of the locomotor system

  2. The brain's sense of walking: a study on the intertwine between locomotor imagery and internal locomotor models in healthy adults, typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Zoccolillo, Loredana; Montesi, Michela; Morelli, Daniela; Paolucci, Stefano; Fusco, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery and internal motor models have been deeply investigated in literature. It is well known that the development of motor imagery occurs during adolescence and it is limited in people affected by cerebral palsy. However, the roles of motor imagery and internal models in locomotion as well as their intertwine received poor attention. In this study we compared the performances of healthy adults (n = 8, 28.1 ± 5.1 years old), children with typical development (n = 8, 8.1 ± 3.8 years old) and children with cerebral palsy (CCP) (n = 12, 7.5 ± 2.9 years old), measured by an optoelectronic system and a trunk-mounted wireless inertial magnetic unit, during three different tasks. Subjects were asked to achieve a target located at 2 or 3 m in front of them simulating their walking by stepping in place, or actually walking blindfolded or normally walking with open eyes. Adults performed a not significantly different number of steps (p = 0.761) spending not significantly different time between tasks (p = 0.156). Children with typical development showed task-dependent differences both in terms of number of steps (p = 0.046) and movement time (p = 0.002). However, their performance in simulated and blindfolded walking (BW) were strictly correlated (R = 0.871 for steps, R = 0.673 for time). Further, their error in BW was in mean only of -2.2% of distance. Also CCP showed significant differences in number of steps (p = 0.022) and time (p sensorial feedback. CCP showed less efficient performances, especially in SW, suggesting an altered locomotor imagery. PMID:25386131

  3. The Conserved Dopaminergic Diencephalospinal Tract Mediates Vertebrate Locomotor Development In Zebrafish Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Aaron M.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Mark A Masino

    2012-01-01

    The most conserved part of the vertebrate dopaminergic system is the orthopedia (otp)-expressing diencephalic neuronal population that constitutes the dopaminergic diencephalospinal tract (DDT). While studies in the neonatal murine spinal cord in vitro suggest an early locomotor role of the DDT, the function of the DDT in developing vertebrates in vivo remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the DDT in the locomotor development of zebrafish larvae. To assess the development of the ...

  4. Ankle voluntary movement enhancement following robotic-assisted locomotor training in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Varoqui, Deborah; Niu, Xun; Mirbagheri, Mehdi M

    2014-01-01

    Background In incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), sensorimotor impairments result in severe limitations to ambulation. To improve walking capacity, physical therapies using robotic-assisted locomotor devices, such as the Lokomat, have been developed. Following locomotor training, an improvement in gait capabilities—characterized by increases in the over-ground walking speed and endurance—is generally observed in patients. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these improvements, we...

  5. Preferred locomotor phase of activity of lumbar interneurons during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats

    OpenAIRE

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Lemay, Michel A.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal locomotor circuits are intrinsically capable of driving a variety of behaviors such as stepping, scratching, and swimming. Based on an observed rostrocaudal wave of activity in the motoneuronal firing during locomotor tasks, the traveling-wave hypothesis proposes that spinal interneuronal firing follows a similar rostrocaudal pattern of activation, suggesting the presence of spatially organized interneuronal modules within the spinal motor system. In this study, we examined if the spat...

  6. No Influence of Hypoxia on Coordination Between Respiratory and Locomotor Rhythms During Rowing at Moderate Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Fabre; Stéphane Perrey; Philippe Passelergue; Jean-Denis Rouillon

    2007-01-01

    Besides neuro-mechanical constraints, chemical or metabolic stimuli have also been proposed to interfere with the coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms. In the light of the conflicting data observed in the literature, this study aimed to assess whether acute hypoxia modifies the degree of coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms during rowing exercises in order to investigate competitive interactions between neuro-mechanical (movement) and chemical (hypoxia) res...

  7. The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Abbott, Emily M.; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Muscles power movement, yet the conceptual link between muscle performance and locomotor performance is poorly developed. Frog jumping provides an ideal system to probe the relationship between muscle capacity and locomotor performance, because a jump is a single discrete event and mechanical power output is a critical determinant of jump distance. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific variation in jump performance could be explained by variability in available muscle power. We used for...

  8. Differential regulation of synaptic transmission by pre- and postsynaptic SK channels in the spinal locomotor network

    OpenAIRE

    Nanou, Evanthia; Alpert, Michael H.; Alford, Simon; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2013-01-01

    The generation of activity in the central nervous system requires precise tuning of cellular properties and synaptic transmission. Neural networks in the spinal cord produce coordinated locomotor movements. Synapses in these networks need to be equipped with multiple mechanisms that regulate their operation over varying regimes to produce locomotor activity at different frequencies. Using the in vitro lamprey spinal cord, we explored whether Ca2+ influx via different routes in postsynaptic so...

  9. Effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on locomotor activity, and hippocampal weight, neurons, and nitric oxide synthase activity of the young postnatal guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M A; Butters, N S; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    2000-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-catalyzed formation of NO from L-arginine may be involved in ethanol teratogenesis involving the hippocampus. This hypothesis was tested by determining the effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on locomotor activity and on hippocampal weight, number of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells, and NOS activity of the postnatal guinea pig. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following chronic oral regimens throughout gestation: 4 g ethanol/kg maternal body weight/day, isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding, or water. At postnatal day (PD) 10, spontaneous locomotor activity was measured. At PD 12, histological analysis was performed on the hippocampal formation, in which hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells were counted; body, brain, and hippocampal weights were measured; and hippocampal NOS enzymatic activity was determined using a radiometric assay. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure produced hyperactivity, decreased the brain and hippocampal weights with no change in body weight, decreased the number of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells by 25-30%, and had no effect on hippocampal NOS activity compared with the two control groups. These data, together with our previous findings in the fetal guinea pig, demonstrate that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal NOS activity in near-term fetal life that temporally precedes the selective loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in postnatal life. PMID:10758347

  10. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 region modifies locomotor and cognitive deficits observed in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Marechal

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features.

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax complicating Legionnaires' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, A; Pierry, A. A.; Bernstein, A.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a known but rare complication of pneumonia in adults. A case is described of Legionnaires' disease complicated by spontaneous hydropneumothorax. So far as is known such an association has not been reported previously.

  12. Disparate effects of pramipexole on locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-li; Breier, Michelle R; Yang, Alex; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2011-10-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and locomotor activity are both widely studied in the preclinical development of dopaminergic agents, including those acting at D3 dopamine receptors. In mice, the dopamine D3 receptor-preferential agonist pramipexole (PPX) alters locomotor activity in a biphasic manner at doses that have no effect on PPI. The present study examined the time-course of PPX effects on locomotion and PPI in rats. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, PPX (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0mg/kg) was injected prior to measurement of locomotor activity for 90 min in photobeam chambers. Based on disparate early vs. late effects of PPX on locomotion, the effects of PPX (0 vs. 0.3mg/kg) on PPI were tested 20 and 80 min after injection. All doses of PPX decreased locomotor activity for 30 min compared to vehicle, and the higher doses stimulated hyperlocomotion later in the session; the late hyperlocomotion, but not the early hypolocomotion, was blocked by the D2-selective antagonist, L741626 (1.0mg/kg sc). In contrast to its locomotor effects, PPX caused a similar reduction in PPI at 20 and 80 min after administration. These findings suggest both a temporal and pharmacological dissociation between PPX effects on locomotor activity and PPI; these two behavioral measures contribute non-redundant information to the investigation of D3-related behavioral pharmacology. PMID:21683731

  13. Neurochemical factors underlying individual differences in locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Muraleetharan, Arrujyan; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Variation among individuals may arise for several reasons, and may have diverse underlying mechanisms. Individual differences have been studied in a variety of species, but recently a new model organism has emerged in this field that offers both sophistication in phenotypical characterization and powerful mechanistic analysis. Recently, zebrafish, one of the favorites of geneticists, have been shown to exhibit consistent individual differences in baseline locomotor activity. In the current study, we further explore this finding and examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity correlate with anxiety-like behavioral measures and with levels of dopamine, serotonin and the metabolites of these neurotransmitters. In addition, we examine whether individual differences in locomotor activity are also associated with reactivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of and neurochemical responses to acute ethanol exposure (30min long, 1% v/v ethanol bath application). Principal component analyses revealed a strong association among anxiety-like responses, locomotor activity, serotonin and dopamine levels. Furthermore, ethanol exposure was found to abolish the locomotion-dependent anxiety-like behavioral and serotonergic responses suggesting that this drug also engages a common underlying pathway. Overall, our results provide support for an important role of the serotonergic system in mediating individual differences in anxiety-like responses and locomotor activity in zebrafish and for a minor modulatory role of the dopaminergic system. PMID:26316057

  14. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski-Boase Laura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6, BALB/cJ (BALB, C3H/HeJ (C3H, DBA/2J (D2, FVB/NJ (FVB and 129S1/SvImJ (129 mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine.

  15. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  16. Prediction of responders for outcome measures of Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. K. Dobkin, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Locomotor Experience Applied Post Stroke rehabilitation trial found equivalent walking outcomes for body weight-supported treadmill plus overground walking practice versus home-based exercise that did not emphasize walking. From this large database, we examined several clinically important questions that provide insights into recovery of walking that may affect future trial designs. Using logistic regression analyses, we examined predictors of response based on a variety of walking speed-related outcomes and measures that captured disability, physical impairment, and quality of life. The most robust predictor was being closer at baseline to the primary outcome measure, which was the functional walking speed thresholds of 0.4 m/s (household walking and 0.8 m/s (community walking. Regardless of baseline walking speed, a younger age and higher Berg Balance Scale score were relative predictors of responding, whether operationally defined by transitioning beyond each speed boundary or by a continuous change or a greater than median increase in walking speed. Of note, the cutoff values of 0.4 and 0.8 m/s had no particular significance compared with other walking speed changes despite their general use as descriptors of functional levels of walking. No evidence was found for any difference in predictors based on treatment group.

  17. Spontaneous Quantum Hall Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    Driven by electron-electron interactions, bilayer graphene and its thicker cousins, chirally (ABC) stacked multilayers, exhibit a variety of distinct broken symmetry states in which each spin-valley flavor spontaneously transfers charge between layers, because of their flat touching bands and large pseudospin chiralities. These gapped states are accompanied by large momentum space Berry curvatures and different types of topological orders. These competing ground states are distinguished by their flavor Hall conductivities, orbital magnetizations, edge state properties, and response to external fields. These spontaneous quantum Hall (SQH) states at zero field smoothly evolve into quantum Hall ferromagnet states at finite field. Various phase transitions occur by tuning carrier densities, temperature, and external fields. Recently, SQH states have started to be observed and explored in transport and Hall experiments on suspended devices with dual gates.

  18. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Bhaphiralyne, Wankhar

    2016-04-01

    Pyometra is collection of purulent material which occurs when there is interference with its normal drainage. It is an uncommon condition with incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of all gynecological patients. Spontaneous rupture of uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. A 65-year-old lady presented with pain abdomen and purulent vaginal discharge. Preoperative diagnosis of pyometra was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laparotomy followed by peritoneal lavage and repair of perforation was performed. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, the condition must be borne in mind with regard to elderly women with acute abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis of perforated pyometra is absolutely essential. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI are diagnostic tools. In selected cases conservative approach at surgery can be opted. PMID:27152313

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

  20. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Kasum, Miro; Orešković, Slavko; Ježek, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous forms of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) are nearly always reported between 8 and 14 weeks of pregnancy and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) producing pituitary adenoma. The syndrome has been previously reported in rare instances of increased production of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) such as multiple pregnancies, hydatiforme mole, polycystic ovary disease and elevated concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyreoidism. High lev...

  1. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Bhaphiralyne, Wankhar

    2016-01-01

    Pyometra is collection of purulent material which occurs when there is interference with its normal drainage. It is an uncommon condition with incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of all gynecological patients. Spontaneous rupture of uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. A 65-year-old lady presented with pain abdomen and purulent vaginal discharge. Preoperative diagnosis of pyometra was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laparotomy followed by peritoneal lavage and repair of perfor...

  2. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  3. Selective toxicity of L-DOPA to dopamine transporter-expressing neurons and locomotor behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stednitz, Sarah J; Freshner, Briana; Shelton, Samantha; Shen, Tori; Black, Donovan; Gahtan, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine signaling is conserved across all animal species and has been implicated in the disease process of many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The primary neuropathology in PD involves the death of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (SN), an anatomical region of the brain implicated in dopamine production and voluntary motor control. Increasing evidence suggests that the neurotransmitter dopamine may have a neurotoxic metabolic product (DOPAL) that selectively damages dopaminergic cells. This study was designed to test this theory of oxidative damage in an animal model of Parkinson's disease, using a transgenic strain of zebrafish with fluorescent labeling of cells that express the dopamine transporter. The pretectum and ventral diencephalon exhibited reductions in cell numbers due to L-DOPA treatment while reticulospinal neurons that do not express the DAT were unaffected, and this was partially rescued by monoamine oxidase inhibition. Consistent with the MPTP model of PD in zebrafish larvae, spontaneous locomotor behavior in L-DOPA treated animals was depressed following a 24-h recovery period, while visually-evoked startle response rates and latencies were unaffected. PMID:26546233

  4. Spontaneous Hemopneumothorax: Analysis of 8 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is a rare disorder that results from a torn of small vessels located in adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura resulting from the progress of lung collapse. A large spontaneous hemopneumothorax is often life threatening, and the late diagnosis and treatment can increase mortality rate. In this study; we present eight patients who presented to us with nontraumatic spontaneous hemopneumothorax and the clinical features of these patients and the results of conservative and surgical management were discussed. Material and Method: From January 2005 and September 2010, a total of 97 patients were treated with spontaneous pneumothorax. Eight (8.23% developed spontaneous hemopneumothorax. We analyzed many factors such as sex and age distribution, affected site, the degree of lung kollaps, clinical symptoms, bleeding volume, etiology, treatments, complications. Result: Six patients (75 % were male and 2 patients (25 % were female and their mean age was 30.25.15.75 years. Hemopneumothorax is detected at the right side in 5 patients (62.5% ,and at the left side in 3 patients (37.5%. The most common symptoms (62.5% in all patients were chest pain and dyspnea. All patients were treated with the tube thoracostomy; five (62.5% were treated with only the tube thoracostomy, and the other 3 (37.5% were treated by the thoracostomy combined with video-assisted thoracic surgery. The amount of bleeding in patients who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery ranged 1083.33 304.972 ml. The amount of bleeding in patients who underwent tube thoracostomy ranged 448.2 242.572 ml. Discussion: Closed-tube thoracostomy is the first choice in the cases of spontaneous hemothorax. Regular hemodynamic monitoring is needed in the cases with tube thoracostomy. When tube thoracostomy is not sufficient, VATS can be the first surgical treatment choice and thoracotomy may not be needed. Complete recovery may be expected with early

  5. General and Specific Strategies Used to Facilitate Locomotor Maneuvers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Wu

    Full Text Available People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects' ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral "lane-change" maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects' ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost.

  6. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF GINGER-JUICE (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE ON CNS (LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY PARAMETERS IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ginger-juice (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE on CNS parameters in rat Methods: (A Albino rats (n=6-12 were administered G.J at two doses (2ml & 4 ml/rat, p.o as single administration and chronic treatment over period of 30 days. Following this assessment was done. Effect of treatment with G.J acutely and chronically (30 days administered, was assessed. Parameters used during assessment were locomotor activity. Results: The experiments indicate that ginger-juice-treatment has not produced any effect on any parameter of the loco motor activity. Conclusion: Ginger-juice acute and chronic administered did not affect loco motor activity.

  7. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  8. Determinants of locomotor disability in people aged 55 years and over: The Rotterdam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locomotor disability, as defined by difficulties in activities of daily living related to lower limb function, can be the consequence of diseases and impairments of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, nervous, sensory and musculoskeletal system. We estimated the associations between specific diseases and impairments and locomotor disability, and the proportion of disability attributable to each condition, controlling for age and comorbidity. The Rotterdam Study is a prospective follow-up study among people aged 55 years and over in the general population. Locomotor disability in 1219 men and 1856 women was assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Diseases and impairments were radiological osteoarthritis, pain of the hips and knees, morning stiffness, fractures, hypertension, vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depression, Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, overweight, and low vision. Adjusted odds ratios, etiologic and attributable fractions were calculated for locomotor disability. The occurrence of locomotor disability can partly be ascribed to joint pain, COPD, morning stiffness, diabetes and heart failure in both men and women. In addition in women osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low vision, fractures, stroke and Parkinson's disease are significant etiologic fractions. In men with morning stiffness, joint pain, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and COPD a significant proportion of their disability is attributable to this impairment. In women this was the case for Parkinson's disease, morning stiffness, low vision, heart failure, joint pain, diabetes, radiological osteoarthritis, stroke, COPD, osteoporosis, and fractures of the lower limbs, in that order. We conclude that locomotor complaints, heart failure, COPD and diabetes mellitus contribute considerably to locomotor disability in non-institutionalized elderly people

  9. EPOC and the energetics of brief locomotor activity in Mus domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E J; Gleeson, T T

    1998-02-01

    Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is normally not considered in determinations of the metabolic cost of activity. This approach overlooks an important energetic cost that an animal incurs as a result of activity. To examine the importance of EPOC, we determined how the energetic cost of locomotion was affected by activity of short duration and high intensity. Mice were run at maximum speed on a treadmill while enclosed in an open-flow respirometry system. After sprinting for 5, 15, 30, or 60 sec, each mouse was allowed to recover while remaining enclosed in the respirometry chamber. Exercise oxygen consumption (EOC), the volume of oxygen consumed during the exercise, increased linearly with sprint duration. EPOC was determined as the volume of oxygen consumed after exercise ended until rest was reached. EPOC volumes were found to be constant following 5-60 sec of activity and accounted for > or = 90% of the total metabolic cost. The average EPOC volume of all treatments was 0.76 +/- 0.456 ml O2.gm-1. The net cost of activity (Cact), which considers both EOC and EPOC, decreased as sprint duration increased and varied between 500 ml O2.g-1.km-1 for 5 sec to 30 ml O2.g-1.km-1 for 60 sec of activity. The values for Cact were 15 to 250 times higher than traditional estimates of locomotor costs. From these data, it can be concluded that (1) EPOC is not affected by short exercise durations; (2) EPOC is an important energetic consideration when exercise durations are short; and (3) the metabolic costs of brief, vigorous locomotion may be much higher than previously estimated. PMID:9433798

  10. Spontaneous Collapse of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, D A; Buchholz, Detlev; Ojima, Izumi

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that, if generators of supersymmetry transformations (supercharges) can be defined in a spatially homogeneous physical state, then this state describes the vacuum. Thus, supersymmetry is broken in any thermal state and it is impossible to proceed from it by ``symmetrization'' to states on which an action of supercharges can be defined. So, unlike the familiar spontaneous breakdown of bosonic symmetries, there is a complete collapse of supersymmetry in thermal states. It is also shown that spatially homogeneous superthermal ensembles are never supersymmetric.

  11. Kahal as Spontaneous Order

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Isaac Lifshitz

    2009-01-01

    One description of the people of Israel is Kahal, a category that the Talmud is also concerned with. This category was further employed later in the middle ages, and was given to the Jewish community, although some times with a little twist, the Kehila. This paper will focus mainly on the question of the formation of the Kahal as a large political body in the Bible and in the Talmud, and explore the political implications that can be derived from it. The Kahal as a spontaneously-defined, non-...

  12. Spontaneously broken mass

    CERN Document Server

    Endlich, Solomon; Penco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincar\\'e group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  13. A feasibility study on the design and walking operation of a biped locomotor via dynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingfeng; Ceccarelli, Marco; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A feasibility study on the mechanical design and walking operation of a Cassino biped locomotor is presented in this paper. The biped locomotor consists of two identical 3 degrees-of-freedom tripod leg mechanisms with a parallel manipulator architecture. Planning of the biped walking gait is performed by coordinating the motions of the two leg mechanisms and waist. A threedimensional model is elaborated in SolidWorks® environment in order to characterize a feasible mechanical design. Dynamic simulation is carried out in MSC.ADAMS® environment with the aims of characterizing and evaluating the dynamic walking performance of the proposed design. Simulation results show that the proposed biped locomotor with proper input motions of linear actuators performs practical and feasible walking on flat surfaces with limited actuation and reaction forces between its feet and the ground. A preliminary prototype of the biped locomotor is built for the purpose of evaluating the operation performance of the biped walking gait of the proposed locomotor.

  14. Ceftriaxone attenuates locomotor activity induced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Corley, Gladys; Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Langford, Dianne; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-27

    Ceftriaxone (CTX) decreases locomotor activation produced by initial cocaine exposure and attenuates development of behavioral sensitization produced by repeated cocaine exposure. An important question that has not yet been answered is whether or not CTX reduces behavioral sensitization to cocaine in cases in which the antibiotic is administered only during the period of cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure and precedes reintroduction to cocaine. We investigated this question using C57BL/6 mice. Mice pretreated with cocaine (15mg/kg×14 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15mg/kg) after 30 days of cocaine absence displayed sensitization of locomotor activity. For combination experiments, CTX injected during the 30 days of cocaine absence attenuated behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine challenge. In the case in which CTX was injected together with cocaine for 14 days, development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine challenge was also reduced. CTX attenuated the increase in locomotor activity produced by acute cocaine exposure; however, its efficacy was dependent on the dose of cocaine as inhibition was detected against 30mg/kg, but not 15mg/kg, of cocaine. These results from mice indicate that CTX attenuates locomotor activity produced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure and counters cocaine's locomotor activating properties in a paradigm in which the antibiotic is injected during the period of forced cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure. PMID:24120434

  15. Stimulation of the brainstem reticular formation evokes locomotor activity in embryonic chicken (in ovo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J I; Hasan, S J; Steeves, J D

    1990-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the period of embryonic chick development during which descending brainstem-spinal projections, originating from defined avian brainstem locomotor regions, become functionally active. Locomotor activity was examined using a new in ovo preparation for the focal electrical stimulation of embryonic brainstem locomotor regions. Embryos or hatchlings were anesthetized and mounted in a stereotaxic apparatus. Leg and wing muscle electromyographic (EMG) recordings were used to monitor any brainstem-stimulated motor activity. At present, we have been successful in demonstrating coordinated brainstem-evoked locomotion in embryos as early as embryonic day 15. The patterns of evoked locomotor activity were similar to locomotion evoked in hatchling chicks and were of 4 types: (1) alternating hindlimb movements ('stepping'), (2) synchronous (in-phase) hindlimb movements ('hatching'), (3) synchronous wing movements ('flapping'), and (4) simultaneous 'stepping' and 'flapping'. The cycle durations of evoked embryonic hindlimb movements are shorter than those observed for hatchling chicks. The present results are the first direct demonstration of functional connections between descending supraspinal neurons and spinal locomotor circuits at such an early stage of embryonic development. With modifications in technique, it may be possible to demonstrate functional connections at even earlier stages of embryonic development. PMID:2279325

  16. Interplay between postcranial morphology and locomotor types in Neotropical sigmodontine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Luz V; Tulli, María J; Dos Santos, Daniel A; Abdala, Virginia

    2014-04-01

    Sigmodontine rats are one of the most diverse components of the Neotropical mammal fauna. They exhibit a wide ecological diversity and a variety of locomotor types that allow them to occupy different environments. To explore the relationship between morphology and locomotor types, we analyzed traits of the postcranial osteology (axial and appendicular skeletons) of 329 specimens belonging to 51 species and 29 genera of sigmodontines exhibiting different locomotor types. In this work, postcranial skeletal characters of these rats are considered in an ecomorphological study for the first time. Statistical analyses showed that of the 34 osteological characters considered, 15 were related to the locomotor types studied, except for ambulatory. However, character mapping showed that climbing and jumping sigmodontines are the only taxa exhibiting clear adaptations in their postcranial osteology, which are highly consistent with the tendencies described in many other mammal taxa. Climbing, digging and swimming rats presented statistically differences in traits associated with their vertebral column and limbs, whereas jumping rats showed modifications associated with all the skeletal regions. Our data suggest that sigmodontine rats retain an all-purpose morphology that allows them to use a variety of habitats. This versatility is particularly important when considering the lack of specialization of sigmodontines for a specific locomotor mode. Another possible interpretation is that our dataset probably did not consider relevant information about these groups and should be increased with other types of characters (e.g. characters from the external morphology, myology, etc.). PMID:24372154

  17. Dynamics of entanglement between two atomic samples with spontaneous scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effects of spontaneous scattering on the evolution of entanglement of two atomic samples, probed by phase-shift measurements on optical beams interacting with both samples. We develop a formalism of conditional quantum evolutions and present a wave function analysis implemented in numerical simulations of the state vector dynamics. This method allows us to track the evolution of entanglement and to compare it with the predictions obtained when spontaneous scattering is neglected. We provide numerical evidence that the interferometric scheme to entangle atomic samples is only marginally affected by the presence of spontaneous scattering and should thus be robust even in more realistic situations

  18. Dynamics of entanglement between two atomic samples with spontaneous scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lisi, A D; Illuminati, F; Lisi, Antonio Di; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effects of spontaneous scattering on the evolution of entanglement of two atomic samples, probed by phase shift measurements on optical beams interacting with both samples. We develop a formalism of conditional quantum evolutions and present a wave function analysis implemented in numerical simulations of the state vector dynamics. This method allows to track the evolution of entanglement and to compare it with the predictions obtained when spontaneous scattering is neglected. We provide numerical evidence that the interferometric scheme to entangle atomic samples is only marginally affected by the presence of spontaneous scattering, and should thus be robust even in more realistic situations.

  19. The Indian Spontaneous Expression Database for Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Happy, S L; Patnaik, Priyadarshi; Routray, Aurobinda; Guha, Rajlakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Automatic recognition of spontaneous facial expressions is a major challenge in the field of affective computing. Head rotation, face pose, illumination variation, occlusion etc. are the attributes that increase the complexity of recognition of spontaneous expressions in practical applications. Effective recognition of expressions depends significantly on the quality of the database used. Most well-known facial expression databases consist of posed expressions. However, currently there is a h...

  20. Incomplete spontaneous ureteral disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The aim of the authors was to present the case of spontaneous partial ureteral rupture during a renal colic, caused by an anorganic concrement in the proximal part of the left ureter, at the level of the transverse processus of L3. Case report. On the excretory urography imaging, the dilatation of the canal system, cups, necks and pyelon, was observed. At the level of the pyeloureteric passage, the contrast medium was leaking. The leakage was found to be extending along the psoas muscle to the pelvis. On the transversal CT imaging scans, the contrast medium was seen along the medial and dorsal part of the perirenal space, and in the distal part, along the psoas muscle to the pelvis. The ureter was imaged from the pyeloureterical rupture to the site of the concrement. No signs of the damage of the renal parenchyma or perirenal bleeding were detected. During surgery, the site of the rupture was found and also a lot of the perirenal and periureteral liquid. After the extraction of the concrement, the suture of the rupture was made. Postoperative urography and CT showed a normal ureteral image. Conclusions. At the spontaneous partial disruption of the ureter, the contrast medium is still seen in the ureter, distally from the site of the rupture and as extravasation along the psoas muscle. (author)

  1. Quantum Spontaneous Stochasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The quantum wave-function of a massive particle with small initial uncertainties (consistent with the uncertainty relation) is believed to spread very slowly, so that the dynamics is deterministic. This assumes that the classical motions for given initial data are unique. In fluid turbulence non-uniqueness due to "roughness" of the advecting velocity field is known to lead to stochastic motion of classical particles. Vanishingly small random perturbations are magnified by Richardson diffusion in a "nearly rough" velocity field so that motion remains stochastic as the noise disappears, or classical spontaneous stochasticity, . Analogies between stochastic particle motion in turbulence and quantum evolution suggest that there should be quantum spontaneous stochasticity (QSS). We show this for 1D models of a particle in a repulsive potential that is "nearly rough" with $V(x) \\sim C|x|^{1+\\alpha}$ at distances $|x|\\gg \\ell$ , for some UV cut-off $\\ell$, and for initial Gaussian wave-packet centered at 0. We consi...

  2. Do morphological condition indices predict locomotor performance in the lizard Podarcis sicula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervust, Bart; Lailvaux, Simon P.; Grbac, Irena; Van Damme, Raoul

    2008-09-01

    Biologists have developed a number of simple metrics to assess the health and energetic status of individual organisms and populations. While these condition indices have been widely used to address questions in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology, the ability of such indices to predict ecologically relevant locomotor performance abilities remains unknown. We show here that the functional links between six commonly used morphological condition indices and locomotor performance in two populations of Adriatic lizards ( Podarcis sicula) are weak at best. Indeed, no indices consistently predict either maximum sprint speed or maximum exertion across sexes, seasons or populations. These results cast doubt on the ecological relevance of morphological condition indices in terms of locomotor performance, measured in laboratory conditions, at least in this species. We urge caution in using condition indices as proxies for individual physiological or phenotypic quality in ecological and evolutionary studies.

  3. Effects of noradrenaline on locomotor rhythm-generating networks in the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O; Sillar, K T; Kjaerulff, O;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the biogenic amine noradrenaline (NA) on motor activity in the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. The motor output was recorded with suction electrodes from the lumbar ventral roots. When applied on its own, NA (0.5-50 microM) elicited either no measurable root...... addition of NA to the NMDA/5-HT saline could reinstate a well-coordinated locomotor rhythm. We conclude that exogenously applied NA can elicit tonic activity or can trigger a slow, irregular and often synchronous motor pattern. When NA is applied during ongoing locomotor activity, the amine has a distinct...... slowing effect on the rhythm while preserving the normal coordination between flexors and extensors. The ability of NA to "rescue" rhythmic locomotor activity after its time-dependent deterioration suggests that the amine may be important in the maintenance of rhythmic motor activity....

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of cause–effect relationships is fundamental for the interpretation and the predictive value of biomarker responses measured at all levels of biological complexity. In the present study, the biochemical exposure biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was related to...... locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer......-aided video tracking, whereupon the whole body AChE activity was measured in the individual beetle. AChE inhibition was strongly correlated with dimethoate dose in both sexes. Alterations in the locomotor behavior were directly correlated with AChE inhibition in male beetles, which responded by reducing the...

  5. Altered Patterns of Reflex Excitability, Balance, and Locomotion Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI and Locomotor Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FloydJ.Thompson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is an important problem that complicates daily living in many individuals with SCI. While previous studies in human and animals revealed significant improvements in locomotor ability with treadmill locomotor training, it is not known to what extent locomotor training influences spasticity. In addition, it would be of considerable practical interest to know how the more ergonomically feasible cycle training compares with treadmill training as therapy to manage SCI-induced spasticity and to improve locomotor function. Our present studies were initiated to evaluate the influence of different types of locomotor training on measures of limb spasticity, gait, and reflex components that contribute to locomotion. For these studies, thirty animals received midthoracic SCI using the standard MASCIS protocol (10 g 2.5 cm weight drop. They were divided randomly into three equal groups: control (contused untrained, contused treadmill trained, and contused cycle trained. Velocity-dependent ankle torque was tested across a wide range of velocities (612 – 49 deg/sec to permit quantitation of tonic (low velocity and dynamic (high velocity contributions to lower limb spasticity. Treadmill and cycle training were started on post-injury day 8. By post-injury weeks 4 and 6, the untrained group revealed significant velocity-dependent ankle extensor spasticity, compared to pre-surgical control values. At these post-injury time points, spasticity was not observed in either of the two training groups. Instead, a significantly milder form of velocity dependent spasticity was detected at postcontusion week 8 through 12 in both treadmill and bicycle training groups at the four fastest ankle rotation velocities (350 - 612 deg/sec. Locomotor training using treadmill or bicycle also produced significant increase in the rate of recovery of limb placement measures (limb axis, base of support, and BBB and reflex rate depression, a quantitative assessment of

  6. The locomotor system as seen in Brazilian scientific journals: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make recent selected publications on the locomotor system available to the readership of Clinics. METHOD: A general survey of articles published in selected Brazilian journals was inspected and 91 articles were critically analyzed. They were categorized and briefly described. A final summary of themes is reproduced here. RESULTS: Papers fall into two main categories: articular and muscular pathology and therapeutics; medical sports. A number of papers are not classifiable under these headings. CONCLUSION: The locomotor system has been extensively analyzed and discussed in the Brazilian scientific press in recent years. Not surprisingly, knee and ankle pathology, soccer and running are dominant themes.

  7. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, David R.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Layne, Charles S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  8. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  9. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  10. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Oresković, Slavko; Jezek, Davor

    2013-06-01

    Spontaneous forms of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) are nearly always reported between 8 and 14 weeks of pregnancy and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) producing pituitary adenoma. The syndrome has been previously reported in rare instances of increased production of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) such as multiple pregnancies, hydatiforme mole, polycystic ovary disease and elevated concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyreoidism. High levels of these hormones are able to stimulate by natural promiscuous activation the wild-type FSHr, resulting in sporadic presentations of the syndrome. Since 2003, only six different activating FSHr gene mutations have been reported in cases of familial or habitual sOHSS. In addition to five mutations which have been found in the transmembrane helices (Asp567Asn, Asp567Gly, Thr449Ile, Thr449Ala, Ile545Thr), the first germline mutation (c.383C > A, p. Ser 128 Tyr) in the extracelullar domain was identified. All five mutants were abnormally activated by TSH and normal levels of hCG while displaying constitutive activity. In contrast to these mutations, the p.Ser128Tyr mutant displayed an increase in sensitivity only toward hCG. Accordingly, the mutated FSHrs, may be hyperstimulated by the pregnancy-derived hCG or TSH, inducing the occurrence of the syndrome. In the differential diagnosis, malignancy, pregnancy luteoma and hyperreactio luteinalis would have to be excluded. In almost all of the cases the disease regresses spontaneously and could be managed expectantly or conservatively, but with termination of pregnancy or surgery in cases of complications. PMID:23941020

  11. Pregnancy outcome following spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Agrawal

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Previous history of spontaneous abortion is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. There is increased risk of abortion, preterm delivery, need for caesarean sections and fetal loss in cases of previous spontaneous abortions. These complications and fetal loss can be reduced by booking the patients and giving due antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1891-1893

  12. Radiologic study of spontaneous pneumothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Cheung; Chung, Jin Heung; Rhee, Byung Chull [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The authors reviewed serial chest films of 113 patients of spontaneous pneumothorax which were treated by closed tube thoracotomy during the period from May, 1979 till July 1982 in CNUH. The results are as follows: 1. Male was most frequently affected than female, and the sex ratio was 3.5 : 1. 2. 71.1 percent of patients were over 31 years of age. 3. Of the 113 cases, 51.3 percent were on the right, 48.7% percent on the left. 4. The most common underlying pulmonary diseases was pulmonary tuberculosis (39.8%), the next was belb or bulla (17.7%), and the last was pneumonia (8.8%). No diseases evident case was 31.9 percent. 5. Pneumothorax was the most common type in pulmonary tuberculosis (66.7%), and pyopneumothorax in pneumonia (80.0%). 6. Among 103 cases in complete re-expansion of collapsed lung after closed the thoracotomy, 39.5 percent was expanded completely within 1 week in presence of visceral and/ or parietal pleural thickening, and 86.2 percent in none of it. According to the degree of pneumothorax, the more severe degree of pneumothorax, the more delay in re-expansion times. 7. Most common chest finding after re-expansion of collapsed lung was pleural thickening (51.4%)

  13. Radiologic study of spontaneous pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed serial chest films of 113 patients of spontaneous pneumothorax which were treated by closed tube thoracotomy during the period from May, 1979 till July 1982 in CNUH. The results are as follows: 1. Male was most frequently affected than female, and the sex ratio was 3.5 : 1. 2. 71.1 percent of patients were over 31 years of age. 3. Of the 113 cases, 51.3 percent were on the right, 48.7% percent on the left. 4. The most common underlying pulmonary diseases was pulmonary tuberculosis (39.8%), the next was belb or bulla (17.7%), and the last was pneumonia (8.8%). No diseases evident case was 31.9 percent. 5. Pneumothorax was the most common type in pulmonary tuberculosis (66.7%), and pyopneumothorax in pneumonia (80.0%). 6. Among 103 cases in complete re-expansion of collapsed lung after closed the thoracotomy, 39.5 percent was expanded completely within 1 week in presence of visceral and/ or parietal pleural thickening, and 86.2 percent in none of it. According to the degree of pneumothorax, the more severe degree of pneumothorax, the more delay in re-expansion times. 7. Most common chest finding after re-expansion of collapsed lung was pleural thickening (51.4%)

  14. Emergency Surgery for Spontaneous Hemopneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency management of spontaneous hemopneumothorax patients was retrospectively analysed in this study. From November 2009 to August 2012, 221 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were treated in the thoracic surgery clinic. Among them, 9 (4.07%) were diagnosed with spontaneous hemopneumothorax. Chest X-ray and computed tomography were the diagnostic tools. Emergency thoracotomy was performed for 7 of 9 patients because of massive hemothorax and continuous bleeding from the chest tube. Massive hematoma was documented in 2 of 7 patients at tomography. Bridging veins and torn pleural adhesion between parietal and visceral pleura were the source of bleeding determined at thoracotomy. Hematoma evacuation, resection of bullae, ligation of pleural adhesions and apical pleurectomy were performed. Spontaneous hemopneumothorax is an emergency due to massive hemorrhage and hematoma formation. Early surgical treatment is recommended for patients with spontaneous hemopneumothorax. (author)

  15. Spontaneous curvature of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; Fuller, Nola L; Kozlov, Michael M; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J; Rand, Peter R

    2005-02-15

    The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To examine this possibility, we determined the spontaneous radius of curvature (R(0p)) of PA and LPA, carrying oleoyl fatty acids, using well-established X-ray diffraction methods. We found that, under physiological conditions of pH and salt concentration (pH 7.0, 150 mM NaCl), the R(0p) values of PA and LPA were -46 A and +20 A, respectively. Thus PA has considerable negative spontaneous curvature while LPA has the most positive spontaneous curvature of any membrane lipid measured to date. The further addition of Ca(2+) did not significantly affect lipid spontaneous curvature; however, omitting NaCl from the hydration buffer greatly reduced the spontaneous curvature of PA, turning it into a cylindrically shaped lipid molecule (R(0p) of -1.3 x 10(2) A). Our quantitative data on the spontaneous radius of curvature of PA and LPA at a physiological pH and salt concentration will be instrumental in developing future models of biomembrane fission. PMID:15697235

  16. Efficacy of Static Magnetic Field for Locomotor Activity of Experimental Osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of applying a static magnetic field (SMF for increasing bone mineral density (BMD, we assessed the degree of osteopenia by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, the metabolism measuring system, and histological examination of bone tissue in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model. Thirty-six female Wistar rats (8 weeks old, 160–180 g were divided into three groups. The rats in the OVX-M group were exposed to SMF for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. The ovariectomized rats in the OVX-D group were not exposed to SMF as a control. The rats in the normal group received neither ovariectomy nor exposure to SMF. Twelve-week exposure to SMF in the OVX-M group inhibited the reduction in BMD that was observed in the OVX-D group. Moreover, in the OVX rats, before exposure to SMF, there was no clear difference in the level of locomotor activity between the active and resting phases, and the pattern of locomotor activity was irregular. After exposure of OVX rats to SMF, the pattern of locomotor activity became diphasic with clear active and resting phases, as was observed in the normal group. In the OVX-M group, the continuity of the trabecular bone was maintained more favorably and bone mass was higher than the respective parameters in the OVX-D group. These results demonstrate that exposure to SMF increased the level of locomotor activity in OVX rats, thereby increasing BMD.

  17. Drugs that Target Dopamine Receptors: Changes in Locomotor Activity in Larval Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an effort at the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop a rapid in vivo screen for prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. This includes assessing the acute effects of drugs known...

  18. An automated tracking system for Caenorhabditis elegans locomotor behavior and circadian studies application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetta, Sergio H; Golombek, Diego A

    2007-04-15

    Automation of simple behavioral patterns, such as locomotor activity, is fundamental for pharmacological and genetic screening studies. Recently, circadian behaviors in locomotor activity and stress responses were reported in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a well-known model in genetics and developmental studies. Here we present a new method for long-term recordings of C. elegans (as well as other similar-sized animals) locomotor activity based on an infrared microbeam scattering. Individual nematodes were cultured in a 96-well microtiter plate; we tested L15, CeMM and E. coli liquid cultures in long-term activity tracking experiments, and found CeMM to be the optimal medium. Treatment with 0.2% azide caused an immediate decrease in locomotor activity as recorded with our system. In addition to the validation of the method (including hardware and software details), we report its application in chronobiological studies. Circadian rhythms in animals entrained to light-dark and constant dark conditions (n=48 and 96 worms, respectively) at 16 degrees C, were analyzed by LS periodograms. We obtained a 24.2+/-0.44 h period (52% of significantly rhythmic animals) in LD, and a 23.1+/-0.40 h period (37.5% of significantly rhythmic animals) under DD. The system is automateable using microcontrollers, of low-cost construction and highly reproducible. PMID:17207862

  19. Chemogenetic ablation of dopaminergic neurons leads to transient locomotor impairments in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Rafael; Noble, Sandra; Yoon, Kevin; Anisman, Hymie; Ekker, Marc

    2015-10-01

    To determine the impact of a controlled loss of dopaminergic neurons on locomotor function, we generated transgenic zebrafish, Tg(dat:CFP-NTR), expressing a cyan fluorescent protein-nitroreductase fusion protein (CFP-NTR) under the control of dopamine transporter (dat) cis-regulatory elements. Embryonic and larval zebrafish express the transgene in several groups of dopaminergic neurons, notably in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon and caudal hypothalamus. Administration of the pro-drug metronidazole (Mtz) resulted in activation of caspase 3 in CFP-positive neurons and in a reduction in dat-positive cells by 5 days post-fertilization (dpf). Loss of neurons coincided with impairments in global locomotor parameters such as swimming distance, percentage of time spent moving, as well as changes in tail bend parameters such as time to maximal bend and angular velocity. Dopamine levels were transiently decreased following Mtz administration. Recovery of some of the locomotor parameters was observed by 7 dpf. However, the total numbers of dat-expressing neurons were still decreased at 7, 12, or 14 dpf, even though there was evidence for production of new dat-expressing cells. Tg(dat:CFP-NTR) zebrafish provide a model to correlate altered dopaminergic neuron numbers with locomotor function and to investigate factors influencing regeneration of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26118896

  20. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity and schedule-controlled behaviors of inbred rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J M; Goldberg, S R

    1990-10-01

    Effects of cocaine on several behaviors considered to be reflective of psychomotor stimulation were compared in F344/CR1BR and NBR/NIH inbred rat strains. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity were compared with effects on either bar-press or nose-poke responses maintained under a multiple fixed-interval 3-min, timeout 1-min schedule of food presentation. In locomotor activity experiments, NBR rats were twice as active as F344 rats under baseline conditions and displayed dose-dependent increases in locomotion (5-20 mg/kg). Maximal increases in locomotor activity of F344 rats were only 200% compared to 1000% in NBR rats. In contrast to locomotor activity, no strain differences in the effects of cocaine were observed under the schedules of food delivery. Bar-pressing under the fixed-interval schedule was increased to a maximum of 150% of control in both rat strains. Nose-poke responding under the fixed-interval schedule was not significantly increased, but timeout rates were increased in both strains. These results suggest that NBR and F344 rats do not differ in general sensitivity to stimulant effects of cocaine but exhibit marked differences in responsivity to cocaine that are dependent upon the behavior studied. Further delineation of the behavioral specificity of strain differences in sensitivity to cocaine should help to identify neurobiological substrates underlying unique biologically determined responses to cocaine. PMID:2080195

  1. Initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine varies widely among inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T; Ervin, R B; Duan, H; Bogue, M A; Zamboni, W C; Cook, S; Chung, W; Zou, F; Tarantino, L M

    2015-03-01

    Initial sensitivity to psychostimulants can predict subsequent use and abuse in humans. Acute locomotor activation in response to psychostimulants is commonly used as an animal model of initial drug sensitivity and has been shown to have a substantial genetic component. Identifying the specific genetic differences that lead to phenotypic differences in initial drug sensitivity can advance our understanding of the processes that lead to addiction. Phenotyping inbred mouse strain panels are frequently used as a first step for studying the genetic architecture of complex traits. We assessed locomotor activation following a single, acute 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine (COC) in males from 45 inbred mouse strains and observed significant phenotypic variation across strains indicating a substantial genetic component. We also measured levels of COC, the active metabolite, norcocaine and the major inactive metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in plasma and brain in the same set of inbred strains. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and behavioral data were significantly correlated, but at a level that indicates that PK alone does not account for the behavioral differences observed across strains. Phenotypic data from this reference population of inbred strains can be utilized in studies aimed at examining the role of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activation on drug reward and reinforcement and to test theories about addiction processes. Moreover, these data serve as a starting point for identifying genes that alter sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of COC. PMID:25727211

  2. Posture, gait and the ecological relevance of locomotor costs and energy-saving mechanisms in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Stephen M; McElroy, Eric J; Biknevicius, Audrone R

    2007-01-01

    A reanalysis of locomotor data from functional, energetic, mechanical and ecological perspectives reveals that limb posture has major effects on limb biomechanics, energy-saving mechanisms and the costs of locomotion. Regressions of data coded by posture (crouched vs. erect) reveal nonlinear patterns in metabolic cost, limb muscle mass, effective mechanical advantage, and stride characteristics. In small crouched animals energy savings from spring and pendular mechanisms are inconsequential and thus the metabolic cost of locomotion is driven by muscle activation costs. Stride frequency appears to be the principal functional parameter related to the decreasing cost of locomotion in crouched animals. By contrast, the shift to erect limb postures invoked a series of correlated effects on the metabolic cost of locomotion: effective mechanical advantage increases, relative muscle masses decrease, metapodial limb segments elongate dramatically (as limbs shift from digitigrade to unguligrade designs) and biological springs increase in size and effectiveness. Each of these factors leads to decreases in the metabolic cost of locomotion in erect forms resulting from real and increasing contributions of pendular savings and spring savings. Comparisons of the relative costs and ecological relevance of different gaits reveal that running is cheaper than walking in smaller animals up to the size of dogs but running is more expensive than walking in horses. Animals do not necessarily use their cheapest gaits for their predominant locomotor activity. Therefore, locomotor costs are driven more by ecological relevance than by the need to optimize locomotor economy. PMID:17482802

  3. Plasticity of locomotor sensorimotor interactions after peripheral and/or spinal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossignol, Serge; Barrière, Grégory; Frigon, Alain;

    2008-01-01

    ) to highlight the spinal neuroplasticity necessary for adapting to sensory loss. Recent work on plastic interactions between reflex pathways that could be responsible for such plasticity, in particular changes in proprioceptive and cutaneous pathways that occur during locomotor training of spinal cats...

  4. Voltage-dependent excitation of motoneurones from spinal locomotor centres in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstone, R M; Gossard, J P; Hultborn, H

    1994-01-01

    Lumbar motoneurones were recorded intracellularly during fictive locomotion induced by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in decerebrate cats. After blocking the action potentials using intracellular QX-314, and by using a discontinuous current clamp, it is shown that the excitatory component of the locomotor drive potentials behaves in a voltage-dependent manner, such that its amplitude increases with depolarisation. As the input to motoneurones during locomotion is comprised of alternating excitation and inhibition, it was desirable to examine the excitatory input in relative isolation. This was accomplished in spinalised decerebrate cats treated with nialamide and L-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) by studying the excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked from the "flexor reflex afferents" (FRA) and extensor Ib afferents, both of which are likely to be mediated via the locomotor network. As expected, these EPSPs also demonstrate a voltage-dependent increase in amplitude. In addition, the input to motoneurones from the network for scratching, which is thought to share interneurones with the locomotor network, also results in voltage-dependent excitation. The possible underlying mechanisms of NMDA-mediated excitation and plateau potentials are discussed: both may contribute to the observed effect. It is suggested that this nonlinear increase in excitation contributes to the mechanisms involved in the production of the high rates of repetitive firing of motoneurones typically seen during locomotion, thus ensuring appropriate muscle contraction. PMID:7895797

  5. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...

  6. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    1996-01-01

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  7. MRT of the locomotor system. 4. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Bewegungsapparats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, Martin [Praxisnetz Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Bonn Bad Godesberg - RheinSieg, Bonn (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian (ed.) [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2015-02-01

    The book on MRT of the locomotor system covers the following topics: relevant NMT imaging techniques, spinal cord, shoulder, elbows, wrist and fingers, hip region, knee, lower leg - ankle - foot, temporomandibular joint, skeletal muscles, bone marrow, bone and soft tissue tumors, osteoporosis, sacroiliac joint, jaw and periodontium.

  8. The Developmental Effect of Concurrent Cognitive and Locomotor Skills: Time-Sharing from a Dynamical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitall, Jill

    1991-01-01

    Presents research on the effects of concurrent verbal cognition on locomotor skills. Results revealed no interference with coordination variables across age, but some interference with control variables, particularly in younger subjects. Coordination of gait required less attention than setting of control parameters. This coordination was in place…

  9. Bimodal Respiratory-Locomotor Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Jean-Patrick; Juvin, Laurent; Cardoit, Laura; Morin, Didier

    2016-01-20

    Neural networks that can generate rhythmic motor output in the absence of sensory feedback, commonly called central pattern generators (CPGs), are involved in many vital functions such as locomotion or respiration. In certain circumstances, these neural networks must interact to produce coordinated motor behavior adapted to environmental constraints and to satisfy the basic needs of an organism. In this context, we recently reported the existence of an ascending excitatory influence from lumbar locomotor CPG circuitry to the medullary respiratory networks that is able to depolarize neurons of the parafacial respiratory group during fictive locomotion and to subsequently induce an increased respiratory rhythmicity (Le Gal et al., 2014b). Here, using an isolated in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation from neonatal rat in which the respiratory and the locomotor networks remain intact, we show that during fictive locomotion induced either pharmacologically or by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation, the activity of both thoracolumbar expiratory motoneurons and interneurons is rhythmically modulated with the locomotor activity. Completely absent in spinal inspiratory cells, this rhythmic pattern is highly correlated with the hindlimb ipsilateral flexor activities. Furthermore, silencing brainstem neural circuits by pharmacological manipulation revealed that this locomotor-related drive to expiratory motoneurons is solely dependent on propriospinal pathways. Together these data provide the first evidence in the newborn rat spinal cord for the existence of bimodal respiratory-locomotor motoneurons and interneurons onto which both central efferent expiratory and locomotor drives converge, presumably facilitating the coordination between the rhythmogenic networks responsible for two different motor functions. Significance statement: In freely moving animals, distant regions of the brain and spinal cord controlling distinct motor acts must interact to produce the best

  10. Spontaneous atraumatic dislocation of sternoclavicular joint in Reiter's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Digge; Sanjay Meena; Sheh Alam Khan; Ravi Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Reactive arthritis or Reiter's syndrome characteristically affects the joint of the lower limb in an asymmetrical pattern.Usually it does not affect the axial skeleton or upper limbs.Although cases of atraumatic atlantoaxial subluxations have been reported,no case of spontaneous sternoclavicular dislocation in Reiter's syndrome has been reported.This paper describes a case of a 26 year old male patient who developed a spontaneous posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation.No attempt of reduction was made and the patient was managed conservatively with good results.

  11. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  12. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Shivaram Bhat; Athar A Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis,albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis.Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent strips have managed to shorten the 'tap-toshot' time, while future studies should look into their combined use with ascitic fluid pH. Third generation cephalosporins are the antibiotic of choice because they have a number of advantages. Renal dysfunction has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with SBP. Albumin is felt to reduce the risk of renal impairment by improving effective intravascular volume, and by helping to bind proinflammatory molecules. Following a single episode of SBP, patients should have long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and be considered for liver transplantation.

  13. [Lazarus phenomenon: spontaneous resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casielles García, J L; González Latorre, M V; Fernández Amigo, N; Guerra Vélz, A; Cotta Galán, M; Bravo Capaz, E; de las Mulas Béjar, M

    2004-01-01

    A 94-year-old woman undergoing surgery for simple repair of a duodenal perforation experienced a sudden massive hemorrhage (1500 mL) when the duodenum was separated from adjacent structures. Hemodynamic stability was re-established when fluids were replaced. After the abdominal wall was closed, increased amplitude of the QRS wave was observed and heart rate slowed until there was no pulse. Electromechanical dissociation (EMD) was diagnosed and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. When EMD persisted after 40 minutes, resuscitative measures were stopped and the ventilator was disconnected, though orotracheal intubation and arterial and electrocardiographic monitoring were maintained. After 2 or 3 minutes, heart rhythm restarted spontaneously and arterial pressure waves reappeared on the monitor. The patient progressed well for 72 hours, after which she developed septic shock and multiorgan failure, dying 18 days later. The Lazarus phenomenon may be more common than the medical literature would indicate, possibly because a large gap in our understanding of the pathophysiology of the phenomenon underlies anecdotes about "miracles". As we wait for adequate international consensus on a protocol for monitoring the withdrawal of resuscitative measures, we should act prudently before definitively certifying death. The case we report occurred during a surgical intervention in which the patient had received general anesthesia. We believe that the causes that might explain the Lazarus phenomenon are quite different in that context than they would be in a nonsurgical setting, such that it would be useful to create a national database to keep a record of such intraoperative events. PMID:15495638

  14. Spontaneous subgaleal aerocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, M O N; Onu, D O; Igwe, N N

    2014-01-01

    Apart from reporting about a case of spontaneous subgaleal aerocele this paper looks at the possible causes and management also. A 35-year-old Igbo-Nigerian female, about 4 weeks post-natal, with a 10-month old steadily and gradually enlarging mass around the back of her head, including both temporal regions was referred to us. Plain skull radiographs showed air in this mass. Needle puncture produced air leading to immediate and complete flattening of the lesion. A few hours after this procedure while still in the hospital premises, she had generalized convulsions, for which she was hospitalized and treated. With no further attacks, her request for discharge the following day was granted. At the next visit, 7 days later, there was a re-accumulation, which was treated the same way as previously and with the same result. She has not reported back since then, though she was advised to visit us again in 7 day-time. This lesion should be considered when masses on the head are presented. Our health institutions should have adequate investigative facilities. PMID:24553041

  15. Nanomolar oxytocin synergizes with weak electrical afferent stimulation to activate the locomotor CpG of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM-1 μM) generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in combination with other

  16. Nanomolar oxytocin synergizes with weak electrical afferent stimulation to activate the locomotor CpG of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dose

    Full Text Available Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM-1 μM generated sporadic bursts with superimposed firing and dose-dependent depolarization. No desensitization was observed despite repeated applications. Tetrodotoxin completely blocked the effects of oxytocin, demonstrating the network origin of the responses. Recording motoneuron pool activity from lumbar ventral roots showed oxytocin mediated depolarization with synchronous bursts, and depression of reflex responses in a stimulus and peptide-concentration dependent fashion. Disinhibited bursting caused by strychnine and bicuculline was accelerated by oxytocin whose action was blocked by the oxytocin antagonist atosiban. Fictive locomotion appeared when subthreshold concentrations of NMDA plus 5HT were coapplied with oxytocin, an effect prevented after 24 h incubation with the inhibitor of 5HT synthesis, PCPA. When fictive locomotion was fully manifested, oxytocin did not change periodicity, although cycle amplitude became smaller. A novel protocol of electrical stimulation based on noisy waveforms and applied to one dorsal root evoked stereotypic fictive locomotion. Whenever the stimulus intensity was subthreshold, low doses of oxytocin triggered fictive locomotion although oxytocin per se did not affect primary afferent depolarization evoked by dorsal root pulses. Among the several functional targets for the action of oxytocin at lumbar spinal cord level, the present results highlight how small concentrations of this peptide could bring spinal networks to threshold for fictive locomotion in

  17. Functional relations between locomotor performance traits in spiders and implications for evolutionary hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Phillip W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Locomotor performance in ecologically relevant activities is often linked to individual fitness. Recent controversy over evolution of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD in spiders centres on the relationship between size and locomotor capacity in males. Advantages for large males running over horizontal surfaces and small males climbing vertically have been proposed. Models have implicitly treated running and climbing as functionally distinct activities and failed to consider the possibility that they reflect common underlying capacities. Findings We examine the relationship between maximum climbing and running performance in males of three spider species. Maximum running and climbing speeds were positively related in two orb-web spiders with high SSD (Argiope keyserlingi and Nephila plumipes, indicating that for these species assays of running and climbing largely reveal the same underlying capacities. Running and climbing speeds were not related in a jumping spider with low SSD (Jacksonoides queenslandica. We found no evidence of a performance trade-off between these activities. Conclusions In the web-spiders A. keyserlingi and N. plumipes good runners were also good climbers. This indicates that climbing and running largely represent a single locomotor performance characteristic in these spiders, but this was not the case for the jumping spider J. queenslandica. There was no evidence of a trade-off between maximum running and climbing speeds in these spiders. We highlight the need to establish the relationship between apparently disparate locomotor activities when testing alternative hypotheses that yield predictions about different locomotor activities. Analysis of slopes suggests greater potential for an evolutionary response on performance in the horizontal compared to vertical context in these spiders.

  18. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states. PMID:26384924

  19. Spontaneous Hemothorax: Analysis of 5 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Sayır

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Spontan hemothorax is disease that bleeding in the pleural space, because of nontrauma. Generally, the underlying cause is a primary pathology. It can be life-threatening. We reviewed the relevant literature 5 patients developed hemothorax without a history of trauma. Material and Method: In our clinic between 2005 and 2011 were treated 220 cases of hemothorax. In 5 cases (2.2% were detected spontaneous hemothorax. The patients were evaluated according to age, gender, the affected area, clinical findings, amount of bleeding, the causes of bleeding. Results: Four (80%, male patients, 1 (20% female and the mean age was 54.8. Right hemothorax in 4 (80% cases, 1 (20% patient were located on the left hemithorax. The most common symptom was chest pain, dyspnea, and pallor. All patients underwent tube thoracostomy. 3 (60% cases were treated with tube thoracostomy and 2 (40% cases were treated with the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. All patients had a moderate hemorrhage. There weren%u2019t signs of shock. Blood replacement was performed in 2 patients. Discussion: Spontaneous hemothorax is a rarely observed clinical entity in an emergency. Tube thoracostomy is usually sufficient enterprise. Recently, treatment with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has an important place. If necessary, the thoracotomy should not be avoided.

  20. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals' social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  1. Process of spontaneous combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.; Bialecki, R.; Nowak, A. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature on coal spontaneous combustion and oxidation. The following aspects are discussed: low-temperature oxidation, medium and high-temperature oxidation, theories of spontaneous coal combustion (bacteria theory, phenol theory, water-coal system theory, water adsorption theory), factors that influence spontaneous combustion (coal rank, petrology, porosity, moisture content, storage method, storage temperature, air circulation, macrostructure and geometry of the system for storage of coal), effects of mineral content on coal hazards of spontaneous combustion, physicochemical phenomena that influence spontaneous combustion, laboratory investigations into spontaneous combustion, experimental methods used in laboratory investigations, forecasting energy effects of spontaneous combustion, mathematical models of coal spontaneous combustion. 94 refs.

  2. Classification of spontaneous EEG signals in migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; de Tommaso, M.; Lucente, M.

    2007-08-01

    We set up a classification system able to detect patients affected by migraine without aura, through the analysis of their spontaneous EEG patterns. First, the signals are characterized by means of wavelet-based features, than a supervised neural network is used to classify the multichannel data. For the feature extraction, scale-dependent and scale-independent methods are considered with a variety of wavelet functions. Both the approaches provide very high and almost comparable classification performances. A complete separation of the two groups is obtained when the data are plotted in the plane spanned by two suitable neural outputs.

  3. Spontaneous combustion in coal massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous combustion of coal seams is one of the main causes of economic and human losses associated to the operation of the mines at the Amaga basin. Several factors intervening in the spontaneous combustion of coal are analysed in this article, namely: The physico-chemical processes. The specific circumstances of the exploitations. The generation and composition of fire gasses. The explosive power of the gases. The susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion is determined by thermo gravimetric and petrographic analysis. The results of this study show that in the Amaga basin, the mining and geological parameters have a more influential function in the spontaneous combustion process than the intrinsic properties of coal

  4. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.;

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  5. Teaching Spontaneous Responses to a Young Child with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome experience significant communication impairments, particularly in expressive language. Although receiving little attention in the literature, deficiencies in expressive language are likely to affect spontaneous communicative responses in children with Down syndrome. In this study, using a multiple baseline design across…

  6. ADDITIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM “SPORT WHEELCHAIR DANCES FOR CHILDREN WITH LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM DISORDERS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Кукушкина

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers structure and contents of additional education program “Sport wheelchair dances for children with locomotor system disorders” in sport and technical aspects. Training classes for persons with locomotor system disorders can be considered not only as a tool of their rehabilitation but as constant form of life activity – social occupation and achievements.The article describes key elements of the “Sport wheelchair dances”, in particular, aim, tasks, principles, components. Realization of proposed program allowed to achieve definite results and form corresponding conclusions which are formulated in this article.The program will help specialists in the sphere of physical training, and inclusive education specialists in Russia and other countries to involve children in sport dances, open new perspectives for their self-development, make the process of their socialization more efficient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-8

  7. Impairment of the organization of locomotor and exploratory behaviors in bile duct-ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; de Oliveira, Diogo L; Mussulini, Ben Hur M;

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) arises from acute or chronic liver diseases and leads to several problems, including motor impairment. Animal models of chronic liver disease have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this disease. Impairment of locomotor activity has been described in different...... rat models. However, these studies are controversial and the majority has primarily analyzed activity parameters. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate locomotor and exploratory behavior in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats to explore the spatial and temporal structure of behavior. Adult...... exhibited a decrease in total distance traveled, increased total immobility time, smaller number of rearings, longer periods in the home base area and decreased percentage of time in the center zone of the arena, when compared to the control rats. Moreover, the performance of the BDL rats was not different...

  8. [Spontaneous intraparenchymatous hemorrhage: findings at computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Celso Monteiro; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Rodrigues, Andréa de Jesus

    2004-09-01

    Computed tomography studies of 250 patients with spontaneous hemorrhage were examined in three hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The goal of this study was to identify the aspects of this disease that appear most frequently in this type of exam. Deep intracerebral hematomas have had the highest incidence followed by lobar hemorrhage, with thalamus being more frequently affected. Cerebellar hemorrhage was much rarer, with brainstem bleeding observed in few patients. The age group with a peak incidence was at 61 to 70 years. Headache was the most frequently related symptom and elevated levels of blood pressure were found in most of the cases. There was no pronounced difference as to predominance in either sex or side most affected but it was observed that the onset of this disease occurs at an earlier age in men than in women. Blood draining into the ventricular system occurred more frequently in deep hematomas. PMID:15334231

  9. Plasticity and modular control of locomotor patterns in neurological disorders with motor deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Cappellini, G.; Solopova, I. A.; Grishin, A. A.; MacLellan, M. J.; Poppele, R. E.; F. Lacquaniti

    2013-01-01

    Human locomotor movements exhibit considerable variability and are highly complex in terms of both neural activation and biomechanical output. The building blocks with which the central nervous system constructs these motor patterns can be preserved in patients with various sensory-motor disorders. In particular, several studies highlighted a modular burst-like organization of the muscle activity. Here we review and discuss this issue with a particular emphasis on the various examples of adap...

  10. Differential effects of propranolol on conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shuguang Wei; Xinwang Li

    2014-01-01

    According to memory reconsolidation theory, when long-term memory is reactivated by relevant clues, the memory traces become labile, which can be altered by pharmacological manipulations. Accumulating evidence reveals that memory related to drug abuse can be erased by disrupting reconsolidation process. We used an animal model that could simultaneously measure conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine. β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol or saline were admini...

  11. Classification of rhythmic locomotor patterns in electromyographic signals using fuzzy sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrasher Timothy A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Locomotor control is accomplished by a complex integration of neural mechanisms including a central pattern generator, spinal reflexes and supraspinal control centres. Patterns of muscle activation during walking exhibit an underlying structure in which groups of muscles seem to activate in united bursts. Presented here is a statistical approach for analyzing Surface Electromyography (SEMG data with the goal of classifying rhythmic "burst" patterns that are consistent with a central pattern generator model of locomotor control. Methods A fuzzy model of rhythmic locomotor patterns was optimized and evaluated using SEMG data from a convenience sample of four able-bodied individuals. As well, two subjects with pathological gait participated: one with Parkinson's Disease, and one with incomplete spinal cord injury. Subjects walked overground and on a treadmill while SEMG was recorded from major muscles of the lower extremities. The model was fit to half of the recorded data using non-linear optimization and validated against the other half of the data. The coefficient of determination, R2, was used to interpret the model's goodness of fit. Results Using four fuzzy burst patterns, the model was able to explain approximately 70-83% of the variance in muscle activation during treadmill gait and 74% during overground gait. When five burst functions were used, one function was found to be redundant. The model explained 81-83% of the variance in the Parkinsonian gait, and only 46-59% of the variance in spinal cord injured gait. Conclusions The analytical approach proposed in this article is a novel way to interpret multichannel SEMG signals by reducing the data into basic rhythmic patterns. This can help us better understand the role of rhythmic patterns in locomotor control.

  12. Bupropion Differentially Alters the Aversive, Locomotor and Rewarding Properties of Nicotine in CD-1 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rauhut, Anthony S.; Hawrylak, Michael; Mardekian, Stacey K.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiments determined the effects of bupropion on the motivational (aversive and rewarding) and locomotor properties of nicotine in CD-1 mice. Preliminary experiments determined effective nicotine doses (0.1 – 2.0 mg/kg) to produce a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) or conditioned place preference (CPP; Experiments 1a and 2a, respectively). Mice were administered vehicle or bupropion (1 – 20 mg/kg) followed by vehicle or nicotine after drinking saccharin during CTA training (Expe...

  13. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Martorell, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Thesis entitled "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor Correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" is about the anatomical adaptations in the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) of hominoid primates. The action of the forces exerted during locomotion model the shape of the joint determining the range of motion animals can achieve. The hominoid primates stand out as having very mobile joints, with the ability to raise the arm above the shoulder enabling the us...

  14. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J

    2014-07-15

    Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-h withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for 10 min while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: (1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and (2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798

  15. Music and Methamphetamine: Conditioned Cue-induced Increases in Locomotor Activity and Dopamine Release in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Polston, J. E.; Rubbinaccio, H.Y.; Morra, J.T.; Sell, E.M.; Glick, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Associations between drugs of abuse and cues facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Although significant research has been done to elucidate the role that simple discriminative or discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., a tone or a light) play in addiction, less is known about complex environmental cues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of a musical conditioned stimulus by assessing locomotor activity and in vivo microdialysis. Two groups of rat...

  16. Spermidine Feeding Decreases Age-Related Locomotor Activity Loss and Induces Changes in Lipid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Nadège Minois; Patrick Rockenfeller; Smith, Terry K; Didac Carmona-Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Spermidine is a natural polyamine involved in many important cellular functions, whose supplementation in food or water increases life span and stress resistance in several model organisms. In this work, we expand spermidine's range of age-related beneficial effects by demonstrating that it is also able to improve locomotor performance in aged flies. Spermidine's mechanism of action on aging has been primarily related to general protein hypoacetylation that subsequently induces autophagy. Her...

  17. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Megan L.T. Hilbert; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a con...

  18. Dopamine: a parallel pathway for the modulation of spinal locomotor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick John Whelan

    2014-01-01

    The spinal cord contains networks of neurons that can produce locomotor patterns. To readily respond to environmental conditions, these networks must be flexible yet at the same time robust. Neuromodulators play a key role in contributing to network flexibility in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks. For example, neuromodulators contribute to altering intrinsic properties and synaptic weights that, in extreme cases, can lead to neurons switching between networks. Here we focus o...

  19. Comparative locomotor ecology of gibbons and macaques: selection of canopy elements for crossing gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, C H; Leighton, M

    1994-04-01

    To examine functional questions of arboreal locomotor ecology, the selection of canopy elements by Bornean agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) was contrasted, and related to locomotor behaviors. The two species, and in some cases, the macaque sexes, varied in their use of most structural elements. Although both species traveled most frequently in the main canopy layer (macaques: 56%, gibbons: 48%), the gibbons strongly preferred the emergent canopy layer and traveled higher than the macaques (31 vs. 23 m above ground) in larger trees (48 vs. 26 cm dbh). Macaques preferred to cross narrower gaps (50% were in the class 0.1-0.5 m wide) than gibbons (42% were 1.6-3.0 m wide), consistent with the maximum gap width each crossed (3.5 m for macaques, 9 m for gibbons). Macaques could cross only 12% of the gaps encountered in the main canopy, and < 5% of the gaps in each of the other four layers. In contrast, all layers appear relatively continuous for gibbons. Specialized locomotor modes were used disproportionately at the beginning and end of travel segments, further indicating that behavior was organized around gap crossings. A model is defined, the Perceived Continuity Index (PCI), which predicts the relative use of canopy strata for each species, based on the percentage of gaps a species can cross, the frequency of gaps, and median length of continuous canopy structure in each canopy layer. The results support the hypothesis that locomotor behaviors, and strategies of selecting canopy strata for travel, are strongly constrained by wide gaps between trees and are ultimately based on selection for efficient direct line travel between distant points. PMID:8048471

  20. Mianserin, but not Ondansetron, reduces the locomotor stimulating effect of ethanol in preweanling rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ariaslow, Carles; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    During infancy rats are highly sensitive to the locomotor stimulating effect of ethanol, an effect particularly observed when they are tested during the rising phase of the blood ethanol curve and in a novel environment. According to a recent study infant rats require some degree of stress to get stimulated after being challenged with ethanol. Ethanol-induced stimulation in preweanling rats required the activation of CRH-1 receptors. Considering these antecedents, we explored modulation of th...

  1. Angular scale expansion theory and the misperception of egocentric distance in locomotor space

    OpenAIRE

    Durgin, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Perception is crucial for the control of action, but perception need not be scaled accurately to produce accurate actions. This paper reviews evidence for an elegant new theory of locomotor space perception that is based on the dense coding of angular declination so that action control may be guided by richer feedback. The theory accounts for why so much direct-estimation data suggests that egocentric distance is underestimated despite the fact that action measures have been interpreted as in...

  2. Effects of cocaine on norepinephrine stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and locomotor activity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of α1-adrenoceptors was determined by stimulating cortical tissue slices, which were pre-labeled with [3H]inositol, with norepinephrine (NE) in the presence of 8 mM LiCl. Results of in vitro studies showed that cocaine 10 μM potentiated maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by 30%. In addition, the EC50 was decreased from 3.93 ± 0.42 to 1.91 ± 0.31 μM NE. Concentrations of 0.1-100 μM and 0.1-10 μM cocaine enhanced PI hydrolysis stimulated by 0.3 and 3 μM NE, respectively. The concentration-effect curves for NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis were shifted to the right 100-fold in the presence of 0.1 μM prazosin. Cocaine (10 μM) did not potentiate NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis in the presence of 0.1 μM prazosin. [3H]Prazosin saturation and NE [3H]prazosin competition binding studies using crude membrane preparations showed that 10 μM cocaine did not alter binding parameters Bmax, Kd, Hill slope, and IC50. Together, these results implied that cocaine in vitro potentiated NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by blocking NE reuptake. For in vivo studies, the locomotor activity was determined after an acute or chronic injections of either cocaine or saline. Cocaine or saline-treated rats were killed after measurement of the locomotor activity, and NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis was measured. Acute administration of cocaine 3.2-42 mg/kg (i.p.) produced an inverted U shaped dose-response curve on locomotor activity. The peak increase in locomotor activity was at 32 mg/kg cocaine. A dose of 42 mg/kg cocaine produced a significant depression of maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis

  3. Ceftriaxone attenuates locomotor activity induced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Corley, Gladys; Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Langford, Dianne; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Ceftriaxone (CTX) decreases locomotor activation produced by initial cocaine exposure and attenuates development of behavioral sensitization produced by repeated cocaine exposure. An important question that has not yet been answered is whether or not CTX reduces behavioral sensitization to cocaine in cases in which the antibiotic is administered only during the period of cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure and precedes reintroduction to cocaine. We investigated this questio...

  4. Perturbation schedule does not alter retention of a locomotor adaptation across days

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Sara J.; Morton, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor adaptation in response to gradual vs. abrupt perturbation schedules may involve different neural mechanisms, potentially leading to different levels of motor memory. However, no study has investigated whether perturbation schedules alter memory of a locomotor adaptation across days. We measured adaptation and retention (memory) of altered interlimb symmetry during walking in two groups of participants over 2 days. On day 1, participants adapted to either a single, large perturbation (ab...

  5. Characterization and modeling of intermittent locomotor dynamics in clock gene-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Nakamura

    Full Text Available The scale-invariant and intermittent dynamics of animal behavior are attracting scientific interest. Recent findings concerning the statistical laws of behavioral organization shared between healthy humans and wild-type mice (WT and their alterations in human depression patients and circadian clock gene (Period 2; Per2 mutant mice indicate that clock genes play functional roles in intermittent, ultradian locomotor dynamics. They also claim the clinical and biological importance of the laws as objective biobehavioral measures or endophenotypes for psychiatric disorders. In this study, to elucidate the roles of breakdown of the broader circadian regulatory circuit in intermittent behavioral dynamics, we studied the statistical properties and rhythmicity of locomotor activity in Per2 mutants and mice deficient in other clock genes (Bmal1, Clock. We performed wavelet analysis to examine circadian and ultradian rhythms and estimated the cumulative distributions of resting period durations during which locomotor activity levels are continuously lower than a predefined threshold value. The wavelet analysis revealed significant amplification of ultradian rhythms in the BMAL1-deficient mice, and instability in the Per2 mutants. The resting period distributions followed a power-law form in all mice. While the distributions for the BMAL1-deficient and Clock mutant mice were almost identical to those for the WT mice, with no significant differences in their parameter (power-law scaling exponent, only the Per2 mutant mice showed consistently and significantly lower values of the scaling exponent, indicating the increased intermittency in ultradian locomotor dynamics. Furthermore, based on a stochastic priority queuing model, we explained the power-law nature of resting period distributions, as well as its alterations shared with human depressive patients and Per2 mutant mice. Our findings lead to the development of a novel mathematical model for abnormal

  6. Alpha-asarone improves striatal cholinergic function and locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guozhen; Chen, Shengqiang; Guo, Jialing; Wu, Jie; Yi, Yong-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Hyperactivity is a symptom found in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The animal model of FXS, fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) knockout (KO) mouse, exhibits robust locomotor hyperactivity. Alpha (α)-asarone, a major bioactive component isolated from Acorus gramineus, has been shown in previous studies to improve various disease conditions including central nervous system disorders. In this study, we show that treatment with α-asarone alleviates locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this improvement, we evaluated the expressions of various cholinergic markers, as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) levels, in the striatum of Fmr1 KO mice. We also analyzed the AChE-inhibitory activity of α-asarone. Striatal samples from Fmr1 KO mice showed decreased m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m1 mAChR) expression, increased AChE activity, and reduced ACh levels. Treatment with α-asarone improved m1 mAChR expression and ACh levels, and attenuated the increased AChE activity. In addition, α-asarone dose-dependently inhibited AChE activity in vitro. These results indicate that direct inhibition of AChE activity and up-regulation of m1 mAChR expression in the striatum might contribute to the beneficial effects of α-asarone on locomotor hyperactivity in Fmr1 KO mice. These findings might improve understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for locomotor hyperactivity. PMID:27316341

  7. Shared Strategies for Behavioral Switching: Understanding How Locomotor Patterns are Turned on and Off

    OpenAIRE

    Karen A Mesce; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

    2010-01-01

    Animals frequently switch from one behavior to another, often to meet the demands of their changing environment or internal state. What factors control these behavioral switches and the selection of what to do or what not to do? To address these issues, we will focus on the locomotor behaviors of two distantly related ‘worms’, the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana (clade Lophotrochozoa) and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (clade Ecdysozoa). Although the neural architecture and ...

  8. NO INFLUENCE OF HYPOXIA ON COORDINATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY AND LOCOMOTOR RHYTHMS DURING ROWING AT MODERATE INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fabre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides neuro-mechanical constraints, chemical or metabolic stimuli have also been proposed to interfere with the coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms. In the light of the conflicting data observed in the literature, this study aimed to assess whether acute hypoxia modifies the degree of coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms during rowing exercises in order to investigate competitive interactions between neuro-mechanical (movement and chemical (hypoxia respiratory drives. Nine male healthy subjects performed one submaximal 6-min rowing exercise on a rowing ergometer in both normoxia (altitude: 304 m and acute hypoxia (altitude: 2877 m. The exercise intensity was about 40 % and 35 % (for normoxia and hypoxia conditions, respectively of the individual maximal power output measured during an incremental rowing test to volitional exhaustion carried out in normoxia. Metabolic rate and minute ventilation were continuously collected throughout exercise. Locomotor movement and breathing rhythms were continuously recorded and synchronized cycle-by-cycle. The degree of coordination was expressed as a percentage of breaths starting during the same phase of the locomotor cycle. For a same and a constant metabolic rate, acute hypoxia did not influence significantly the degree of coordination (mean ± SEM, normoxia: 20.0 ± 6.2 %, hypoxia: 21.3 ± 11.1 %, p > 0.05 while ventilation and breathing frequency were significantly greater in hypoxia. Our results may suggest that during rowing exercise at a moderate metabolic load, neuro-mechanical locomotion-linked respiratory stimuli appear "stronger" than peripheral chemoreceptors- linked respiratory stimuli induced by hypoxia, in the context of our study

  9. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Yves Philippe; Mestre, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the direction of a driver's gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks toward the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street turns a corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behavior, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the completion of the path, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to manipulate in an easy and precise way the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. The results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables (i) a significant smoothness of the trajectory and (ii) a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the "2/3 Power Law." These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the formation of the path seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding. PMID:22798955

  10. Plasticity of connections underlying locomotor recovery after central and/or peripheral lesions in the adult mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol, Serge,

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses some aspects of plasticity of connections after spinal injury in adult animal models as a basis for functional recovery of locomotion. After reviewing some pitfalls that must be avoided when claiming functional recovery and the importance of a conceptual framework for the control of locomotion, locomotor recovery after spinal lesions, mainly in cats, is summarized. It is concluded that recovery is partly due to plastic changes within the existing spinal locomotor network...

  11. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew C.; Maria Knikou

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvem...

  12. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zago, A.; R.M. Leão; P.E. Carneiro-de-Oliveira; Marin, M.T.; F.C. Cruz; C.S. Planeta

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have eva...

  13. Low and High Locomotor Responsiveness to Cocaine Predicts Intravenous Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Richard M.; Everett, Carson V.; Nelson, Anna M.; Gulley, Joshua M.; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2006-01-01

    Outbred, male Sprague-Dawley rats can be classified as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively) based on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in an open-field arena. This difference reflects cocaine’s ability to inhibit the striatal dopamine transporter and predicts development of sensitization. To investigate the relationship between initial cocaine locomotor responsiveness and cocaine reward, here we first classified rats as either LCRs or HCRs in a conditioned place...

  14. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  15. Nanomolar Oxytocin Synergizes with Weak Electrical Afferent Stimulation to Activate the Locomotor CPG of the Rat Spinal Cord In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Dose, Francesco; Zanon, Patrizia; Coslovich, Tamara; Taccola, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Synergizing the effect of afferent fibre stimulation with pharmacological interventions is a desirable goal to trigger spinal locomotor activity, especially after injury. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms to optimize this process, we studied the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (previously shown to stimulate locomotor networks) on network and motoneuron properties using the isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. On motoneurons oxytocin (1 nM–1 μM) generated sporadic bursts with superimpo...

  16. The Usefulness of Performance Matrix Tests in Locomotor System Evaluation of Girls Attending a Ballet School — Preliminary Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Learning ballet is connected with continuous use of the locomotor system while subjecting it to high loads. Therefore, we conducted some research defining the appearance of weak links in the motor system, in order to eliminate the risk of injury. [Methods] Fifty-two female students of a ballet school were examined. To identify weak links, low-threshold Performance Matrix tests were performed. An analysis of weak link occurrence in the locomotor system was carried out, using two way ...

  17. Shared human-chimpanzee pattern of perinatal femoral shaft morphology and its implications for the evolution of hominin locomotor adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Morimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual's lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations.

  18. Functional analysis of the biceps femoris muscle during locomotor behavior in some primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, H

    1989-07-01

    In order to investigate a correlation between morphological variations of the biceps femoris muscle and its homologues in four primate species (Japanese macaque, spider monkey, white-handed gibbon, and chimpanzee) and each type of species-specific locomotor behavior, I carried out both morphological and functional analyses of these muscles. The description of the level of insertion reveals interspecific variation is in the level of crural attachment, especially in species with a bicipital biceps femoris muscle. Electromyograms (EMGs) were induced from both the long and short head of the biceps femoris muscle during four kinds of locomotor behavior (horizontal quadrupedal walking, climbing on an inclined pole, vertical climbing, and bipedal walking). In the case of the monoceptual ischiocruralis lateralis muscle of the Japanese macaque, EMGs were induced from both the one-joint femoral part and the two-joint crural part. Though during horizontal quadrupedal locomotion the crural part of the monocipital-type muscle functioned to maintain the knee joint angle, it functioned to gain propulsive force when the kinematic load became larger, as in vertical climbing and bipedal walking. On the other hand, the long heads of the biceps femoris muscles were active in propulsion regardless of the kinematic load. But in bipedal walking, the long head muscle also acted with the short head muscle to maintain the knee joint angle. These functional features of various biceps femoris muscles of primates correlated with their species-specific locomotor behavior. PMID:2504047

  19. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ. PMID:26092201

  20. The iFly Tracking System for an Automated Locomotor and Behavioural Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Kai J.; Jahn, Thomas R.; Lomas, David A.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Crowther, Damian C.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The use of animal models in medical research provides insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of human disease, and helps identify and test novel therapeutic strategies. Drosophila melanogaster – the common fruit fly – is one of the most established model organisms, as its study can be performed more readily and with far less expense than for other model animal systems, such as mice, fish, or indeed primates. In the case of fruit flies, standard assays are based on the analysis of longevity and basic locomotor functions. Here we present the iFly tracking system, which enables to increase the amount of quantitative information that can be extracted from these studies, and to reduce significantly the duration and costs associated with them. The iFly system uses a single camera to simultaneously track the trajectories of up to 20 individual flies with about 100μm spatial and 33ms temporal resolution. The statistical analysis of fly movements recorded with such accuracy makes it possible to perform a rapid and fully automated quantitative analysis of locomotor changes in response to a range of different stimuli. We anticipate that the iFly method will reduce very considerably the costs and the duration of the testing of genetic and pharmacological interventions in Drosophila models, including an earlier detection of behavioural changes and a large increase in throughput compared to current longevity and locomotor assays. PMID:21698336

  1. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  2. The effects of opioid drugs on dopamine mediated locomotor activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opioid drugs influence various behavioural parameters including locomotor activity in experimental animals. The interaction between the opioid and dopaminergic systems is one possible explanation for the effect of opioid drugs on locomotor activity. In this study behavioural and biochemical assays were done to investigate the interaction between the opioid and dopaminergic systems. Behavioural studies were done by measurement of locomotor activity (LA) of rats after acute or chronic pretreatment with opioid and/or dopaminergic drugs. Biochemical studies were in the form of radioligand binding assays, the effect on the number (Bmax) and affinity (KD) of receptors was measured after chronic pretreatment with opioid and/or dopaminergic drugs. The opioid drugs used are morphine, nalbuphine and naloxone. Dopaminergic drugs used included: agonists-apomorphine and piribedil; antagonists-pimozide, haloperidol, chlorpromazine. In the acute situation increased LA was obtained with morphine and the DA agonists. A correlation between the behavioural and biochemical assays was found. Chronic pretreatment with morphine enhanced apomorphine induced LA, this supersensitivity was also measured as an increased receptor density (Bmax) of D2 receptors in the striatum. Chronic morphine pretreatment caused a decrease in morphine induced LA, while this subsensitivity was not apparent in the ligand binding assays - where no change in receptor number was observed. Chronic naloxone pretreatment enhanced morphine induced LA, as well as increased the Bmax of opioid receptors in the whole brain. It is concluded that an interaction between the opioid and dopaminergic systems does exist, and may account for the mechanism of action of the opioids

  3. Dynamic locomotor capabilities revealed by early dinosaur trackmakers from southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new investigation of the sedimentology and ichnology of the Early Jurassic Moyeni tracksite in Lesotho, southern Africa has yielded new insights into the behavior and locomotor dynamics of early dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tracksite is an ancient point bar preserving a heterogeneous substrate of varied consistency and inclination that includes a ripple-marked riverbed, a bar slope, and a stable algal-matted bar top surface. Several basal ornithischian dinosaurs and a single theropod dinosaur crossed its surface within days or perhaps weeks of one another, but responded to substrate heterogeneity differently. Whereas the theropod trackmaker accommodated sloping and slippery surfaces by gripping the substrate with its pedal claws, the basal ornithischian trackmakers adjusted to the terrain by changing between quadrupedal and bipedal stance, wide and narrow gauge limb support (abduction range = 31 degrees , and plantigrade and digitigrade foot posture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The locomotor adjustments coincide with changes in substrate consistency along the trackway and appear to reflect 'real time' responses to a complex terrain. It is proposed that these responses foreshadow important locomotor transformations characterizing the later evolution of the two main dinosaur lineages. Ornithischians, which shifted from bipedal to quadrupedal posture at least three times in their evolutionary history, are shown to have been capable of adopting both postures early in their evolutionary history. The substrate-gripping behavior demonstrated by the early theropod, in turn, is consistent with the hypothesized function of pedal claws in bird ancestors.

  4. Differential regulation of synaptic transmission by pre- and postsynaptic SK channels in the spinal locomotor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Evanthia; Alpert, Michael H; Alford, Simon; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2013-06-01

    The generation of activity in the central nervous system requires precise tuning of cellular properties and synaptic transmission. Neural networks in the spinal cord produce coordinated locomotor movements. Synapses in these networks need to be equipped with multiple mechanisms that regulate their operation over varying regimes to produce locomotor activity at different frequencies. Using the in vitro lamprey spinal cord, we explored whether Ca(2+) influx via different routes in postsynaptic soma and dendrites and in presynaptic terminals can activate apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and thereby shape synaptic transmission. We show that postsynaptic SK channels are tightly coupled to Ca(2+) influx via NMDA receptors. Activation of these channels by synaptically induced NMDA-dependent Ca(2+) transients restrains the time course of the synaptic current and the amplitude of the synaptic potential. In addition, presynaptic SK channels are activated by Ca(2+) influx via voltage-gated channels and control the waveform of the action potential and the resulting Ca(2+) dynamics in the axon terminals. The coupling of SK channels to different Ca(2+) sources, pre- and postsynaptically, acts as a negative feedback mechanism to shape synaptic transmission. Thus SK channels can play a pivotal role in setting the dynamic range of synapses and enabling short-term plasticity in the spinal locomotor network. PMID:23554432

  5. Locomotor play drives motor skill acquisition at the expense of growth: A life history trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghänel, Andreas; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The developmental costs and benefits of early locomotor play are a puzzling topic in biology, psychology, and health sciences. Evolutionary theory predicts that energy-intensive behavior such as play can only evolve if there are considerable benefits. Prominent theories propose that locomotor play is (i) low cost, using surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance, and (ii) beneficial because it trains motor skills. However, both theories are largely untested. Studying wild Assamese macaques, we combined behavioral observations of locomotor play and motor skill acquisition with quantitative measures of natural food availability and individual growth rates measured noninvasively via photogrammetry. Our results show that investments in locomotor play were indeed beneficial by accelerating motor skill acquisition but carried sizable costs in terms of reduced growth. Even under moderate natural energy restriction, investment in locomotor play accounted for up to 50% of variance in growth, which strongly contradicts the current theory that locomotor play only uses surplus energy remaining after growth and maintenance. Male immatures played more, acquired motor skills faster, and grew less than female immatures, leading to persisting size differences until the age of female maturity. Hence, depending on skill requirements, investment in play can take ontogenetic priority over physical development unconstrained by costs of play with consequences for life history, which strongly highlights the ontogenetic and evolutionary importance of play. PMID:26601237

  6. Influences of octopamine and juvenile hormone on locomotor behavior and period gene expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Guy; Meshi, Avital

    2007-02-01

    Octopamine (OA) and juvenile hormone (JH) are implicated in the regulation of age-based division of labor in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. We tested the hypothesis that these two neuroendocrine signals influence task-associated plasticity in circadian and diurnal rhythms, and in brain expression of the clock gene period (per). Treatment with OA, OA antagonist (epinastine), or both, did not affect the age at onset of circadian rhythmicity or the free running period in constant darkness (DD). Young bees orally treated with OA in light-dark (LD) illumination regime for 6 days followed by DD showed reduced alpha (the period between the daily onset and offset of activity) during the first 4 days in LD and the first 4 days in DD. Oral treatment with OA, epinastine, or both, but not manipulations of JH levels, caused increased average daily levels and aberrant patterns of brain per mRNA oscillation in young bees. These results suggest that OA and JH do not influence the development or function of the central pacemaker but rather that OA influences the brain expression of a clock gene and characteristics of locomotor behavior that are not thought to be under direct control of the circadian pacemaker. PMID:17082965

  7. Combined effects of diethylpropion and alcohol on locomotor activity of mice: participation of the dopaminergic and opioid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevaerd M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread consumption of anorectics and combined anorectic + alcohol misuse are problems in Brazil. In order to better understand the interactive effects of ethanol (EtOH and diethylpropion (DEP we examined the locomotion-activating effects of these drugs given alone or in combination in mice. We also determined whether this response was affected by dopamine (DA or opioid receptor antagonists. A total of 160 male Swiss mice weighing approximately 30 g were divided into groups of 8 animals per group. The animals were treated daily for 7 consecutive days with combined EtOH + DEP (1.2 g/kg and 5.0 mg/kg, ip, EtOH (1.2 g/kg, ip, DEP (5.0 mg/kg, ip or the control solution coadministered with the DA antagonist haloperidol (HAL, 0.075 mg/kg, ip, the opioid antagonist naloxone (NAL, 1.0 mg/kg, ip, or vehicle. On days 1, 7 and 10 after the injections, mice were assessed in activity cages at different times (15, 30, 45 and 60 min for 5 min. The acute combination of EtOH plus DEP induced a significantly higher increase in locomotor activity (day 1: 369.5 ± 34.41 when compared to either drug alone (day 1: EtOH = 232.5 ± 23.79 and DEP = 276.0 ± 12.85 and to control solution (day 1: 153.12 ± 7.64. However, the repeated administration of EtOH (day 7: 314.63 ± 26.79 and day 10: 257.62 ± 29.91 or DEP (day 7: 309.5 ± 31.65 and day 10: 321.12 ± 39.24 alone or in combination (day 7: 459.75 ± 41.28 and day 10: 427.87 ± 33.0 failed to induce a progressive increase in the locomotor response. These data demonstrate greater locomotion-activating effects of the EtOH + DEP combination, probably involving DA and/or opioid receptor stimulation, since the daily pretreatment with HAL (day 1: EtOH + DEP = 395.62 ± 11.92 and EtOH + DEP + HAL = 371.5 ± 6.76; day 7: EtOH + DEP = 502.5 ± 42.27 and EtOH + DEP + HAL = 281.12 ± 16.08; day 10: EtOH + DEP = 445.75 ± 16.64 and EtOH + DEP + HAL = 376.75 ± 16.4 and NAL (day 1: EtOH + DEP = 553.62 ± 38.15 and Et

  8. Evaluation of the propensity for coal spontaneous combustion based on catastrophe theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-tao; ZHANG Xi-chen; TIEN Jerry C; LI Ya-qing

    2011-01-01

    Generally,different prevention measures should be taken according to spontaneous combustion propensities.The current methods to evaluate the propensity of coal spontaneous combustion,such as chromatographic method of oxygen adsorption,oxidation kinetics method and activation energy method,are mostly affected by human factors.Their boundaries among different classes of propensities were all established by subjective judgments.A new evaluation method using catastrophe theory is introduced.This method can accurately depict the process of coal spontaneous combustion and the evaluation index,"catastrophe temperature",be obtained based on the model.In terms of catastrophe temperature,the spontaneous combustion propensity of different coals can be sequenced.Experimental data indicate that this method is appropriate to describe the spontaneous combustion process and to evaluate the propensity of coal spontaneous combustion.

  9. [Three cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kashin; Tachikawa, Soichi; Horiguchi, Takahiko; Kondo, Rieko; Shiga, Mamoru; Hirose, Masahiro; Sasaki, Yasushi; Torigoe, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    We encountered 3 male patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. The patients were a 16-year old and a 17-year old and a 24-year old. Predisposing episodes for the development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum could be identified in all 3 patients: throwing a ball during a baseball game in 1, lifting a heavy load during work in 2. However, they were healthy and suddenly developed symptoms in the absence of any underlying disease. The presenting complaint was chest pain in all 3 patients. Chest X-ray films and chest CT images revealed pneumomediastinum. A diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum was made based on chest X-ray films and chest CT images. After conservative treatment, all 3 patients recovered. PMID:16681254

  10. Children spontaneously police adults' transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D; Chiu Loke, Ivy; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining social order requires the policing of transgressions. Prior research suggests that policing emerges early in life, but little is known about children's engagement in such behavior in live interactions where there is uncertainty about the consequences. In this study, 4- to 11-year-old children (N=158) witnessed an unfamiliar adult confederate intentionally destroy another adult's property. Of interest was whether children would engage in policing behavior by protesting to the transgressor or by spontaneously reporting the transgression to a third party. Some children engaged in these behaviors spontaneously; nearly half (42%) protested the transgression, and 27% reported it without being prompted. Even when children did not spontaneously report the transgression, they almost always reported it when asked directly. The findings show that children commonly engage in policing even in the face of potentially negative consequences. PMID:27295206

  11. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafaci, Concetta; Grasso, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Marino, Daniele; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Tomasello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel's cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive neurological improvement. Conclusion: Despite the number of lesions potentially affecting the MC, spontaneous hemorrhage is rare but should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26539319

  12. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  13. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations

  14. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons beyond the point source dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wave function plays a crucial role. We find that for spherically symmetric wave functions, the Purcell effect is independent of the wave function size and...... therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  15. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  16. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Stefan; 10.1088/1367-2630/9/11/417

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  17. Pseudoaneurysm After Spontaneous Rupture of Renal Angiomyolipoma in Tuberous Sclerosis: Successful Treatment with Percutaneous Thrombin Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a large perinephric pseudoaneurysm due to spontaneous rupture of renal angiomyolipoma, occluded by percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance in a young woman affected by tuberous sclerosis

  18. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Fotedar Sanjay; Chaudhary Dhruva; Singhla Vikas; Narang Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  19. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  20. Supercurrent and spontaneously broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conserved Noether R current, supersymmetry current, and the energy-momentum tensor are constructed in the Akulov-Volkov model of spontaneously broken supersymmetry. An improved supersymmetry current and energy-momentum tensor are defined, which, along with the chiral R current, form components of the supercurrent. The supersymmetry Wess-Zumino consistency conditions for these component currents are verified

  1. Interference of spontaneously emitted photons

    CERN Document Server

    Beige, A; Pachos, J; Beige, Almut; Schoen, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis

    2002-01-01

    We discuss an experimental setup where two laser-driven atoms spontaneously emit photons and every photon causes a ``click'' at a point on a screen. By deriving the probability density for an emission into a certain direction from basic quantum mechanical principles we predict a spatial interference pattern. Similarities and differences with the classical double-slit experiment are discussed.

  2. Interference of spontaneously emitted photons

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Almut; Schoen, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis

    2001-01-01

    We discuss an experimental setup where two laser-driven atoms spontaneously emit photons and every photon causes a ``click'' at a point on a screen. By deriving the probability density for an emission into a certain direction from basic quantum mechanical principles we predict a spatial interference pattern. Similarities and differences with the classical double-slit experiment are discussed.

  3. Spontaneously disappearing lumbar disc protrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ushewokunze, Shungu; Abbas, Naeem; Dardis, Ronan; Killeen, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disc is known to occur. This case study describes a 45-year-old patient whose symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy resolved and follow-up imaging showed complete disappearance of the disc prolapse. This phenomenon strengthens the role of conservative treatment in the management of lumbar disc protrusions.

  4. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  5. How spontaneous fission was discovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 70th anniversary of the discovery of spontaneous fission by the young Russian physicists Konstantin A. Petrzhak and Georgii N. Flerov is commemorated. The situation in the 1940s is described and the activities of the 2 scientists, including their involvement in the development of the A-bomb, is outlined. (P.A.)

  6. Spontaneous resolution of subfoveal perfluorocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellers P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Oellers,1 Leon D Charkoudian,2 Paul Hahn11Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Cape Fear Retinal Associates, Wilmington, NC, USA Abstract: Perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCL have transformed the surgical approach to complex retinal detachments, but their use can be complicated by subretinal retention. Migration of peripherally located subretinal PFCL towards the fovea is well established, but spontaneous resolution of subfoveal PFCL without surgical evacuation or displacement has rarely been described. We present a case of a large single retained subfoveal PFCL droplet following vitrectomy with membrane peeling, inferior relaxing retinectomy, and silicone oil tamponade that demonstrated spontaneous resolution 3 weeks postoperatively, with subsequent anatomic and visual improvement. No residual subretinal PFCL was noted, and we hypothesize that the PFCL droplet spontaneously extruded through a transient hole created in the thinned retina overlying the droplet, which subsequently closed spontaneously. Further understanding of the mechanisms of PFCL migration and resolution may facilitate improved treatments for this complication.Keywords: perfluorocarbon, subretinal, retained, resolution

  7. Spontaneous mutation frequencies in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of the spontaneous mutation frequency requires screening of very large populations and has therefore rarely been carried out in higher plants. A study on inter-allelic recombination in the ml-o locus allowed to collect some data on spontaneous chlorophyll mutants. 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. 25 plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among a total of 470129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7±0.6x10-4). If these data are pooled with others from similar materials the resulting estimate is 1.6x10-4 in about 1,43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 6.3x10-4 per diploid genome. Assuming that the number of loci that can give rise to chlorophyll mutants is in the order of 500, the spontaneous mutation rate would be in the order of 6x10-7 per locus and haploid genome per generation. (author)

  8. Examination of the Patient’s Locomotor System Disability Evaluated in the Board of Health for Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Terzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our goal was to evaluate patients who admitted to Board of Health for Disabled in our hospital, and evaluate the characteristics and disability rates of patients with locomotor disability. Also to examine its co-occurrence with other system disabilities, the whole body function loss rates and the distribution of these parameters according to age. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 2263 cases admitted to the Board of Health in Derince Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively analyzed between March 2012 and March 2013. Examinational findings and diagnoses of 672 (29.6% patients who took diagnosis related with locomotor system were reviewed. Results: Of the 2263 patients admitted to the board of health for disabled, 672 (29.6% had locomotor system pathology. Of these patients, 366 were males (54.4%, 306 were females (45.6% and the mean age was 49.6±26 years. The mean total body disability rates of the patients (TBDR were 69.5±28.4, while the locomotor system disability rates (LSDR was 49.43±17.1. Of the 672 patients, 379 (56.3% were assessed as severely disabled by the medical council. 554 patients (82.4% had permanent disability. LSDR was highest in individuals aged 10-19 years; lowest in the individuals aged 40-49 years. The most commonly detected locomotor system pathologies were osteoarthritis (OA, hemiplegia, cerebral palsy, joint contractures and spinal cord diseases. The highest LSDR was in the spinal cord injury patients. The most frequent comorbid diagnoses were neurogenic bladder, mental retardation, and hypertension. Conclusion: Most of the patients who admitted to the Board of Health for locomotor system disability had permanent and severe disabilities. Observing that other system disabilities are frequently concomitant with locomotor system disability is important in terms of the social support for these patients and for planning of the appropriate treatment. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 60-4

  9. Differences in rat dorsal striatal NMDA and AMPA receptors following acute and repeated cocaine-induced locomotor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy J Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively based on their locomotor activity induced by an acute low dose of cocaine. Upon repeated cocaine exposure, LCRs display greater locomotor sensitization, reward, and reinforcement than HCRs. Altered glutamate receptor expression in the brain reward pathway has been linked to locomotor sensitization and addiction. To determine if such changes contribute to the differential development of locomotor sensitization, we examined protein levels of total, phosphorylated, and cell surface glutamate N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA receptors (Rs following acute or repeated cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p. in LCRs, HCRs and saline controls. Three areas involved in the development and expression of locomotor sensitization were investigated: the ventral tegmental area (VTA, nucleus accumbens (NAc and dorsal striatum (dSTR. Our results revealed differences only in the dSTR, where we found that after acute cocaine, GluN2B(Tyr-1472 phosphorylation was significantly greater in LCRs, compared to HCRs and controls. Additionally in dSTR, after repeated cocaine, we observed significant increases in total GluA1, phosphorylated GluA1(Ser-845, and cell surface GluA1 in all cocaine-treated animals vs. controls. The acute cocaine-induced increases in NMDARs in dSTR of LCRs may help to explain the more ready development of locomotor sensitization and susceptibility to addiction-like behaviors in rats that initially exhibit little or no cocaine-induced activation, whereas the AMPAR increases after repeated cocaine may relate to recruitment of more dorsal striatal circuits and maintenance of the marked cocaine-induced locomotor activation observed in all of the rats.

  10. Effects of the D3 preferring dopamine agonist pramipexole on sleep and waking, locomotor activity and striatal dopamine release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, P; Scorza, C; Monti, J M; Jantos, H; Reyes-Parada, M; Silveira, R; Ponzoni, A

    1998-05-01

    Quantitation of 2 h sessions after administration of the D3 preferring dopamine (DA) agonist pramipexole (10-500 microg/kg) showed dose-related effects on wakefulness (W), slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep in rats. The 30 microg/kg dose of the DA agonist increased SWS and REM sleep and reduced W during the first recording hour, while the 500 microg/kg dose augmented W. On the other hand, W was increased while SWS and REMS were decreased after the 500 microg/kg dose during the second recording hour. The mixed D2- and D3 receptor antagonist YM-09151-2 (30-500 microg/kg), which per se affected sleep variables prevented the increase of REMS induced by pramipexole. Furthermore, the highest doses (500-1000 microg/kg) of the DA antagonist effectively antagonized the increase of W and reduction of SWS induced by the 500 microg/kg dose of the DA agonist. Pramipexole (30-100 microg/kg) induced a decrease of locomotor activity during the 2 h recording period. In addition, the 500 microg/kg dose gave rise to an initial reduction of motor behavior which was reverted 2 h later. Pramipexole (30 and 500 microg/kg) did not significantly affect striatal DA release during the first two hours following drug administration, as measured by microdialysis. It is tentatively suggested that D3 receptor could be involved in the pramipexole-induced increase of sleep and reduction of locomotor activity. On the other hand, the increase of W and of motor behavior after relatively high doses could be related to activation of postsynaptic D2 receptor. PMID:9619689

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax: epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause

    OpenAIRE

    Noppen, M

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax represents a common clinical problem. An overview of relevant and updated information on epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause(s) of spontaneous (primary and secondary) pneumothorax is described.

  12. Spontaneous pneumothorax: epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noppen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax represents a common clinical problem. An overview of relevant and updated information on epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause(s of spontaneous (primary and secondary pneumothorax is described.

  13. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  14. The moral significance of spontaneous abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, T F

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is rarely addressed in moral evaluations of abortion. Indeed, 'abortion' is virtually always taken to mean only induced abortion. After a brief review of medical aspects of spontaneous abortion, I attempt to articulate the moral implications of spontaneous abortion for the two poles of the abortion debate, the strong pro-abortion and the strong anti-abortion positions. I claim that spontaneous abortion has no moral relevance for strict pro-abortion positions but that the ...

  15. Spontaneous Breaking of the Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In this work spontaneous (non-dynamical) breaking (effective hiding) of the unitary quantum mechanical dynamical symmetry (superposition) is considered. It represents an especial but very interesting case of the general formalism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (effective hiding). Conceptual analogies with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry in Weinberg-Sallam's electro-weak interaction are pointed out. Also, consequences of the spontaneous superposition breaking in the measuremen...

  16. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Subarnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L. leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L. herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L. bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb. rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%, 0.1 (55.72%, 0.5 (60.75%, and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%, respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  17. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Tiffany S; Richardson, Jason R; Cooper, Keith R; White, Lori A

    2015-08-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25-0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3-72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. PMID:25912032

  18. Preferred locomotor phase of activity of lumbar interneurons during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Lemay, Michel A

    2011-03-01

    Spinal locomotor circuits are intrinsically capable of driving a variety of behaviors such as stepping, scratching, and swimming. Based on an observed rostrocaudal wave of activity in the motoneuronal firing during locomotor tasks, the traveling-wave hypothesis proposes that spinal interneuronal firing follows a similar rostrocaudal pattern of activation, suggesting the presence of spatially organized interneuronal modules within the spinal motor system. In this study, we examined if the spatial organization of the lumbar interneuronal activity patterns during locomotor activity in the adult mammalian spinal cord was consistent with a traveling-wave organizational scheme. The activity of spinal interneurons within the lumbar intermediate zone was examined during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats. The preferred phase of interneuronal activity during a step cycle was determined using circular statistics. We found that the preferred phases of lumbar interneurons from both sides of the cord were evenly distributed over the entire step cycle with no indication of functional groupings. However, when units were subcategorized according to spinal hemicords, the preferred phases of units on each side largely fell around the period of extensor muscle activity on each side. In addition, there was no correlation between the preferred phases of units and their rostrocaudal locations along the spinal cord with preferred phases corresponding to both flexion and extension phases of the step cycle found at every rostrocaudal level of the cord. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interneurons operate as part of a longitudinally distributed network rather than a rostrocaudally organized traveling-wave network. PMID:21084683

  19. Enhanced locomotor adaptation aftereffect in the “broken escalator” phenomenon using anodal tDCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, D.; Quadir, S.; Patel, M.; Yousif, N.

    2012-01-01

    The everyday experience of stepping onto a stationary escalator causes a stumble, despite our full awareness that the escalator is broken. In the laboratory, this “broken escalator” phenomenon is reproduced when subjects step onto an obviously stationary platform (AFTER trials) that was previously experienced as moving (MOVING trials) and attests to a process of motor adaptation. Given the critical role of M1 in upper limb motor adaptation and the potential for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to increase cortical excitability, we hypothesized that anodal tDCS over leg M1 and premotor cortices would increase the size and duration of the locomotor aftereffect. Thirty healthy volunteers received either sham or real tDCS (anodal bihemispheric tDCS; 2 mA for 15 min at rest) to induce excitatory effects over the primary motor and premotor cortex before walking onto the moving platform. The real tDCS group, compared with sham, displayed larger trunk sway and increased gait velocity in the first AFTER trial and a persistence of the trunk sway aftereffect into the second AFTER trial. We also used transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe changes in cortical leg excitability using different electrode montages and eyeblink conditioning, before and after tDCS, as well as simulating the current flow of tDCS on the human brain using a computational model of these different tDCS montages. Our data show that anodal tDCS induces excitability changes in lower limb motor cortex with resultant enhancement of locomotor adaptation aftereffects. These findings might encourage the use of tDCS over leg motor and premotor regions to improve locomotor control in patients with neurological gait disorders. PMID:22323638

  20. The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J; Abbott, Emily M; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-05-27

    Muscles power movement, yet the conceptual link between muscle performance and locomotor performance is poorly developed. Frog jumping provides an ideal system to probe the relationship between muscle capacity and locomotor performance, because a jump is a single discrete event and mechanical power output is a critical determinant of jump distance. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific variation in jump performance could be explained by variability in available muscle power. We used force plate ergometry to measure power produced during jumping in Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis), leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and cane toads (Bufo marinus). We also measured peak isotonic power output in isolated plantaris muscles for each species. As expected, jump performance varied widely. Osteopilus septentrionalis developed peak power outputs of 1047.0 ± 119.7 W kg(-1) hindlimb muscle mass, about five times that of B. marinus (198.5 ± 54.5 W kg(-1)). Values for R. pipiens were intermediate (543.9 ± 96.2 W kg(-1)). These differences in jump power were not matched by differences in available muscle power, which were 312.7 ± 28.9, 321.8 ± 48.5 and 262.8 ± 23.2 W kg(-1) muscle mass for O. septentrionalis, R. pipiens and B. marinus, respectively. The lack of correlation between available muscle power and jump power suggests that non-muscular mechanisms (e.g. elastic energy storage) can obscure the link between muscle mechanical performance and locomotor performance. PMID:21502120

  1. Locomotor, discriminative stimulus, and place conditioning effects of MDAI in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatch, Michael B; Dolan, Sean B; Forster, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) has become a common substitute for (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Ecstasy. MDAI is known to produce MDMA-like discriminative stimulus effects, but it is not known whether MDAI has psychostimulant or hallucinogen-like effects. MDAI was tested for locomotor stimulant effects in mice and subsequently for discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), ±MDMA (1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline. The ability of MDAI to produce conditioned place preference was also tested in mice. MDAI (3 to 30 mg/kg) depressed locomotor activity from 10 to 60 min. A rebound stimulant effect was observed at 1 to 3.5 h following 30 mg/kg. Lethality occurred in 8/8 mice following 100 mg/kg MDAI. Similarly, MDMA depressed locomotor activity immediately following the administration of 0.25 mg/kg and stimulant effects were observed 50-70 min following the administration of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. MDAI fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of MDMA (2.5 mg/kg), (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and cocaine (7.5 mg/kg), but produced only 73% methamphetamine-appropriate responding at a dose that suppressed responding (7.5 mg/kg). MDAI produced tremors at 10 mg/kg in one methamphetamine-trained rat. MDAI produced conditioned place preference from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg. The effects of MDAI on locomotor activity and drug discrimination were similar to those produced by MDMA, having both psychostimulant-like and hallucinogen-like effects; thus, MDAI may have similar abuse potential as MDMA. PMID:27028902

  2. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  3. SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION RELATED FIRE RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem ŞENSÖĞÜT

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For explaining the situation arising from spontaneous combustion, there is a necessity for quick and accurate analysis of the gaseous products of combustion. It is also very important to interpret these data correctly. This interpretation provides information prominence to mine rescue crew and the mine management concerning the withdrawal or continuity of rescue team in a rescue and recovery operation before an explosion takes place. Additionally, it is also of utmost importance to see whether the fire combating techniques are effective or the fire is under control ensuring the security of workers and equipment during and after the sealing works. Therefore, the indices related with spontaneous combustion which are still commonly in use are summarised in this work.

  4. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  5. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  6. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Roisman, Glenn I.; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

    2006-01-01

    Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are exp...

  7. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum following normal labour

    OpenAIRE

    Beynon, Fenella; Mearns, Stacey

    2011-01-01

    A young, previously well primigravida presented a few hours after a short labour with sudden onset chest pain, shortness of breath and odynophagia. She had subcutaneous emphysema but did not have significant cardiorespiratory compromise. She was found to have a spontaneous pneumomediastinum, likely secondary to raised intrathoracic pressure during labour. Similar cases have been reported previously, however there are often risk factors associated such as pre-existing lung disease and illicit ...

  8. Kvinners reaksjoner etter spontan abort

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Approximately 15 percent of all verified pregnancies end in miscarriage. It is known that spontaneous abortion often cause psychological distress. The women are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, depression and other psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms could persist for years after the miscarriage and there is frequently no routine to identify psychiatric morbidity among the women. Research has been conducted to identify the consequences of abortion, but the stud...

  9. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Vyas; Mahesh Prakash; Lileshwar Kaman; Nidhi Bhardwaj; Niranjan Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  10. Spontaneous polaron transport in biopolymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, B.; Piette, B. M. A. G.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Polarons, introduced by Davydov to explain energy transport in $\\alpha$-helices, correspond to electrons localised on a few lattice sites because of their interaction with phonons. While the static polaron field configurations have been extensively studied, their displacement is more difficult to explain. In this paper we show that, when the next to nearest neighbour interactions are included, for physical values of the parameters, polarons can spontaneously move, at T=0, on bent chains that ...

  11. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  12. Spontaneous shrinkage of vestibular schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Rossana; Pollock, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Watch, wait, and rescan” (WWR) has an established place as a successful management option for a significant proportion of vestibular schwannomas (VS) as an alternative to microsurgical removal or stereotactic radiotherapy. VS may grow slowly and continuously, followed by stagnation or even shrinkage. We present two case reports of spontaneous shrinkage of VS along with a review of the literature. Case Description: A 29-year-old female presented with a progressive history of visual blurring and intermittent diplopia over 2 months. A 29 mm of maximum intracranial diameter (ICD) VS with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus was diagnosed. The patient underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt with resolution of her symptoms and opted for initial WWR management. Interval scanning between 2007 and 2014 showed progressive reduction in the maximum ICD together with reduction in the degree of central tumor enhancement. Maximum ICD at most recent follow up was 22 mm. A 28-year-old female was referred with right sensorineural deafness. A right VS of maximum ICD of 27 mm was diagnosed. Initial WWR management was planned after discussion. Serial imaging showed an initial increase in the size of the tumor followed by progressive reduction in size. The most recent follow up showed a maximum ICD of 20 mm. Conclusion: Early WWR management can be associated with spontaneous shrinkage of VS over time. Prospective clinical study of larger numbers of such cases using the UK VS database may help to identify predictive factors for the spontaneous regression of VS. PMID:27280055

  13. Etiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Roberto de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of HRCT, primary spontaneous pneumothorax has come to be better understood and managed, because its etiology can now be identified in most cases. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is mainly caused by the rupture of a small subpleural emphysematous vesicle (designated a bleb) or of a subpleural paraseptal emphysematous lesion (designated a bulla). The aim of this pictorial essay was to improve the understanding of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and to propose a description of the major anatomical lesions found during surgery. RESUMO Com o advento da TCAR, o pneumotórax espontâneo primário passou a ser mais bem entendido e conduzido, pois sua etiologia pode ser atualmente identificada na maioria dos casos. O pneumotórax espontâneo primário tem como principal causa a rotura de uma pequena vesícula enfisematosa subpleural, denominada bleb ou de uma lesão enfisematosa parasseptal subpleural, denominada bulla. O objetivo deste ensaio pictórico foi melhorar o entendimento do pneumotórax espontâneo primário e propor uma descrição das principais lesões anatômicas encontradas durante a cirurgia. PMID:27383937

  14. Turbulence, Spontaneous Stochasticity and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyink, Gregory

    Turbulence is well-recognized as important in the physics of climate. Turbulent mixing plays a crucial role in the global ocean circulation. Turbulence also provides a natural source of variability, which bedevils our ability to predict climate. I shall review here a recently discovered turbulence phenomenon, called ``spontaneous stochasticity'', which makes classical dynamical systems as intrinsically random as quantum mechanics. Turbulent dissipation and mixing of scalars (passive or active) is now understood to require Lagrangian spontaneous stochasticity, which can be expressed by an exact ``fluctuation-dissipation relation'' for scalar turbulence (joint work with Theo Drivas). Path-integral methods such as developed for quantum mechanics become necessary to the description. There can also be Eulerian spontaneous stochasticity of the flow fields themselves, which is intimately related to the work of Kraichnan and Leith on unpredictability of turbulent flows. This leads to problems similar to those encountered in quantum field theory. To quantify uncertainty in forecasts (or hindcasts), we can borrow from quantum field-theory the concept of ``effective actions'', which characterize climate averages by a variational principle and variances by functional derivatives. I discuss some work with Tom Haine (JHU) and Santha Akella (NASA-Goddard) to make this a practical predictive tool. More ambitious application of the effective action is possible using Rayleigh-Ritz schemes.

  15. Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    E. Sáinz de Murieta; J. Fernández Baraibar; Pascual, I.; Mena, A.; A. Martínez-Zubiri; M.J. Condón

    2005-01-01

    Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y...

  16. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  17. Phthalates Induce Neurotoxicity Affecting Locomotor and Thermotactic Behaviors and AFD Neurons through Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, I-Ling; Yang, Ying-Fei; Yu, Chan-Wei; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and numerous organisms are thus exposed to various levels of phthalates in their natural habitat. Considering the critical, but limited, research on human neurobehavioral outcomes in association with phthalates exposure, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo model to evaluate phthalates-induced neurotoxicity and the possible associated mechanisms. Principal Findings Exposure to phthalates (DEHP, DBP, and...

  18. A Prediction Model for Determining Over Ground Walking Speed After Locomotor Training in Persons With Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Patricia; Smith, Patricia; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James M; Pacheco, Fides; Querry, Ross; Tansey, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: To develop and test a clinically relevant model for predicting the recovery of over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of progressive body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: A retrospective review and stepwise regression analysis of a SCI clinical outcomes data set. Setting: Outpatient SCI laboratory. Subjects: Thirty individuals with a motor incomplete SCI who had participated in locomotor training with BWSTT. Eight individuals with similar diagnoses were used to prospectively test the prediction model. Main Outcome Measures: Over ground walking speed was assessed using the 10-m walking test. Methods: The locomotor training program consisted of 36 sessions of sequential comprehensive training comprised of robotic assisted BWSTT, followed by manual assisted BWSTT, and over ground walking. The dose of locomotor training was standardized throughout the protocol. Results: Clinical characteristics with predictive value for walking speed were time from injury onset, the presence or absence of voluntary bowel and bladder voiding, a functional spasticity assessment, and over ground walking speed before locomotor training. The model identified that these characteristics accounted for 78.3% of the variability in the actual final over ground walking speed after 36 sessions of locomotor training. The model was successful in prospectively predicting over ground walking speed in the 8 test participants within 4.15 ± 2.22 cm/s in their recovered walking speed. Conclusions: This prediction model can identify individuals who are most likely to experience success using locomotor training by determining an expected magnitude of training effect, thereby allowing individualized decisions regarding the use of this intensive approach to rehabilitation. PMID:19264051

  19. Locomotor preferences in terrestrial vertebrates: An online crowdsourcing approach to data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John; Gardiner, James; Usherwood, James; Nudds, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals move within their environment is a burgeoning field of research. Despite this, relatively basic data, such as the locomotor speeds that animals choose to walk at in the wild, are sparse. If animals choose to walk with dynamic similarity, they will move at equal dimensionless speeds, represented by Froude number (Fr). Fr may be interpreted from simple limb kinematics obtained from video data. Here, using Internet videos, limb kinematics were measured in 112 bird and mammal species weighing between 0.61 and 5400 kg. This novel method of data collection enabled the determination of kinematics for animals walking at their self-selected speeds without the need for exhaustive fieldwork. At larger sizes, both birds and mammals prefer to walk at slower relative speeds and relative stride frequencies, as preferred Fr decreased in larger species, indicating that Fr may not be a good predictor of preferred locomotor speeds. This may result from the observation that the minimum cost of transport is approached at lower Fr in larger species. Birds walk with higher duty factors, lower stride frequencies and longer stance times compared to mammals at self-selected speeds. The trend towards lower preferred Fr is also apparent in extinct vertebrate species. PMID:27381514

  20. Regulation of dopamine release by CASK-β modulates locomotor initiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eSlawson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available CASK is an evolutionarily conserved scaffolding protein that has roles in many cell types. In Drosophila, loss of the entire CASK gene or just the CASK-β transcript causes a complex set of adult locomotor defects. In this study, we show that the motor initiation component of this phenotype is due to loss of CASK-β in dopaminergic neurons and can be specifically rescued by expression of CASK-β within this subset of neurons. Functional imaging demonstrates that mutation of CASK-β disrupts coupling of neuronal activity to vesicle fusion. Consistent with this, locomotor initiation can be rescued by artificially driving activity in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanism underlying this role of CASK-β in dopaminergic neurons involves interaction with Hsc70-4, a molecular chaperone previously shown to regulate calcium-dependent vesicle fusion. These data suggest that there is a novel CASK-β-dependent regulatory complex in dopaminergic neurons that serves to link activity and neurotransmitter release.

  1. Activation of the GABAB receptor prevents nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLobina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that activation of the GABAB receptor, either by means of orthosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, inhibited different nicotine-related behaviors, including intravenous self-administration and conditioned place preference, in rodents. The present study investigated whether the anti-nicotine effects of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and GABAB PAMs, CGP7930 and GS39783, extend to nicotine stimulant effects. To this end, CD1 mice were initially treated with baclofen (0, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., CGP7930 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., or GS39783 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., then treated with nicotine (0 and 0.05 mg/kg, s.c., and finally exposed to an automated apparatus for recording of locomotor activity. Pretreatment with doses of baclofen, CGP7930, or GS39783 that did not alter locomotor activity when given with nicotine vehicle fully prevented hyperlocomotion induced by 0.05 mg/kg nicotine. These data extend to nicotine stimulant effects the capacity of baclofen and GABAB PAMs to block the reinforcing, motivational, and rewarding properties of nicotine. These data strengthen the hypothesis that activation of the GABAB receptor may represent a potentially useful, anti-smoking therapeutic strategy.

  2. Comparative locomotor behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: the influence of morphology on locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, D M

    1993-05-01

    Results from a 10 month study of adult male and female bonobos (Pan paniscus) in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, and those from a 7 month study of adult male and female chimpanzees in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast (Pan troglodytes verus), were compared in order to determine whether there are species differences in locomotor behavior and substrate use and, if so, whether these differences support predictions made on the basis of interspecific morphological differences. Results indicate that bonobos are more arboreal than chimpanzees and that male bonobos are more suspensory than their chimpanzee counterpart. This would be predicted on the basis of male bonobo's longer and more narrow scapula. This particular finding is contrary to the prediction that the bonobo is a "scaled reduced version of a chimpanzee" with little or no positional behavior difference as had been suggested. This study provides the behavioral data necessary to untangle contradictory interpretations of the morphological differences between chimpanzees and bonobos, and raises a previously discussed (Fleagle: Size and Scaling in Primate Biology, pp. 1-19, 1985) but frequently overlooked point--that isometry in allometric studies does not necessarily equate with behavioral equivalence. Several researchers have demonstrated that bonobos and chimpanzees follow the same scaling trends for many features, and are in some sense functionally equivalent, since they manage to feed and reproduce. However, as reflected in their morphologies, they do so through different types and frequencies of locomotor behaviors. PMID:8512056

  3. The fungicide imazalil induces developmental abnormalities and alters locomotor activity during early developmental stages in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Zhu, Zhihong; Wang, Yueyi; Yang, Enlu; Feng, Xiayan; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-06-01

    The fungicide imazalil (IMZ) is used extensively to protect vegetable fields, fruit plantations and post-harvest crops from rot. Likely due to its wide-spread use, IMZ is frequently detected in vegetable, fruit, soil and even surface water samples. Even though several previous studies have reported on the neurotoxicity of IMZ, its effects on the neurobehavior of zebrafish have received little attention to date. In this study, we show that the heartbeat and hatchability of zebrafish were significantly influenced by IMZ concentrations of 300 μg L(-1) or higher. Moreover, in zebrafish larvae, locomotor behaviors such as average swimming speed and swimming distance were significantly decreased after exposure to 300 μg L(-1) IMZ for 96 h, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression and activity were consistently inhibited in IMZ-treated fish. Our results further suggest that IMZ could act as a neuroendocrine disruptor by decreasing the expression of neurotoxicity-related genes such as Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), Myelin basic protein (Mbp) and Sonic hedgehog a (Shha) during early developmental stages of zebrafish. In conclusion, we show that exposure to IMZ has the potential to induce developmental toxicity and locomotor behavior abnormalities during zebrafish development. PMID:27035382

  4. A neurorobotic platform for locomotor prosthetic development in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Joachim; Asboth, Leonie; Fumeaux, Nicolas; Hasse, Alexander; Baud, Laetitia; Vallery, Heike; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-04-01

    Objectives. We aimed to develop a robotic interface capable of providing finely-tuned, multidirectional trunk assistance adjusted in real-time during unconstrained locomotion in rats and mice. Approach. We interfaced a large-scale robotic structure actuated in four degrees of freedom to exchangeable attachment modules exhibiting selective compliance along distinct directions. This combination allowed high-precision force and torque control in multiple directions over a large workspace. We next designed a neurorobotic platform wherein real-time kinematics and physiological signals directly adjust robotic actuation and prosthetic actions. We tested the performance of this platform in both rats and mice with spinal cord injury. Main Results. Kinematic analyses showed that the robotic interface did not impede locomotor movements of lightweight mice that walked freely along paths with changing directions and height profiles. Personalized trunk assistance instantly enabled coordinated locomotion in mice and rats with severe hindlimb motor deficits. Closed-loop control of robotic actuation based on ongoing movement features enabled real-time control of electromyographic activity in anti-gravity muscles during locomotion. Significance. This neurorobotic platform will support the study of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of locomotor prosthetics and rehabilitation using high-resolution genetic tools in rodent models.

  5. Feasibility of lower-limb muscle power training to enhance locomotor function poststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Morgan, MS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poststroke motor control is characterized by greatly reduced muscle power generation. To date, the extent to which muscle power limits walking performance or whether its remediation should be a primary component of locomotor rehabilitation has yet to be established. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and the effects of Poststroke Optimization of Walking using Explosive Resistance training, an intervention aimed at improving poststroke muscular and locomotor function. Twelve subjects (6–60 mo poststroke participated in 24 training sessions (3 sessions/wk for 8 wk. Exercises included leg press, calf raises, and jump training, all performed at high concentric velocity, as well as trials of fast walking. We measured self-selected and fastest comfortable walking speeds as well as knee extensor and plantar flexor strength and power at pretraining, posttraining, and 8 wk follow-up time points. In addition, we also performed a number of clinical assessments commonly used in poststroke rehabilitation trials. Following training, significant improvements in lower-limb muscle strength and power were realized and accompanied by improvements in self-selected as well as fastest comfortable walking speeds. No changes in clinical assessments resulted from training.

  6. High levels of impulsivity in rats are not accompanied by sensorimotor gating deficits and locomotor hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feja, M; Lang, M; Deppermann, L; Yüksel, A; Wischhof, L

    2015-12-01

    High levels of impulsivity have been linked to a number of psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug abuse and schizophrenia. Additionally, schizophrenia patients commonly show deficits in another rather preattentive form of response inhibition, called sensorimotor gating. Given that higher-order functions, such as impulse control, are protected by early and preattentive processes, disturbed gating mechanisms may hamper more complex cognitive-executive functions. In the present study, we therefore tested whether high levels of impulsivity are accompanied by impaired sensorimotor gating in rats. High (HI) and low impulsive (LI) rats were identified based on the number of premature responses in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. Here, LI rats showed higher numbers of omission errors which may suggest attentional deficits while HI rats completed significantly less trials which could indicate a decrease in motivation. However, HI and LI rats did not differ in terms of impulsive decision-making in a delay-based decision-making T-maze task, prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (a measure of sensorimotor gating mechanisms) or locomotor activity levels. Overall, our data indicate that high motor impulsivity is not a suitable predictor of deficient sensorimotor gating and is further not necessarily associated with attentional deficits and/or locomotor hyperactivity in rats. PMID:26484709

  7. Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrum, Christopher; Epro, Gaspar; Meijer, Kenneth; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine locomotor stability and adaptation across the adult female lifespan during perturbed walking on the treadmill. 11 young, 11 middle and 14 older-aged female adults (mean and SD: 25.5(2.1), 50.6(6.4) and 69.0(4.7) years old respectively) walked on a treadmill. We applied a sustained perturbation to the swing phase of the right leg for 18 consecutive gait cycles, followed by a step with the resistance unexpectedly removed, via an ankle strap connected to a break-and-release system. The margin of stability (MoS) at foot touchdown was calculated as the difference between the anterior boundary of the base of support (BoS) and extrapolated center of mass. Older participants showed lower MoS adaptation magnitude in the early adaptation phase (steps 1-3) compared to the young and middle-aged groups. However, in the late adaptation phase (steps 16-18) there were no significant differences in adaptation magnitude between the three age groups. After removing the resistance, all three age groups showed similar aftereffects (i.e. increased BoS). The current results suggest that in old age, the ability to recalibrate locomotion to control stability is preserved, but the rate of adaptive improvement in locomotor stability is diminished. PMID:26970886

  8. A study of cannabinoid-1 receptors during the early phase of excitotoxic damage to rat spinal locomotor networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Priyadharishini; Dekanic, Ana; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids acting on cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1Rs) are proposed to protect brain and spinal neurons from excitotoxic damage. The ability to recover from spinal cord injury (SCI), in which excitotoxicity is a major player, is usually investigated at late times after modulation of CB1Rs whose role in the early phases of SCI remains unclear. Using the rat spinal cord in vitro as a model for studying SCI initial pathophysiology, we investigated if agonists or antagonists of CB1Rs might affect SCI induced by the excitotoxic agent kainate (KA) within 24h from a transient (1h) application of this glutamate agonist. The CB1 agonist anandamide (AEA or pharmacological block of its degradation) did not limit excitotoxic depolarization of spinal networks: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay demonstrated that CB1Rs remained functional 24h later and similarly expressed among dead or survived cells. Locomotor-like network activity recorded from ventral roots could not recover with such treatments and was associated with persistent depression of synaptic transmission. Motoneurons, that are particularly vulnerable to KA, were not protected by AEA. Application of 2-arachidonoylglycerol also did not attenuate the electrophysiological and histological damage. The intensification of damage by the CB1 antagonist AM251 suggested that endocannabinoids were operative after excitotoxic stimulation, yet insufficient to contrast it efficiently. The present data indicate that the early phases of excitotoxic SCI could not be arrested by pharmacologically exploiting the endocannabinoid system, consistent with the notion that AEA and its derivatives are more useful to treat late SCI phases. PMID:27450568

  9. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity. PMID:25782398

  10. DeltaFosB induction in orbitofrontal cortex potentiates locomotor sensitization despite attenuating the cognitive dysfunction caused by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Green, Thomas A; Theobald, David E H; Renthal, William; LaPlant, Quincey; DiLeone, Ralph J; Chakravarty, Sumana; Nestler, Eric J

    2009-09-01

    The effects of addictive drugs change with repeated use: many individuals become tolerant of their pleasurable effects but also more sensitive to negative sequelae (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, and drug craving). Understanding the mechanisms underlying such tolerance and sensitization may provide valuable insight into the basis of drug dependency and addiction. We have recently shown that chronic cocaine administration reduces the ability of an acute injection of cocaine to affect impulsivity in rats. However, animals become more impulsive during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration. We have also shown that chronic administration of cocaine increases expression of the transcription factor DeltaFosB in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Mimicking this drug-induced elevation in OFC DeltaFosB through viral-mediated gene transfer mimics these behavioural changes: DeltaFosB over-expression in OFC induces tolerance to the effects of an acute cocaine challenge but sensitizes rats to the cognitive sequelae of withdrawal. Here we report novel data demonstrating that increasing DeltaFosB in the OFC also sensitizes animals to the locomotor-stimulant properties of cocaine. Analysis of nucleus accumbens tissue taken from rats over-expressing DeltaFosB in the OFC and treated chronically with saline or cocaine does not provide support for the hypothesis that increasing OFC DeltaFosB potentiates sensitization via the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest that both tolerance and sensitization to cocaine's many effects, although seemingly opposing processes, can be induced in parallel via the same biological mechanism within the same brain region, and that drug-induced changes in gene expression within the OFC play an important role in multiple aspects of addiction. PMID:19135469

  11. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  12. Relations between Coal Properties and Spontaneous Combustion Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAKÇI, Erdoğan; DİDARİ, Vedat

    2002-01-01

    The results of linear and multiple regression analyses to determine the relationship between spontaneous combustion parameters (derived from time-temperature curves obtained from laboratory tests) and coal parameters (obtained from proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses) have been explained. The linear regression analyses have shown that ash (A), volatile matter (VM), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), exinite (E), inertinite (I) and mineral matter (MM) are the major factors affecting...

  13. Pulse compression method for amplified spontaneous emission smooth beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase the intensity on target and the coupling efficiency, based on optical gain switching theory the paper presents a method for shortening the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) smooth pulses. The experiment has been per- formed on EMG-150, a discharge laser in the Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged. As a result, the pulse bandwidth is shortened to 7.5 ns from 14.5 ns. and the uniformity of the ASE beams is not affected. (authors)

  14. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Gherghescu; D N Poenaru

    2015-09-01

    The macroscopic–microscopic method is extended to calculate the deformation energy and penetrability for binary nuclear configurations typical for fission processes. The deformed two-centre shell model is used to obtain single-particle energy levels for the transition region of two partially overlapped daughter and emitted fragment nuclei. The macroscopic part is obtained using the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the decay of 282,292120 nuclei.

  15. Treatment of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as persistent symptoms of urticaria for 6 weeks or more. It is associated with autoimmunity in approximately 45 percent of patients. Therapy is often difficult however the initial approach should employ high-dose non-sedating antihistamines; 4-6 tablets/day may be necessary. It has been shown that the response to 4 tablets/day exceeds 3, and exceeds 2, which exceeds 1. However the dose that corresponds to the maximal dose of first generation antihistam...

  16. Spontaneous violation of mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dyatlov, Igor T

    2015-01-01

    A symmetry violation model is considered for a system that can spontaneously choose between identical states which differ from each other only in weak properties (R-L). Such mirror symmetry allows reproduction of observed qualitative properties of quark and lepton mixing matrices. The lepton mixing matrix evidences in this case in favor of the inverse mass spectrum and the Dirac nature of SM neutrino. Notwithstanding the Dirac properties of neutrino, an exchange of lepton numbers such as $e^{-}+\\mu^{+}\\rightarrow e^{+}+\\mu^{-}$ is possible but with only leptons participating in the process.

  17. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'

  18. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail: skattapuram@partners.org

    2008-07-15

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  19. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  20. Time course of training-induced microcirculatory changes and of vegf expression in skeletal muscles of spontaneously hypertensive female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amaral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced vessel changes modulate arterial pressure (AP in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is important for angiogenesis of skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the time course of VEGF and angiogenesis after short- and long-term exercise training of female SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, 8-9 weeks (200-250 g. Rats were allocated to daily training or remained sedentary for 3 days (N = 23 or 13 weeks (N = 23. After training, the carotid artery was catheterized for AP measurements. Locomotor (tibialis anterior and gracilis and non-locomotor skeletal muscles (temporalis were harvested and prepared for histologic and protein expression analyses. Training increased treadmill performance by all groups (SHR = 28%, WKY = 64%, 3 days and (SHR = 141%, WKY = 122%, 13 weeks. SHR had higher values of AP than WKY (174 ± 4 vs 111 ± 2 mmHg that were not altered by training. Three days of running increased VEGF expression (SHR = 28%, WKY = 36% simultaneously with an increase in capillary-to-fiber ratio in gracilis muscle (SHR = 19%, WKY = 15%. In contrast, 13 weeks of training increased gracilis capillary-to-fiber ratio (SHR = 18%, WKY = 19%, without simultaneous changes in VEGF expression. Training did not change VEGF expression and capillarity of temporalis muscle. We conclude that training stimulates time- and tissue-dependent VEGF protein expression, independent of pressure levels. VEGF triggers angiogenesis in locomotor skeletal muscle shortly after the exercise starts, but is not involved in the maintenance of capillarity after long-term exercise in female rats.

  1. A Drosophila systems model of pentylenetetrazole induced locomotor plasticity responsive to antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent kindling induced by PTZ is a widely used model of epileptogenesis and AED testing. Overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms may underlie epileptogenesis and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Besides epilepsy, AEDs are widely used in treating various neuropsychiatric disorders. Mechanisms of AEDs' long term action in these disorders are poorly understood. We describe here a Drosophila systems model of PTZ induced locomotor plasticity that is responsive to AEDs. Results We empirically determined a regime in which seven days of PTZ treatment and seven days of subsequent PTZ discontinuation respectively cause a decrease and an increase in climbing speed of Drosophila adults. Concomitant treatment with NaVP and LEV, not ETH, GBP and VGB, suppressed the development of locomotor deficit at the end of chronic PTZ phase. Concomitant LEV also ameliorated locomotor alteration that develops after PTZ withdrawal. Time series of microarray expression profiles of heads of flies treated with PTZ for 12 hrs (beginning phase, two days (latent phase and seven days (behaviorally expressive phase showed only down-, not up-, regulation of genes; expression of 23, 2439 and 265 genes were downregulated, in that order. GO biological process enrichment analysis showed downregulation of transcription, neuron morphogenesis during differentiation, synaptic transmission, regulation of neurotransmitter levels, neurogenesis, axonogenesis, protein modification, axon guidance, actin filament organization etc. in the latent phase and of glutamate metabolism, cell communication etc. in the expressive phase. Proteomic interactome based analysis provided further directionality to these events. Pathway overrepresentation analysis showed enrichment of Wnt signaling and other associated pathways in genes downregulated by PTZ. Mining of available transcriptomic and proteomic data pertaining to established rodent models of epilepsy and human epileptic

  2. Spontaneous Emission from a Driven Atom Embedded in a Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shuang-Yuan; YANG Ya-Ping; CHENG Hong; ZHU Shi-Yao; WU Xiang

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the spontaneous emission from a three-level atom with an external driving field in a photonic crystal are studied. The population in the two upper levels displays complete decay or oscillatory behavior,depending on the initial atomic state and the relative position of the two upper levels from the forbidden gap.The intensity and the phase of the external field can also affect spontaneous emission from the atom.

  3. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  4. Spontaneous Biliary Peritonitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreethi Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric Spontaneous Bile duct perforation is a rare clinical condition with only around 150 cases reported worldwide. Early management gives excellent prognosis but the condition often presents a diagnostic dilemma. Hepato-biliary Technetium-99m-iminodiacetic acid scintiscan is the diagnostic investigation of choice but its availability in third world countries is limited. We present two cases of spontaneous biliary peritonitis in children, which were diagnosed without scintiscanning. The first case was a one-and -a half-year-old child, who was diagnosed with biliary peritonitis without pneumoperitoneum by a combination of Ultrasound (USG, Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. The child underwent USG-guided drainage and subsequent cholecystectomy with hepatico-jejunostomy. The second child also had biliary peritonitis without pneumoperitoneum, which was initially suspected on USG. CECT revealed dilated gall bladder and fluid collection in sub-hepatic space and pelvis. Abdominal paracentesis revealed presence of bile. The child responded to conservative therapy. Both are doing well on two-year follow-up. In a patient with jaundice, biliary tract abnormalities and/or free fluid, either generalized or localized to peri-cholecystic/sub-hepatic space on USG/CT/MRI, in the absence of pneumoperitoneum, suggest a diagnosis of biliary perforation even in the absence of scintiscanning.

  5. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Tiwari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation (SIP suggests a perforation in the gastrointestinal tract of a newborn with no demonstrable cause.Methods: Four neonates presenting with spontaneous bowel perforation were analyzed with respect to clinical presentation, management and outcome.Results: The mean age at presentation was 11.4 days. There were three males and one female. One of the neonates was preterm, very low birth weight and the other three were full term. Two neonates underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and two were initially managed by peritoneal drainage in view of poor general condition; one of them improved and did not require further operative intervention. The preterm very low birth weight neonate was stabilized and explored after 48 hours. Intra-operatively, two of them had two ileal perforations each which required ileostomy; one had single perforation in the transverse colon which was primarily repaired. All four had an uneventful recovery.Conclusion: SIP is a distinct clinical entity and has better outcome than neonates with intestinal perforation secondary to Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC.

  6. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  7. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvements in motor function and decreased muscle cocontractions. In this review, we will discuss the manner in which spinal neuronal circuits are impaired and the evidence surrounding plasticity of neuronal activity after locomotor training in people with SCI. We conclude that we need to better understand the physiological changes underlying locomotor training, use physiological signals to probe recovery over the course of training, and utilize established and contemporary interventions simultaneously in larger scale research studies. Furthermore, the focus of our research questions needs to change from feasibility and efficacy to the following: what are the physiological mechanisms that make it work and for whom? The aforementioned will enable the scientific and clinical community to develop more effective rehabilitation protocols maximizing sensorimotor function recovery in people with SCI.

  8. Interactions between modafinil and cocaine during the induction of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice: Implications for addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2013-01-01

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug effective at enhancing alertness and attention with a variety of approved and off-label applications. The mechanism of modafinil is not well understood but initial studies indicated a limited abuse potential. A number of recent publications, however, have shown that modafinil can be rewarding under certain conditions. The present study assessed the reinforcing properties of modafinil using conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization in mice. Experiment 1 examined a high dose of modafinil (75 mg/kg) as well as its interactions with cocaine (15 mg/kg). Cocaine alone and modafinil co-administered with cocaine induced sensitization of locomotor activity; modafinil alone showed little or no locomotor sensitization. Animals given modafinil alone, cocaine alone, and modafinil plus cocaine exhibited a strong and roughly equivalent place preference. When tested for sensitization using a low challenge dose of modafinil, cross-sensitization was observed in all cocaine-pretreated mice. Experiment 2 examined a low dose of modafinil that is similar to the dose administered to humans and has been shown to produce cognitive enhancements in mice. Low dose modafinil (0.75 mg/kg) did not produce conditioned place preference or locomotor sensitization. Together, these results suggest that modafinil has the potential to produce reward, particularly in cocaine addicts, and should be used with caution. However, the typical low dose administered likely moderates these effects and may account for lack of addiction seen in humans. PMID:22963989

  9. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvements in motor function and decreased muscle cocontractions. In this review, we will discuss the manner in which spinal neuronal circuits are impaired and the evidence surrounding plasticity of neuronal activity after locomotor training in people with SCI. We conclude that we need to better understand the physiological changes underlying locomotor training, use physiological signals to probe recovery over the course of training, and utilize established and contemporary interventions simultaneously in larger scale research studies. Furthermore, the focus of our research questions needs to change from feasibility and efficacy to the following: what are the physiological mechanisms that make it work and for whom? The aforementioned will enable the scientific and clinical community to develop more effective rehabilitation protocols maximizing sensorimotor function recovery in people with SCI. PMID:27293901

  10. Selective brain lesions reduce morphine- and radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent resemblance between the stereotypic locomotor hyperactivity observed after either an injection of morphine or irradiation of the C57BL/6J mouse has suggested the possibility of similar biochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of these behaviors. In this study the authors made selective brain lesions in an attempt to reverse the locomotor response observed after morphine (30 mg/kg) or radiation (1500 rads /sup 60/Co) treatments. Lesions impinging on both the dorso-medial caudate and lateral septal nuclei caused a significant decrease in morphine-induced and radiogenic locomotion. Lesions of the individual brain areas did not significantly alter the opiate locomotor response. This reduction in locomotion could not be attributed to a generalized post-surgical lethargy since other brain lesions of similar size did not significantly suppress these behaviors. These data suggest the possibility of some common central nervous system mechanisms which may support the stereotypic locomotor hyperactivity observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after either morphine or radiation treatment

  11. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U;

    1995-01-01

    effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  12. Spontaneous Ratchet Effect in a Granular Gas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous clustering of a vibrofluidized granular gas is employed to generate directed transport in two different compartmentalized systems: a "granular fountain" in which the transport takes the form of convection rolls, and a "granular ratchet" with a spontaneous particle current perpendicular to the direction of energy input. In both instances, transport is not due to any system-intrinsic anisotropy, but arises as a spontaneous collective symmetry breaking effect of many interacting ...

  13. Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, van der, J.; Reimann, Peter; Weele, van, M; Lohse, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    The spontaneous clustering of a vibrofluidized granular gas is employed to generate directed transport in two different compartmentalized systems: a granular fountain in which the transport takes the form of convection rolls, and a granular ratchet with a spontaneous particle current perpendicular to the direction of energy input. In both instances, transport is not due to any systemintrinsic anisotropy, but arises as a spontaneous collective symmetry breaking effect of many interacting granu...

  14. Spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula due to femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Pandey, Anand; Kumar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula is a rare entity. We encountered a case of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula in the groin region due to femoral hernia. A 60-year-old man presented with spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula in the left groin region without signs of peritonitis. He was kept on conservative treatment, but on third postadmission day, he developed a swelling in his right groin, which became firm and irreducible with signs of intestinal obstruction. On exploratory laparotomy, b...

  15. Basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-ren; SUN Yan-qiu; ZHAO Qing-fu; DENG Cun-bao; DENG Han-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Discussed latest research results of basic theory research of coal spontaneous combustion in detail, with quantum chemical theory and method and experiment systematically studied chemical structure of coal molecule, adsorption mechanism of coal surface to oxygen molecule and chemical reaction mechanism and process of spontaneous combustion of organic macromolecule and low molecular weight compound in coal from microcosmic view, and established complete theoretical system of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion.

  16. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Fish Oil Lower Anxiety, Improve Cognitive Functions and Reduce Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in a Non-Human Primate

    OpenAIRE

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Melanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (omega 3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. omega 3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. omega 3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about th...

  18. Spermidine feeding decreases age-related locomotor activity loss and induces changes in lipid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Minois

    Full Text Available Spermidine is a natural polyamine involved in many important cellular functions, whose supplementation in food or water increases life span and stress resistance in several model organisms. In this work, we expand spermidine's range of age-related beneficial effects by demonstrating that it is also able to improve locomotor performance in aged flies. Spermidine's mechanism of action on aging has been primarily related to general protein hypoacetylation that subsequently induces autophagy. Here, we suggest that the molecular targets of spermidine also include lipid metabolism: Spermidine-fed flies contain more triglycerides and show altered fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. We further determine that most of these metabolic changes are regulated through autophagy. Collectively, our data suggests an additional and novel lipid-mediated mechanism of action for spermidine-induced autophagy.

  19. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  20. A Single Dopamine Pathway Underlies Progressive Locomotor Deficits in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riemensperger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the human Parkinson-disease-associated protein α-synuclein in all Drosophila neurons induces progressive locomotor deficits. Here, we identify a group of 15 dopaminergic neurons per hemisphere in the anterior medial region of the brain whose disruption correlates with climbing impairments in this model. These neurons selectively innervate the horizontal β and β′ lobes of the mushroom bodies, and their connections to the Kenyon cells are markedly reduced when they express α-synuclein. Using selective mushroom body drivers, we show that blocking or overstimulating neuronal activity in the β′ lobe, but not the β or γ lobes, significantly inhibits negative geotaxis behavior. This suggests that modulation of the mushroom body β′ lobes by this dopaminergic pathway is specifically required for an efficient control of startle-induced locomotion in flies.

  1. Locomotors Rehabilitation System via Gait Analysis with Load cell, Gyroscope and Accelerometer Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rosli Abdullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Locomotors Rehabilitation System (LRS has a potential used with the advancement in electronic and computer. It requires sensors for a locomotion measurement and units to communicate between patients and the doctors. These promote a flexible and economical solution to a Gait analysis by develops units to differentiate the abnormal and normal patient different walking pattern. The LRS consist of a PIC microcontroller, RF transceiver, analogue multiplexer plus sensors for the compressive force, acceleration and angular velocity measurement. Later, these measurements are sent to the computer for further human locomotion analysis. The data transmission is optimized up to 250 meters line of sight with ±3 g acceleration, tilt angle at ± 0.1 ° and ≤ 150 Kg bodyweight measurement. The LRS is expected to offer more information than the Gait analysis and also the ability to improve the clinical and rehabilitation applications.

  2. Functional Electrical Stimulation Alters the Postural Component of Locomotor Activity in Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talis, Vera; Ballay, Yves; Grishin, Alexander; Pozzo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of different intensity on postural stability during walking in healthy subjects is necessary before these relationships in patients with postural disorders can be assessed and understood. We examined healthy subjects in Control group walking on a treadmill for 40 min and in FES group—provided with 30 min of stimulation, which intensity increased every 10 min. The main difference between Control and FES group was the progressive increase of trunk oscillations in sagittal, frontal, and horizontal planes and an increase of relative stance duration in parallel with FES intensity increase. Both Control and FES groups exhibited shank elevation angle increase as an after-effect. It is concluded, that high intensity FES significantly changes the postural component of locomotor activity, but the fatigue signs afterwards were not FES specific. PMID:26733791

  3. A Phase-Dependent Hypothesis for Locomotor Functions of Human Foot Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ren; David Howard; Lu-quan Ren; Chris Nester; Li-mei Tian

    2008-01-01

    The human foot is a very complex structure comprising numerous bones, muscles, ligaments and synovial joints. As the only component in contact with the ground, the foot complex delivers a variety of biomechanical functions during human locomotion, e.g. body support and propulsion, stability maintenance and impact absorption. These need the human foot to be rigid and damped to transmit ground reaction forces to the upper body and maintain body stability, and also to be compliant and resilient to moderate risky impacts and save energy. How does the human foot achieve these apparent conflicting functions? In this study, we propose a phase-dependent hypothesis for the overall locomotor functions of the human foot complex based on in-vivo measurements of human natural gait and simulation results of a mathematical foot model. We propse that foot functions are highly dependent on gait phase, which is a major characteristics of human locomotion. In early stance just after heel strike,the foot mainly works as a shock absorber by moderating high impacts using the viscouselastic heel pad in both. vertical and horizontal directions. In mid-stance phase(~80% of stance phase), the foot complex can be considered as a springy rocker,reserving external mechanical work using the foot arch whilst moving ground contact point forward along a curved path to maintain body stability. In late stance after heel off, the foot complex mainly serves as a force modulator like a gear box,modulating effective mechanical advantages of ankle plantiflexor muscles using metatarsal-phalangeal joints. A sound understanding of how diverse functions are implemented in a simple foot segment during human locomotion might be useful to gain insight into the overall foot locomotor functions and hence to facilitate clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation product design and humanoid robot development.

  4. Effects of Risperidone and Paliperidone Pretreatment on Locomotor Response Following Prenatal Immune Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtand, Neil M.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul; Stanford, Kevin; Bronson, Stefanie L.; McNamara, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Limited data are available regarding pharmacological characteristics of effective interventions for psychosis prevention. Enrollment challenges in psychosis prevention trials impede screening diverse interventions for efficacy. Relevant animal models could help circumvent this barrier. We previously described prevention with risperidone of abnormal behavior following neonatal hippocampal lesion. We aimed to extend those findings evaluating risperidone and paliperidone following prenatal immune activation, a developmental model of a schizophrenia risk factor. We evaluated a later developmental time point to determine persistent effects of drug treatment. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with poly I:C or saline on gestational day 14. Offspring of poly I:C and saline treated dams received risperidone (0.45 mg/kg/d), paliperidone (0.05 mg/kg/d), or vehicle from postnatal days 35 to 70. Locomotor responses to novelty, saline injection, and amphetamine (1 and 5 mg/kg) were determined at three months, i.e., 21 days following antipsychotic discontinuation. Results Risperidone and paliperidone had persistent effects on behavioral response to amphetamine (1 mg/kg) at 3 months, ameliorating the impact of prenatal immune activation on offspring of poly I:C-treated dams. Risperidone, but not paliperidone, also exerted persistent effects in offspring of saline-treated dams on locomotor response to saline and amphetamine (5 mg/kg) injection. Conclusions Risperidone and paliperidone pretreatment of poly I:C offspring during peri-pubertal development stabilized response to amphetamine exposure persisting into early adulthood. Prenatal immune activation provides a model for evaluating effects of an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, and has potential utility for identifying pharmacological approaches to early intervention. PMID:21440257

  5. Dopamine: a parallel pathway for the modulation of spinal locomotor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Simon A; Koblinger, Kathrin; Humphreys, Jennifer M; Whelan, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The spinal cord contains networks of neurons that can produce locomotor patterns. To readily respond to environmental conditions, these networks must be flexible yet at the same time robust. Neuromodulators play a key role in contributing to network flexibility in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks. For example, neuromodulators contribute to altering intrinsic properties and synaptic weights that, in extreme cases, can lead to neurons switching between networks. Here we focus on the role of dopamine in the control of stepping networks in the spinal cord. We first review the role of dopamine in modulating rhythmic activity in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) and the leech, since work from these preparations provides a foundation to understand its role in vertebrate systems. We then move to a discussion of dopamine's role in modulation of swimming in aquatic species such as the larval xenopus, lamprey and zebrafish. The control of terrestrial walking in vertebrates by dopamine is less studied and we review current evidence in mammals with a focus on rodent species. We discuss data suggesting that the source of dopamine within the spinal cord is mainly from the A11 area of the diencephalon, and then turn to a discussion of dopamine's role in modulating walking patterns from both in vivo and in vitro preparations. Similar to the descending serotonergic system, the dopaminergic system may serve as a potential target to promote recovery of locomotor function following spinal cord injury (SCI); evidence suggests that dopaminergic agonists can promote recovery of function following SCI. We discuss pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches that could be deployed in SCI and their potential tractability. Throughout the review we draw parallels with both noradrenergic and serotonergic modulatory effects on spinal cord networks. In all likelihood, a complementary monoaminergic enhancement strategy should be deployed following SCI. PMID:24982614

  6. Pilot study of Lokomat versus manual-assisted treadmill training for locomotor recovery post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Carolynn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While manually-assisted body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT has revealed improved locomotor function in persons with post-stroke hemiparesis, outcomes are inconsistent and it is very labor intensive. Thus an alternate treatment approach is desirable. Objectives of this pilot study were to: 1 compare the efficacy of body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT combined with the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis versus manually-assisted BWSTT for locomotor training post-stroke, and 2 assess effects of fast versus slow treadmill training speed. Methods Sixteen volunteers with chronic hemiparetic gait (0.62 ± 0.30 m/s post-stroke were randomly allocated to Lokomat (n = 8 or manual-BWSTT (n = 8 3×/wk for 4 weeks. Groups were also stratified by fast (mean 0.92 ± 0.15 m/s or slow (0.58 ± 0.12 m/s training speeds. The primary outcomes were self-selected overground walking speed and paretic step length ratio. Secondary outcomes included: fast overground walking speed, 6-minute walk test, and a battery of clinical measures. Results No significant differences in primary outcomes were revealed between Lokomat and manual groups as a result of training. However, within the Lokomat group, self-selected walk speed, paretic step length ratio, and four of the six secondary measures improved (p = 0.04–0.05, effect sizes = 0.19–0.60. Within the manual group, only balance scores improved (p = 0.02, effect size = 0.57. Group differences between fast and slow training groups were not revealed (p ≥ 0.28. Conclusion Results suggest that Lokomat training may have advantages over manual-BWSTT following a modest intervention dose in chronic hemiparetic persons and further, that our training speeds produce similar gait improvements. Suggestions for a larger randomized controlled trial with optimal study parameters are provided.

  7. Multiple monoaminergic modulation of posturo-locomotor network activity in the newborn rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane eBeliez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies devoted to understanding locomotor control have mainly addressed the functioning of the neural circuits controlling leg movements and relatively little is known of the operation of networks that activate trunk muscles in coordination with limb movements. The aim of the present work was (1 to identify the exogenous neurotransmitter cocktail that most strongly activates postural thoracic circuitry; (2 to investigate how the biogenic amines serotonin (5-HT, dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA modulate the coordination between limb and axial motor networks. Experiments were carried out on in vitro isolated spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. We recorded from ventral roots to monitor hindlimb locomotor and axial postural network activity. Each combination of the three amines with excitatory amino acids (EAAs elicited coordinated rhythmic motor activity at all segmental levels with specific characteristics. The variability in cycle period was similar with 5-HT and DA while it was significantly higher with NA. DA elicited motor bursts of smaller amplitude in thoracic segments compared to 5-HT and NA, while both DA and NA elicited motor bursts of higher amplitude than 5-HT in the lumbar and sacral segments. The amines modulated the phase relationships of bursts in various segments with respect to the reference lumbar segment. At the thoracic level there was a phase lag between all recorded segments in the presence of 5-HT, while DA and NA elicited synchronous bursting. At the sacral level, 5-HT and DA induced an intersegmental phase shift while relationships became phase-locked with NA. Various combinations of EAAs with two or even all three amines elicited rhythmic motor output that was more variable than with one amine alone. Our results provide new data on the coordinating processes between spinal cord networks, demonstrating that each amine has a characteristic signature regarding its specific effect on intersegmental phase

  8. Training Enhances Both Locomotor and Cognitive Adaptability to a Novel Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    During adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program to facilitate rapid adaptation. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. The goal of our present study was to determine if SA training improved both the locomotor and cognitive responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the extent to which training would be retained. Methods: Twenty subjects (10 training, 10 control) completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill but did not receive any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training all subjects performed the Transfer Test upon completion of training. For this test, subjects were exposed to novel visual flow and support surface movement, not previously experienced during training. The Transfer Test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency, auditory reaction time, and heart rate data were collected as measures of postural stability, cognitive effort and anxiety, respectively. Results: Using mixed effects regression methods we determined that subjects who received SA training showed less alterations in stride frequency, auditory reaction time and heart rate compared to controls. Conclusion: Subjects who received SA training improved performance across a number of modalities including enhanced locomotor function, increased multi-tasking capability and reduced anxiety during adaptation to novel discordant sensory

  9. Locomotor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury: Insights Beyond Walking Speed and Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Lea; Curt, Armin

    2016-08-01

    Recovery of locomotor function after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) is clinically assessed through walking speed and distance, while improvements in these measures might not be in line with a normalization of gait quality and are, on their own, insensitive at revealing potential mechanisms underlying recovery. The objective of this study was to relate changes of gait parameters to the recovery of walking speed while distinguishing between parameters that rather reflect speed improvements from factors contributing to overall recovery. Kinematic data of 16 iSCI subjects were repeatedly recorded during in-patient rehabilitation. The responsiveness of gait parameters to walking speed was assessed by linear regression. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on the multivariate data across time to identify factors that contribute to recovery after iSCI. Parameters of gait cycle and movement dynamics were both responsive and closely related to the recovery of walking speed, which increased by 96%. Multivariate analysis revealed specific gait parameters (intralimb shape normality and consistency) that, although less related to speed increments, loaded highly on principal component one (PC1) (58.6%) explaining the highest proportion of variance (i.e., recovery of outcome over time). Interestingly, measures of hip, knee, and ankle range of motion showed varying degrees of responsiveness (from very high to very low) while not contributing to gait recovery as revealed by PCA. The conjunct application of two analysis methods distinguishes gait parameters that simply reflect increased walking speed from parameters that actually contribute to gait recovery in iSCI. This distinction may be of value for the evaluation of interventions for locomotor recovery. PMID:26896097

  10. Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H

    2008-05-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists, including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggest that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor; however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole) to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of the D2 receptor activity because the D2 antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole (L741,626) recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, whereas yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (PG01037). The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect

  11. Effects of maternal low-protein diet on parameters of locomotor activity in a rat model of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kássia Oliveira Gomes da; Pereira, Sabrina da Conceição; Portovedo, Mariana; Milanski, Marciane; Galindo, Lígia Cristina Monteiro; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Toscano, Ana Elisa

    2016-08-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have feeding difficulties that can contribute to undernutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early undernutrition on locomotor activity and the expression of the myofibrillar protein MuRF-1 in an experimental model of cerebral palsy (CP). In order to achieve this aim, pregnant rats were divided into two groups according to the diet provided: Normal Protein (NP, n=9) and Low Protein (LP, n=12) groups. After birth, the pups were divided into four groups: Normal Protein Sham (NPS, n=16), Normal Protein Cerebral Palsy (NPCP, n=21), Low Protein Sham (LPS, n=20) and Low Protein Cerebral Palsy (LPCP, n=18) groups. The experimental cerebral palsy protocol consisted of two episodes of anoxia at birth and during the first days of life. Each day, nitrogen flow was used (9l/min during 12min). After nitrogen exposure, sensorimotor restriction was performed 16h per day, from the 2nd to the 28th postnatal day (PND). Locomotor activity was evaluated at 8th, 14th, 17th, 21th and 28th PND. At PND 29, soleus muscles were collected to analyse myofibrillar protein MuRF-1. Our results show that CP animals decreased body weight (p<0.001), which were associated with alterations of various parameters of locomotor activity (p<0.05), compared to their control. Undernourished animals also showed a decrease (p<0.05) in body weight and locomotor activity parameters. Moreover, CP decreased MuRF-1 levels in nourished rats (p=0.015) but not in undernourished rats. In summary, perinatal undernutrition exacerbated the negative effects of cerebral palsy on locomotor activity and muscle atrophy, but it appears not be mediated by changes in MuRF-1 levels. PMID:27211347

  12. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  13. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  14. Cosmological Aspects of Spontaneous Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scal...

  15. Spontaneous polaron transport in biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B.; Piette, B. M. A. G.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2012-02-01

    Polarons, introduced by Davydov to explain energy transport in α-helices, correspond to electrons localised on a few lattice sites because of their interaction with phonons. While the static polaron field configurations have been extensively studied, their displacement is more difficult to explain. In this paper we show that, when the next-to-nearest-neighbour interactions are included, for physical values of the parameters, polarons can spontaneously move, at T=0, on bent chains that exhibit a positive gradient in their curvature. At room temperature polarons perform a random walk but a curvature gradient can induce a non-zero average speed similar to the one observed at zero temperature. We also show that, at zero temperature, a polaron bounces on sharply kinked junctions. We interpret these results in the light of the energy transport by transmembrane proteins.

  16. Spontaneous onset of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlin, Christian W.; Mitrea, Bogdan G.; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2009-06-01

    Most commonly, atrial fibrillation is triggered by rapid bursts of electrical impulses originating in the myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins (PVs). However, the nature of such bursts remains poorly understood. Here, we propose a mechanism of bursting consistent with the extensive empirical information about the electrophysiology of the PVs. The mechanism is essentially non-local and involves the spontaneous initiation of non-sustained spiral waves in the distal end of the muscle sleeves of the PVs. It reproduces the experimentally observed dynamics of the bursts, including their frequency, their intermittent character, and the unusual shape of the electrical signals in the pulmonary veins that are reminiscent of so-called early afterdepolarizations (EADs).

  17. Spontaneous Emission in Nonlocal Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Nasir, Mazhar E; Olvera, Paulina Segovia; Krasavin, Alexey V; Levitt, James; Hirvonen, Liisa M; Wells, Brian; Suhling, Klaus; Richards, David; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2016-01-01

    Light-matter interactions can be dramatically modified by the surrounding environment. Here we report on the first experimental observation of molecular spontaneous emission inside a highly nonlocal metamaterial based on a plasmonic nanorod assembly. We show that the emission process is dominated not only by the topology of its local effective medium dispersion, but also by the nonlocal response of the composite, so that metamaterials with different geometric parameters but the same local effective medium properties exhibit different Purcell factors. A record-high enhancement of a decay rate is observed, in agreement with the developed quantitative description of the Purcell effect in a nonlocal medium. An engineered material nonlocality introduces an additional degree of freedom into quantum electrodynamics, enabling new applications in quantum information processing, photo-chemistry, imaging, and sensing.

  18. Effect of spontaneous polarization on thermoemission of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of spontaneous polarization on thermionic and ion emission of lithium niobate is investigated. The temperature dependences are given of electron and ion currents of samples whose surfaces are perpendicular or parallel to the polar axis. The work function is determined by the experimetal dependences. It is established that the work function of lithium niobate, neglecting ferroelectric bending of bands, is the same for the crystallographic directions chosen and is equal to 2.2+-0.1 eV. Spontaneous polarization exerts an appreciable effect on the emission properties of surfaces perpendicular to the polar axis and does not affect the emission of surfaces parallel to it. The change in work function due to ferroelectric bending of bands may be as high as 1.0 eV

  19. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel; Wurtz, Gregory; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices.

  20. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices. (paper)

  1. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel;

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE......) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses......, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices....

  2. 有氧运动干预自发性高血压模型大鼠主动脉血管内皮细胞c-Src mRNA表达和c-Src的活性%Aerobic exercise affects c-Src mRNA expression and c-Src activity in aortic vascular endothelial cells of spontaneous hypertensive rat models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彩玲; 齐洁; 张钧

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Proto-oncogene c-Src plays an important role in regulating cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. At present, there were no studies concerning exercise intervention effects on c-Src expression in aortic endothelial cels so as to regulate hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of aerobic exercise on c-Src mRNA expression and c-Src activity in the aorta blood vessel endothelial cels of spontaneous hypertensive rats. METHODS: A total of 8 male Wistar rats were considered as normal control group. Sixteen spontaneous hypertensive rats were randomly assigned to 8 rats as spontaneous hypertension group and 8 rats as spontaneous hypertension exercise group. Rats in the spontaneous hypertension exercise group carried on 90 minutes unloaded aerobic swimming every day, 6 days a week, for 8 weeks. The rats in the normal control group and spontaneous hypertension group did not swim. Blood pressure of rats was measured once a week. 8 weeks later, the c-Src mRNA expression and c-Src activity were determined in aortic vascular endothelial cels of rats in each group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with spontaneous hypertension group, blood pressure was lower, but c-Src mRNA expression and c-Src activity were significantly higher in the spontaneous hypertension exercise group. The c-Src activity and c-Src mRNA expression were higher in the spontaneous hypertension exercise group than normal control group and spontaneous hypertension group (P < 0.01). Results indicated that aerobic exercise can promote the increase in c-Src activity and c-Src mRNA expression in aortic endothelial cels of spontaneous hypertensive rats.%背景:原癌基因 c-Src 在调节高血压等心血管系统疾病中起着重要的作用,目前尚未看到有关运动干预影响主动脉血管内皮细胞c-Src的表达和活来调节高血压的研究。目的:观察有氧运动对自发性高血压大鼠主动脉血管内皮细胞c-Src mRNA表达和c

  3. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  4. Primary Spontaneous Bilateral Pneumothorax in a Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaldeep Arora; Shasanka Shekhar Panda; Rashmi Ranjan Das; Pankaj Kumar Mohanty; Meely Panda

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax, though rare, is a recognized cause of respiratory distress in the immediate newborn period. It may occur spontaneously or secondary to various underlying lung diseases. Here we share our experience of a neonate with spontaneous pneumothorax with mild to moderate respiratory distress, who recovered completely with conservative management with an oxygen-enriched atmosphere and no surgical intervention.

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax caused by metastatic hemangioendothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with hemangioendothelioma is described, who developed a metastatic pulmonary nodule, subsequently a bollous lesion contiguous to the nodule, and finally spontaneous pneumothorax. In such cases, newly formed bullous lesions may conceal originally visible metastatic foci and can be a potential source of spontaneous pneumothorax. (orig.)

  6. Cooperative spontaneous emission in nonuniform media

    OpenAIRE

    Rudziński, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper is modification of cooperative spontaneous emission by a nonuniform medium, with nonuniform distributions of electromagnetic field. A brief analyzis is presented and it is postulated, that if spontaneous emission from an atom is strongly suppressed, cooperative emission with another atom may be a preferred emission channel and counteract the suppression.

  7. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  8. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  9. Primary Spontaneous Bilateral Pneumothorax in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep Arora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax, though rare, is a recognized cause of respiratory distress in the immediate newborn period. It may occur spontaneously or secondary to various underlying lung diseases. Here we share our experience of a neonate with spontaneous pneumothorax with mild to moderate respiratory distress, who recovered completely with conservative management with an oxygen-enriched atmosphere and no surgical intervention.

  10. Spontaneous fission properties and lifetime systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half-lives for spontaneous fission of nuclides with even and odd numbers of particles are compared with recent theoretical calculations. A summary of odd particle hindrance factors is given. The most recent measurements of kinetic-energy and mass distributions and neutron emission for spontaneous fission of the heaviest nuclides are summarized and discussed. 51 refs., 9 figs

  11. The Brain’s sense of walking: a study on the intertwine between locomotor imagery and internal locomotor models in healthy adults, typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eIosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery and internal motor models have been deeply investigated in literature. It is well known that the development of motor imagery occurs during adolescence and it is limited in people affected by cerebral palsy. However, the roles of motor imagery and internal models in locomotion as well as their intertwine received poor attention. In this study we compared the performances of healthy adults (n=8, 28.1±5.1 years old, children with typical development (n=8, 8.1±3.8 years old and children with cerebral palsy (n=12, 7.5±2.9 years old, measured by an optoelectronic system and a trunk-mounted wireless inertial magnetic unit, during three different tasks. Subjects were asked to achieve a target located at 2 or 3m in front of them simulating their walking by stepping in place, or actually walking blindfolded or normally walking with open eyes. Adults performed a not significantly different number of steps (p=0.761 spending not significantly different time between tasks (p=0.156. Children with typical development showed task-dependent differences both in terms of number of steps (p=0.046 and movement time (p=0.002. However, their performance in simulated and blindfolded walking were strictly correlated (R=0.871 for steps, R=0.673 for time. Further, their error in blindfolded walking was in mean only of -2.2% of distance. Also children with cerebral palsy showed significant differences in number of steps (p=0.022 and time (p<0.001, but neither their number of steps nor their movement time recorded during simulated walking were found correlated with those of blindfolded and normal walking. Adults used a unique strategy among different tasks. Children with typical development seemed to be less reliable on their motor predictions, using a task-dependent strategy probably more reliable on sensorial feedback. Children with cerebral palsy showed less efficient performances, especially in simulated walking, suggesting an altered locomotor imagery.

  12. Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions in Tinnitus Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongbing; William Martin

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are believed to be the products of active cochlear mechanics. They are generally associated with relatively intact outer hair cell function. OAEs usually decrease or become undetectable when hearing loss of cochlear origin exceeds 40-50 dB HL. Subjective tinnitus is a perception of sound without detectable corresponding source. It is most often seen in patients with hearing loss. It is also frequently seen in patients with head injuries. Studies have suggested that the prevalence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions(SOAEs) is lower in patients with hearing loss and tinnitus than in normal population. There have also been reports on association between tinnitus and SOAEs of unusually high amplitudes, which can be controlled by aspirin administration. The current paper is a preliminary review of clinical data collected from a group oftinnitus patients in an attempt to elucidate on the relationship between SOAEs and tinnitus from a clinical point of view. Audiometric, tinnitus and SOAE data from 59 patients seen at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic were retrospectively studied. Fifty-four of these 59 patients showed sensorineural hearing loss of various degrees at the time of evaluation, mostly affecting high frequencies. SOAEs were detected in 26 ears (22%) of 1 8 patients(30.5%). There was no difference in SOAE prevalence between male and female patients. SOAEs were recorded in four of the five patients whose pure tone thresholds were within normal limits up to 8000 Hz. SOAEs appeared to be recorded at a higher rate in patients whose tinnitus started following motor vehicle accidents or head injuries(5/10) than in other patients.Time course of tinnitus did not appear to affect SOAE detection rate. There were no correlations between SOAE frequency and matched tinnitus pitch or frequency of maximum hearing loss. Significance of these findings is discussed.

  13. [Quantitative-morphometric and functional-anatomical studies on the locomotor apparatus of athletes. IV. Discussion, resume and literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breul, R

    1978-01-01

    The locomotor system of 155 athletes from 3 athletic disciplines was examined, and the data of 20 anthropometrical measurements and the results for the corresponding disciplines were recorded subjected to a multivariate morphometrical analysis with the following aim: 1. To evaluate the morphological and functional-anatomical criteria of the locomotor system which quantified the variation differences in the body composition of the athletic groups, and which indicated a quantifiable functional-anatomical relationship between the variation in the body composition and the result in the corresponding disciplines. 2. To show the bivariate relationship between the morphological parameter and the results in the corresponding disciplines, and furthermore to evaluate the amount of result-increasing or result-decreasing components in a morphological variable. 3. To analyse the morphological variation of the 20 body composition variables and the corresponding results in the disciplines by means of factor analysis. This is achieved by the use of multivariate methods to analyse the variation in the athlete's body composition and the result-influencing-components. The following results were obtained: 1. There are partly pronounced morphological differences between the 3 athletic groups, quantified by discriminant functions. The differences in the locomotor system were reduced to 2 independent axes of variation, with one axis being identified as the general size variation between the 3 groups, and the other as the difference in the variation of the degree of strength of the musculature of the trunk and the limbs by considering the length and breadth measurements. For both canonical axes, the shotputters have above-average high canonical numbers compared to the other 2 groups. The sprinters and long jumpers show conformity in the general size variation of the locomotor system, but they differ in the second axis. Whilst in both groups the lower limbs are similarly constituted in

  14. Spontaneous Neurotransmitter Release Depends on Intracellular Rather than ER Calcium Stores in Cultured Xenopus NMJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Song; LI Ruxin; QI Lei; HE Xiangping; XIE Zuoping

    2006-01-01

    Calcium ions are important in many vital neuron processes, including spontaneous neurotransmitter release. Extracellular calcium has long been known to be related to spontaneous neurotransmitter release, but the detailed mechanism for the effect of intracellular Ca2+ on synaptic release has not yet been understood. In this research, 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) was used to combine with cytosolic free Ca2+ in a calcium free medium of cultured Xenopus neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). The spontaneous synaptic current (SSC) frequency was obviously reduced. Then, drugs were applied to interrupt and activate the Ca2+ release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, but the SSC frequency was not affected. The results show that spontaneous neurotransmitter release depends on intracellular rather than ER calcium in cultured Xenopus NMJ without extracellular calcium.

  15. The Interplay Between Strategic And Adaptive Control Mechanisms In Plastic Recalibration Of Locomotor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that viewing simulated rotary self-motion during treadmill locomotion causes immediate strategic modifications (Richards et al. 2004) as well as an after effect reflecting adaptive modification of the control of position and trajectory during over-ground locomotion (Mulavara et al. 2005). The process of sensorimotor adaptation is comprised of both strategic and adaptive control mechanisms. Strategic control involves cognitive, on-line corrections to limb movements once one is aware of a sensory discordance. Over an extended period of exposure to the sensory discordance, new strategic sensorimotor coordination patterns are reinforced until they become more automatic, and therefore adaptive, in nature. The objective of this study was to investigate how strategic changes in trunk control during exposure to simulated rotary self-motion during treadmill walking influences adaptive modification of locomotor heading direction during over-ground stepping. Subjects (n = 10) walked on a motorized linear treadmill while viewing a wide field-of-view virtual scene for 24 minutes. The scene was static for the first 4 minutes and then, for the last 20 minutes, depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking in a counter-clockwise, circular path around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed five stepping trials both before and after the exposure period to assess after effects. Results from our previous study showed a significant change in heading direction (HD) during post-exposure step tests that was opposite the direction in which the scene rotated during the adaptation period. For the present study, we quantified strategic modifications in trunk movement control during scene exposure using normalized root mean square (R(sub p)) variation of the subject's 3D trunk positions and normalized sum of standard deviations (R(sub o)) variation of 3D trunk orientations during scene rotation relative to that during static scene presentation

  16. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal and Mediastinal Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Aaron, Geoffrey P; Shepard, Kimberly G

    2016-06-01

    A 14-year-old girl with no significant medical history presented at Emergency Department with sore throat and odynophagia after one episode of nonviolent coughing. She denied any respiratory distress, voice change, foreign body ingestion, retching, substance abuse, dental procedures, or trauma. She was afebrile with normal oxygen saturation and physical examination including the head and neck was unremarkable with the exception of bilateral neck crepitus without tenderness on palpation. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a patent laryngeal airway with normal vocal fold movement. Lateral neck X-ray demonstrated a linear air-column in the retropharyngeal space and computed tomography confirmed emphysema involving the retropharyngeal space and mediastinum with no evidence of fluid collection or abscess formation. Spontaneous retropharyngeal and mediastinal emphysema are clinical entities where free air is present within the confines of retropharyngeal space and mediastinum without obvious cause. It is benign and self-limited in nature and allows for conservative management. This case is presented with a review of literature. PMID:27090269

  17. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  18. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: Time for consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Sahni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumomediastinum (PM is defined as the presence of free air in the mediastinal cavity. It is often regarded as a revealing sign of a more serious medical condition. PM is broken down into two categories, one, with an instigating event, referred to as secondary PM. The other is when free air is discovered in the mediastinal cavity without a clear etiology, referred to as spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM. Often misdiagnosed due to the vague nature of presenting symptoms, SPM must be part of the differential diagnosis of a chest pain patient to expedite discovery and if necessary, management. A MedLine/PubMED search was performed identifying all relevant articles with "SPM" in the title. Six case series were reviewed to determine what clinical scenario constitutes a possible case of SPM. Results showed that almost all patients with SPM exhibited some chest pain, but Hamman′s crunch was present in only one-fifth of patients. Patients with certain pre-existing pulmonary diseases showed a greater propensity for the presence of free air in the mediastinal cavity. SPM must be diagnosed and managed promptly due to rare, but serious complications and any chest pain with an unknown etiology should contain SPM in the differential diagnosis.

  19. Spontaneous Vesicles Modulated by Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortega

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles are widely used in technological applications including cosmetic products, in microencapsulation for drug delivery, as anticancer agents and in the technology of adhesives, paints and inks. The vesicle size and the surface charge are very important properties from a technological point of view. Thus, the challenge in formulation is to find inexpensive stable vesicles with well-defined sizes and to modulate the surface charge of these aggregates. In this work we analyze the effect of different polymers on the structural properties of vesicles of the biodegradable surfactant sodium bis(2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate, Aerosol OT. Using fluorescence, conductivity, electrophoretic mobility and dynamic light scattering measurements we study the effect of the polymer nature, molecular weight and polymer concentration on the stability and the vesicle size properties. Results demonstrate that it is possible to modulate both the size and the electric surface charge of spontaneous vesicles of Aerosol OT by the addition of very small percentages of poly(allylamine and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecen.

  20. ADHD-associated dopamine transporter, latrophilin and neurofibromin share a dopamine-related locomotor signature in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, M; Harich, B; Franke, B; Schenck, A

    2016-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with hyperactivity as one of the hallmarks. Aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to be a major theme in ADHD, but how this relates to the vast majority of ADHD candidate genes is illusive. Here we report a Drosophila dopamine-related locomotor endophenotype that is shared by pan-neuronal knockdown of orthologs of the ADHD-associated genes Dopamine transporter (DAT1) and Latrophilin (LPHN3), and of a gene causing a monogenic disorder with frequent ADHD comorbidity: Neurofibromin (NF1). The locomotor signature was not found in control models and could be ameliorated by methylphenidate, validating its relevance to symptoms of the disorder. The Drosophila ADHD endophenotype can be further exploited in high throughput to characterize the growing number of candidate genes. It represents an equally useful outcome measure for testing chemical compounds to define novel treatment options. PMID:25962619

  1. Spontaneous Triplets Carried in a Uterus Didelphys

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica R. Jackson; Brittney Williams; James Thorp

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous triplets in a uterus didelphys are an extremely rare finding. Only four other cases are reported in the literature. Case: A 24 year old gravida 3 para 2-0-0-2 conceived spontaneous triplets in a uterine didelphys. She developed cervical insufficiency and underwent cerclage placement at 17 weeks. After spontaneous rupture of membranes at 29 weeks gestation, she underwent repeat cesarean section, with delivery of three viable fetuses. Mother and all three babies are c...

  2. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  3. Herpetic viruses and spontaneous recovery in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, I G

    1996-08-01

    The malignant melanoma may display extremely variable forms of development, from clinical forms with a lethal course to the unforeseeable situations of spontaneous cures. The basic immunotherapeutic procedures, as well as hypotheses regarding the mechanisms involved in courses towards spontaneous regressions, are presented. Since viruses of the herpes genus are involved in the mechanisms assumed to be at the basis of spontaneous regressions, it is suggested that these viruses (selected strains) be used in the clinic, in order to check the advanced hypothesis, an opportunity which could permit to study also the very probable therapeutic alternative offered by this virus, namely the association of the well-known immunotherapeutic methods. PMID:8869920

  4. The origin of the spontaneous electric polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Mushkolaj, Shpend

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of the spontaneous electric polarization (ferro- and antiferroelectricity) is one of the fundamental problems of the solid-state physics. Although, there has been lot of experimental and theoretical progress, still needs to be made to understand the origine of the spontaneous electric polarization. A new microscopic theory that is based on the perfectly elastic electron-atom and atom-atom collisions, crystal structure and the chemical composition of the compounds is developed to calculate the critical temperatures for materials with spontaneous electric polarization. The reliability of this model was examined by comparing the experimental results with calculated values.

  5. Ginseng extract G115 improves locomotor function in rotenone-induced parkinsonism rats via an antioxidant effect

    OpenAIRE

    Pailin Euaruksakul; Rossarin Tansawat; Ratchanee Rodsiri

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to certain pesticides including rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, may cause the oxidative damage to the dopaminergic neurons and contribute to Parkinson’s disease. Herein we demonstrate that ginseng extract G115 could attenuate locomotor activity impairment in rotenone-induced parkinsonism rats. Rotenone was shown to significantly impair the movement of rat related to its ability to reduce free radical scavenging capability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) act...

  6. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  7. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e....

  8. Increased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sensitization and accumbal dopamine release in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lene S.; Miller, Anthony D.; Lester, Deranda B.; Bay-Richter, Cecilie; Schülein, Christina; Schmidt, Henriette F.; Wess, Jürgen; Blaha, Charles D.; Woldbye, David P.D.; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Wortwein, Gitta

    2009-01-01

    Muscarinic M5 receptors are the only muscarinic receptor subtype expressed by dopamine-containing neurons of the ventral tegmental area. These cells play an important role for the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants and M5 receptors modulate their activity. Previous studies showed that M5 receptor knockout (M5−/−) mice are less sensitive to the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. Here we investigate the role of M5 receptors in the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on locomotor ...

  9. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia

  10. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G.A.P. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kummerle, A.E. [Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese de Substâncias Bioativas (LASSBio), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Antunes, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fraga, C.A.M.; Barreiro, E.J. [Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese de Substâncias Bioativas (LASSBio), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zapata-Sudo, G.; Sudo, R.T. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05) or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv) reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01) or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01), respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip) prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv), providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10) increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO) to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05) or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05), respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD{sub 50}) following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia.

  11. Participation of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor in ethanol-mediated locomotor activation and ethanol intake in preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Waters, Dustin H; Spear, Norman E

    2013-05-15

    Activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptors seems to attenuate ethanol-induced reinforcement in adult rodents. Since early ethanol exposure results in later increased responsiveness to ethanol, it is important to analyze NOP receptor modulation of ethanol-related behaviors during early ontogeny. By measuring NOP involvement in ethanol intake and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, we analyzed the specific participation of NOP receptors on these ethanol-related behaviors in two-week-old rats. In each experiment animals were pre-treated with the endogenous ligand for this receptor (nociceptin/orphanin FQ at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 μg) or a selective NOP antagonist (J-113397 at 0.0, 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg). Results indicated that activation of the nociceptin receptor system had no effect on ethanol or water intake, while blockade of the NOP receptor has an unspecific effect on consummatory behavior: J-113397 increased ethanol (at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg) and water intake (at 0.5 and 5.0 mg/kg). Ethanol-mediated locomotor stimulation was attenuated by activation of the NOP system (nociceptin at 1.0 and 2.0 μg). Nociceptin had no effect on basal locomotor activity. Blockade of NOP receptors did not modify ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Contrary to what has been reported for adult rodents, nociceptin failed to suppress intake of ethanol in infants. Attenuation of ethanol-induced stimulation by activation of NOP receptor system suggests an early role of this receptor in this ethanol-related behavior. PMID:23439216

  12. Eating High Fat Chow Decreases Dopamine Clearance in Adolescent and Adult Male Rats but Selectively Enhances the Locomotor Stimulating Effects of Cocaine in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Horton, Rebecca E.; Owens, William A.; Lynette C Daws; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard o...

  13. Association between arthritis score at the onset of the disease and long-term locomotor outcome in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mossiat, Claude; Laroche, Davy; Prati, Clément; Pozzo, Thierry; Demougeot, Céline; Marie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the connection between the intensity of initial symptoms of inflammation and locomotor outcome in rheumatoid arthritis, we examined the relationship between long-term locomotor abnormalities and signs of inflammation at the onset of the disease in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Methods The arthritis score and hind-paw diameter were followed from immunization to day 195 (~7 months). At this time, locomotion was recorded during forced treadmill walking usi...

  14. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    DNBC from October 1, 1997 to March 31, 1999 and interviewed subsequently. The pregnant women were recruited in first half of pregnancy and interviewed about pre-pregnant body size, obstetric history, exposures in pregnancy, and socio-demographic factors. Pregnancies were followed-up regarding......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  15. A Case of Dengue Maculopathy with Spontaneous Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Fiona Oi-jing; Chan, Carmen Kar-mun; Lai, Timothy Yuk-yau

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of dengue maculopathy, which resolved spontaneously without treatment. Methods A 25-year-old female patient with good past health was admitted to a general hospital in Hong Kong with fever of unknown origin after traveling to Indonesia. Based on the clinical features and a positive real-time polymerase chain reaction for dengue virus type 1, she was diagnosed with dengue fever. The patient developed dengue macu-lopathy mainly affecting the vision of her left eye. Abno...

  16. Adenosinergic regulation of binge-like ethanol drinking and associated locomotor effects in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    We recently observed that the addition of caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) to a 20% ethanol solution significantly altered the intoxication profile of male C57BL/6J (B6) mice induced by voluntary binge-like consumption in the ‘Drinking-in-the-Dark’ (DID) paradigm. In the current study, the roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor subtypes, specifically, in binge-like ethanol consumption and associated locomotor effects were explored. Adult male B6 mice (PND 60-70) were allowed to consume 20% ethanol (v/v) or 2% sucrose (w/v) for 6 days via DID. On day 7, mice received a systemic administration (i.p.) of the A1 antagonist DPCPX (1, 3, 6 mg/kg), the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1, 2, 4 mg/kg), or vehicle immediately prior to fluid access in DID. Antagonism of the A1 receptor via DPCPX was found to dose-dependently decrease binge-like ethanol intake and associated blood ethanol concentrations (p’s < 0.05), although no effect was observed on sucrose intake. Antagonism of A2A had no effect on ethanol or sucrose consumption, however, MSX-3 elicited robust locomotor stimulation in mice consuming either solution (p’s < 0.05). Together, these findings suggest unique roles for the A1 and A2A adenosine receptor subtypes in binge-like ethanol intake and its associated locomotor effects. PMID:26033424

  17. Diphenyl Diselenide Protects Against Mortality, Locomotor Deficits and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila melanogaster Model of Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Abolaji, Amos O; Rocha, Joao B T; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-06-01

    Several experimental and epidemiological reports have associated manganese exposure with induction of oxidative stress and locomotor dysfunctions. Diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) is widely reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo studies via multiple biochemical mechanisms. The present study investigated the protective effect of DPDS on manganese-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed, in a dietary regimen, to manganese alone (30 mmol per kg) or in combination with DPDS (10 and 20 µmol per kg) for 7 consecutive days. Exposure to manganese significantly (p flies mortality, whereas the survivors exhibited significant locomotor deficits with increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. However, dietary supplementation with DPDS caused a significant decrease in mortality, improvement in locomotor activity and restoration of AChE activity in manganese-exposed flies. Additionally, the significant decreases in the total thiol level, activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were accompanied with significant increases in the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in flies exposed to manganese alone. Dietary supplementation with DPDS significantly augmented the antioxidant status and prevented manganese-induced oxidative stress in the treated flies. Collectively, the present data highlight that DPDS may be a promising chemopreventive drug candidate against neurotoxicity resulting from acute manganese exposure. PMID:26875733

  18. Quantitative inferences on the locomotor behaviour of extinct species applied to Simocyon batalleri (Ailuridae, Late Miocene, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Salesa, Manuel J.; Cornette, Raphael; Antón, Mauricio; Morales, Jorge; Peigné, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Inferences of function and ecology in extinct taxa have long been a subject of interest because it is fundamental to understand the evolutionary history of species. In this study, we use a quantitative approach to investigate the locomotor behaviour of Simocyon batalleri, a key taxon related to the ailurid family. To do so, we use 3D surface geometric morphometric approaches on the three long bones of the forelimb of an extant reference sample. Next, we test the locomotor strategy of S. batalleri using a leave-one-out cross-validated linear discriminant analysis. Our results show that S. batalleri is included in the morphospace of the living species of musteloids. However, each bone of the forelimb appears to show a different functional signal suggesting that inferring the lifestyle or locomotor behaviour of fossils can be difficult and dependent on the bone investigated. This highlights the importance of studying, where possible, a maximum of skeletal elements to be able to make robust inferences on the lifestyle of extinct species. Finally, our results suggest that S. batalleri may be more arboreal than previously suggested.

  19. Lumbar Myeloid Cell Trafficking into Locomotor Networks after Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christopher N; Norden, Diana M; Faw, Timothy D; Deibert, Rochelle; Wohleb, Eric S; Sheridan, John F; Godbout, Jonathan P; Basso, D Michele

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes inflammation along the neuroaxis that jeopardizes plasticity, intrinsic repair and recovery. While inflammation at the injury site is well-established, less is known within remote spinal networks. The presence of bone marrow-derived immune (myeloid) cells in these areas may further impede functional recovery. Previously, high levels of the gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) occurred within the lumbar enlargement after thoracic SCI and impeded activity-dependent recovery. Since SCI-induced MMP-9 potentially increases vascular permeability, myeloid cell infiltration may drive inflammatory toxicity in locomotor networks. Therefore, we examined neurovascular reactivity and myeloid cell infiltration in the lumbar cord after thoracic SCI. We show evidence of region-specific recruitment of myeloid cells into the lumbar but not cervical region. Myeloid infiltration occurred with concomitant increases in chemoattractants (CCL2) and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) around lumbar vasculature 24h and 7days post injury. Bone marrow GFP chimeric mice established robust infiltration of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells into the lumbar gray matter 24h after SCI. This cell infiltration occurred when the blood-spinal cord barrier was intact, suggesting active recruitment across the endothelium. Myeloid cells persisted as ramified macrophages at 7days post injury in parallel with increased inhibitory GAD67 labeling. Importantly, macrophage infiltration required MMP-9. PMID:27191729

  20. Nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization: pharmacological analyses with candidate smoking cessation aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, Wouter; Kloeze, Margreet; McCreary, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    There are a number of approved therapeutics for the management of alcohol dependence, which might also convey the potential as smoking cessation aids. The present study investigated the effect of a few of these therapeutics and potential candidates (non-peptide vasopressin V1b antagonists) on the expression of nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats. The following compounds were included in this evaluation: rimonabant, bupropion, topiramate, acamprosate, naltrexone, mecamylamine, nelivaptan (SSR-149415, V1b antagonist) and two novel V1b antagonists. Following the development of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and a withdrawal period, the expression of sensitization was assessed in the presence of one of the examined agents given 30 minutes prior to the nicotine challenge injection. Acamprosate, naltrexone, rimonabant, mecamylamine, nelivaptan and V1b antagonist 'compound 2' significantly antagonized the expression of nicotine-induced sensitization. Whereas topiramate showed a trend for effects, the V1b antagonist 'compound 1' did not show any significant effects. Bupropion failed to block sensitization but increased activity alone and was therefore tested in development and cross-sensitization studies. Taken together, these findings provide pre-clinical evidence that these molecules attenuated the expression of nicotine-induced sensitization and should be further investigated as putative treatments for nicotine addiction. Moreover, V1b antagonists should be further investigated as a potential novel smoking cessation aid. PMID:25307867

  1. Corticospinal Reorganization after Locomotor Training in a Person with Motor Incomplete Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Hajela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent plasticity as a result of reorganization of neural circuits is a fundamental characteristic of the central nervous system that occurs simultaneously in multiple sites. In this study, we established the effects of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the primary motor cortex region on the tibialis anterior (TA long-latency flexion reflex. Neurophysiological tests were conducted before and after robotic gait training in one person with a motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI while at rest and during robotic-assisted stepping. The TA flexion reflex was evoked following nonnociceptive sural nerve stimulation and was conditioned by TMS at 0.9 TA motor evoked potential resting threshold at conditioning-test intervals that ranged from 70 to 130 ms. Subthreshold TMS induced a significant facilitation on the TA flexion reflex before training, which was reversed to depression after training with the subject seated at rest. During stepping, corticospinal facilitation of the flexion reflex at early and midstance phases before training was replaced with depression at early and midswing followed by facilitation at late swing after training. These results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence that locomotor training reorganizes the cortical control of spinal interneuronal circuits that generate patterned motor activity, modifying spinal reflex function, in the chronic lesioned human spinal cord.

  2. Locomotor pattern fails to predict foramen magnum angle in rodents, strepsirrhine primates, and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Aidan A; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Foramen magnum position has traditionally been used as an indicator of bipedality because it has been thought to favor a more "balanced" skull position. Here, we analyzed foramen magnum angle (FMA) in relation to locomotion in three mammalian orders that include bipedal or orthograde species in addition to quadrupedal or pronograde species. In marsupials and strepsirrhine primates, we found that there is no relationship between locomotor pattern and FMA. In rodents, we found that there is a significant difference in FMA between bipedal and quadrupedal rodents. However, when these species are analyzed in the context of enlarged auditory bullae, this relationship is no longer significant. Additionally, we find a significant relationship between relative brain size and FMA in strepsirrhine primates. Taken together, these data indicate that several developmental modules of the cranium influence FMA, but that locomotion does not. We caution that basicranial evolution is a complex phenomenon that must be explored in the context of each taxon's unique evolutionary and developmental history. PMID:27178457

  3. [Physiologic parameters and locomotor activity in Fleckvieh and Schwarzbund cattle during an alpine summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K; Pirchner, F; Graf, F

    1995-01-01

    The investigation on an alpine pasture was performed on 15 heifers of the breeds Fleckvieh and Friesians from different farms. Some physiological parameters and locomotor activities in dependence of breed, farm of origin and weather conditions were studied. Animals of one farm were pastured in spring, the animals of the other farm were brought directly from the barn to the mountain area. Physiological parameters were influenced by farm, but not by breed. The activities of GOT and CK increased in unprepared heifers only (due to the release from skeletal muscles) as did levels of free fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate obviously due to adaptation-difficulties linked with energy-deficiency. Pre-pastured animals showed higher blood-urea concentrations, due to their ability to locate always fresh grass with high protein content. The breed influence on the daily number of steps and on the distance covered was statistically not significant. Animals already pastured in spring showed more movement than unprepared ones. Among weather conditions thunderstorm showed a striking increase in activity which resulted from the search for shelter. On rainy days without wind the animals showed least movement. Cloudy, dry weather as well as sunshine was associated with average activity. These reactions to meteorological conditions were manifested more clearly in prepared heifers. The other animals obviously had to learn first how to minimize untoward effects by suitable behaviour. PMID:7779069

  4. A novel lenticular arena to quantify locomotor competence in walking fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Mekdara, Nalong; Goto, Joy June; Choudhury, Songita; Jerry Mekdara, Prasong; Yingst, Nicholas; Cao, Yu; Berg, Otto; Katharina Müller, Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become an important invertebrate model organism in biological and medical research, for mutational and genetic analysis, and in toxicological screening. Many screening assays have been developed that assess the flies' mortality, reproduction, development, morphology, or behavioral competence. In this study, we describe a new assay for locomotor competence. It comprises a circular walking arena with a lenticular floor and a flat cover (the slope of the floor increases gradually from the center to the edge of the arena) plus automated fly tracking and statistical analysis. This simple modification of a flat arena presents a graduated physical challenge, with which we can assess fine gradations of motor ability, since a fly's time average radial distance from the arena center is a direct indicator of its climbing ability. The time averaged distribution of flies as a function of slope, activity levels, and walking speed, yields a fine grained picture of locomotory ability and motivation levels. We demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this assay (compared with a conventional tap-down test) by observing flies treated with a neurotoxin (BMAA) that acts as a glutamate agonist. The assay proves well suited to detect dose effects and progression effects with higher statistical power than the traditional tap-down, but it has a higher detection limit, making it less sensitive to treatment effects. PMID:22605539

  5. Night locomotor activity and quality of sleep in quetiapine-treated patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todder, Doron; Caliskan, Serdal; Baune, Bernhard T

    2006-12-01

    This research assesses the development of the night-activity rhythm and quality of sleep during course of treatment among patients with unipolar or bipolar depression and receiving antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Twenty-seven patients with major depressive episode were included into a 4-week follow-up study and compared with 27 healthy controls. Motor activity was continuously measured with an electronic wrist device (actigraphy), sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and patients were clinically assessed with the Hamilton depression score. All patients received a standard antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Whereas we found a rapid and maintaining improvement of subjective sleep parameters during the 4-week study, we observed a rapid improvement of some objective sleep parameters (actigraph) within the first week, but no further significant change of objective sleep parameters during the rest of the study. Another main finding of this study is that changes of subjectively and objectively assessed sleep parameters do not necessarily reflect clinical improvement of depression during the same timeline. Despite partial clinical remission, objective sleep parameters still showed significantly different patterns compared with controls. This study is the first to examine the effect of quetiapine on locomotor activity alongside with sleep in depression. As the studied patients with depression showed improvement in subjective and objective sleep parameters, quetiapine may be a promising drug for patients with depression and insomnia. Further studies need to investigate in detail the timeline of clinical remission and alterations of objective and subjective sleep parameters. PMID:17110822

  6. Evaluation of the objective Posturo-Locomotor-Manual (PLM method in patients with Parkinsonian syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa eZackrisson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective methods for quantifying patients' movement capacity would be valuable for evaluating progression and interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. The Posturo-Locomotor-Manual (PLM test is a standardized automated movement test developed for the evaluation of hypokinetic symptoms of Parkinsonism. We tested the hypotheses that the PLM movement time correlates with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating scale motor section (UPDRS III and that the components of the PLM test correlate to constructed corresponding domains of UPDRS III. The coherence between the results of the two assessment methods after a test dose of levodopa (L-DOPA was also evaluated. Motor function was assessed off medication and after administration of 200 mg L-DOPA in 73 patients with Parkinsonism (47 Parkinson’s disease (PD, 17 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and 9 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP using the PLM method and UPDRS III in parallel. We found a fair correlation between the two assessment tools in PD patients but not in the MSA or PSP patients. In the full dataset a fair to good correlation was seen between UPDRS III and PLM movement time. At group level, the PLM L-DOPA test differentiated between PD, MSA and PSP and the UPDRS III L-DOPA test differentiated PD from MSA/PSP. Measurements from the rater independent PLM method showed fair correlations with scorings from the UPDRS III and on group level the PLM method could differentiate between different forms of Parkinsonism in moderate to advanced stages.

  7. Locomotor behavior in mice following exposure to fission-neutron irradiation and trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locomotor activity, body weights, and food and water consumption were monitored in female mice for 35 d following a sublethal wound (W), burn (B), exposure to 3 Gray fission neutron radiation (R), or combination of these injuries: radiation-wound (RW) and radiation-burn (RB). Activity in groups W and RW was depressed immediately after injury, with recovery to control levels after 5 and 14 d, respectively. Mice that received radiation alone showed a biphasic response with decrements in activity on days 0-4 and 9-11. Groups B and RB exhibited depressed activity levels that differed significantly from control levels until day 17. Food intake was reduced for about 6 d in groups R, W, RW, and RB. Body weights decreased for 4 d in groups R, W, RW, and RB, but returned to control levels by the end of the experiment. Animals in group B did not show significant reduction in food intake or body weight. Water consumption was reduced for 5-6 d in groups R and RB and was increased in groups W, RW, and B. The data suggest that behavioral responses to fission-neutron radiation are exacerbated by tissue trauma

  8. Probing diversity within subpopulations of locomotor-related V0 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griener, Anna; Zhang, Wei; Kao, Henry; Wagner, Christine; Gosgnach, Simon

    2015-11-01

    The V0 interneuronal population is derived from Dbx1 expressing progenitors. Initial studies on these interneurons in the mouse spinal cord demonstrated that they project commissural axons and are involved in coordinating left-right alternation during locomotion. Subsequent work has indicated that the V0 population can be divided into genetically distinct ventral (V0V) and dorsal (V0D) subpopulations, and experimental evidence suggests that each is responsible for left-right alternation at different locomotor speeds. In this study, we perform a series of experiments to probe the location and connectivity of these subpopulations in neonatal mice and demonstrate that they are more diverse than previously predicted. While the distribution of either subpopulation remains consistent along the extent of the lumbar spinal cord, a cluster of V0D cells lateral to the central canal receive substantial input from primary afferents. Retrograde tracing and activity dependent labeling experiments demonstrate that a group of V0 interneurons located in this same region preferentially project axons towards contralateral motoneurons via an oligosynaptic pathway, and are active during fictive locomotion. Our results suggest that this subset of V0 interneurons may be primarily responsible for coordination of left-right alternation during locomotion. Furthermore these experiments indicate that while genetic identity is one determinant of the function of a neuron during locomotion, the specific position in which the cell is located may also play a key role. PMID:25649879

  9. A locomotor innovation enables water-land transition in a marine fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Tong Tonia Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions.

  10. Effects of short-term isolation on the locomotor activity of the angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, L M; Morgan, E

    1991-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) some implications of Gallup and Suarez's (1980) ethological model of open-field behavior and to differentiate between the initial locomotor effects of a novel environment and those of isolation per se. Juveniles placed alone in a novel environment initially showed increased locomotion compared with their previous level when kept as a group and with that of fish placed in the novel environment in groups of three and five. When placed alone in a novel tank, individuals that had already been isolated for 10 days moved about less than those that had been isolated for 4 days. During isolation, angelfish significantly reduced activity to a minimum after 3 to 4 days, and after 10 days the level was still lower than in the group situation. The results suggest that, in addition to birds and rodents, Gallup and Suarez's model is applicable to fish and may account for the effects of longer exposure to a novel environment. PMID:1778069

  11. Spreadsheet software to assess locomotor disability to quantify permanent physical impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderraj Ellur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Assessment of physical disability is an important duty of a plastic surgeon especially for those of us who are in an institutional practice. Aim: The Gazette of India notification gives a guideline regarding the assessment of the disability. However, the calculations as per the guidelines are time consuming. In this article, a spreadsheet program which is based on the notification is presented. The aim of this article is to design a spreadsheet program which is simple, reproducible, user friendly, less time consuming and accurate. Materials and Methods: This spreadsheet program was designed using the Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet program was designed on the basis of the guidelines in the Gazette of India Notification regarding the assessment of Locomotor Disability to Quantify Permanent Physical Impairment. Two representative examples are presented to help understand the application of this program. Results: Two spreadsheet programs, one for upper limb and another for the lower limb are presented. The representative examples show the accuracy of the program to match the results of the traditional method of calculation. Conclusion: A simple spreadsheet program can be designed to assess disability as per the Gazette of India Notification. This program is easy to use and is accurate.

  12. Measuring human locomotor control using EMG and EEG: Current knowledge, limitations and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Hendrik; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical signals encoding different forms of information can be observed at multiple levels of the human nervous system. Typically, these signals have been recorded in a rather isolated fashion with little overlap between the static recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) commonly used in neuroscience and the typical surface electromyography (EMG) recordings used in biomechanics. However, within the last decade, there has been an emerging need to link the electrical activation patterns of brain areas during movement to the behavior of the musculoskeletal system. This review discusses some of the most recent studies using the EEG and/or EMG to study the neural control of movement and human locomotion as well as studies quantifying the connectivity between brain and muscles. The focus is on rhythmic locomotor-type activities; however, results are discussed within the framework of initial work that has been done in upper and lower limbs during static and dynamic contractions. Limitations and current challenges as well as the possibility and functional interpretation of studying the connectivity between the cortex and skeletal muscles using a measure of coherence are discussed. The manuscript is geared toward scientists interested in the application of EEG in the field of locomotion, sports and exercise. PMID:26238032

  13. [Age-related dynamics of the maximum oxygen consumption associated with different regimens of locomotor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V V; Khodasevich, L S; Ermakov, B A

    2011-01-01

    This study included a total of 234 practically healthy men at the age from 40 to 69 years differing in the regimen of daily locomotor activity. They were divided into 4 groups, each comprised of subjects ranged by age with a ten-year interval. Group 1 included former high-level athletes continuing active physical training, group 2 was comprised of former high-level athletes living a sedentary life style, group 3 consisted of subjects regularly engaged in health-giving physical exercises, and group 4 included subjects who were never engaged in physical exercises. The energy consumption by the members of all four groups was estimated when they were undergoing a stepwise increasing workload on the veloergometer measured with the help of a computerized diagnostic system. The results of the study indicate that the high oxygen consumption at a limiting load in the former high-level athletes is associated with the significant economization of basal metabolism and the reduction of oxygen consumption at rest. This mechanism accounts for the possibility to retain adequate physical activity of the organism up to the age of 70 years. PMID:21465775

  14. The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer exerts tonic inhibitory effect on the expression of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Maurice Y.F.; Perreault, Melissa L.; Fan, Theresa; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    A role for the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer in the regulation of reward and addiction-related processes has been previously implicated. In the present study, we examined the effects of D1-D2 heteromer stimulation by the agonist SKF 83959 and its disruption by a selective TAT-D1 peptide on amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, a behavioural model widely used to study the neuroadaptations associated with psychostimulant addiction. D1-D2 heteromer activation by SKF 83959 did not alter the acute locomotor effects of amphetamine but significantly inhibited amphetamine-induced locomotor responding across the 5 day treatment regimen. In addition, a single injection of SKF 83959 was sufficient to abolish the expression of locomotor sensitization induced by a priming injection of amphetamine after a 72-hour withdrawal. Conversely, inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer activity by the TAT-D1 peptide enhanced subchronic amphetamine-induced locomotion and the expression of amphetamine locomotor sensitization. Treatment solely with the TAT-D1 disrupting peptide during the initial 5 day treatment phase was sufficient to induce a sensitized locomotor phenotype in response to the priming injection of amphetamine. Together these findings demonstrate that the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer exerts tonic inhibitory control on neurobiological processes involved in sensitization to amphetamine, indicating that the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer may be a novel molecular substrate in addiction processes involving psychostimulants. PMID:25444866

  15. Locomotor activity of Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae on Chilean sandy beaches Actividad locomotora de Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, enebrionidae en playas arenosas chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JARAMILLO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The locomotor activity of the beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae was studied on the surface of the substrate in two sandy beaches of the Chilean coast: one in north central (ca. 29ºS and the other in south central Chile (ca.39ºS. During the summer period of 1991 the circadian locomotor activity was studied in the southern beach, while during that of 1997 in both beaches. To analyze the activity, pitfall traps were used which were ordered along two transects extended between the upper beach and the resurgence zone. The traps were checked (i.e. collection of captured insects every two hours for a total period of 26 hours. The results showed that the adults of P. maculata were mostly active during the night hours, whereas the larvae were active during both, the day and night. Studies carried out in the beach located in south central Chile show that differences in the tidal range (neap vs. spring tides do not affect the activity patterns. During the locomotor activity, adult and larvae move to lower intertidal levels than those usually occupied while buried. Results of laboratory experiments using actographs under conditions of darkness and constant temperature, suggest that adults and larvae of P. maculata presented a circadian rhythm similar to that observed in the field experiments. It is concluded that P. maculata presents a behaviour that appear to be under control of an endogenous rhythm, without showing differences in the circadian rhythm of activity when beaches located at different latitudes are comparedSe estudió la actividad locomotriz del escarabajo Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae sobre la superficie del sustrato de dos playas arenosas de la costa de Chile: una en el centro norte (ca. 29ºS y otra en el centro sur (ca. 39ºS. Durante el período estival de 1991 se estudió la actividad locomotriz circadiana en la playa del centro sur y durante el de 1997 en ambas playas. Para analizar

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of primary spontaneous pneumothorax . One theory is that the altered folliculin protein may trigger ... be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of ...

  17. Spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Lambe, Gerald Francis; MacKinnon, Craig; Agir, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of a spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof blow-in fracture with resolution of associated diplopia and blepharoptosis highlighting the need for a low threshold for reimaging this cohort of facial fracture patients. PMID:22801127

  18. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, J S

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. For...

  19. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  20. SPONTANEOUS ESOPHAGEAL PERFORATION: WHEN NOT TO OPERATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenthil Prabhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous Oesophageal perforation is lethal unless managed appropriately. Oesophageal perforation can be spontaneous (Boerhaeve, post traumatic, malignant or foreign body induced. Appropriate treatment depends on the size of perforation, time of presentation between rupture and diagnosis and general condition of the patient. Not all patients need surgical management and when carefully selected there are subset of patients who can be managed medically. CASE REPORT: A case of spontaneous oesophageal perforation due to intense retching following alcohol intake in a 35year old male is described here with a review of pertinent literature. The patient had presented with intense retching followed by vomiting which contained undigested food particles initially only to be followed by hematemesis, chest pain, fever with left sided pleural effusion. Computed tomographic scan demonstrated a pneumomediastinum, and left sided pleural effusion. The patient was managed successfully by conservative treatment. CONCLUSION:Spontaneous oesophageal perforation can be managed conservatively in a selected set of patients .

  1. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a complication of anorexia nervosa?

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson, R J; Shaw, T R; Turnbull, C M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a patient with anorexia nervosa who developed a spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Five other patients have been reported with this association, suggesting that tissue changes in anorexia nervosa may predispose to this condition.

  2. Spontaneous lung herniation after a single cough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herniation of the lung is commonly caused by congenital rib abnormalities, blunt trauma, or thoracic surgery. Spontaneous hernias are rarely described in the literature. We report a case of a spontaneous intercostal pulmonary hernia following a single cough. In addition, a review of the literature is presented which outlines the classification, causes, and incidence of lung hernias. Some reference is made to possible methods of treatment. (orig.)

  3. Filum ependymoma mimicking spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievink, Wouter I; Akopov, Sergey E

    2005-05-01

    A 34-year-old man with a 2-week history of orthostatic headaches and a "dry tap" at lumbar puncture was found to have a lumbar intradural mass on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. A myxopapillary ependymoma was resected and the patient's headache completely resolved. The combination of spontaneous orthostatic headaches and a "dry tap" at the time of lumbar puncture does not always indicate the presence of a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension. PMID:15953283

  4. Role of Development of Spontaneity in Teambuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii TROFIMOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation lightens the results of testing a forming program of development of spontaneity as a mean of building a team. It was found that spontaneity and creativity are important components of interaction between team members. The study showed that spontaneity is needed in order to cope with unexpected situations and difficulties which would inevitably arise even in the most predictable situation among the well-coordinated team. Previous studies have indicated that members of the creative team interact freely with each other, inspire each other and work together purposefully. The program of development of spontaneity was developed and approved. Elements of Playback Theatre were used as the main component of spontaneity. Playback Theatre is a theater of improvisation and spontaneity, where viewers tell their stories, and the actors play them immediately on the scene. Directions of training actors of Playback Theatre include: the development of self-reflection, emotional sensitivity, interaction skills, creativity imagination and the ability to feel and hold one selves body and voice. The forming program consists of 6 blocks and is designed for 10 sessions. Based on the findings developed forming program of the development personality’s spontaneity can be considered as an effective means of building a team. During the program there was a process of personal development, together with the obvious process of teambuilding. This program can be useful and used for a wide range of applications in different contexts, which is reflected in the recommendations on the use of forming program of development of spontaneity.

  5. Spontaneous corynebacterium spondylodiskitis in an immunocompetent patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Guive; Hosseinzadeh Bakhtevari, Mehrdad; Nabizadeh, Naveed; Jabbari, Reza; Samadian, Mohammad; Rezaei, Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous Corynebacterium spondylodiskitis is an unusual diagnosis of spondylodiskitis, especially in healthy patients without any significant past medical history. Materials and methods We describe the case of a 78-year-old man with progressive low back pain for 3 months, irradiating...... Corynebacterium infection. Results One month after surgery, the pain diminished dramatically and the CRP titer diminished significantly. Conclusion Although cases are very rare, spontaneous Corynebacterium spondylodiskitis, with substantial invasion of the spine, may develop in patients lacking any history of...

  6. Spontaneous Bile Duct Rupture in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Greg Van Stiegmann; R. Dale Liechty

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous bile duct rupture occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, comm...

  7. Spontaneous fission of 256Rf, new data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Popov, Yu. A.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Andel, B.; Asfari, M. Z.; Gall, B.; Yoshihiro, N.; Kalaninova, Z.; Mullins, S.; Piot, J.; Stefanova, E.; Tonev, D.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of the short-lived neutron-deficient 256Rf nucleus produced in the complete fusion reaction with a beam of multiply charged heavy 50Ti ions from the U-400 cyclotron (FLNR, JINR) are experimentally investigated. Its half-life and decay branching ratio are measured. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 256Rf (bar v = 4.47 ± 0.09) is determined for the first time.

  8. Assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of compounds by measuring locomotor activity in zebrafish embryos and larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Selderslaghs, Ingrid W. T.; Hooyberghs, Jef; Blust, Ronny; Witters, Hilda E.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental neurotoxic potential of the majority of environmental chemicals and drugs is currently undetermined. Specific in vivo studies provide useful data for hazard assessment but are not amenable to screen thousands of untested compounds. In this study, methods which use zebrafish embryos, eleutheroembryos and larvae as model organisms, were proposed as alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. The evaluation of spontaneous tail coilings in zebrafish embryos aged ...

  9. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  10. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreton, Mercédès; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël; Rodet, Guy; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Charnet, Pierre; Collet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee's locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…), before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence) since (i) few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii) in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48 h), three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee), tetramethrin (70 ng/bee), tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee) and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee) caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee) had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field, the case of

  11. Frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche in Turner syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Kohno, Hitoshi; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujita, Keinosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The Growject® database on human GH treatment in Turner syndrome was analyzed in the Turner Syndrome Research Collaboration, and the relationships of the frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche with karyotype and GH treatment were investigated. One hundred and three cases started GH treatment with 0.5 IU/kg/ week (0.5 IU group), and their dose was increased to 0.35 mg/kg/wk midway through the treatment course. Another 109 cases started GH at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg/wk (0.35 mg group). Spontaneous breast development was observed in 77 (36.3%) of the 212 patients, and spontaneous menarche occurred in 31 patients (14.6%). The frequency of spontaneous breast development was significantly lower in patients with the 45,X karyotype and significantly higher in patients with a structural abnormality of the second X chromosome. The frequency of spontaneous menarche was significantly higher in patients with mosaicism characterized by X monosomy and a cellular line with no structural abnormality of the X chromosome. No significant differences in frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche were observed between the two dose groups, indicating that GH treatment does not increase the frequency of spontaneous puberty. PMID:26568657

  12. Frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche in Turner syndrome in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Kohno, Hitoshi; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujita, Keinosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The Growject® database on human GH treatment in Turner syndrome was analyzed in the Turner Syndrome Research Collaboration, and the relationships of the frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche with karyotype and GH treatment were investigated. One hundred and three cases started GH treatment with 0.5 IU/kg/ week (0.5 IU group), and their dose was increased to 0.35 mg/kg/wk midway through the treatment course. Another 109 cases started GH at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg/wk (0.35 mg group). Spontaneous breast development was observed in 77 (36.3%) of the 212 patients, and spontaneous menarche occurred in 31 patients (14.6%). The frequency of spontaneous breast development was significantly lower in patients with the 45,X karyotype and significantly higher in patients with a structural abnormality of the second X chromosome. The frequency of spontaneous menarche was significantly higher in patients with mosaicism characterized by X monosomy and a cellular line with no structural abnormality of the X chromosome. No significant differences in frequencies of spontaneous breast development and spontaneous menarche were observed between the two dose groups, indicating that GH treatment does not increase the frequency of spontaneous puberty. PMID:26568657

  13. Dynamics of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Salerno, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) have become a hallmark feature in modern theories of an `active' inner ear, given their numerous correlations to auditory function (e.g., threshold microstructure, neurophysiological tuning curves), near universality across tetrapod classes, and physiological correlates at the single hair cell level. However, while several different classes of nonlinear models exist that describe the mechanisms underlying SOAE generation (e.g., coupled limit-cycle oscillators, global standing waves), there is still disagreement as to precisely which biophysical concepts are at work. Such is further compounded by the idiosyncratic nature of SOAEs: Not all ears emit, and when present, SOAE activity can occur at seemingly arbitrary frequencies (though always within the most sensitive range of the audiogram) and in several forms (e.g., peaks, broad `baseline' plateaus). The goal of the present study was to develop new signal processing and stimulation techniques that would allow for novel features of SOAE activity to be revealed. To this end, we analyzed data from a variety of different species: human, lizard, and owl. First, we explored several strategies for examining SOAE waveforms in the absence of external stimuli to further ascertain what constitutes `self-sustained sinusoids' versus `filtered noise'. We found that seemingly similar peaks in the spectral domain could exhibit key differences in the time domain, which we interpret as providing critical information about the underlying oscillators and their coupling. Second, we introduced dynamic stimuli (swept-tones, tone bursts) at a range of levels, whose interaction with SOAEs could be visualized in the time-frequency domain. Aside from offering a readily accessible way to visualize many previously reported effects (e.g., entrainment, facilitation), we observed several new features such as subharmonic distortion generation and competing pulling/pushing effects when multiple tones were

  14. Sobre o Hábito Locomotor de Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 (Mammalia: Xenungulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S. Avilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 é a espécie melhor conhecida da ordem Xenungulata, um grupo bastante peculiar de ungulados do Cenozóico sul-americano. Esse grupo foi proposto com base em um esqueleto quase completo descoberto na Bacia de São José de Itaboraí (Iataboraiense, Paleoceno Superior, Rio de Janeiro. Os xenungulados compreendem dois gêneros, Carodnia e Etayoa, ambos registrados apenas em sedimentos paleocênicos. Em aspectos gerais, C. vieirai caracteriza-se por seu grande tamanho (em relação aos outros ungulados registrados para a Bacia de Itaboraí, por apresentar os membros anteriores mais longos que os posteriores e apoio digitígrado. Pretende-se aqui caracterizar o hábito locomotor do táxon em questão, com base em índices ecomorfológicos (usuais em estudos dessa natureza dos segmentos proximais (úmero e fêmur e médios (ulna e tíbia do esqueleto apendicular. Esses índices independem da massa corpórea. Os índices são: "Sholder moment" (ISM, indica a vantagem mecânica do músculo deltóide posterior em relação à articulação do ombro; Braquial (IBr, representa a adaptação do membro anterior a movimentos rápidos; e Habilidade fossorial (IFA, representa a capacidade fossorial do animal; e nos membros posteriores -Crural (IC, que sugere a capacidade de cursorialidade. Os membros anteriores de C. vieirai apresentam valores de ISM e IFA relativamente baixos (57.83 e 37.81, respectivamente, indicando um investimento menor em força no membro em questão, com valor de IBr relativamente alto (71.86 que também corrobora esse padrão, sugerindo um investimento em rapidez no movimento do membro anterior. Já, o IC do membro posterior sugere uma menor cursorialidade (50.11. Comparando esses resultados com índices registrados para diversos mamíferos de grande porte (massa: 80kg , o único a possuir valores similares seria o elefante africano Loxodonta africana (IBr=70.93; IFA=31.14; e IC=55.14. Apesar do

  15. Functional Locomotor Consequences of Uneven Forefeet for Trot Symmetry in Individual Riding Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, Nathan; Nauwelaerts, Sandra L. P.; Hobbs, Sarah Jane; Bool, Sophie; Wolschrijn, Claudia F.; Back, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Left-right symmetrical distal limb conformation can be an important prerequisite for a successful performance, and it is often hypothesized that asymmetric or uneven feet are important enhancing factors for the development of lameness. On a population level, it has been demonstrated that uneven footed horses are retiring earlier from elite level competition, but the biomechanical consequences are not yet known. The objectives of this study were to compare the functional locomotor asymmetries of horses with uneven to those with even feet. Hoof kinetics and distal limb kinematics were collected from horses (n = 34) at trot. Dorsal hoof wall angle was used to classify horses as even or uneven (1.5° difference between forefeet respectively) and individual feet as flat (55°). Functional kinetic parameters were compared between even and uneven forefeet using MANOVA followed by ANOVA. The relative influences of differences in hoof angle between the forefeet and of absolute hoof angle on functional parameters were analysed using multiple regression analysis (P<0.05). In horses with uneven feet, the side with the flatter foot showed a significantly larger maximal horizontal braking and vertical ground reaction force, a larger vertical fetlock displacement and a suppler fetlock spring. The foot with a steeper hoof angle was linearly correlated with an earlier braking-propulsion transition. The conformational differences between both forefeet were more important for loading characteristics than the individual foot conformation of each individual horse. The differences in vertical force and braking force between uneven forefeet could imply either an asymmetrical loading pattern without a pathological component or a subclinical lameness as a result of a pathological development in the steeper foot. PMID:25646752

  16. Attenuated food anticipatory activity and abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms in Rgs16 knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Hayasaka

    Full Text Available Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS are a multi-functional protein family, which functions in part as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs of G protein α-subunits to terminate G protein signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Rgs16 transcripts exhibit robust circadian rhythms both in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian light-entrainable oscillator (LEO of the hypothalamus, and in the liver. To investigate the role of RGS16 in the circadian clock in vivo, we generated two independent transgenic mouse lines using lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA targeting the Rgs16 mRNA. The knockdown mice demonstrated significantly shorter free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and reduced total activity as compared to the wild-type siblings. In addition, when feeding was restricted during the daytime, food-entrainable oscillator (FEO-driven elevated food-anticipatory activity (FAA observed prior to the scheduled feeding time was significantly attenuated in the knockdown mice. Whereas the restricted feeding phase-advanced the rhythmic expression of the Per2 clock gene in liver and thalamus in the wild-type animals, the above phase shift was not observed in the knockdown mice. This is the first in vivo demonstration that a common regulator of G protein signaling is involved in the two separate, but interactive circadian timing systems, LEO and FEO. The present study also suggests that liver and/or thalamus regulate the food-entrained circadian behavior through G protein-mediated signal transduction pathway(s.

  17. Contribution of the Mitochondria to Locomotor Muscle Dysfunction in Patients With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivassalo, Tanja; Hussain, Sabah N A

    2016-05-01

    COPD is a significant public health challenge, notably set to become the third leading cause of death and fifth leading cause of chronic disability worldwide by the next decade. Skeletal muscle impairment is now recognized as a disabling, extrapulmonary consequence of COPD that is associated with reduced quality of life and premature mortality. Because COPD typically manifests in older individuals, these clinical features may overlie normal age-associated declines in muscle function and performance. Although physical inactivity, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia, malnutrition, and medications all likely contribute to this comorbidity, a better understanding of the underlying mechanism is needed to develop effective therapies. Mitochondrial alterations have been described; these alterations include reductions in density and oxidative enzyme activity, increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and induction of muscle proteolysis including autophagy. This review focuses on the perspective that mitochondrial alterations contribute to impaired locomotor muscle performance in patients with COPD by reducing oxidative capacity and thus endurance, as well as by triggering proteolysis and thus contributing to atrophy and weakness. We discuss how the potential underlying mechanisms converge on mitochondria by targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator-1α signaling pathway (thereby reducing mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity and potentially increasing fiber atrophy) and how taking advantage of normal muscle plasticity and mitochondrial biogenesis may reverse this pathophysiology. We propose recent therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator-1α levels, such as endurance training and exercise mimetic drugs, with the strong rationale for increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and function and thus improving the muscle phenotype in COPD. PMID:26836890

  18. Nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Müller, Ralph; Ketcham, Rich A; Colbert, Matthew

    2007-04-01

    Functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. We tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. We used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of Ateles geoffroyi, Symphalangus syndactylus, Alouatta seniculus, Colobus guereza, Macaca fascicularis, and Papio cynocephalus (n = 46). We analyzed a size-scaled superior and inferior volume of interest (VOI) in the femoral neck. The ratio of the superior to inferior VOI bone volume fraction indicated that the distribution of trabecular bone was inferiorly skewed in most (but not all) quadrupeds and evenly distributed the climbing/suspensory species, but interspecific comparisons indicated that all taxa overlapped in these measurements. Degree of anisotropy values were generally higher in the inferior VOI of all species and the results for the two climbing/suspensory taxa, A. geoffroyi (1.71 +/- 0.30) and S. syndactylus (1.55 +/- 0.04), were similar to the results for the quadrupedal anthropoids, C. guereza (male = 1.64 +/- 0.13; female = 1.68 +/- 0.07) and P. cynocephalus (1.47 +/- 0.13). These results suggest strong trabecular architecture similarity across body sizes, anthropoid phylogenetic backgrounds, and locomotor mode. This structural similarity might be explained by greater similarity in anthropoid hip joint loading mechanics than previously considered. It is likely that our current models of anthropoid hip joint mechanics are overly simplistic. PMID:17514766

  19. Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vivian; Bates, Karl T; Li, Zhiheng; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-05-01

    Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria. We use three-dimensional digital reconstruction to estimate body shape from skeletal dimensions for 17 archosaurs along the ancestral bird line, including the exceptionally preserved, feathered taxa Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Pengornis and Yixianornis, which represent key stages in the evolution of the avian body plan. Rather than a discrete transition from more-upright postures in the basal-most birds (Avialae) and their immediate outgroup deinonychosauria, our results support hypotheses of a gradual, stepwise acquisition of more-crouched limb postures across much of theropod evolution, although we find evidence of an accelerated change within the clade Maniraptora (birds and their closest relatives, such as deinonychosaurs). In addition, whereas reduction of the tail is widely accepted to be the primary morphological factor correlated with centre-of-mass position and, hence, evolution of hindlimb posture, we instead find that enlargement of the pectoral limb and several associated trends have a much stronger influence. Intriguingly, our support for the onset of accelerated morpho-functional trends within Maniraptora is closely correlated with the evolution of flight. Because we find that the evolution of enlarged forelimbs is strongly linked, via whole-body centre of mass, to hindlimb function during

  20. Incapacidad laboral por patología del aparato locomotor en la Comunidad Foral de Navarra: Aspectos epidemiológicos Occupational disability due to locomotor pathology in the Foral Community of Navarra: Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sáinz de Murieta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor ocasiona una pérdida de horas de trabajo y unos costes indirectos que están aumentando a un ritmo creciente. Los objetivos de este estudio son estimar los costes en horas de trabajo totales perdidas ocasionadas por la patología del aparato locomotor en 2 áreas sanitarias de Navarra con 441.600 habitantes, obtener estándares de duración e incidencia de bajas y estudiar la relación entre duración media de las bajas y variables como la accesibilidad geográfica a los servicios de rehabilitación, vivir en entorno rural o urbano y entre diferentes áreas sanitarias. Material y métodos. Se han estudiado todos los procesos de incapacidad temporal por patología del aparato locomotor en las Áreas Sanitarias I y III de Navarra en 1997 y 1998, recogiendo diferentes variables. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo de las patologías, contabilizando las jornadas laborales perdidas. Calculamos la incidencia anual de bajas por patologías. Comparamos duración media con otras variables. Resultados. La discapacidad producida por la patología del aparato locomotor supone pérdidas de 221.054 jornadas de trabajo/año. La lumbalgia, el esguince de tobillo son los procesos más frecuentes. Encontramos un aumento en la incidencia de incapacidad temporal por lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia en las zonas básicas rurales de la zona media. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con una pIntroduction. Disability produced by locomotor pahtology causes a loss in working hours and indirect costs that are increasing at a growing rate. The aims of this study are to estimate the costs in total working hours lost caused by this pathology in two health areas of Navarra with 441,600 inhabitants, to obtain standards for the duration and incidence of sick leave and to study the relation between the average duration of sick leave and variables such as the geographical

  1. Smart and easy: Co-occurring activation of spontaneous trait inferences and spontaneous situational inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.R.C.; Vonk, R.

    2003-01-01

    Social perceivers have been shown to draw spontaneous trait inferences (STI's) about the behavior of an actor as well as spontaneous situational inferences (SSI's) about the situation the actor is in. In two studies, we examined inferences about behaviors that allow for both an STI and an SSI. In Ex

  2. Spontaneously Passivating Amorphous Fe-Cr-Mo-Metalloid Alloys in 6 N HCl at Room Temperature and 80℃

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichi; Hashimoto, Koji; MASUMOTO, Tsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous iron-base alloys capable of passivating spontaneously in 6 N HCl at 80℃ were prepared by rapid quenching of molten alloys. The corrosion resistance and passivating ability of the alloys increased with increasing chromium and molybdenum contents. The critical concentrations of chromium and molybdenum in the alloys necessary for spontaneous passivation in 6 N HCl at room temperature and 80℃ were established. These concentrations were greatly affected by coexisting metalloids. The pass...

  3. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  4. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: diagnosis to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Kaustubh; Samant, Rohan; Lee, Ricky W

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension typically occurs from spontaneous CSF leak. CSF volume depletion rather than decrease in CSF pressure is thought to be the main causative feature for intracranial hypotension. More and more cases of intracranial hypotension are getting diagnosed with the advances in the imaging. The advances in the imaging have also led to the better understanding of the dynamic changes that occur with intracranial hypotension. The old theories of CSF overproduction or CSF underproduction have not been substantially associated with intracranial hypotension. It has also led to the fore different atypical clinical features and presentations. Although, it has been known for a long time, the diagnosis is still challenging and dilemma persists over one diagnostic modality over other and the subsequent management. Spontaneous CSF leaks occur at the spinal level and the skull base and other locations are rare. The anatomy of spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a very complex process with significant overlap in connective tissue disorders, previous dural weakness or meningeal diverticula. To localize the location of the CSF leak-CT myelography is the modality of choice. CSF cysternography may provide additional confirmation in uncertain cases and also MRI spine imaging may be of significant help in some cases. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension continues to be a diagnostic dilemma and our effort was to consolidate available information on the clinical features, diagnostics, and management for a practicing neurologist for a "15-20 min quick update of the topic". PMID:26661291

  5. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  6. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  7. Arousal and valence prediction in spontaneous emotional speech: felt versus perceived emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, K. P.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; de Jong, F.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe emotion recognition experiments car- ried out for spontaneous affective speech with the aim to com- pare the added value of annotation of felt emotion versus an- notation of perceived emotion. Using speech material avail- able in the TNO-GAMING corpus (a corpus containing audio- visual recordings of people playing videogames), speech-based affect recognizers were developed that can predict Arousal and Valence scalar values. Two types of recognizers were devel- oped ...

  8. Spontaneous perception of numerosity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchini, Guido Marco; Anobile, Giovanni; Burr, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans, including infants, and many other species have a capacity for rapid, nonverbal estimation of numerosity. However, the mechanisms for number perception are still not clear; some maintain that the system calculates numerosity via density estimates—similar to those involved in texture—while others maintain that more direct, dedicated mechanisms are involved. Here we show that provided that items are not packed too densely, human subjects are far more sensitive to numerosity than to either density or area. In a two-dimensional space spanning density, area and numerosity, subjects spontaneously react with far greater sensitivity to changes in numerosity, than either area or density. Even in tasks where they were explicitly instructed to make density or area judgments, they responded spontaneously to number. We conclude, that humans extract number information, directly and spontaneously, via dedicated mechanisms. PMID:27555562

  9. Spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M; Mansfield, K G

    1999-06-01

    Spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates are of great importance. A spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma was observed in an 18-year-old female rhesus monkey. Grossly, the visceral pericardium was multifocally irregular and thickened with tan discoloration and was soft in consistency. Histologically, the pericardium contained highly in-folded branching fronds lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells. Tumor invaded into approximately half of the thickness of the atrial and ventricular muscles. Tumor penetration was not observed into the atrial or ventricular cavity. Within the myocardium, neoplastic cells formed glandular structures which were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells. Neoplastic cells were weakly positive with PAS and strongly positive for colloid iron and alcian blue. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for both vimentin and cytokeratin and negative with CEA and Leu-M1, indicating mesothelial origin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey. PMID:10475114

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings.

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  12. Ultrafast spontaneous emission source using plasmonic nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thang B.; Akselrod, Gleb M.; Argyropoulos, Christos; Huang, Jiani; Smith, David R.; Mikkelsen, Maiken H.

    2015-07-01

    Typical emitters such as molecules, quantum dots and semiconductor quantum wells have slow spontaneous emission with lifetimes of 1-10 ns, creating a mismatch with high-speed nanoscale optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, single-photon sources and lasers. Here we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast (quantum dots. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes coupled to a gold film separated by a thin polymer spacer layer and colloidal core-shell quantum dots, a stable and technologically relevant emitter. We show an increase in the spontaneous emission rate of a factor of 880 and simultaneously a 2,300-fold enhancement in the total fluorescence intensity, which indicates a high radiative quantum efficiency of ~50%. The nanopatch antenna geometry can be tuned from the visible to the near infrared, providing a promising approach for nanophotonics based on ultrafast spontaneous emission.

  13. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  14. Atomic spatial coherence with spontaneous emission in a strong coupling cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhen; Zhou, Xiaoji; Chen, Xuzong

    2010-01-01

    The role of spontaneous emission in the interaction between a two-level atom and a pumped micro-cavity in the strong coupling regime is discussed in this paper. Especially, using a quantum Monte-Carlo simulation, we investigate atomic spatial coherence. It is found that atomic spontaneous emission destroys the coherence between neighboring lattice sites, while the cavity decay does not. Furthermore, our computation of the spatial coherence function shows that the in-site locality is little affected by the cavity decay, but greatly depends on the cavity pump amplitude.

  15. Anatomical and functional evidence for trace amines as unique modulators of locomotor function in the mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Hochman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The trace amines (TAs, tryptamine, tyramine, and β-phenylethylamine, are synthesized from precursor amino acids via aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC. We explored their role in the neuromodulation of neonatal rat spinal cord motor circuits. We first showed that the spinal cord contains the substrates for TA biosynthesis (AADC and for receptor-mediated actions via trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs 1 and 4. We next examined the actions of the TAs on motor activity using the in vitro isolated neonatal rat spinal cord. Tyramine and tryptamine most consistently increased motor activity with prominent direct actions on motoneurons. In the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, all applied TAs supported expression of a locomotor-like activity (LLA that was indistinguishable from that ordinarily observed with serotonin, suggesting that the TAs act on common central pattern generating neurons. The TAs also generated distinctive complex rhythms characterized by episodic bouts of LLA. TA actions on locomotor circuits did not require interaction with descending monoaminergic projections since evoked LLA was maintained following block of all Na+-dependent monoamine transporters or the vesicular monoamine transporter. Instead, TA (tryptamine and tyramine actions depended on intracellular uptake via pentamidine-sensitive Na+-independent membrane transporters. Requirement for intracellular transport is consistent with the TAs having much slower LLA onset than serotonin and for activation of intracellular TAARs. To test for endogenous actions following biosynthesis, we increased intracellular amino acid levels with cycloheximide. LLA emerged and included distinctive TA-like episodic bouts. In summary, we provided anatomical and functional evidence of the TAs as an intrinsic spinal monoaminergic modulatory system capable of promoting recruitment of locomotor circuits independent of the descending monoamines. These actions support their known

  16. The dorsomedial shell of the nucleus accumbens facilitates cocaine-induced locomotor activity during the induction of behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todtenkopf, M S; Carreiras, T; Melloni, R H; Stellar, J R

    2002-04-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system has been intensely studied as the neural circuit mediating the locomotor response to psychostimulants and behavioral sensitization. In particular, the dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens has been implicated as a site responsible for the manifestations of behavioral sensitization. Previous studies have demonstrated an augmented release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens upon a systemic injection of a psychostimulant. In addition, alterations in the dopaminergic innervation patterns in this brain region have been demonstrated in animals that received repeated injections of cocaine. Furthermore, lesions of projection sites that have terminations in the nucleus accumbens have demonstrated alterations in psychostimulant induced locomotion, both acutely, as well as in sensitization paradigms. Since dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is believed to regulate several excitatory amino acid inputs, the present study examined the effects of a localized electrolytic lesion in the dorsomedial shell of the nucleus accumbens in order to better understand the functional role this brain region has in behavioral sensitization. All animals received bi-daily injections of 15 mg/kg i.p. cocaine. Only those demonstrating behavioral sensitization after a subsequent challenge dose were included in the analysis. Following acute exposure to cocaine, lesioned animals did not show any difference in their locomotor response when compared with sham controls. However, after repeated exposure to cocaine, sensitized animals demonstrated a significant attenuation in locomotor behavior when compared with sensitized sham controls. This decrease in horizontal locomotion persisted 2 days into withdrawal, yet dissipated in the sensitized animals that were challenged 2 weeks following their last injection. The data presented here demonstrate that the dorsomedial shell of the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in the initial stages of behavioral

  17. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. PMID:26411897

  18. Melatonin treatment during the incubation of sensitization attenuates methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and MeCP2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2016-02-01

    Behavior sensitization is a long-lasting enhancement of locomotor activity after exposure to psychostimulants. Incubation of sensitization is a phenomenon of remarkable augmentation of locomotor response after withdrawal and reflects certain aspects of compulsive drug craving. However, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain elusive. Here we pay special attention to the incubation of sensitization and suppose that the intervention of this procedure will finally decrease the expression of sensitization. Melatonin is an endogenous hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland. It is effective in treating sleep disorder, which turns out to be one of the major withdrawal symptoms of methamphetamine (MA) addiction. Furthermore, melatonin can also protect neuronal cells against MA-induced neurotoxicity. In the present experiment, we treated mice with low dose (10mg/kg) of melatonin for 14 consecutive days during the incubation of sensitization. We found that melatonin significantly attenuated the expression of sensitization. In contrast, the vehicle treated mice showed prominent enhancement of locomotor activity after incubation. MeCP2 expression was also elevated in the vehicle treated mice and melatonin attenuated its expression. Surprisingly, correlation analysis suggested significant correlation between MeCP2 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and locomotion in both saline control and vehicle treated mice, but not in melatonin treated ones. MA also induced MeCP2 over-expression in PC12 cells. However, melatonin failed to reduce MeCP2 expression in vitro. Our results suggest that melatonin treatment during the incubation of sensitization attenuates MA-induced expression of sensitization and decreases MeCP2 expression in vivo. PMID:26416230

  19. Stereoselective Effects of Abused "Bath Salt" Constituent 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Locomotor Activity, and Thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda M; Williamson, Adrian; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C; Fantegrossi, William E

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit "bath salts" products. MDPV is a chiral molecule, but the contribution of each enantiomer to in vivo effects in mice has not been determined. To address this, mice were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline, and substitutions with racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(-)-MDPV were performed. Other mice were implanted with telemetry probes to monitor core temperature and locomotor responses elicited by racemic MDPV, S(+)-MDPV, and R(-)-MDPV under a warm (28°C) or cool (20°C) ambient temperature. Mice reliably discriminated the cocaine training dose from saline, and each form of MDPV fully substituted for cocaine, although marked potency differences were observed such that S(+)-MDPV was most potent, racemic MDPV was less potent than the S(+) enantiomer, and R(-)-MDPV was least potent. At both ambient temperatures, locomotor stimulant effects were observed after doses of S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV, but R(-)-MDPV did not elicit locomotor stimulant effects at any tested dose. Interestingly, significant increases in maximum core body temperature were only observed after administration of racemic MDPV in the warm ambient environment; neither MDPV enantiomer altered core temperature at any dose tested, at either ambient temperature. These studies suggest that all three forms of MDPV induce biologic effects, but R(-)-MDPV is less potent than S(+)-MDPV and racemic MDPV. Taken together, these data suggest that the S(+)-MDPV enantiomer is likely responsible for the majority of the biologic effects of the racemate and should be targeted in therapeutic efforts against MDPV overdose and abuse. PMID:26769917

  20. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (p<0.0001) increases in both temperature and locomotor activity lasting 60-90min. Cathinone (2mg/kg) increased rearing (p<0.02), and 5mg/kg increased both rearing (p<0.001) and lateral head twitches (p<0.02). Both cathinone doses decreased the time spent at rest (p<0.001). The number of c-fos immunopositive cells were significantly increased in the striatum (p<0.0001) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (p<0.05) following cathinone, indicating increased neuronal activity. There was no effect of cathinone on food intake or body weight. It is concluded that systemic administration of cathinone induces significant behavioral changes and CNS activation in the hamster. PMID:24287379

  1. Locomotor training through a 3D cable-driven robotic system for walking function in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Kim, Janis; Arora, Pooja; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Zhang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor training using treadmill has been shown to elicit significant improvements in locomotor ability for some children with cerebral palsy (CP), the functional gains are relatively small and it requires greater involvement from a physical therapist. Current robotic gait training systems are effective in reducing the strenuous work of a physical therapist during locomotor training, but are less effective in improving locomotor function in some children with CP due to the limitations of the systems. Thus, a 3D cable-driven robotic gait training system was developed and tested in five children with CP through a 6 week of long-term gait training. Results indicated that both overground walking speed and 6 minute walking distance improved after robot assisted treadmill training through the cable-driven robotic system, and partially retained at 8 weeks after the end of training. Results from this pilot study indicated that it seems feasible to conduct locomotor training in children with CP through the 3D cable-driven robotic system. PMID:25570752

  2. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability. PMID:26657171

  3. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    /technical assessments were performed during CSTw for eleven Norwegian high-level women soccer players. The activity pattern during CSTw and CM was monitored using the ZXY tracking system. No differences were observed between CSTw and CM with regards to total distance covered (10093±94 and 9674±191m), high intensity......We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical...

  4. Identification of Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Muchtaridi; Resmi Mustarichie; Anton Apriyantono2); Anas Subarnas

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) seed essential oil on the locomotor activity of mice in a wheel cage. Active compounds in the essential oil were identified by off-line solid phase extraction (SPE-C18) and GC/MS analysis. The essential oil was administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that inhalation of nutmeg seed essential oil at a dose of 0.5 mL/cage decreased locomotion by 68.6...

  5. Impairment of locomotor activity induced by the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.P. Silva

    Full Text Available The N-acylhydrazone (NAH analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785 and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786 were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294. The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05 or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05, respectively. LASSBio-785 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv also reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 116 ± 29 (P < 0.05 or 60 ± 16 crossings/min (P < 0.01, respectively. Likewise, LASSBio-786 (15 or 30 mg/kg, iv reduced locomotor activity from 200 ± 15 to 127 ± 10 (P < 0.01 or 96 ± 14 crossings/min (P < 0.01, respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (20 mg/kg, ip prevented the locomotor impairment induced by NAH analogues (15 mg/kg, iv, providing evidence that the benzodiazepine (BDZ receptor is involved. This finding was supported by the structural similarity of NAH analogues to midazolam. However, LASSBio-785 showed weak binding to the BDZ receptor. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30 mg/kg, ip, n = 10 increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time from 42 ± 5 (DMSO to 66 ± 6 (P < 0.05 or 75 ± 4 min (P < 0.05, respectively. The dose required to achieve 50% hypnosis (HD50 following iv injection of LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 was 15.8 or 9.5 mg/kg, respectively. These data suggest that both NAH analogues might be useful for the development of new neuroactive drugs for the treatment of insomnia or for use in conjunction with general anesthesia.

  6. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  7. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  8. Spontaneous R-Parity violation bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigate bounds from tree-level and one-loop processes in generic supersymmetric models with spontaneous R-parity breaking in the superpotential. We analyse the bounds from a general point of view. The bounds are applicable both for all models with spontaneous R-parity violation and for explicit bilinear R-parity violation based on general lepton-chargino and neutrino-neutralino mixings. We find constraints from semileptonic B, D and K decays, leptonic decays of the mu and tau, electric dipole moments, as well as bounds for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  9. Spontaneous CP symmetry violation in electroweak theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of CP symmetry violation is reviewed with reference to the neutral kaon systems and its realization as manifest, or a spontaneous breaking in the context of electroweak gauge theories is discussed. It is shown that, as in the standard electroweak model, spontaneous CP violation can be achieved in the left-right symmetric and partially ununified models through extension of the Higgs sector and inclusion of an appropriate discrete symmetry. The experimental constraints on flavour changing neutral current in these models are also discussed. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs

  10. Spontaneous pnemomedastinum in acute severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleemuddin N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous medastinal emphysema, as a complication of acute severe asthma, is an uncommon entity. It usually runs a benign course and resolves spontaneously without any surgical intervention. Recognition of this complication is critical, as it has to be differentiated from other life threatening ones including oesophageal rupture, Boerhave′s syndrome, acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. This case is being presented to emphasize its recognition in the differential diagnosis of complications arising from acute severe asthma and to present its management strategy in detail.

  11. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date of...

  12. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-07-15

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately.

  13. Enhanced spontaneous emission factor for microcavity lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Zhang; Wei Pan

    2008-01-01

    The microcavity and the influence of nonradiative recombination can control spontaneous emission. An analytic resolution of rate equation is studied for microcavity lasers. The relationship between output prop- erties and structural parameters of multi-quantum wells (MQWs) is obtained. One of the most important consequences of the incrcased spontaneous emission factor is the reduction of laser threshold. It is found that the characteristic curve of a "thresholdless" laser is strongly nonradiative depopulation-dependent. The light output is increased by the enhanced well number and the reduced width. In particular, there is an optimal well number corresponding to the lowest threshold current density for MQW structure in the microcavity lasers.

  14. Gravid med spontan ruptur af arteria uterina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  15. Optic flow improves adaptability of spatiotemporal characteristics during split-belt locomotor adaptation with tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikema, Diderik Jan A; Chien, Jung Hung; Stergiou, Nicholas; Myers, Sara A; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mukherjee, Mukul

    2016-02-01

    Human locomotor adaptation requires feedback and feed-forward control processes to maintain an appropriate walking pattern. Adaptation may require the use of visual and proprioceptive input to decode altered movement dynamics and generate an appropriate response. After a person transfers from an extreme sensory environment and back, as astronauts do when they return from spaceflight, the prolonged period required for re-adaptation can pose a significant burden. In our previous paper, we showed that plantar tactile vibration during a split-belt adaptation task did not interfere with the treadmill adaptation however, larger overground transfer effects with a slower decay resulted. Such effects, in the absence of visual feedback (of motion) and perturbation of tactile feedback, are believed to be due to a higher proprioceptive gain because, in the absence of relevant external dynamic cues such as optic flow, reliance on body-based cues is enhanced during gait tasks through multisensory integration. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of optic flow on tactile-stimulated split-belt adaptation as a paradigm to facilitate the sensorimotor adaptation process. Twenty healthy young adults, separated into two matched groups, participated in the study. All participants performed an overground walking trial followed by a split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol. The tactile group (TC) received vibratory plantar tactile stimulation only, whereas the virtual reality and tactile group (VRT) received an additional concurrent visual stimulation: a moving virtual corridor, inducing perceived self-motion. A post-treadmill overground trial was performed to determine adaptation transfer. Interlimb coordination of spatiotemporal and kinetic variables was quantified using symmetry indices and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Marked changes of step length characteristics were observed in both groups during split-belt adaptation. Stance and swing time symmetries were

  16. Genetic KCa3.1-deficiency produces locomotor hyperactivity and alterations in cerebral monoamine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lykke Lambertsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The calmodulin/calcium-activated K(+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed in red and white blood cells, epithelia and endothelia, and possibly central and peripheral neurons. However, our knowledge about its contribution to neurological functions and behavior is incomplete. Here, we investigated whether genetic deficiency or pharmacological activation of KCa3.1 change behavior and cerebral monoamine levels in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the open field test, KCa3.1-deficiency increased horizontal activity, as KCa3.1(-/- mice travelled longer distances (≈145% of KCa3.1(+/+ and at higher speed (≈1.5-fold of KCa3.1(+/+. Working memory in the Y-maze was reduced by KCa3.1-deficiency. Motor coordination on the rotarod and neuromuscular functions were unchanged. In KCa3.1(-/- mice, HPLC analysis revealed that turn-over rates of serotonin were reduced in frontal cortex, striatum and brain stem, while noradrenalin turn-over rates were increased in the frontal cortex. Dopamine turn-over rates were unaltered. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels were unaltered. Intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg of the KCa3.1/KCa2-activator SKA-31 reduced rearing and turning behavior in KCa3.1(+/+ but not in KCa3.1(-/- mice, while 30 mg/kg SKA-31 caused strong sedation in 50% of the animals of either genotypes. KCa3.1(-/- mice were hyperactive (≈+60% in their home cage and SKA-31-administration reduced nocturnal physical activity in KCa3.1(+/+ but not in KCa3.1(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: KCa3.1-deficiency causes locomotor hyperactivity and altered monoamine levels in selected brain regions, suggesting a so far unknown functional link of KCa3.1 channels to behavior and monoaminergic neurotransmission in mice. The tranquilizing effects of low-dose SKA-31 raise the possibility to use KCa3.1/KCa2 channels as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of neuropsychiatric hyperactivity disorders.

  17. Dopaminergic neuronal loss and dopamine-dependent locomotor defects in Fbxo7-deficient zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianna Zhao

    Full Text Available Recessive mutations in the F-box only protein 7 gene (FBXO7 cause PARK15, a mendelian form of early-onset, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with severe loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, the function of the protein encoded by FBXO7, and the pathogenesis of PARK15 remain unknown. No animal models of this disease exist. Here, we report the generation of a vertebrate model of PARK15 in zebrafish. We first show that the zebrafish Fbxo7 homolog protein (zFbxo7 is expressed abundantly in the normal zebrafish brain. Next, we used two zFbxo7-specific morpholinos (targeting protein translation and mRNA splicing, respectively, to knock down the zFbxo7 expression. The injection of either of these zFbxo7-specific morpholinos in the fish embryos induced a marked decrease in the zFbxo7 protein expression, and a range of developmental defects. Furthermore, whole-mount in situ mRNA hybridization showed abnormal patterning and significant decrease in the number of diencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons, corresponding to the human nigrostriatal or ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons. Of note, the number of the dopamine transporter-expressing neurons was much more severely depleted, suggesting dopaminergic dysfunctions earlier and larger than those due to neuronal loss. Last, the zFbxo7 morphants displayed severe locomotor disturbances (bradykinesia, which were dramatically improved by the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The severity of these morphological and behavioral abnormalities correlated with the severity of zFbxo7 protein deficiency. Moreover, the effects of the co-injection of zFbxo7- and p53-specific morpholinos were similar to those obtained with zFbxo7-specific morpholinos alone, supporting further the contention that the observed phenotypes were specifically due to the knock down of zFbxo7. In conclusion, this novel vertebrate model reproduces pathologic and behavioral hallmarks of human parkinsonism (dopaminergic

  18. Effect of the treadmill training factors on the locomotor ability after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysova, Nataliya; Fomina, Elena

    Training on the treadmill constitutes the central component of the Russian system of countermeasures against the negative effects of microgravity. Effectiveness of the treadmill training is influenced by three main factors. Namely, these are intensity (velocity and regularity), axial loading with the use of elastic bungee cords and percentage of time for training on the non-motorized treadmill within the overall training program. Previously we have demonstrated the significance of each factor separately: intensity (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 2011), passive mode (Fomina E.V. et al., 2012) and axial loading (Fomina E.V. et al., 2013). The Russian system of in-flight countermeasures gives preference to interval training sessions in which walking alternates with short episodes of intensive running. Locomotion on the non-motorized treadmill should make approx. 30% of the total time of locomotor training. The ISS RS treadmill can be utilized with the motor in motion (active mode) or out of motion so that the cosmonaut has to push the belt with his feet (passive mode). Axial loading of the cosmonaut must be 60-70% of his body weight. However, there is a huge variety of strategies cosmonauts choose of when they exercise on the treadmill in the course of long-duration ISS missions. Purpose of the investigation was comparative analysis of different locomotion training regimens from the standpoint of their effectiveness in microgravity. Criteria of effectiveness evaluation were the results of the locomotion test that includes walking along the fixed support at the preset rate of 90 steps/min. Peak amplitude on the m. soleus electromyogram was analyzed. The experiment was performed with participation of 18 Russian members of extended ISS missions. Each locomotion training factors was rated using the score scale from 0 to 10: Intensity (0 to 10), Percentage of passive mode training (recommended 30% was taken as 10 and could go down to 0 if the passive mode was not applied) and

  19. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue Exendin-4 attenuates the nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, conditioned place preference as well as the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Egecioglu

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is known to regulate consummatory behavior and is released in response to nutrient ingestion. Analogues of this peptide recently emerged as novel pharmacotherapies for treatment of type II diabetes since they reduce gastric emptying, glucagon secretion as well as enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The findings that GLP-1 targets reward related areas including mesolimbic dopamine areas indicate that the physiological role of GLP-1 extends beyond food intake and glucose homeostasis control to include reward regulation. The present series of experiments was therefore designed to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex4, on established nicotine-induced effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system in mice. Specifically, we show that treatment with Ex4, at a dose with no effect per se, attenuate nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release as well as the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In accordance, Ex4 also blocks nicotine-induced expression of locomotor sensitization in mice. Given that development of nicotine addiction largely depends on the effects of nicotine on the mesolimbic dopamine system these findings indicate that the GLP-1 receptor may be a potential target for the development of novel treatment strategies for nicotine cessations in humans.

  20. Low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion characteristics of upgraded low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.K.; Kim, S.D.; Yoo, J.H.; Chun, D.H.; Rhim, Y.J.; Lee, S.H. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion characteristics of dried coal produced from low rank coal using the upgraded brown coal (UBC) process were investigated. To this end, proximate properties, crossing-point temperature (CPT), and isothermal oxidation characteristics of the coal were analyzed. The isothermal oxidation characteristics were estimated by considering the formation rates of CO and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures. The upgraded low rank coal had higher heating values than the raw coal. It also had less susceptibility to low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion. This seemed to result from the coating of the asphalt on the surface of the coal, which suppressed the active functional groups from reacting with oxygen in the air. The increasing upgrading pressure negatively affected the low temperature oxidation and spontaneous combustion.