Full Text Available The neonatal period in humans and in most mammals is characterized by intense mother-young interactions favoring pair bonding and the adaptation of neonates to their new environment. However, in many post-delivery procedures, human babies commonly experience combined maternal separation and intense handling for about one hour post-birth. Currently, the effects of such disturbances on later attachment and on the development of newborns are still debated: clearly, further investigations are required. As animals present good models for controlled experimentation, we chose domestic horses to investigate this issue. Horses, like humans, are characterized by single births, long lactating periods and selective mother-infant bonds. Routine postnatal procedures for foals, as for human babies, also involve intense handling and maternal separation. In the present study, we monitored the behavior of foals from early stages of development to "adolescence", in a normal ecological context (social groups with adults and peers. Experimental foals, separated from their mothers and handled for only 1 hour post-birth, were compared to control foals, left undisturbed after birth. Our results revealed short- and long-term effects of this unique neonatal experience on attachment and subsequent social competences. Thus, experimental foals presented patterns of insecure attachment to their mothers (strong dependence on their mothers, little play and impaired social competences (social withdrawal, aggressiveness at all ages. We discuss these results in terms of mother-young interactions, timing of interactions and relationships between bonding and subsequent social competences. Our results indicate that this ungulate species could become an interesting animal model. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that intervention just after birth affects bonding and subsequent social competences (at least until "adolescence". It opens new research directions for
Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto
A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed "social physiology." Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals.
This thesis is a literature review that explores holistic education and meditation in relation to affective and social development. Holistic education is a philosophy of education highlighting the importance of developing all parts of the human in order to reach our full potential and for living a fulfilling life. Learning theories are briefly discussed to gain an understanding of how holistic education is implemented. This thesis does not focus on all aspect of development suppor...
Williams, Robert Warren
The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…
Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn
Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be se
Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…
Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer
Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology.
Kearn, Catherine M.
Young children exhibit aggression in order to achieve their goals, to respond to their developing understandings of ownership. The NAEYC "Code of Ethical Conduct" for early childhood educators includes the commitment to support children's development, including helping them to learn to work cooperatively. The types of interventions that…
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.
Rao, Yanghui; Li, Qing; Wenyin, Liu; Wu, Qingyuan; Quan, Xiaojun
The rapid development of social media services has been a great boon for the communication of emotions through blogs, microblogs/tweets, instant-messaging tools, news portals, and so forth. This paper is concerned with the detection of emotions evoked in a reader by social media. Compared to classical sentiment analysis conducted from the writer's perspective, analysis from the reader's perspective can be more meaningful when applied to social media. We propose an affective topic model with the intention to bridge the gap between social media materials and a reader's emotions by introducing an intermediate layer. The proposed model can be used to classify the social emotions of unlabeled documents and to generate a social emotion lexicon. Extensive evaluations using real-world data validate the effectiveness of the proposed model for both these applications.
Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz
People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…
Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda
The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…
Jippes, Erik; Steinert, Yvonne; Pols, Jan; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.; van Engelen, Jo M. L.; Brand, Paul L. P.
Purpose To examine the impact of social networks and a two-day faculty development course on clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation. Method During 2007-2010, 571 residents and 613 clinical supervisors in four specialties in the Netherlands were invited to complete a Web-based qu
Bjørnskov, Christian; Mchangama, Jacob
While the United Nations and NGOs are pushing for global judicialization of economic, social and cultural rights (ESCRs), little is known of their consequences. We provide evidence of the effects of introducing three types of ESCRs into the constitution: the rights to education, health and social...
@@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.
Simonsen, Erik; Evensen, Julie; Røsberg, Jan Ivar;
, predictors and outcome factors including social functioning. Methods: Three-hundred-and-one patients with FEP were included at baseline, 186 participated in the 10 year follow-up. These were followed on PANSS item N1 (FA) from baseline through 5 follow-up assessments over 10 years. Patients were grouped...... as having never-present, improving, deteriorating, fluctuating or enduring FA. The groups were compared on baseline variables, variables at 10 year follow-up, and social functioning throughout the follow-up period. Results: Twenty nine percent never displayed FA, 66% had improving, deteriorating...... or fluctuating FA, while 5% of patients had enduring FA. Premorbid social function predicted enduring FA. The patients with enduring, fluctuating and deteriorating FA did poorer on all outcome variables, including remission and recovery rates. The enduring FA group did significantly poorer in social functioning...
Parker, Matthew O.; Annan, Leonette V.; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros H.; Brock, Alistair J.; Combe, Fraser J.; Baiamonte, Matteo; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H.
Exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during brain development has a number of effects on social behavior but the molecular mechanisms that mediate this are not well understood. Gaining a better understanding of these factors may help to develop therapeutic interventions in the future. Zebrafish offer a potentially useful model in this regard. Here, we introduce a zebrafish model of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure. Embryos were exposed to 20 mM ethanol for seven days (48hpfs–9dpf) and tested as adults for individual social behavior and shoaling. We also tested their basal anxiety with the novel tank diving test. We found that the ethanol-exposed fish displayed reductions in social approach and shoaling, and an increase in anxiety in the novel tank test. These behavioral differences corresponded to differences in hrt1aa, slc6a4 and oxtr expression. Namely, acute ethanol caused a spike in oxtr and ht1aa mRNA expression, which was followed by down-regulation at 7dpf, and an up-regulation in slc6a4 at 72hpf. This study confirms the utility of zebrafish as a model system for studying the molecular basis of developmental ethanol exposure. Furthermore, it proposes a putative developmental mechanism characterized by ethanol-induced OT inhibition leading to suppression of 5-HT and up-regulation of 5-HT1A, which leads, in turn, to possible homeostatic up-regulation of 5-HTT at 72hpf and subsequent imbalance of the 5-HT system. PMID:24690524
Gergely, G; Watson, J S
The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.
Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria
Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during…
Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, M; Mahon, Katie; Russo, Manuela; Ungar, Allison K; Burdick, Katherine E
Impairments in social cognition are now recognized as core illness features in psychotic and affective disorders. Despite the significant disability caused by social cognitive abnormalities, treatments for this symptom dimension are lacking. Here, we describe the evidence demonstrating abnormalities in social cognition in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder, as well as the neurobiology of social cognition including the role of oxytocin. We then review clinical trials of oxytocin administration in psychotic and affective disorders and the impact of this agent on social cognition. To date, several studies have demonstrated that oxytocin may improve social cognition in schizophrenia; too few studies have been conducted in affective disorders to determine the effect of oxytocin on social cognition in these disorders. Future work is needed to clarify which aspects of social cognition may be improved with oxytocin treatment in psychotic and affective disorders.
Fox, Nick J
While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern.
Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU
Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.
Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.
Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…
The social distance is the main social factor that influences language use.This paper explores how the social distance affects language use in different ways based on solidarity,status and formality,in order to achieve a better understanding of language use.
Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...
Mariska Kromhout; Peteke Feijten; Frieke Vonk; Mirjam de Klerk; Anna Maria Marangos; Wouter Mensink; Maaike den Draak; Alice de Boer; m.m.v. Jurjen Iedema
Original title: De Wmo in beweging. Evaluatie Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning 2010-2012 The goal of the Dutch Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning – Wmo) is to make it possible for people to manage within and outside their homes and to participate in society. Within the framewor
Gazzola, Valeria; Spezio, Michael L.; Etzel, Joset A.; Castelli, Fulvia; Adolphs, Ralph; Keysers, Christian
Another person's caress is one of the most powerful of all emotional social signals. How much the primary somatosensory cortices (SIs) participate in processing the pleasantness of such social touch remains unclear. Although ample empirical evidence supports the role of the insula in affective proce
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…
Ana Teresa Brás
Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.
Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)
While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.
Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley
Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert
In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.
Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert
In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506
Full Text Available In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades –rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism– contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences –plural rationality theory– shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.
Buunk, Abraham P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Yperen, N.W.
In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism, (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and identifica
To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In t
Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....
Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter
In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....
Shahidul, S. M.; Karim, A. H. M. Zehadul; Mustari, S.
Resources from multiple social contexts influence students' educational aspiration. In the field of social capital a neglected issue is how students obtain social capital from varying contexts and which contexts benefit them more to shape their future educational plan which consequently affects their level of aspiration. In this study, we aim to…
Savitz-Romer, Mandy; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Fancsali, Cheri
Students enrolled in the My Wildcat Track program at the University of Arizona are receiving a novel type of support to help them get and stay off academic probation: social and affective skill building. These students, who are referred to the program by their advisors, have one-on-one meetings with professional learning specialists and attend…
Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Kuyper, H.; Van der Zee, Y.G.
In a study among 609 secondary school students, the affective reactions to social comparisons of grades were examined. Overall, the students reported more frequent responses to upward than to downward comparison, more identification than contrast in their comparisons, and more frequent responses imp
Tucker, G. Richard; And Others
This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)
Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wilson, Ken
1. Habitat selection can affect individual fitness, and therefore, individuals are expected to assess habitat quality of potential breeding sites before settlement. 2. We investigated the role of social environment on juvenile dispersal behaviour in the great tit (Parus major). Two main contradictor
Brown, Christina M; Olkhov, Yevgeniy M; Bailey, Veronika S; Daniels, Emily R
The current study tested whether men and women receive different degrees of social punishment for violating norms of emotional expression. Participants watched videos of male and female targets (whose reactions were pre-tested to be equivalent in expressivity and valence) viewing either a positive or negative slideshow, with their emotional reaction to the slideshow manipulated to be affectively congruent, affectively incongruent, or flat. Participants then rated the target on a number of social evaluation measures. Displaying an incongruent emotional expression, relative to a congruent one, harmed judgments of women more than men. Women are expected to be more emotionally expressive than men, making an incongruent expression more deviant for women. These results highlight the importance of social norms in construing another person's emotion displays, which can subsequently determine acceptance or rejection of that person.
Taborsky, Barbara; Arnold, Cornelia; Junker, Julian; Tschopp, Andreas
Social competence is defined as the ability of an animal to optimize the expression of social behaviour as a function of the available social information. The social environment encountered early in life can affect the expression of various social behaviours later in life. We investigated whether early social experience can affect social competence. In the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether individuals reared with older brood-caring conspecifics persistently perform better in a series of tasks (1) simulating different social contexts, (2) assigning individuals different social roles and (3) exposing them to an unknown social situation. Fish that had been reared together with older conspecifics showed more appropriate behaviours both as winners (more aggressive displays) and as losers (more submissive displays) when aggressively competing with peers over a resource, and when trying to be accepted as subordinate group member and prospective brood care helper by an unfamiliar dominant pair (more submissive displays near shelters), a situation they had never encountered before. In both tasks fish that had grown up with older fish were tolerated better by conspecifics than fish reared with same-age siblings only. We detected effects of the early environment on social behaviour in the juvenile and adult stages of the test fish. Our results suggest that growing up in more complex social groups fosters a general social ability (i.e. social competence) in N. pulcher that improves their performance across different social roles and contexts, and which may provide fitness benefits. PMID:22536004
Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...... Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....
Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke
Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the develo
Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…
Kamiya, T; Poulin, R
Intraspecific phenotypic diversification in social organisms often leads to formation of physical castes which are morphologically specialized for particular tasks within the colony. The optimal caste allocation theory argues that specialized morphological castes are efficient at specific tasks, and hence different caste ratios should affect the ergonomic efficiency, hence reproductive output of the colony. However, the reproductive output of different caste ratios has been documented in few species of insects with equivocal support for the theory. This study investigated whether the ratios of nonreproductive and reproductive morphs affect the reproductive output of a recently discovered social trematode, Philophthalmus sp., in which the nonreproductive members are hypothesized to be defensive specialists. A census of natural infections and a manipulative in vitro experiment demonstrated a positive association between the reproductive output of trematode colonies and the ratio of nonreproductive to reproductive morphs in the presence of an intra-host trematode competitor, Maritrema novaezealandensis. On the contrary, without the competitor, reproductive output was negatively associated with the proportion of nonreproductive castes in colonies. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a clear fitness benefit associated with the nonreproductive castes in the presence of a competitor while illustrating the cost of maintaining such morphs in noncompetitive situations. Although the proximate mechanisms controlling caste ratio remain unclear in this trematode system, this study supports the prediction that the fitness of colonies is influenced by the composition of specialized functional morphs in social organisms, suggesting a potential for adaptive shifts of caste ratios over evolutionary time.
The Thailand Country Development Partnership for Social Protection (CDP-SP) is a collaborative program of policy development and technical assistance between the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and the Bank and was launched in July 2001. CDP-SP operates in three key policy areas: labor markets; social insurance; and social assistance and safety nets. This report reviews the objecti...
Mathematics related affect turn from positive to negative during comprehensive school years worldwide. There is a clear need to find solutions to the problem. However, some gaps and problems appear in the methodologies and the common approaches used in the field. This article discusses five studies addressing affective development, challenges some…
Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash
Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.
social networks need to be part of the learning process. According to social - learning theory , human behavior is based on continuous reciprocal...Bandura, A. (97). Social learning theory . New York, NY: Gen- eral Learning Press. Bandura, A. (986). Social foundations of thought and action
Wardle, Margaret C; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is used recreationally to improve mood and sociability, and has generated clinical interest as a possible adjunct to psychotherapy. One way that MDMA may produce positive 'prosocial' effects is by changing responses to emotional stimuli, especially stimuli with social content. Here, we examined for the first time how MDMA affects subjective responses to positive, negative and neutral emotional pictures with and without social content. We hypothesized that MDMA would dose-dependently increase reactivity to positive emotional stimuli and dampen reactivity to negative stimuli, and that these effects would be most pronounced for pictures with people in them. The data were obtained from two studies using similar designs with healthy occasional MDMA users (total N = 101). During each session, participants received MDMA (0, 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg oral), and then rated their positive and negative responses to standardized positive, negative and neutral pictures with and without social content. MDMA increased positive ratings of positive social pictures, but reduced positive ratings of non-social positive pictures. We speculate this 'socially selective' effect contributes to the prosocial effects of MDMA by increasing the comparative value of social contact and closeness with others. This effect may also contribute to its attractiveness to recreational users.
Full Text Available This paper presents a learning environment where a mining algorithm is used to learn patterns of interaction with the user and to represent these patterns in a scheme called item descriptors. The learning environment keeps theoretical information about subjects, as well as tools and exercises where the student can put into practice the knowledge gained. One of the main purposes of the project is to stimulate collaborative learning through the interaction of students with different levels of knowledge. The students' actions, as well as their interactions, are monitored by the system and used to find patterns that can guide the search for students that may play the role of a tutor. Such patterns are found with a particular learning algorithm and represented in item descriptors. The paper presents the educational environment, the representation mechanism and learning algorithm used to mine social-affective data in order to create a recommendation model of tutors.
Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Sethi, Nisha; Grisham, Jessica R
OBJECTIVES. Evidence suggests that ostracism exerts an immediate and painful threat to an individual's primary needs for belonging, meaningful existence, control, and self-esteem. Individuals with schizophrenia are particularly likely to experience the effects of ostracism, being amongst the most stigmatized of all the mental illnesses. The aims of the present study were therefore to assess the immediate and delayed effects of ostracism in these individuals, and to explore associations between any observed effects and indices of negative affect and clinical symptoms. METHODS. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and non-clinical controls engaged in a virtual ball-toss game with two fictitious others. All participants played the game on two separate occasions, participating in both an inclusion and an ostracism condition. Measures of primary needs were obtained after each game. RESULTS. Findings suggest that the negative impact of social exclusion lasts longer in individuals with schizophrenia, compared with non-clinical controls. Further, clinical participants who reported lower primary needs after a delay were more likely to exhibit higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. CONCLUSIONS. Future studies should examine the use of regulatory strategies and personal responses to stigma as potential mediators in the maintenance of the negative effects of social exclusion. These lines of research may offer insight into interventions that may assist individuals to better cope with this experience.
Hulgård, Lars; P.K., Shajahan
Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation......Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation...
Full Text Available This article critically interrogates the twin notions of social sustainability and activities grouped under the term social innovation in order to argue that sustainability and innovation are schizoid modes of representing what Deleuze calls “the cliché” (the authority of the same as “the new” (difference that short-circuit any real possibility of social transformation. I argue that the kinds of solutions presented by social innovation to the problems of social sustainability in the context of a neoliberal governmentality are sustainable only in the sense that they are a model for a more collective mode of existence in an individualized realm that reciprocally supports a realm in which collective responsibility is individualized. In other words, this neo-liberal diagram catches and captures creative energies in service to the status quo. To illustrate these ideas I turn to Dutch filmmaker Bregtje van der Haak’s 2010 documentary, California Dreaming, in which she compares the popular response to the 2008 financial crisis by focusing on several families across the transatlantic transcontinental divide. She interviews Europeans who blame the state as the source of the economic problem, and thus expect the state to fix it. And she interviews Americans who, reflecting on the “American dream,” reveal their faith in meritocracy, blame themselves, and thus look to their own families and communities for solutions. Their respective stories tell us how different neo-liberal diagrams structure and modulate subjectivity and its relation to the social, as well as the emerging ways in which this relation is being framed. If, as Deleuze writes, “there is no diagram that does not also include, besides the points which it connects up, certain relatively free points, points of creativity, change and resistance,” how can analysis of these shifty subjective-social structures point us to points of resistance" (Foucault? And why is it crucial that
White, David J; Gersick, Andrew S; Snyder-Mackler, Noah
The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing with the challenges posed in within-group interactions. We examined how social skills develop in captive, adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that were exposed to differing levels of 'social complexity' across a 2-year experiment. After each year, subjects housed in groups with dynamic social structure (where many individuals entered and exited the groups during the year) outcompeted birds who had been housed in static groups. Exposure to dynamic structure subsequently led to substantial changes to the social networks of the home conditions during the breeding season. Static groups were characterized by a predictable relationship between singing and reproductive success that was stable across years. In dynamic conditions, however, males showed significant variability in their dominance status, their courting and even in their mating success. Reproductive success of males varied dramatically across years and was responsive to social learning in adulthood, and socially dynamic environments 'trained' individuals to be better competitors, even at an age when the development of many traits important for breeding (like song quality) had ended.
Full Text Available This essay describes the phenomenon of panic from both neurological and affective points of view. It draws on the work of Japp Panksepp, who argues for the importance of distinguishing between fear as a response to physical threat, and panic as a response to the loss of the attachment object. While fear flees, panic, perhaps contrary to appearances, seeks security. This view of panic throws a new light on classic analyses of crowd behaviour, among them those of Le Bon, Tarde and Canetti, but it also has implications for how panic takes hold via electronic media, and for how outbreaks may be calmed. Finally, the essay argues that mediatised panic is a distraction from fear—in which anything at all may represent physical danger, but which at least offers a range of possible responses for addressing the problem, and offers the opportunity for the transformative work performed by cognition on affect. Here the paper draws on the script theory of Silvan Tomkins to provoke questions of the social usefulness of fear in the face of some current arguments to the contrary.
Shaked, Hadassa; Arvatz, Gil; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Binder, Lior; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Okalang, Uthman; Chikne, Vaibhav; Cohen-Chalamish, Smadar; Michaeli, Shulamit
Extracellular vesicles (EV) secreted by pathogens function in a variety of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, exosome secretion is induced by stress that affects trans-splicing. Following perturbations in biogenesis of spliced leader RNA, which donates its spliced leader (SL) exon to all mRNAs, or after heat-shock, the SL RNA is exported to the cytoplasm and forms distinct granules, which are then secreted by exosomes. The exosomes are formed in multivesicular bodies (MVB) utilizing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT), through a mechanism similar to microRNA secretion in mammalian cells. Silencing of the ESCRT factor, Vps36, compromised exosome secretion but not the secretion of vesicles derived from nanotubes. The exosomes enter recipient trypanosome cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that cells secreting exosomes or purified intact exosomes affect social motility (SoMo). This study demonstrates that exosomes are delivered to trypanosome cells and can change their migration. Exosomes are used to transmit stress signals for communication between parasites. PMID:28257521
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This social studies curriculum guide is designed for grades K-12. Divided into seven sections, the first section offers a brief introduction and calls attention to the laws and rulings in Indiana which affect the teaching of social studies. Section two outlines the guide's rationale which stresses that knowledge must be combined with rational…
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...
Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Anderson, Vicki
Despite significant advances in the field of social neuroscience, much remains to be understood regarding the development and maintenance of social skills across the life span. Few comprehensive models exist that integrate multidisciplinary perspectives and explain the multitude of factors that influence the emergence and expression of social…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American
Peeters, M.M.M.; Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.
Research shows that music with a strong personal meaning can enhance the social, cognitive, and affective experiences of both people with dementia (PwD) and their social environment. We applied a human-centred design method, called situated Cognitive Engineering, to develop the conceptual design and
Cauthen, T. W., III
This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.
Hilles, W S; Kahle, L R
Eighty-nine subjects from two high schools were tested during the spring of their sophomore and senior years, when their mean ages were 16 years, 1 month, and 18 years, 1 month, respectively. Composites measured social contract with: (a) independence, (b) implicit social contract, societal norms and expectations, and (c) explicit social contracts, rules. Composites and single items measured social integration with: (d) role commitment, (e) social-American Dream, accepting the belief in the American Dream that hard work would lead to social success, (f) self-American Dream, belief that hard work will produce personal satisfaction and success, (g) raw deal, perceptions of being treated unfairly, (h) self-blame, and (i) feelings of hopelessness. The results of the cross-lagged panel correlations generally support the hypothesis that students respond to implicit social contracts through role commitment, which is further expressed by a belief in the American Dream for social fulfillment, while responding to the perception of explicit social contracts by not believing in the benefits of the American Dream for personal fulfillment. These results were interpreted as supporting Dienstbier's theory of moral development.
Reiter, S; Levi, A M
The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community.
This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian the...... cultural ethnotheories on good child care in these two communities found in previous studies and by other researchers....... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres...... become visible in early caregiver–infant interactions. In a comparative study with 20 farming Cameroonian Nso mothers from Kikaikelaki and 20 German middle-class mothers from Muenster and their 3-month-old infants, we investigated discursive practices used by the mothers in reaction to the infants...
Full Text Available The way social pedagogy is developing nowadays has been paved by a centuries-old tradition of social and pedagogical work, historical experience of the theoretical research on the prob- lems of interactions between the man and the environment, and experience of successful problem solution of proper socialization in educational organizations at different stages of social pedagogy (pre- soviet, soviet and modern periods. Modern state of social pedagogy is related to the issues of deter- mining the status of social pedagogy, finding the main methodology parameters, as well as the research-specific issues. This paper also presents the characteristics of the main concepts of social pedagogy in Russia and the peculiarities of professional work done by social pedagogues.
Ishikawa, Mitsuhiko; Park, Yun-Hee; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Itakura, Shoji
The sense of fairness has been observed in early infancy. Because many studies of fairness in adults have used economic games such as the Ultimatum Game, it has been difficult to compare fairness between adults and infants. Further, recent studies have suggested that social information about actors who behave fairly or unfairly may influence the judgement of fairness in infants. Therefore, to compare the sense of fairness between infants and adults, the study using paradigm in infant research is required. We examined how social information about two characters, either prosocial or antisocial, affects the event-related potential response (ERP) to fair or unfair resource distributions in adults. In the habituation phase, participants were informed about characters' social information through their actions. One character then distributed resources fairly or unfairly, and ERP was measured at the end of the distribution. Data from eighteen adult participants were analysed. A significant interaction of social information and fairness was found for late positive potential (LPP), but a post-hoc t test revealed a significant difference between fair and unfair conditions only for actions of the antisocial character. We found that LPP can reflect the sense of fairness affected by social information. Comparison with infant studies suggests that the sense of fairness may change during development.
Ishikawa, Mitsuhiko; Park, Yun-hee; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Itakura, Shoji
The sense of fairness has been observed in early infancy. Because many studies of fairness in adults have used economic games such as the Ultimatum Game, it has been difficult to compare fairness between adults and infants. Further, recent studies have suggested that social information about actors who behave fairly or unfairly may influence the judgement of fairness in infants. Therefore, to compare the sense of fairness between infants and adults, the study using paradigm in infant research is required. We examined how social information about two characters, either prosocial or antisocial, affects the event-related potential response (ERP) to fair or unfair resource distributions in adults. In the habituation phase, participants were informed about characters’ social information through their actions. One character then distributed resources fairly or unfairly, and ERP was measured at the end of the distribution. Data from eighteen adult participants were analysed. A significant interaction of social information and fairness was found for late positive potential (LPP), but a post-hoc t test revealed a significant difference between fair and unfair conditions only for actions of the antisocial character. We found that LPP can reflect the sense of fairness affected by social information. Comparison with infant studies suggests that the sense of fairness may change during development. PMID:28235082
Walter, Jamie L.; LaFreniere, Peter J.
Observed 56 preschool children during free play to record occurrences of four types of affect: moderate and strong positive affect, anger, and distress. Also collected teacher ratings of social competence and peer sociometrics. Found that social competence and peer acceptance were associated with strong positive affect, whereas anger and distress…
Enfield, Richard P; Nathaniel, Keith C
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the community, and the development of social capital. They then discuss the trade-offs of defining the often amorphous concepts included in social capital as they select measurement scales. The constructs used in the survey are agency, belonging, engagement, and trust for bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital.
This papers studies the processes developing technology and its social "sorroundings", the social networks. Positions in the debate on technological change is discussed. A central topic is the enterprise external development and decision processes and their interplay with the enterprise internal...
Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…
McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark
This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…
Although the precepts of software engineering have been around for decades, the field has failed to keep pace with rapid advancements in computer hardware and software. Modern systems that integrate multiple platforms and architectures, along with the collaborative nature of users who expect an instantaneous global reach via the Internet, require updated software engineering methods. Social Software Engineering: Development and Collaboration with Social Networking examines the field through the spectrum of the social activities that now compose it. Supplying an up-to-date look at this ever-evo
The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…
Price, V; Archbold, J
This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.
Through the sample investigation of Kangding County, Daofu County, Luhuo County and Xiangcheng County in Sichuan Province in 2010 and by combining the quantitative and qualitative methods, various kinds of indexes from the aspects of society, politics, economy and values in Ganzi District are analyzed, as well as the factors that affect the rural social stability of current Ganzi District area. The results show that rural areas of Ganzi District are stable on the whole, but the economic development level is backward; the social security measures are imperfect; disputes among rural residents still exist and most of them are economic disputes; the disputes among ethnics are mainly caused by religious belief; the autonomous situation of partial rural residents are bad and rural residents’ evaluation on social justice is low. Therefore, it should establish and perfect relevant prevention and control mechanism.
Sallet, J; Mars, R B; Noonan, M P; Andersson, J L; O'Reilly, J X; Jbabdi, S; Croxson, P L; Jenkinson, M; Miller, K L; Rushworth, M F S
It has been suggested that variation in brain structure correlates with the sizes of individuals' social networks. Whether variation in social network size causes variation in brain structure, however, is unknown. To address this question, we neuroimaged 23 monkeys that had been living in social groups set to different sizes. Subject comparison revealed that living in larger groups caused increases in gray matter in mid-superior temporal sulcus and rostral prefrontal cortex and increased coupling of activity in frontal and temporal cortex. Social network size, therefore, contributes to changes both in brain structure and function. The changes have potential implications for an animal's success in a social context; gray matter differences in similar areas were also correlated with each animal's dominance within its social network.
Full Text Available The article discusses the aspects of the formation of social responsibility of Ukrainian companies. The need in the analysis of the factors of development of the business corporate social responsibility concept is caused by a change of interaction between the government, business and society. The result of research represents the corporate social responsibility as a specific company’s reaction to the demands of society to reflect in its actions the interests, values and expectations of stakeholders. The article determines and systematizes the main factors that impact on company’s corporate social responsibility. To the external factors belong the policies of supranational and national governments in the area of corporate social responsibility, the level of economic development, the government support for entrepreneurship, the public opinion about corporate social responsibility and the external pressure of other stakeholders. The internal factors include the economic efficiency of enterprises, the ratio of benefits and costs of corporate social responsibility implementation, personal beliefs of owners and shareholders, the corporate culture of the organization. The research of the factors of corporate social responsibility development will provide the mass distribution of socially responsible business and will contribute to the creation of its own models of social responsibility.
for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social......Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...
Latinus, Marianne; Love, Scott A; Rossi, Alejandra; Parada, Francisco J; Huang, Lisa; Conty, Laurence; George, Nathalie; James, Karin; Puce, Aina
Gaze direction, a cue of both social and spatial attention, is known to modulate early neural responses to faces e.g. N170. However, findings in the literature have been inconsistent, likely reflecting differences in stimulus characteristics and task requirements. Here, we investigated the effect of task on neural responses to dynamic gaze changes: away and toward transitions (resulting or not in eye contact). Subjects performed, in random order, social (away/toward them) and non-social (left/right) judgment tasks on these stimuli. Overall, in the non-social task, results showed a larger N170 to gaze aversion than gaze motion toward the observer. In the social task, however, this difference was no longer present in the right hemisphere, likely reflecting an enhanced N170 to gaze motion toward the observer. Our behavioral and event-related potential data indicate that performing social judgments enhances saliency of gaze motion toward the observer, even those that did not result in gaze contact. These data and that of previous studies suggest two modes of processing visual information: a 'default mode' that may focus on spatial information; a 'socially aware mode' that might be activated when subjects are required to make social judgments. The exact mechanism that allows switching from one mode to the other remains to be clarified.
Ybema, J.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Heesink, J.A.M.
This study examined the effects of social comparison among 172 individuals who had recently lost their jobs in a collective dismissal of employees. A part of a fictitious interview with another fired person was presented to the participants. This interview contained social comparison information on
Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa
Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…
Mortimore, T; Zsolnai, A
Students with special educational needs are exposed to the same social and cultural effects as any other child. Their social and emotional development also evolves under those influences and they, too, must adjust to the conditions of their environment. In several cases, however, an inadequate learning environment keeps these children from experiencing and learning social skills and abilities (such as self-confidence and independence). Inclusive education for children with special educational...
Bown, Jennifer; White, Cynthia
Affective factors in language learning have long attracted attention. While research findings indicate substantial links between affect and achievement, further inquiry into the role and contribution of affect in language learning has been limited by a narrow focus on single emotions and on the disruptive effects of emotion. Drawing on social…
Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541
Bigler, Rebecca S.
This paper discusses a theory of the formation of social stereotyping and prejudice in children. This intergroup-developmental theory of prejudice has three primary goals: to account for the development of stereotyping and prejudice across multiple domains; to provide a developmental account of social stereotyping, outlining how developmental…
Full Text Available Social economy has developed from the need to identify new innovative solutions to some economic, social or environmental problems as well as to meet the requirements of community members, requirements which are often ignored or unsatisfactorily covered by the public or private sector. Social economy is a sector with a major contribution to creating new jobs, sustainable economic growth and optimal income and social welfare distribution. The paper points out certain aspects that can contribute to the increase, promotion and strengthening of this sector of activity in order to become a genuine element of national economy.
Full Text Available Adult zebrafish are robustly social animals whereas larvae are not. We designed an assay to determine at what stage of development zebrafish begin to interact with and prefer other fish. One week old zebrafish show no social preference whereas most three week old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain in a compartment where they can view conspecifics. However, for some individuals, the presence of conspecifics drives avoidance instead of attraction. Social preference is dependent on vision and requires viewing fish of a similar age/size. In addition, over the same one to three week period larval zebrafish increasingly tend to coordinate their movements, a simple form of social interaction. Finally, social preference and coupled interactions are differentially modified by an NMDAR antagonist and acute exposure to ethanol, both of which are known to alter social behaviour in adult zebrafish.
Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa
Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.
Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Nichols, Linda
The growth of social media use has led to tension affecting the perception of professionalism of nurses in healthcare environments. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore first and final year undergraduate student use of social media to understand how it was utilised by them during their course. Descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken to compare differences between first and final year student use. No difference indicated there was a lack of development in the use of social media, particularly concerning in relation to expanding their professional networks. There is a need for the curriculum to include opportunities to teach student nurses methods to ensure the appropriate and safe use of social media. Overt teaching and modelling of desired behaviour to guide and support the use of social media to positively promote professional identity formation, which is essential for work-readiness at graduation, is necessary.
Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.
The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N" = 486),…
The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...... of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social...... work with new possibilities of development of the work, but also suggestions for development of the concept of catalytic processes....
Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.
Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting impr
Eising, Corine M.; Pavlova, Denitza; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne
Social competition among female birds has been shown to positively affect yolk androgen levels, perhaps providing a mechanism to communicate environmental conditions to offspring. Whether this relationship is due to social density or to differences among mothers that breed in different social situat
Illanes, J P
The author examines the use of measures of mortality as indicators of social development. Separate consideration is given to general mortality, infant mortality, and life expectancy. He concludes that the Chilean and Latin American mortality data cannot be analyzed separately from the available social data as a whole, and that the traditional health indicators for the measurement of social development continue to be valid. Comments by Ernesto Medina, Dagmar Raczynski, Juan P. Illanes, and Tarsicio Castaneda are included (pp. 107-14), as well as a reply to these comments by the author (pp. 114-6).
Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....
Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.
NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.
Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.
Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…
Faulds, David J.; Mangold, W. Glynn
This paper describes the process used and experiences gained in developing a social media and marketing course. As the first known paper on this topic appearing in the marketing education literature, the paper provides educators with a framework for developing similar courses. The course was developed using a sound instructional design model, the…
Lytle, William Grant; Campbell, Noma Jo
Investigates the relationships between social acceptance, measured by sociometry, and membership in one of three academic groups: gifted, high achievers, and average. Changes in the peer acceptance of the gifted students in a special program were also examined. Subjects were 66 fourth graders. (MP)
Tolsma, J.; Graaf, N.D. de; Quillian, L.
Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermar
Jairak, Rath; Sahakhunchai, Napath; Jairak, Kallaya; Praneetpolgrang, Prasong
This research aims to explore the factors that affect the intention to use in Social Networking Sites (SNS). We apply the theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), intrinsic motivation, and trust properties to develop the theoretical framework for SNS users' intention. The results show that the important factors influencing SNS users' intention for general purpose and collaborative learning are task-oriented, pleasure-oriented, and familiarity-based trust. In marketing usage, dispositional trust and pleasure-oriented are two main factors that reflect intention to use in SNS.
van Staveren, Irene; Pervaiz, Zahid
The theory about missing links of economic growth often lags behind the empirical estimations of such links. A consensus has emerged that ethnic fractionalization has a negative impact on growth, also when controlled for income inequality. Often, although implicitly, the assumed channel is social cohesion. We analyse the effect of fractionalization on social cohesion with a different inequality measure, namely a social measure of inequality: the Inclusion of Minorities Index. Our results indicate that it is social exclusion, which reduces social cohesion, rather than diversity as such. We conclude that future studies of social cohesion and its relation to growth may benefit from using measures of social exclusion next to ethnic diversity.
Stuart G. SHANKER
Full Text Available This paper presents the Functional/Emotional approach to language development, which explains the process leading up to the core capacities necessary for language; shows how this process leads to the formation of internal symbols; and how it shapes and is shaped by the child’s development of language.
In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to
Jalilian hamed Hasan
Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is constantly discussed by experts due to its close relationship with the public health from the perspectives of relevance, appropriateness and responsiveness to community needs. There is no consistent general model to evaluate the social accountability of medical schools. This study was conducted to develop indicators of social accountability in medical schools. Methods: Criteria and indicators of social accountability were developed during three stages. In the first stage, after a deep review on the Global Consensus on Social Accountability of Medical Schools (GCSA and several papers we developed baseline areas, criteria and indicators. In the second stage, during the first round of the Delphi, the tables draft was sent to twenty medical education experts. Then, comments were collected and classified in the first meeting of the focus group discussions and necessary reforms were implemented in the tables. In the third stage and second round of Delphi, the set of revisions were sent the same selected experts. The suggested reforms were applied after collecting the instructors’ comments in the second focus group discussions. Five members of the focus group discussions were selected based on their relevant knowledge and experience in social accountability issues. Results: Ten areas, twenty-eight criteria and ninety-five indicators were developed after three stages of study with two rounds using the Delphi method and two focus group sessions. To clarify the criteria and indicators, we tried to make the developed indicators and criteria practical so that they could be used in the social accountability evaluation of medical schools. Conclusion: According to the importance and key role of social accountability in the medical schools mission, using comprehensive indicators can result in better accreditation and evaluation of medical schools .This study has prepared applicable and comprehensive indicators for evaluation
A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting awareness of mobile tagging on social media. The study assumes that the mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers are high. As a result of the literature review made in the scope of the purpose and assumption of the study, it was identified that the variables used in the measurement of brand awareness levels are recognition, remembering, being first in remembering, brand dominance, brand knowledge and brand opinion. A conceptual model showing the relation between these variables and mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers and hypotheses connected to this model were developed and a survey form, loyal to the relevant literature, was prepared in order to obtain the data necessary for the analyses. The universe of the study covers the consumers who are members of social media sites Facebook, Twitter and Linked In. For the analysis of the data obtained as a result of the survey conducted, descriptive statistics containing percentages and frequencies, factor analysis and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used in the analysis of the hypotheses.
Anna Maaria Järvinen
Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.
Corneliu Mihai PREDA
Full Text Available This paper tries to show that the need to implement BI solutions that integrate social networks data is increasingly more acute. Companies need to understand that efficient decision making has to take into account the importance that social medial has nowadays. In addition, the software developing companies have to keep up to date with new trends generated within these communication channels and adapt their solutions to this dynamic environment.
Full Text Available Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection. We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.
Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun
Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.
Full Text Available From the paradigm of social representations theory, results from an interview- based study are presented. Forty-five Portuguese participants with different educational roles were interviewed individually about their definitions of intelligence and perceived family and school contributions for its development. Content analyses of the answers led to the differentiation of distinct categories, presenting intelligence as a multi-dimensional concept and identifying which specific educational practices are perceived as enhancing its development. Subsequent correspondence analyses shed light on the relationship between the various representational components and individuals’ group membership, as defined by their educational roles. Extracted dimensions and typologies illustrate the socio-cognitive complexities of representations both by disentangling which domains build up an intelligible sense of intelligence for each group of participants and by demonstrating social representations’ function in protecting a positive self-image. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings in educational research and intervention are discussed.
Full Text Available The proliferation of social technology poses both a threat and an opportunityfor the delivery of traditional case method learning in business schools.This paper extends the expectation confirmation model (ECM to examine thepossibility of delivering the case method learning via social technology. Ourregression analysis shows that, in addition to affective factors, the socialfactor of information and knowledge sharing can help improve the accuracyof predicting a student’s continuance intention of using social technology incase method learning. The analysis result leads to theoretical and empiricalfindings for business schools to consider adopting social technology as thenext-generation tool for case method teaching.
Baarendse, P.J.J.; Limpens, J.H.W.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.
for behavioural development. In particular, social play behaviour during post-weaning development is thought to facilitate the attainment of social, emotional and cognitive capacities. Conversely, social insults during development can cause longlasting behavioural impairments and increase the vulner
Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.
Godwin S. Ashiabi
Full Text Available In his later writings, Bronfenbrenner revised his ecological theory, resulting in the bioecological model that gave prominence to proximal processes and the relationship between the context and individual characteristics. Drawing on the bioecological model, we hypothesized that (a contextual influences will be mediated by proximal processes, (b proximal processes will have a more powerful impact on children’s development than contextual factors, and (c the effect of contextual and proximal processes will vary as a function of child characteristic and developmental outcome. Data used were from a sample of 28,064 six- to eleven-year-olds in the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. A multigroup structural equation model that employed a process-person-context research design was used to analyze the data. In general, support was found for the meditational hypothesis and the hypothesis that the impact of contextual factors and proximal processes varies as a function of person and the developmental outcome. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that proximal processes exert a more powerful effect on development than contextual factors.
Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria
is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland...... – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public......Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland...
Miller, Thomas H; Clements, Katie; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Choongseok; Hye Ji, Eoon; Issa, Fadi A
In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. In vertebrates, little is known of how social status affects the underlying neural mechanisms regulating decision-making circuits that drive competing behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim). We show that socially dominant animals enhance activation of the swim circuit. Conversely, social subordinates display a decreased activation of the swim circuit, but an enhanced activation of the escape circuit. In an effort to understand how social status mediates these effects, we constructed a neurocomputational model of the escape and swim circuits. The model replicates our findings and suggests that social status-related shift in circuit dynamics could be mediated by changes in the relative excitability of the escape and swim networks. Together, our results reveal that changes in the excitabilities of the Mauthner command neuron for escape and the inhibitory interneurons that regulate swimming provide a cellular mechanism for the nervous system to adapt to changes in social conditions by permitting the animal to select a socially appropriate behavioral response.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how social factors influence nervous system function is of great importance. Using zebrafish as a model system, we demonstrate how social experience affects decision making to enable animals to produce socially appropriate behavior. Based on experimental evidence and computational modeling, we show that behavioral decisions reflect the interplay between competing neural circuits whose activation thresholds shift in accordance with social status. We demonstrate this through analysis of the behavior and neural circuit
Hicks, Mona; Tran-Parsons, Uyen
The skill development of equanimity and empathy gained through spiritual growth equips students to examine solutions to complex problems in a diverse, global society. This chapter explores intentional multicultural initiatives designed to foster spiritual development and interfaith engagement as means to navigate difference and social good.
Erk, S.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto parti
Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A
The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.
Sibbald, E D; Plowright, C M S
This study examines the social dynamics of reproductive conflict. Orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) with comparatively high or low levels of social activity were paired to determine whether aggression and reproduction could be traced to earlier social interactions. The workers were paired according to their levels of social activity (a socially active+another socially active worker, socially active+socially inactive, and two socially inactive workers). The presence or absence of brood was also manipulated. The absence of brood increased both aggression and ovarian development, suggesting that aggression and reproduction are associated or that there is a third variable that affects both. Socially active pairs were significantly more aggressive: here, social activity can be taken as an early indicator of aggression. No such effect, however, was obtained on ovarian development as the socially active pairs did not differ on their degree of ovarian development compared to the others. Within the socially active+socially inactive pairs, the socially active worker did not have more developed ovaries and was not more aggressive than her socially inactive partner. Results highlight that environmental conditions (the absence of brood) can predict ovarian development and although social activity can be observed prior to aggression, differences in aggression do not translate into differences in ovarian development under these conditions.
Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Teachman, Bethany A
Background Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. Objective We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. Methods We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants’ personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. Results We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was
Walker, M A; Whittaker, S J; Walker, Marilyn A.; Cahn, Janet E.; Whittaker, Stephen J.
This paper introduces Linguistic Style Improvisation, a theory and set of algorithms for improvisation of spoken utterances by artificial agents, with applications to interactive story and dialogue systems. We argue that linguistic style is a key aspect of character, and show how speech act representations common in AI can provide abstract representations from which computer characters can improvise. We show that the mechanisms proposed introduce the possibility of socially oriented agents, meet the requirements that lifelike characters be believable, and satisfy particular criteria for improvisation proposed by Hayes-Roth.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author deals with prison as an archaic social institution, which reflects an archaic conception of human being, his needs and duty, but exists in a modern society. Russian prisons are institutions of a male initiations as well as a Russian army. They give a special sort of male socialization, very archaic and military, patriarchal and hierarchal; produce a special kind of society divided on unmixed social groups, casts, and is very violent. Taking into account how many people go through prison in Russia (rotation near 300 people per year, every 4th man got in contact with prison and every 3rd with army and a fact that prison and society are communicating vessels, our prisons, our prisoners and former prisoners are a good reserve of our social underdevelopment, social cruelty, our disability to promote social reforms, to take care about vulnerable group of our population (children, old people and female, because they are not a part of male prison and a military hierarchy. An attempt to modernize prison life, prison condition by different way and especially mediation as a way to make them softer and human is an attempt of social development.
Luciana França Cescon
Full Text Available The present work aims to reflect on the influence of HIV / AIDS on social relations, sexuality and adolescent affectivity. We conducted a literature review and subsequent theoretical discussion on the topic, with the methodology of qualitative analysis of texts and scientific articles. The findings of the study demonstrated that it is necessary to fully consider the various psychosocial aspects of this dynamic, since the psychological aspects significantly influence disease progression and quality of life of HIV patient. For adolescents, this influence becomes even greater, because puberty is a specific stage of biological development, emotional and social, where social interaction plays an important role for the construction of the subject's personality. It is hoped that this study may contribute to the reflection on the importance of creating themselves coping strategies and health care interventions geared to this particular group, especially with regard to the psychologist, who should seek to accommodate these demands subjects, contributing to a healthy psychosocial development, considering its specific features.
Jackson, Jennifer; Kennedy, Maggie
Social media tools provide opportunities for nurses to connect with colleagues and patients and to advance personally and professionally. This article describes the process of developing an innovative social media platform at a large, multi-centre teaching hospital, The Ottawa Hospital, Canada, and its benefits for nurses. The platform, TOH Nurses, was developed using a nursing process approach, involving assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. The aim of this initiative was to address the barriers to communication inherent in the large number of nurses employed by the organisation, the physical size of the multi-centre hospital and the shift-work nature of nursing. The platform was used to provide educational materials for clinical nurses, and to share information about professional practice. The implications of using a social media platform in a healthcare setting were considered carefully during its development and implementation, including concerns regarding privacy and confidentiality.
Corrigan, Matthew J.; Bill, M. Louise; Slater, Judith R.
Substance abuse has been identified as a significant social problem. Social work is uniquely positioned to affect this problem. Kennesaw State University has established a substance abuse concentration as part of its master's of social work program. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of this curriculum. The curriculum is…
Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel
Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia.
Podobnik, Boris; Wang, Zhen; Stanley, H Eugene
Mutualistic relationships among the different species are ubiquitous in nature. To prevent mutualism from slipping into antagonism, a host often invokes a "carrot and stick" approach towards symbionts with a stabilizing effect on their symbiosis. In open human societies, a mutualistic relationship arises when a native insider population attracts outsiders with benevolent incentives in hope that the additional labor will improve the standard of all. A lingering question, however, is the extent to which insiders are willing to tolerate outsiders before mutualism slips into antagonism. To test the assertion by Karl Popper that unlimited tolerance leads to the demise of tolerance, we model a society under a growing incursion from the outside. Guided by their traditions of maintaining the social fabric and prizing tolerance, the insiders reduce their benevolence toward the growing subpopulation of outsiders but do not invoke punishment. This reduction of benevolence intensifies as less tolerant insiders (e.g., "ra...
Full Text Available Social understanding is facilitated by effectively attending to other people and the subtle social cues they generate. In order to more fully appreciate the nature of social attention and what drives people to attend to social aspects of the world, one must investigate the factors that influence social attention. This is especially important when attempting to create models of disordered social attention, e.g. a model of social attention in autism. Here we analysed participants' viewing behaviour during one-to-one social interactions with an experimenter. Interactions were conducted either live or via video (social presence manipulation. The participant was asked and then required to answer questions. Experimenter eye-contact was either direct or averted. Additionally, the influence of participant self-reported autistic traits was also investigated. We found that regardless of whether the interaction was conducted live or via a video, participants frequently looked at the experimenter's face, and they did this more often when being asked a question than when answering. Critical differences in social attention between the live and video interactions were also observed. Modifications of experimenter eye contact influenced participants' eye movements in the live interaction only; and increased autistic traits were associated with less looking at the experimenter for video interactions only. We conclude that analysing patterns of eye-movements in response to strictly controlled video stimuli and natural real-world stimuli furthers the field's understanding of the factors that influence social attention.
Podobnik, Boris; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen; Stanley, H. Eugene
Mutualistic relationships among the different species are ubiquitous in nature. To prevent mutualism from slipping into antagonism, a host often invokes a "carrot and stick" approach towards symbionts with a stabilizing effect on their symbiosis. In open human societies, a mutualistic relationship arises when a native insider population attracts outsiders with benevolent incentives in hope that the additional labor will improve the standard of all. A lingering question, however, is the extent to which insiders are willing to tolerate outsiders before mutualism slips into antagonism. To test the assertion by Karl Popper that unlimited tolerance leads to the demise of tolerance, we model a society under a growing incursion from the outside. Guided by their traditions of maintaining the social fabric and prizing tolerance, the insiders reduce their benevolence toward the growing subpopulation of outsiders but do not invoke punishment. This reduction of benevolence intensifies as less tolerant insiders (e.g., "radicals") openly renounce benevolence. Although more tolerant insiders maintain some level of benevolence, they may also tacitly support radicals out of fear for the future. If radicals and their tacit supporters achieve a critical majority, herd behavior ensues and the relation between the insider and outsider subpopulations turns antagonistic. To control the risk of unwanted social dynamics, we map the parameter space within which the tolerance of insiders is in balance with the assimilation of outsiders, the tolerant insiders maintain a sustainable majority, and any reduction in benevolence occurs smoothly. We also identify the circumstances that cause the relations between insiders and outsiders to collapse or that lead to the dominance of the outsiders.
Habib, H; Hatta, T; Udagawa, J; Zhang, L; Yoshimura, Y; Otani, H
Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular condyle. Condylar cartilage was reduced in size, and the bone-cartilage margin was ill-defined in the sutured group at E18.5. Volume, total number of cells, and number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the mesenchymal zone were lower in the sutured group than in the non-sutured group at E16.5 and E18.5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were larger, whereas fewer apoptotic chondrocytes and osteoclasts were observed in the hypertrophic zone in the sutured group at E18.5. Analysis of our data revealed that restricted fetal TMJ movement influences the process of endochondral bone formation of condylar cartilage.
Bussey, K; Bandura, A
Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social changes that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of influence.
Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)
Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.
Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Formiggini, Fabio; Marco, Nadia De; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Carotenuto, Rosa
Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay- Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the "corona" effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.
As part of our inquiry into how youth development and 4-H programming can affect the development of social capital for youth and for the community, we engaged youth in ripple mapping. Based on this information, we provide a typology of participation structures in youth development activities and the expected bridging and bonding social capital…
Full Text Available A well-balanced relationship between economic and social progress is the main prerequisite of rural community stability. Economic development is influenced by many factors. Some of these are statistically discoverable and quantifiable, while others, which fall within the sphere of social relations and their identification, are more difficult to measure and interpret. Czech rural areas face many problems which arise from their specific features – socio-demographic structure, job possibility of various social groups, provision of the proper level of public services, transport accessibility, etc. However, there is no direct connection between economic factors and mutual relations within the rural community. Values, opinions and the behavioural patterns of people are immediately displayed in a locality, but their character is shaped by the regional and national assumptions of every stage of development. Contributions are drawn from the accessible literature and secondary data of empirical research projects.
This thesis seeks to add to the development of the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA), which can be defined as an assessment method for assessing the social impacts connected to the life cycle of a product, service or system. In such development it is important to realise that the SLCA is only...... appealing to the extent that it does what it is supposed to do. In this thesis, this goal of SLCA is defined as to support improvements of the social conditions for the stakeholders throughout the life cycle of the assessed product, system or service. This effect should arise through decision makers......, it was also shown that the companies’ ability to obtain data throughout their products’ life cycles was very limited, for example because suppliers were unwilling to hand over this information to the companies or because the goods were bought on open markets furnished by a large number of unidentified...
Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.
Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…
This books describes and explains how a romantic partner and child(-ren) affect social relationships. Whereas many scholars have studied the importance of personal networks as a resource for the individual, comparatively little is known about how social networks emerge and how network composition ca
Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak
The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...
Full Text Available Various aspects of beliefs, behaviour and expectations of at-risk populations were analysed in four case study localities in southern Poland that were affected by flooding in 1997 and 2001. They represent localities of different sizes and are characterised by different paths of historical development. Two of them are deep-rooted communities with dense, strong family and neighbourhood ties, while the other two experienced an almost total replacement of their population due to decisions taken after World War II and still suffer from less developed social networks. Historical events also resulted in the disruption of local memories of flooding and transmission of knowledge about natural hazards. A questionnaire survey was conducted in late autumn 2006, followed by structured telephone interviews and focus group interviews in spring 2008. The results of the survey and interviews were analysed with reference to the social capacity framework and its five dimensions: knowledge, motivational, network, economic and governance capacities. Network capacities, that is resources of bonding and bridging social capital, were considered a key notion when analysing and interpreting the results. The differences in the local resources and abilities available in each of the localities to prepare a response to natural hazards were revealed. Consequently, challenges faced in the process of building and strengthening social capacity were identified as well as ways to address these challenges. It was concluded that there are general trends and tendencies that need to be considered in risk management strategies, however the different starting points of each case study community calls for different means and approaches, as well as producing somewhat different expected outcomes.
Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for
Stefanie M. Erk
Full Text Available This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video can (1 enhance recovery from sadness, (2 enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3 increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble, which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses and subjective (questionnaires data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was
Vetter, N.C.; Leipold, K.; Kliegel, M.; Phillips, L.H.; Altgassen, A.M.
Age differences in social cognition between adolescents and young adults were investigated. Two large groups of adolescents and young adults were given tasks of theory of mind and emotion recognition. In addition, to control for possibly related basic cognitive development, working memory, speed of
This paper examines the psychosocial development of Nepalese child laborers. The findings are discussed in relation to the questions of where and how learning occurs, whether transfer or generalizations occur from specific skills to other activities, and what role the socialization process plays in the psychological well-being of the Nepalese…
Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…
Discusses the shift of emphasis from the cognitive to the moral and ethical in secondary and higher education. Considers the possibility of a genetic basis for morality and the importance of understanding the social context for transmitting moral values in the academic setting. Suggests techniques for facilitating moral development in…
Chen, Tingji; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hietanen, Jari K.
Fast and accurate judgment of whether another person is making eye contact or not is crucial for our social interaction. As affective states have been shown to influence social perceptions and judgments, we investigated the influence of observers’ own affective states and trait anxiety on their eye contact judgments. In two experiments, participants were required to judge whether animated faces (Experiment 1) and real faces (Experiment 2) with varying gaze angles were looking at them or not. Participants performed the task in pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odor conditions. The results from two experiments showed that eye contact judgments were not modulated by observers’ affective state, yet participants with higher levels of social anxiety accepted a wider range of gaze deviations from the direct gaze as eye contact. We conclude that gaze direction judgments depend on individual differences in affective predispositions, yet they are not amenable to situational affective influences.
Giazú Enciso Domínguez
Full Text Available The Affective Turn is an innovative movement that is transforming the production of knowledge based on the study of affect and emotion. To understand the current role of emotions, we proposed a 'prequel. Telling what happened with emotions within the social sciences before the Affective Turn, and before the twentieth century. In this work we explain the present from the past, we tell the story before The History, we pay a debt to a previous work: The Affective Turn. We articulate the prequel through seven approaches: Socialconstructionism, Discursive Social Psychology, Cultural Studies of Emotions, Emocionologies, Interpretative Sociology, Sociolinguistic of Emotions and Feminist Studies of emotions. We review the interests of each approach, their schools, their past, and give hints about not only the present but the future(s of the Affective Turn, in social science and academy as well.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement scale for evaluating the implementation level of the concept of social responsibility in taking marketing decisions, in accordance with a paradigm of the quality-of-life marketing. A new scale of "socially responsible marketing decisions" has been formed and its content validity, reliability and dimensionality have been analyzed. The scale has been tested on a sample of the most successful Croatian firms. The research results lead us to conclude that the scale has satisfactory psychometric characteristics but that it is necessary to improve it by generating new items and by testing it on a greater number of samples.
Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.
P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect th
MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.
In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.
Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah
Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…
Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.
Two studies investigated the impact of information about the effort and performance of others on students' anticipated affects and judgments of competence given success in task-involving and ego-involving contexts. Without social comparison information, competence and positive affects were judged higher when students were asked to imagine…
Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R
This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors).
Wim H. van Brakel
Full Text Available Background: Leprosy-related disability is a challenge to public health, and social and rehabilitation services in endemic countries. Disability is more than a mere physical dysfunction, and includes activity limitations, stigma, discrimination, and social participation restrictions. We assessed the extent of disability and its determinants among persons with leprosy-related disabilities after release from multi drug treatment. Methods: We conducted a survey on disability among persons affected by leprosy in Indonesia, using a Rapid Disability Appraisal toolkit based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The toolkit included the Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA scale, Participation Scale, Jacoby Stigma Scale (anticipated stigma, Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC stigma scale and Discrimination assessment. Community members were interviewed using a community version of the stigma scale. Multivariate linear regression was done to identify factors associated with social participation. Results: Overall 1,358 persons with leprosy-related disability (PLD and 931 community members were included. Seventy-seven percent of PLD had physical impairments. Impairment status deteriorated significantly after release from treatment (from 59% to 77%. Around 60% of people reported activity limitations and participation restrictions and 36% anticipated stigma. As for participation restrictions and stigma, shame, problems related to marriage and difficulties in employment were the most frequently reported problems. Major determinants of participation were severity of impairment and level of education, activity and stigma. Reported severity of community stigma correlated with severity of participation restrictions in the same districts. Discussion: The majority of respondents reported problems in all components of disability. The reported physical impairment after release from treatment
Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio
Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…
Salazar, Vielka L; Stoddard, Philip K
Sexually-selected communication signals can be used by competing males to settle contests without incurring the costs of fighting. Steroid regulation of these signals can render them as reliable indicators of a male's physiological state. We investigated how plasticity in electrocommunication signals is driven by social competition for mates, mediated by steroid hormones, and subject to the effects of past social experience. We measured the electric waveform's amplitude and duration and steroid hormone levels of male gymnotiform electric fish (Brachyhypopomus gauderio) following week-long periods of social isolation, and low or high social competition. To quantify the effect of social history on the modulation of the electric signal, six groups of six males experienced all three social conditions but in different order. We found that males differentially modulate their electric signals depending on the order they experienced these conditions. Thus, past social interactions affect both present and future social electric signals. Cortisol levels and the amplitude of the electric signal appeared to track the intensity of competition, while androgen levels and the duration of the electric signal only responded to the presence (low and high competition) or absence (isolation) of a social environment (low and high androgens respectively). In addition, cortisol levels were related to the body size of the males at high social competition. Taken together, these findings suggest that the capacity of males to modulate their signals in response to social competition is regulated by steroids.
Shane R. Brady
Full Text Available This paper will discuss social media technology in the context of social work education. While social media technology is prevalent in social work education, most discourse about ethical use of social media in the classroom has taken a prescriptive and overly cautious approach that neglects the context dependent nature that social work educators teach in as well as the overwhelmingly positive potential of social media technology in the classroom. This paper utilizes social constructivist theory and the Competing Values framework to guide the development of an ethical decision making framework for social work educators to use in order to create dynamic classroom policies related to social media technology. The authors strive to make a modest contribution to the existing literature related to social media technology and social work through the development of this new ethical decision making framework and discourse related to social media technology, ethics, and social work education.
Katayama, T; Okamoto, M; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Jodo, E
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in motivation and affect, which suggests an impairment in the reward system. The psychotomimetic drug, phencyclidine (PCP), also induces schizophrenia-like negative symptoms, such as reduced motivation, blunted affect, and social withdrawal in both humans and animals. Previous studies have indicated that the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a pivotal role in the development of reward-associated learning and motivation. However, how PCP affects the activity of VTA neurons during performance of a reward-related task and social interaction with others in unanesthetized animals remains unclear. Here, we recorded the unit activity of VTA neurons in freely moving rats before and after systemic administration of PCP in a classical conditioning paradigm, and during social interaction with an unfamiliar partner. In the classical conditioning task, two different tones were sequentially presented, one of which accompanied electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle as an unconditioned stimulus. After identifying the response properties of recorded neurons in the classical conditioning task and social interaction, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PCP. Our study demonstrated that most VTA neurons responsive to reward-associated stimuli were also activated during social interaction. Such activation of neurons was considerably suppressed by systemic administration of PCP, thus, PCP may affect the firing activity of VTA neurons that are involved in motivation, learning, and social interaction. Disruption of the response of VTA neurons to reward stimuli and socially interactive situations may be involved in PCP-induced impairments similar to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Alias, Nor Aziah
ICT Development for Social and Rural Connectedness provides an introduction to the concept of 'connectedness', and explores how this socio-psychological term has evolved during the age of the Internet. The book surveys the principles of ICT for development (ICTD), and closely examines how ICT has played a pivotal role in the rural community development of various countries. To highlight the continued benefits of ICT in these regions, the book presents an in-depth case study that analyzes the connectedness within the rural internet centers of Malaysia. The book is intended primarily for researc
Benton, David; Ferguson, Stephanie
Social network analysis examines the way individuals are connected within groups or networks, and the role they play in these groups. In terms of its application to issues related to nurse leaders, much of the research focuses on the structure of their networks, the roles they play, and whether the networks can be changed to improve communication flows. This article reports results of a study that aimed to deepen understanding of how a particular trait - communication apprehension - can affect the roles that nurse leaders play within network structures. It also shows how the research expands understanding of the factors that influence connections between senior nurse leaders internationally, and describes the communication apprehension instrument used, which provides a practical tool to assist aspirant nurse leaders to identify areas for personal development.
Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias
Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence.
The Social Construction Is the Construction of the Social Modernization Abstract： At present, the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics has developed from the trinity of economy, politics, and culture building to the new unity includin
Antonio De la Peña García
Full Text Available This article offers a critical review of the concept of social capital, focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of the communitarian approach. It argues that this approach has a culturalist bias that omits key issues of inequality, conflict and power, making it a tool that is unlikely to contribute significantly to poverty reduction or development. As an example, it describes the adoption of the concept by the World Bank and provides a case study of rural community organization in Ecuador.
Ana R. Casanova
Full Text Available University Social Responsibility (USR includes among its major axis to gua-rantee the social responsibility of science due to: the recognition of the uni-versity as a strategic place to establish it and promote it, the evidence does not control power of techno-science, the need to submit scientific activity to moral and social control and responsibility of the university in citizen over-sight of science. The aim of this study, conducted with students from the fourth year of the three major of the Faculty of Biology, was to determinethe knowledge and judgment they have on the social responsibility of the scientist and identify the elements necessary for the future design of a stra-tegy improvement in this important area. The method used was the debate in plenary of six questions that previously were discussed in small groups and the establishment of categories for the analysis of the content of them. The results of the analysis of the different questions showed no appreciable diffe-rences between groups. In conclusion we have assessed that the interest shown by students and the basic knowledge they possess, demonstrated the feasibility of continuing to work on these issues and other related, so that we can achieve true comprehensive training curriculum which embeds the con-tents of the values develop and consolidate.
Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet
The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…
Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi
Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.
Hannula, Markku S.
This paper will review theoretical approaches for research on mathematics-related affect from the 1990s until today. In order to organise this field, a metatheory of the affective domain is developed, based on distinctions along three dimensions: 1) cognitive, motivational and emotional aspects of affect; 2) rapidly changing affective states…
Kenan, Thuraya; Pislaru, Crinela; Othman, Aisha; Elzawi, A.
This paper analyses the social impact and cultural issues which affect the e-learning performance in Libyan\\ud Higher Education institutes (HEIs). It is described the development and implementation of e-learning systems in\\ud various HEIs with the emphasis on the digital gap in Libya and barriers to successful e-learning implementation in\\ud these institutions. Also the social impact of using e-learning packages and Internet by young people in Libya is\\ud studied and a SWOT analysis of ICT an...
Ramon Solves Pujol
Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of social psychological and philosophical foundations for designing affective technology that promotes the experience of love. The adopted theoretical basis is the concept of productive love, which is heavily based on Enrich Fromm but also includes theories and scientific findings of numerous psychoanalysts, social psychologists, and philosophers. We conducted a review of the theory about the nature of love and found that social psychological and philosophical approaches differ regarding peoples' understandings. The findings were used to elaborate eight principles of productive love. Based on these principles, we derived criteria for designing affective technology when the objective is to promote productive love. We reviewed the existent studies on affective technologies and implemented the criteria into a system design, the Pictures' Call. A prototype of the system was pretested to illustrate how productive love technology could be based on established criteria.
Glonek Gary FV; Giles Lynne C; Luszcz Mary A; Andrews Gary R
Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants) and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Mul...
Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Wim H Van Brakel; Sihombing, Benyamin; Djarir, Hernani; Beise, Kerstin; Kusumawardhani, Laksmi; Yulihane, Rita; Kurniasari, Indra; Kasim, Muhammad; Kesumaningsih, Kadek I.
Background: Leprosy-related disability is a challenge to public health, and social and rehabilitation services in endemic countries. Disability is more than a mere physical dysfunction, and includes activity limitations, stigma, discrimination, and social participation restrictions. We assessed the extent of disability and its determinants among persons with leprosy-related disabilities after release from multi drug treatment. Methods: We conducted a survey on disability among persons affecte...
Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R
Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.
Full Text Available The authors deal with a question, which is hard to answer considering the context of the future of the social evolution. The authors suppose that one should ask rather about overcoming the current wave of individualism than about overcoming the current form of capitalism. Individualism dismantles any society and it is necessary to react by building stable dual relationships. It highlights the key role of a family. Collectivism, as well as individualism, are not able to create any kind of social structure and lead the society into the liquid of chaos or into the motionless totality. It states that the economic security of various societies is to certain extent affected by all possible production factors and that the reason of the success of their functioning is a balance between power, wealth and public support. It points out that it is necessary to keep a couple and its relationship as a basic element in theory as well as in practice. In legitimate cases of a production practise, it is possible to consider the human individual as the element. It condemns inhumane artificial terms such as “homo economicus”, human resources or human capital. In the conclusions, the authors appeal to restore humanity in society by the contribution of each individual and his interpersonal relationships.
Beltzer, Miranda L; Nock, Matthew K; Peters, Brett J; Jamieson, Jeremy P
This study examined the effects of reappraising stress arousal on affective displays, physiological responses, and social performance during an evaluative situation. Participants were sampled from across the social anxiety spectrum and instructed to reappraise arousal as beneficial or received no instructions. Independent raters coded affective displays, nonverbal signaling, and speech performance. Saliva samples collected at baseline and after evaluation were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a protein that indexes sympathetic activation. Arousal reappraisal participants exhibited less shame and anxiety, less avoidant nonverbal signaling, and performed marginally better than no instruction controls. Reappraisal participants also exhibited increased levels of sAA and increased appraisals of coping resources compared with controls. Furthermore, stress appraisals mediated relationships between reappraisal and affective displays. This research indicates that reframing stress arousal can improve behavioral displays of affect during evaluative situations via altering cognitive appraisals.
Seid, Marc A.; Junge, Erich
Social interactions play a key role in the healthy development of social animals and are most pronounced in species with complex social networks. When developing offspring do not receive proper social interaction, they show developmental impairments. This effect is well documented in mammalian species but controversial in social insects. It has been hypothesized that the enlargement of the mushroom bodies, responsible for learning and memory, observed in social insects is needed for maintaining the large social networks and/or task allocation. This study examines the impact of social isolation on the development of mushroom bodies of the ant Camponotus floridanus. Ants raised in isolation were shown to exhibit impairment in the growth of the mushroom bodies as well as behavioral differences when compared to ants raised in social groups. These results indicate that social interaction is necessary for the proper development of C. floridanus mushroom bodies.
Nakamura, Kayo; Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji
Social buffering is a phenomenon in which stress in an animal is ameliorated when the subject is accompanied by a conspecific animal(s) during exposure to distressing stimuli. We previously reported that in male Wistar rats, the presence of another Wistar rat mitigates conditioned fear responses to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Subsequent analyses revealed several characteristics of this social buffering of conditioned fear responses. However, information regarding the specificity of accompanying conspecifics is still limited. In the present study, we assessed whether rats of other strains could induce social buffering in Wistar rats. When a fear-conditioned Wistar subject was re-exposed to the CS alone, we observed increased freezing and decreased investigation and walking, as well as elevated corticosterone levels. The presence of a Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, or Long-Evans rat blocked these responses, suggesting that social buffering was induced by these strains of rats. In contrast, a Fischer 344 rat did not induce social buffering in the Wistar subject. We further found that an inbred Lewis rat induced social buffering whereas a Brown Norway rat, a strain that has been established independently from Wistar rats, did not. These results suggest that the difference in origin, rather than the inbred or outbred status of the associate rat, seemed to account for the lack of social buffering induced by the F344 rats. Based on these findings, we conclude that strains of an accompanying conspecific can affect the efficacy of social buffering in rats.
This paper focus on the function of cooperative learning in developing positive affect, Including reducing anxiety, increasing motivation, facilitating the development of positive attitudes toward learning and language learning, promoting serf- esteem, as well as supporting different learning styles and encouraging perseverance in the difficult and confusing process of learning a foreign language.
Autism spectrum presentations are considered ‘lifelong developmental disabilities’ affecting the way individuals communicate and relate to others, thus significantly impacting on social interaction resulting in various social disadvantages.\\ud To date, the key psychological theory accepted, as an explanation for difficulties observed in autism presentations is the lack of ‘Theory of Mind’ (ToM), which is considered a facet of social cognition required in understanding how to interact socially...
Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S
We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non......-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable....... Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...
An article about the dialectical laws of the genesis of social organization and social systems. The author suggests using a new classification of social relations for the methodological study of the evolution of social systems. The work is based on the methodology of general systems theory and the theory of I.R. Prigogine.
Hartnagel, Timothy F.
Data collected from interviews with residents of a western Canadian city did not support the hypothesis that the perception and fear of crime would be inversely related to neighborhood cohesion and social activity. But as hypothesized, the fear of crime was negatively related to affect for the community. (RLV)
Buunk, BP; Ybema, JF; van der Zee, K
The affective consequences of social comparison were examined in 2 field studies among nurses and related to the 3 dimensions of professional burnout: emotional exhaustion, reduced personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. Study 1 was conducted in a sample of 99 nurses of a psychiatric hospita
Fisher, Sebern F.
This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…
Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.
Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…
Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.
Gerianne M Alexander
Full Text Available Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on nonhuman primates indicated suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.
Social exclusion is the product of the interaction of a wide range of socio-economic, cultural and institutional problems. In order to be successful, these programs should aim to combine - in the real contexts in which they operate - interventions for economic growth that increase the opportunities for the excluded to benefit from them. This paper describes what social exclusion is, the factors causing it and the effects these have on excluded groups as a whole (economic, cultural, political)...
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation and social security, and sustainable development in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between three components of social capital and sustainable development including social cohesion, social participation and social security. However, the study does not confirm the relationship between social trust and sustainable development.
This book presents a new approach that can be applied to complex, integrated individual and social human processes. It provides an alternative means of addressing complexity, better suited for its purpose than and effectively complementing traditional strategies involving isolation and separation assumptions. Network-oriented modeling allows high-level cognitive, affective and social models in the form of (cyclic) graphs to be constructed, which can be automatically transformed into executable simulation models. The modeling format used makes it easy to take into account theories and findings about complex cognitive and social processes, which often involve dynamics based on interrelating cycles. Accordingly, it makes it possible to address complex phenomena such as the integration of emotions within cognitive processes of all kinds, of internal simulations of the mental processes of others, and of social phenomena such as shared understandings and collective actions. A variety of sample models – including ...
Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J. David
Background Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Methods Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. Results In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. Conclusions The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. PMID:22626868
Cabrera, Laura Y
The past decade has seen a rise in the use of different technologies aimed at enhancing cognition of normal healthy individuals. While values have been acknowledged to be an important aspect of cognitive enhancement practices, the discussion has predominantly focused on just a few values, such as safety, peer pressure, and authenticity. How are values, in a broader sense, affected by enhancing cognitive abilities? Is this dependent on the type of technology or intervention used to attain the enhancement, or does the cognitive domain targeted play a bigger role in how values are affected? Values are not only likely to be affected by cognitive enhancement practices; they also play a crucial role in defining the type of interventions that are likely to be undertaken. This paper explores the way values affect and are affected by enhancing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it argues that knowledge of the interplay between values and cognitive enhancement makes a strong case for social responsibility around cognitive enhancement practices.
Zhou, Mingming; Ee, Jessie
Reliable and valid measures of children’s and adolescents’ social emotional competence (SEC) are necessary to develop in order to assess their social emotional development and provide appropriate intervention in child and adolescent development. A pool of 25 items was created for the Social Emotional Competence Questionnaire (SECQ) that represented five dimensions of SEC: self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, relationship management and responsible decision-maki...
Dönmez, Aslıhan; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Ünsalver, Barış Önen
In this review, we aim to present our hypothesis about the neural development of affect. According to this view, affect develops at a multi-layered process, and as a mediator between drives, emotion and cognition. This development is parallel to the evolution of the brain from reptiles to mammals. There are five steps in this process: (1) Because of the various environmental challenges, changes in the autonomic nervous system occur and homeostasis becomes destabilized; (2) Drives arise from the destabilized homeostasis; (3) Drives trigger the neural basis of the basic emotional systems; (4) These basic emotions evolve into affect to find the particular object to invest the emotional energy; and (5) In the final stage, cognition is added to increase the possibility of identifying a particular object. In this paper, we will summarize the rationale behind this view, which is based on neuroscientific proofs, such as evolution of autonomic nervous system, neural basis the raw affective states, the interaction between affect and cognition, related brain areas, related neurotransmitters, as well as some clinical examples.
Full Text Available In North America, the use of the term ‘social pedagogy’ is a relatively new phenomenon, but social pedagogical practices have been used for a long time. The recent interest in the field of social pedagogy can be explained in part by the publication of an unprecedented volume of books and articles in English language, the creation of a new international journal, the simultaneous development of graduate programs in social pedagogy in the UK and the USA, and the establishment of a social pedagogy association that brings together academics and practitioners. In North America, social pedagogy thinking is influenced by the history of the field, by current social pedagogy theory and practice in other parts of the world, and by several traditions that connect education with social change. The paper discusses ten of them: indigenous education, progressive education, social movement learning, community development, public pedagogy, popular education, participatory action research, social economy, participatory democracy, and critical theory.
Social media have become increasingly popular because of the combination of both technological developments and social change. However, there are manifest differences in the ways people use social media as well as in the level of their competence. Differences in the skills to master technology and in the use of social media may result in new types of digital inequality. In order to overcome these inequalities, an extensive body of initiatives must deal with enhancing people’s level of social...
Grove, Tyler B; Tso, Ivy F; Chun, Jinsoo; Mueller, Savanna A; Taylor, Stephan F; Ellingrod, Vicki L; McInnis, Melvin G; Deldin, Patricia J
Most people with a serious mental illness experience significant functional impairment despite ongoing pharmacological treatment. Thus, in order to improve outcomes, a better understanding of functional predictors is needed. This study examined negative affect, a construct comprised of negative emotional experience, as a predictor of social functioning across serious mental illnesses. One hundred twenty-seven participants with schizophrenia, 113 with schizoaffective disorder, 22 with psychosis not otherwise specified, 58 with bipolar disorder, and 84 healthy controls (N=404) completed self-report negative affect measures. Elevated levels of negative affect were observed in clinical participants compared with healthy controls. For both clinical and healthy control participants, negative affect measures were significantly correlated with social functioning, and consistently explained significant amounts of variance in functioning. For clinical participants, this relationship persisted even after accounting for cognition and positive/negative symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affect is a strong predictor of outcome across these populations and treatment of serious mental illnesses should target elevated negative affect in addition to cognition and positive/negative symptoms.
Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…
ec. drd. Oana Ghica
Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and Sustainable Development (SD are among the most important concepts applied and/or promoted by companies through specific programmes. Whether they are part of the company\\'s PR strategy or an element of the company\\'s operational system, CSR and SD programmes are becoming a constant part of corporate actions. Considered by some analysts as controversial concepts, studies regarding CSR and SD have increased especially over the last two decades and actions related to them have become both shield and weapon for companies, organizations and governments, depending on the pwpose they are used for.The following article makes a short presentation of the CSR and SD concepts, the relationship between them and benefits they generate, and ends with the case study of the eKOsystem programme launched by Hie Coca-Cola Company - a relevant example of programmes designed to promote and apply both CSR and SD concepts.
WOMEN, a powerful force accounting for some 50 percent of world’s total population, are deeply involved in social development and are actively joining their male counterparts in promoting the progress of mankind. Nonetheless, people seem to be paying increasingly less attention to the aforementioned facts. Therefore, the following question is meant to call people’s attention to the matter. What would happen if women withdraw from economic, political, cultural and family activities? In terms of the economy, it would mean that about one billion people would go on strike due to the fact that some 897 million women across the world are engaged in paid economic activities. The worldwide grain output
Chamberlin, H M; Brown, K B; Sternberg, P W; Thomas, J H
We have identified and characterized 12 mutations in seven genes that affect the development of the Caenorhabditis elegans hindgut. We find that the mutations can disrupt the postembryonic development of the male-specific blast cells within the hindgut, the hindgut morphology in both males and hermaphrodites, and in some cases, the expression of a hindgut marker in hermaphrodite animals. Mutations in several of the genes also affect viability. On the basis of their mutant phenotypes, we propose that the genes fall into four distinct classes: (1) egl-5 is required for regional identity of the tail; (2) sem-4 is required for a variety of ectodermal and mesodermal cell types, including cells in the hindgut; (3) two genes, lin-49 and lin-59, affect development of many cells, including hindgut; and (4) three genes, mab-9, egl-38, and lin-48, are required for patterning fates within the hindgut, making certain hindgut cells different from others. We also describe a new allele of the Pax gene egl-38 that is temperature sensitive and affects the conserved beta-hairpin of the EGL-38 paired domain. Our results suggest that a combination of different factors contribute to normal C. elegans hindgut development. PMID:10511553
Full Text Available Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74 were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball were recorded.Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure.Conclusions: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats.
Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu
Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.
This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...
This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...
Sanson, Ann; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Smart, Diana
This paper critically reviews the literature on the links between temperament and social development in children and adolescents. Social development is broadly defined to include externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, prosocial behaviour and social competence. It concludes that there are clear links between specific dimensions of…
Conson, Massimiliano; Errico, Domenico; Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Giordano, Marianna; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi
Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task), and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal) applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.
Social software (SoSo) is defined by Farkas as tools that (1) allow people to communicate, collaborate, and build community online (2) can be syndicated, shared, reused or remixed and (3) let people learn easily from and capitalize on the behavior and knowledge of others. . SoSo include a wide...... variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...
Full Text Available In Slovene towns and urban areas several processes of social transformation and change have been present in the last decade. As a consequence of political and economic transition increased social differentiation resulted in increased social segregation in urban areas. Some areas such as high-rise housing estates and part of older inner city areas were affected by social degradation and concentration of low-income population and ethnical minorities. In some parts of inner cities processes of reurbanisation and gentrification are taking place. However, the degree of social segragation is lower than in the cities of most transitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Maccoby, E. E.
Considers the divergent paths taken by research in cognitive development and research in social-emotional development, arguing that studies of socialization need to become more developmental. Discusses meanings of development that may affect the socialization process. (Author/CI)
Max eRapp Ricciardi
Full Text Available Background: The Development of Groups and Leaders (UGL, provided by the Swedish National Defence College and mentored by UGL-trainers, is one of the most popular management programs among civilians in Sweden. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the training. We used the affective profile model (i.e., the combination of positive, PA, and negative affect, NA to mapp important markers of empowerment, self-awareness, adaptive coping skills, and maturity among the UGL-trainers. The aims were: (1 to compare profiles between UGL-trainers and managers/supervisors and (2 to investigate differences in personal characteristics.Method: UGL-trainers (N = 153 and the comparison group (104 Swedish Chiefs of Police completed an online survey on optimism, self-esteem, locus of control, and affect. The four profiles are: self-fulfilling (high PA, low NA, high affective (high PA, high NA, low affective (high PA, low NA, and self-destructive (low PA, high NA,Results: The self-fulfilling profile was more common among UGL-trainers (25.70% than among Chiefs of Police (19.20%. UGL-trainers, compared to Chiefs of Police, were more likely to express a self-fulling than a low affective profile (OR=2.22, p < .05 and a high affective than a low affective profile (OR=1.43, p <.001. UGL-trainers with a self-fulfilling profile, compared to those with a self-destructive profile, scored higher in optimism, higher in self-esteem, and lower in external locus of control. Conclusions: The probability of self-fulfilment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfilment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuos training in awareness after
The text comprises the different elements of the psychoanalytic mentalization theory of Peter Fonagy et al. and tries to explain them. Part of this theory are above all the affect mirroring as well as the affect reciprocity theory and the two modes of the "as if" character and the psychic equivalence (playing with reality). You can find clear examples for each of these theoretical components. Moreover there are many correlations to other authors and their respective development theories: that is to Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. The text is based above all on Martin Dornes' approaches on this topic (2004, 2006).
Siu, Oi Ling; Bakker, Arnold B; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-Qin; Wang, Haijiang; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Lu, Jiafang; Timms, Carolyn
On the basis of conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, ) and the resource-gain-development perspective (Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson, & Kacmar, ), this paper examines the differential impact of specific social resources (supervisory support and family support) on specific types of affect (job satisfaction and family satisfaction, respectively), which, in turn, influence work-to-family enrichment and family-to-work enrichment, respectively. A sample of 276 Chinese workers completed questionnaires in a three-wave survey. The model was tested with structural equation modelling. Job satisfaction at time 2 partially mediated the relationship between time 1 supervisory support and time 3 work-to-family enrichment (capital), and the effect of supervisory support on work-to-family enrichment (affect) was fully mediated by job satisfaction. Family satisfaction at time 2 fully mediated the relationship between time 1 family support and time 3 family-to-work enrichment (affect, efficiency). Implications for theory, practice and future research are discussed.
Glonek Gary FV
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick
This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed.
Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie
Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.
Hruska-Tvrdy, Lubor; Foldynova, Ivana
New social risks are key factors for social cohesion of local community and society. Currently new social risks which are caused by changes in a society appear more frequently than before. While previously the groups of underprivileged were counted in endangered groups, now the middle class can be affected as well. This report shows a spatial distribution of these risks. How to obtain this result is shown on a particular example of the city of Ostrava. This report seeks to establish future in...
Crespi, Bernard; Leach, Emma; Dinsdale, Natalie; Mokkonen, Mikael; Hurd, Peter
Complex human social cognition has evolved in concert with risks for psychiatric disorders. Recently, autism and psychotic-affective conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression) have been posited as psychological 'opposites' with regard to social-cognitive phenotypes. Imagination, considered as 'forming new ideas, mental images, or concepts', represents a central facet of human social evolution and cognition. Previous studies have documented reduced imagination in autism, and increased imagination in association with psychotic-affective conditions, yet these sets of findings have yet to be considered together, or evaluated in the context of the diametric model. We first review studies of the components, manifestations, and neural correlates of imagination in autism and psychotic-affective conditions. Next, we use data on dimensional autism in healthy populations to test the hypotheses that: (1) imagination represents the facet of autism that best accounts for its strongly male-biased sex ratio, and (2) higher genetic risk of schizophrenia is associated with higher imagination, in accordance with the predictions of the diametric model. The first hypothesis was supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis showing that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations. The second hypothesis was supported, for males, by associations between schizophrenia genetic risk scores, derived from a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and the AQ Imagination subscale. Considered together, these findings indicate that imagination, especially social imagination as embodied in the default mode human brain network, mediates risk and diametric dimensional phenotypes of autism and psychotic-affective conditions.
Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.
Wortmeyer, Daniela Schmitz; Branco, Angela Uchoa
In this article, our aim is to analyze institutional practices guided to promote the development of moral values within the context of military education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers. From a cultural psychological approach, we discuss how social guidance within military culture operates at different levels of the affective-semiotic regulation of individuals, structuring complex experiences that give rise to hypergeneralized meaning fields regarding morality and military values. For this goal, we first introduce some theoretical topics related to values development, emphasizing their affective roots and role in the emergence, maintenance, amplification and attenuation of all relations between the person and the environment. Following a brief discussion on how social institutions try to promote changes in personal values, we provide an overview of values present in the military culture and socialization. Finally, the text focuses on the education of Brazilian Army combatant commissioned officers, describing how practices related to different levels of affective-semiotic experience combine in order to promote the internalization and externalization of specific moral values. We conclude suggesting issues for future investigation.
Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Fong, Geoffrey T; Dewhirst, Timothy; Kennedy, Ryan D; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Awang, Rahmat; Omar, Maizurah
Antismoking mass media campaigns are known to be effective as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs in high-income countries, but such campaigns are relatively new in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for strong evaluation studies from these regions. This study examines Malaysia's first national antismoking campaign, TAK NAK. The data are from the International Tobacco Control Malaysia Survey, which is an ongoing cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (18 years and older; N = 2,006). The outcome variable was quit intentions of adult smokers, and the authors assessed the extent to which quit intentions may have been strengthened by exposure to the antismoking campaign. The authors also tested whether the impact of the campaign on quit intentions was related to cognitive mechanisms (increasing thoughts about the harm of smoking), affective mechanisms (increasing fear from the campaign), and perceived social norms (increasing perceived social disapproval about smoking). Mediational regression analyses revealed that thoughts about the harm of smoking, fear arousal, and social norms against smoking mediated the relation between TAK NAK impact and quit intentions. Effective campaigns should prompt smokers to engage in both cognitive and affective processes and encourage consideration of social norms about smoking in their society.
Rocío Aguiar Sierra
Full Text Available This work described the design of an instrument able to measure social development for Mexican children and the process of the establishment of its psychometric properties. Theoretical aspects considered for its construction and the process of validating forms for parents and teachers are described in a three stage processes that resulted in a final version of the Social Development Scale that measures, disruptive behavior, social interaction, cooperation, acceptance and attachment as core dimensions associated with the concept of social competence. The importance of assessing social development and competence for education, children rearing and general well being are analyzed and discussed.
Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim
This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...
Preeti Tabitha LOUIS
Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.
Krueger, Konstanze; Heinze, Jürgen
Animals that live in stable social groups need to gather information on their own relative position in the group's social hierarchy, by either directly threatening or by challenging others, or indirectly and in a less perilous manner , by observing interactions among others. Indirect inference of dominance relationships has previously been reported from primates, rats, birds, and fish. Here, we show that domestic horses, Equus caballus, are similarly capable of social cognition. Taking advantage of a specific "following behavior" that horses show towards humans in a riding arena, we investigated whether bystander horses adjust their response to an experimenter according to the observed interaction and their own dominance relationship with the horse whose reaction to the experimenter they had observed before. Horses copied the "following behavior" towards an experimenter after watching a dominant horse following but did not follow after observing a subordinate horse or a horse from another social group doing so. The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…
Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.
This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the…
Full Text Available The assessment of the current state and prospects of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine based on qualitative and quantitative SWOT analysis, taking into account the synergy between the opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses of the object are suggested and conducted in the article. The expert survey method was applied to evaluate the factors are identified through SWOT analysis.The priority areas of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine had been identified on the basis of the sophisticated matrix of the SWOT- analysis. The overriding objectives of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine are making public authorities as well as civil society aware of the solutions required for the problems of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine through media and communications.The adoption of the Act on social entrepreneurship and its support at the national, regional and local level; the formulation and adoption of the special long-term development programmes to promote social entrepreneurship, introduce legislation to set up a specific registration system for social enterprises, including the regularly monitoring of their activities - the measures are necessary to achieve more effective implementation and increasing the scope and scale of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine.The establishment of the education programmes in the field of social entrepreneurship in the universities, organizing and conduction of teaching workshops, trainings, and courses on social entrepreneurship for the wide public - would give new impetus to the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as the source of the citizens' initiatives.
Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson
This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…
Caballo, V.E.; Salazar, I.C.; Irurtia, M.J.; Arias, B.; Hofmann, S.G.
This paper reports on two studies conducted to develop and validate a new self-report measure of social phobia/anxiety - the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A) (Cuestionario de ansiedad social para adultos, CASO-A). A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool
This paper reviews the literature on social inclusion and social capital to develop a framework to guide the selection of items and measures for the forthcoming SA Department of Human Services Survey of Social Inclusion to be held in the region of Northern Adelaide in South Australia. Northern Adelaide is a region with areas of high socio-economic…
Humphries, Jennifer L; Howard, Reginald W
Military social workers are facing transformative times in that demand for military social work has increased and become more complex, challenging, and diverse due to the last 13 years of combat experiences. Developing military social work leaders must be deliberate, continuous, and progressive in order to impact and improve organizational performance in the healthcare delivery system. The transformational leadership model has been proven to be effective in both the military and social service organizations. The strength of this leadership model coincides well with the values of the social work profession. Incorporating leadership development in a clinical Master of Social Work program has the potential to improve service provision and offer strategies for military social workers to effectively manage the ongoing challenges in the field of social work.
Colonnello, Valentina; Iacobucci, Paolo; Fuchs, Thomas; Newberry, Ruth C; Panksepp, Jaak
A challenge for social-affective neuroscience programs is to identify simple and yet valid animal models for studying the expression of basic social emotions and their role during different developmental windows, from infancy to adulthood. For example, although laboratory rats are useful for studying juvenile social interactions, they are not ideal for studying infant attachment bonds. Here, we evaluate current understanding of the social behavior of Octodon degus, a diurnal precocial rodent, to elucidate the value of this species as a model for social-affective neuroscience research. After a synopsis of species-specific characteristics and brain susceptibility to changes of social environment, our behavioral findings on degu social proclivities are summarized. We then discuss why this pre-clinical model provides a valuable addition to the commonly available animal models for the study of human psychopathology.
Roux, Judi Ann
Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities
Full Text Available In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration test either alone (individually tested-IT, or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI or only one injected (OI with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship.
Seelos, Christian; Mair, Johanna
Social entrepreneurship is a phenomenon that has resisted attempts to establish a clear definition. A focus on organizational structures and/or what constitutes a worthy social cause has created a diverse set of terminology. Observing the positive social impact of entrepreneurs catering to basic needs, this paper recognizes their unique role in efficiently contributing to the achievement of sustainable development goals. From this perspective, the term "social" can be much better defined. The...
Full Text Available In Slovene towns and urban areas severalprocesses of social transformation and change have been present in the lastdecade. As a consequence of political and economic transition increasedsocialdifferentiation resulted in increased social segregation in urbanareas.Some areas such as high-rise housing estates and part of older innercity areas were affected by social degradation and concentration oflow-incomepopulation and ethnical minorities. In some parts of inner citiesprocesses of reurbanisation and gentrification are taking place. However,the degree of social segragation is lower than in the cities of mosttransitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Full Text Available The paper raises the issue how to develop public policy instruments that could efficiently target bothdevelopment of entrepreneurship and strengthening of social safety of workers.
Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies.Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed.Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences.
Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.
McMahon, Mary; Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra
Career development practice had its origins in social justice reform over 100 years ago. A social justice perspective requires practitioners to examine the environmental context of their work, including the social, economic and political systems that influence people's career development. Achieving socially just outcomes for clients may…
Russell, Tamara Anne; Schmidt, Ulrike; Doherty, Liz; Young, Vicky; Tchanturia, Kate
Although social functioning is clearly impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been limited empirical assessment of this domain in this illness. This study assesses social cognition in AN by examining performance on two 'theory of mind' (ToM) tasks; Baron-Cohen's "Reading the mind in the Eyes" task (RME) and Happé's cartoon task. These tasks probe affective and cognitive ToM, respectively. Forty-four female participants were recruited (AN N=22; healthy controls N=22) and completed both tasks, with concurrent clinical and intellectual functioning assessment. Compared with healthy controls, AN performed significantly worse on both the RME and the Cartoon task (both conditions). The mental state condition did not facilitate performance in the AN group, as it did in the healthy controls. The findings broadly replicate limited previous work [Tchanturia, K., Happé, F., Godley, J., Bara-Carill, N., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., 2004. Theory of mind in AN. European Eating Disorders Review 12, 361-366] but in addition demonstrate abnormalities on a task requiring affective ToM interpretation. More detailed information about the components of ToM and the ToM difficulties demonstrated in AN sufferers may inform our understanding of the disorder as well as future social-cognitive based treatments.
Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.
Kolodziejczyk, P; J. Szoltysek
The paper aims to introduce discussion about a new domain of practical application of logistics the social logistics, which is the third part (after militaristic and commercial) needed for a full view of the contemporary logistics application possibilities.
Social media environment has changed the way companies and brands communicate with their customers and audiences. Traditionally brands have been able to send marketing messages to the audiences through mass media channels. In social media environment brands can reach audiences globally, and target their messages to smaller niche groups. To gain awareness, brands have to provide the audiences something valuable. Brands have to know their audiences well, so listening and taking part in conve...
Abstract Shucksmith (2012) has recently suggested that rural research might be refreshed by incorporating theoretical insights that have emerged through a renewal of class analysis. This article seeks to advance this proposed research agenda by exploring the concept of asset‐based class analysis and its association with the concept of social capital. The article explores connections between social capital, class analysis and understandings of community, noting how all have been associated with long running and unresolved debates. Attention is drawn to the problems of modernist legislative approaches to these debates and the value of adopting more interpretive perspectives. A distinction between ‘infrastructural’ and ‘culturalist’ interpretations of social capital is explored in relation to ‘asset‐based’ theorisations of class and culture. It is argued that an infrastructural conception of social capital might usefully be employed in association with a disaggregated conception of cultural capital that includes consideration of emotion and affect, as well as institutional, objectified and technical assets. These arguments are explored using studies of rural communities, largely within Britain. PMID:27563158
Full Text Available Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.
Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu
Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.
This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…
Considerable importance is attached to social exclusion/inclusion in recent EU rural development programmes. At the national/regional operation of these programmes groups of people who are not participating are often identified as "socially excluded groups". This article contends that rural development programmes are misinterpreting the…
to this development. But what is the news in relation to social work? In the article I approach this question by showing 1: how potentionalization influences the perception as well as the concrete distribution of social problems. 2: how potentionalization influences the concrete practices of welfare services......The article illustrates how existing policies and new technologies in the social work with people with functional handicaps are based on new forms of potentialization which fundamentally change the view of humans, social problems, and social work. Social work and management is no longer seen...... through a series of concepts in social work. The vision of potentialization is in part 1: an organizational and management tool, a management technological vision that is expressed in the political plans, in diagnostic tools, in referrals and that is implemented in social work with the citizens, and 2...
Full Text Available In order to reach its economical and social potential, social economy must have a favorable environment, created through: establishing a strategic framework for development, fiscal and non-fiscal benefits, promoting it as the third sector between public and private, with its own dynamics. Since we are talking about a social business, financing sources are very important for starting or developing investment in the field. Through the article, the authors aim at making an analysis and recommendations for improvement of mechanisms of two financing sources – structural funds and bank loans. We wish to present a practical vision on strategic sustainable development of social economy in Romania, starting from the experience in the field the “Alaturi de Voi” Romania Foundation has had for the past seven years. Our foundation has managed to implement through the European Social Fund two strategic structural funds and to access a bank loan for the development of businesses of social enterprises from Romania.
Wetlands have immense poverty-fighting potentials and in Nigeria,more and more people are dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods.To examine the social factors affecting the current status of the wetlands utilization for agriculture in Nigeria,a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 farmers cultivating wetlands and a structured questionnaire was applied to elicit the information on the social factors.Data collected were described using frequency and percentage and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant variables that are determinants of wetland utilization.The results of the analysis showed that significant variables included crop preferences,farming system,culture,taste,land tenure,knowledge of wetland cultivation,perceived suitability,farmers' tribe,location of wetland,and farmers' age.It was concluded with suggestions for the right combination of policies,public awareness,and appropriate farming methods in order to improve wetland utilization in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Social work is a professional approach to ameliorating social problems. It is generally understood as a helping profession that utilizes professionally qualified personnel who use its knowledge base to help people tackle their social problems (Mupedziswa, 2005. Nevertheless, in developing countries, social work is a relatively young profession which was influenced by colonialism in its formation. The type of social work practiced in these countries largely mirrors the one that is being practiced in Britain, France and Portugal among others. Utilizing the continent of Africa as a case study, this article argues that social work practice in Africa tends to be curative or remedial in nature and is not adequately addressing people’s problems. It therefore proposes a paradigm shift from remedial to a social development paradigm if it is to make an impact in the 21st century.
Full Text Available Based on Social Identity Theory and related concepts, the present paper argues that a negative affective state is caused by dissimilarity at the workplace, which in turn influences discrimination and self-disclosure. Based on a review of the literature, it develops propositions about the positive effects of surface- and deep-level dissimilarity on this affective state and perceived interpersonal discrimination at work, as well as on the decision to self-disclose personal information to peers. Self-disclosure is further linked to perceptions of discrimination in two opposing ways. An individual’s perceived degree of difference from others on demographic and underlying characteristics serve as moderators of the proposed relationships, strengthening the effects of actual dissimilarity on feelings. The paper concludes by examining implications and contributions of the proposed theoretical framework to the diversity literature.
Full Text Available Social Work practice is a helping profession that provides services aimed at assisting societies work better for their people. It is designed to support people burdened with varying degrees of social problems to function better within society. Meaningful and sustainable development cannot take place in societies afflicted with a host of social problems which receive no meaningful interventions. Ghana is beset with a myriad of social problems that call for professional social work interventions. Using Social work education and practice as a backdrop, this article highlights some of the key and emerging social problems in Ghana. It examines the constraints and unique challenges that the profession face in its efforts to help people develop their full potential and improve their lives. Furthermore, the authors discuss social work education and practice interventions that would bring about social change and help people, especially the poor and the marginalized, to appropriately play their part in society. This article concludes with highlights on the implications of social problems and social work interventions for sustainable development in Ghanaian society.
Full Text Available Orientation: The role of experience in the development of managers’ social competencies has been analysed in this research.Research purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the process through which experience contributed towards the development of service-oriented managers’ social competencies.Motivation for the study: Understanding the contribution of experiences to the development of competencies may have important implications for the selection and development of managers within service industries.Research design, approach and method: Following a multiple case study design, face-to-face interviews with service-oriented managers were held, based on the critical incident technique. Data were analysed using the open coding procedures of grounded theory.Main findings: Experience was found to contribute to the development of service-oriented managers’ social competencies, through a process that established an awareness of unfamiliar social competencies, or a reinforcement of the effects of familiar effective social competencies.Practical/managerial implications: The proposed process, the Social Competency Cache Development (SCCD Process, is the practical outcome of the research which offers a tool to facilitate the development of social competencies through conscious leveraging of an individual’s experiences.Contribution/value add: The SCCD Process is recommended as a new avenue to leverage and thereby develop social competencies.
Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.
To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.
Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.
Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary
This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration.
Sinclair, Nathalie; Chorney, Sean; Rodney, Sheree
In this paper, we investigate the mathematical, social and affective nature of children's engagement with TouchCounts, a multitouch application for counting and doing arithmetic. In order to study these dimensions of engagement in a way that recognizes their fundamental intertwinement, we use rhythm as a primary unit of analysis. Drawing on over 8 hours of research sessions with children aged 6, 7 and 8 years old, we show how various rhythms emerged from their interactions and how these rhythms changed over time—moving from the particular to the more general. We also show how important rhythm is to children's carrying of activity, which relates to aspects of interest and motivation.
Full Text Available Structural colors result from the physical interaction of light with organic materials of differing refractive indexes organized at nanoscale dimensions to produce significant interference effects. Because color properties emerge from these finely organized nanostructures, the production of structural coloration could respond to environmental factors and be developmentally more plastic than expected, functioning as an indicator of individual quality. However, there are many unknown factors concerning the function and mechanisms regulating structural coloration, especially relative to social environment. We hypothesized that social environment, in the form of competitive settings, can influence the developmental pathways involving production of feather structural coloration. We experimentally assessed the impact of social environment upon body condition, molt and spectral properties of two types of structural color that compose the nuptial plumage in blue-black grassquits: black iridescent plumage and white underwing patches. We manipulated male social environment during nine months by keeping individuals in three treatments: (1 pairs; (2 all-male groups; and (3 male-female mixed groups. All morphological characters and spectral plumage measures varied significantly through time, but only acquisition of nuptial plumage coverage and nuptial plumage color were influenced by social environment. Compared with males in the paired treatment, those in treatments with multiple males molted into nuptial plumage faster and earlier, and their plumage was more UV-purple-shifted. Our results provide experimental evidence that social context strongly influences development and expression of structural plumage. These results emphasize the importance of long-term experimental studies to identify the phenotypic consequences of social dynamics relative to ornament expression.
Glick, Jennifer E.; Hanish, Laura D.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Bradley, Robert H.
Little is known about how key aspects of parental migration or childrearing history affect social development across children from immigrant families. Relying on data on approximately 6,400 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, analyses assessed the role of mother's age at migration on children's social development in…
Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia
We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…
Elias, Maurice J.; Moceri, Dominic C.
Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman's work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL's…
Veno Eidukonis, Julie Ann
The purpose of this study is to expand the traditional developmental conceptualization of spelling development into the social realm through microethnography. The overarching research question driving this study is: What are the social processes in literacy learning focusing on spelling development among peers in a first grade classroom? The…
Coenen, Frans H.J.M.
The Lisbon strategy has prioritized socio-economic issues in the European development. Through the Lisbon strategy together with the Gothenburg strategy Europe is striving for a balance between the social, economic and ecological dimension of sustainable development. In research the social dimension
This study examined both the moral development levels using the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT--2) and ethical decision-making using the Professional Opinion Scale (POS) of social workers who provide field supervision to students within accredited social work programs in Wisconsin. Using the moral development theory of Kohlberg (1981) which defined…
Cid, J.; Mocholi, F.
Quantifying the social odor impact in the surroundings of sludge composting plants is the aim of a methodology developed by Socioenginyeria. Three scientific tools are used: diaries of social perception of annoying odors (intensity and type); field olfactometry with the Nasal Ranger and chemical analysis of representative air currents. The environmental quality indicators obtained make it possible to establish the real contribution of the source of the smell to the perceived nuisance and to assess the performance of its deodorising systems. Similar, it is viable to set up a communication programme with the social receivers affected and to implement targeted corrective measures. (Author)
Mehrle, P.M.; Finley, M.T.; Ludke, J.L.; Mayer, F.L.; Kaiser, T.E.
Black ducks, Anas rubripes, were exposed to dietary toxaphene concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 μg/g of food for 90 days prior to laying and through the reproductive season. Toxaphene did not affect reproduction or survival, but reduced growth and impaired backbone development in ducklings. Collagen, the organic matrix of bone, was decreased significantly in cervical vertebrae of ducklings fed 50 μg/g, and calcium conentrations increased in vertebrae of ducklings fed 10 or 50 μg/g. The effects of toxaphene were observed only in female ducklings. In contrast to effects on vertebrae, toxaphene exposure did not alter tibia development. Toxaphene residues in carcasses of these ducklings averaged slightly less than the dietary levels.
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to critically analyze the findings of the first, recently published, studies about Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR impacts on Sustainable Human Development (SHD. We aim at deriving conclusions for effective CSR strategies and at identifying consequences for management and research. As CSR claims to create value for corporations and for society, we argue that the people-centered Capability Approach (CA is promising to provide neglected and much needed insights how corporate activities affect individuals and communities. Based on a survey of recent literature addressing CSR impacts on SHD, we highlight CSR potentials to improve average well-being in multiple dimensions of SHD. Moreover, we critically assess challenges and limitations of CSR as a strategy to preserve and foster SHD. For instance, studies have shown that, despite CSR-driven well-being increases, social capital, relational capabilities and collective agency may become challenged by corporate strategies. Moreover, corporate environmental impacts have been found to be less often addressed by both, companies and SHD researchers. Resulting inequality and fairness issues have been identified as causes of violence against corporations even in the presence of total well-being improvements. We conclude that companies should strategically take into account a comprehensive range of factors driving and hampering SHD to account for their whole portfolio of corporate opportunities and risks. This requires evaluating CSR impacts instead of only focusing on CSR inputs and outputs. Thereby, corporations can mitigate their risks, improve their stakeholder trust and strengthen their competitiveness.
Full Text Available The article deals with scientific and applied topicality of studying the problem of children and youth social activity. Spheres of social activity display in European tradition, in particular, the European Charter, Great Britain, have been revealed. Comparative analysis of understanding the essence of such a phenomenon in Western theories and scientific pedagogical thought in Russia has been given. The changes occurred in the context of the analysis of the notion during last decades and connected with the development of volunteering, motivation and forms of youth services have been emphasized. The most important tasks in developing social activity of Russian youth have been stated. Different scientific approaches to studying the notion of “social activity” enriching its characteristics have been analyzed. Based on the analysis of results on the organized events the drawbacks, neglects and causes of poor quality of working on the development of youth social activity have been shown. The experience in choosing activities and technologies demonstrated by teachers and pupils from different regions of Russia has been presented. Theoretical analysis of foreign and domestic experience in education has enabled to offer suggestions for the expansion of pupils and students’ social activity in the frame of different models presenting a wide scope for mastering and developing social competency of children and youth. These models have become the foundation for creating a general algorithm for the expansion of children and youth social activity. Pedagogical conditions and perspective directions for solving the problem of social activity development have been outlined in the article.
Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W
Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine.
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Learning to work and play well with others truly is a lifelong goal with a foundation in the early childhood years. Effective early childhood educators recognize that supporting children's social competence and teaching them academic skills are compatible rather than competing goals; each grows and benefits from advances in the other. Together,…
Full Text Available The paper aims to introduce discussion about a new domain of practical application of logistics the social logistics, which is the third part (after militaristic and commercial needed for a full view of the contemporary logistics application possibilities.
Roff, Merrill; And Others
This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…
Enright, Robert D.; Sutterfield, Sara J.
Two classrooms of first graders (N=40) were administered Damon's moral judgment measure, Shure and Spivack's social problem solving measure, and the Stanford-Binet vocabulary. Concurrently, two observers in the children's school environment recorded incidences of successful resolutions of interactions, amount of derogation, and the number of times…
Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Minsky, Barbara D.
Develops a model illustrating that two elements of organizational culture--climate and socialization processes--foster acceptance of organizational values and facilitate the development of interfunctional coordination, which in turn influences firm performance. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractThe term "social development" is used rhetorically in pleas for less focus on "economic development". In that context it is commonly assumed that social development will add to human happiness and more so than economic development does. These claims are checked in an analysis of 141 cont
Burnett, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Moll, Jorge; Frith, Chris; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
In this fMRI study, we investigated the development between adolescence and adulthood of the neural processing of social emotions. Unlike basic emotions (such as disgust and fear), social emotions (such as guilt and embarrassment) require the representation of another's mental states. Nineteen adolescents (10-18 years) and 10 adults (22-32 years) were scanned while thinking about scenarios featuring either social or basic emotions. In both age groups, the anterior rostral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was activated during social versus basic emotion. However, adolescents activated a lateral part of the MPFC for social versus basic emotions, whereas adults did not. Relative to adolescents, adults showed higher activity in the left temporal pole for social versus basic emotions. These results show that, although the MPFC is activated during social emotion in both adults and adolescents, adolescents recruit anterior (MPFC) regions more than do adults, and adults recruit posterior (temporal) regions more than do adolescents.
Parsons, Thomas D
An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target's internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences.
Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J
There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.
Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P personality (P Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, antisocial behavior, and AD/H problems in a sampling of our male and female patients aged between 18 years and 59 years.
Pedro Humberto Faria Campos
Full Text Available The "Structural Approach" of social representations defines a social representation as an organization which comprises different dimensions and not as a group of purely cognitive events and processes. In the present state of theory, we propose the principle that the affective dimension maintains a random relationship with the Central Core. Two previous studies are briefly described as well as the results concerning three representations ("street children", "higher education" and "family" in order to present a perspective that seems to indicate that the relationships between "semantic" and "affectively charged" elements are random. The data seem to confirm the principle that the Central Core of social representations equally organizes the distribution of the affective charges on the social representation as a whole. The studies presented here correspond to a first exploratory approach of the relationships between the structure of a representation and the affective impregnation of representation elements.
Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J
Methodological considerations and selected null findings indicate the need to reexamine the Type D construct. We investigated whether associations with cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) involve the specific combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition...
Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun
Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media.
Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.
Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipient
Full Text Available Crowdfunding is an increasingly attractive source to fund social projects. However, to our best knowledge, the study of crowdfunding for social purposes has remained largely unexplored in the literature. This research envisages a detailed examination of the role of crowdfunding on the early-stage of the social projects at regional level. By comparing the characteristics of the projects available in the Portuguese Social Stock Exchange platform with others that did not use this source of financial support, we envisage to show the critical role of crowdfunding on regional development. The use of inferential techniques (Chi-square test, the Cramer’s V statistic, the Goodman and Kruskal λ and the odds ratio demonstrates that the use of the Portuguese Social Stock Exchange platform was linked to the geographical location of the social venture as well as its geographical scope. Also, social ventures located on rural regions are more likely to use social crowdfunding platforms than social ventures located in urban areas. Further, the circumstance of having the social ventures acting at a local or regional level seems to be strongly associated with the possibility of using crowdfunding for financing social projects.
Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M
The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.
Burnett, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Moll, Jorge; Frith, Chris; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
In this fMRI study, we investigated the development between adolescence and adulthood of the neural processing of social emotions. Unlike basic emotions (such as disgust and fear), social emotions (such as guilt and embarrassment) require the representation of another’s mental states. Nineteen adolescents (10–18 years) and 10 adults (22–32 years) were scanned while thinking about scenarios featuring either social or basic emotions. In both age groups, the anterior rostral medial prefrontal co...
Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy
Eisler, Richard M
That man is a social being is almost axiomatic. Our interpersonal relation ships can be sources of the most rewarding or the most painful of human experiences. To a large measure our accomplishments in life depend on the facility with which we interact with others-our social skill. The acquisition of social skills is, of course, a natural part of the overall socialization process. However, in many instances it becomes necessary or desirable to develop further an individual's social facilities. Such skill development is the topic of this book. Two major goals were kept in mind in the writing of this book. The first was to provide a conceptual framework within which to view social skills. Such a framework allows one to understand why it is important to develop social skills, and the effects that such skill development should have. If the reader has a thorough understanding of the concept of social skills and their development, it becomes possible to make appropriate innovations and adaptions to his or her own...
Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene
Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.
Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku
Mariette, Mylene M; Cathaud, Charlène; Chambon, Rémi; Vignal, Clémentine
Social interactions with adults are often critical for the development of mating behaviours. However, the potential role of other primary social partners such as juvenile counterparts is rarely considered. Most interestingly, it is not known whether interactions with juvenile females improve males' courtship and whether, similar to the winner and loser effects in a fighting context--outcome of these interactions shapes males' behaviour in future encounters. We investigated the combined effects of male quality and juvenile social experience on pairing success at adulthood in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We manipulated brood size to alter male quality and then placed males in either same- or mixed-sex juvenile dyads until adulthood. We found that males from reduced broods obtained more copulations and males from mixed-sex dyads had more complete courtships. Furthermore, independent of their quality, males that failed to pair with juvenile females, but not juvenile males, had a lower pairing success at adulthood. Our study shows that negative social experience with peers during adolescence may be a potent determinant of pairing success that can override the effects of early environmental conditions on male attractiveness and thereby supports the occurrence of an analogous process to the loser effect in a mating context.
Innovative engineering design shapes the development of novel technologies and is ethically as well as socially relevant, because it affects what kind of possibilities and consequences will arise. A major challenge in engineering design work on innovative technologies is the multitude of uncertainti
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne
A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...
Sarah C Woolley
caudomedial mesopallium (CMM was most affected by whether a song was directed or undirected, whereas the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM was most affected by whether a song was familiar or unfamiliar. Together these data demonstrate that females detect and prefer the features of directed song and suggest that high-level auditory areas including the CMM are involved in this social perception.
Liddell, Debora L.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Pasquesi, Kira; Hirschy, Amy S.; Boyle, Kathleen M.
Professional identity is one outcome of successful socialization. The purpose of this study was to understand how socialization in graduate programs contributes to the development of professional identity for new professionals in student affairs. Via survey, we found significant relationships between program qualities, standards, activities, and…
Özbas, Banu Çulha
The aim of this study was to explore professional identity development among social studies student teachers in a four-year teacher education program in Turkey. Fifty-five student teachers participated in the study. Data were collected about their metaphorical images about teachers and social studies teachers and a series of in-depth interviews…
Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter
In this article, we explore the relationship between industrial clusters and social upgrading in developing countries. Our article focuses on the hitherto little-considered influence of the economic and regulatory environment on the social upgrading of a cluster and on its governance system....... In doing so, we develop an analytical framework that seeks to explain how the enabling environment and different actors in cluster governance can either facilitate and/or hinder the process of social upgrading in cluster settings in developing countries. Finally, the conclusion outlines our main findings...
Smits, Coco; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø
of a Social License to Operate addresses the acceptance of an activity by local communities and other stakeholders. This manuscript explores the role human capital development in obtaining and maintaining a Social License to Operate in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. As trust and legitimacy...... are the two fundamental principles on which a Social License to Operate is based, these are being examined more closely. On the basis of three case studies, this manuscript explores how human capital development can contribute to the legitimacy of Arctic energy development and trust building between various...
Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel
the impact of government spending on the social sectors (health, education, and social protection) on two major indicators of aggregate welfare (the inequality-adjusted Human Development Index and child mortality), using a panel dataset comprising 55 developing and transition countries from 1990 to 2009. We...... find that government social spending has a significantly positive causal effect on the inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, while government expenditure on health has a significant negative impact on child mortality rate. These results are fairly robust to the method of estimation, the use...
A general model of the social processes management system on an enterprise is offered. The basic characteristics of this system’s functioning are emphasized. Some aspects of choosing a management strategy for the social development of the collective of an enterprise are considered.
Michaels, Tania M; Horan, William P; Ginger, Emily J; Martinovich, Zoran; Pinkham, Amy E; Smith, Matthew J
Cognitive empathy impairments have been linked to poor social functioning in schizophrenia. However, prior studies primarily used self-reported empathy measures developed decades ago that are not well-aligned with contemporary models of empathy. We evaluated empathy and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia using the recently developed Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE). Schizophrenia (n=52) and healthy comparison (n=37) subjects completed the QCAE, Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning. Between-group differences on the QCAE, and relationships between QCAE and IRI subscales, neurocognition, symptoms, and social functioning were examined. The schizophrenia group reported significantly lower cognitive empathy than comparison subjects, which was driven by low online simulation scores. Cognitive empathy explained significant variance in social functioning after accounting for neurocognition and symptoms. Group differences for affective empathy were variable; the schizophrenia group reported similar proximal responsivity, but elevated emotion contagion relative to comparison subjects. These findings bolster support for the presence and functional significance of impaired cognitive empathy in schizophrenia using a contemporary measure of empathy. Emerging evidence that some aspects of affective empathy may be unimpaired or hyper-responsive in schizophrenia and implications for the assessment and treatment of empathy in schizophrenia are discussed.
The role of engineering in promoting global well-being has become accentuated, turning the engineering curriculum into a means of dividing well-being equally. The gradual fortifying calls for humanitarian engineering have resulted in the incorporation of social responsibility themes in the university curriculum. Cooperation, communication, teamwork, intercultural cooperation, sustainability, social and global responsibility represent the socio-cultural dimensions that are becoming increasingly important as globalisation intensifies the demands for socially and globally adept engineering communities. This article describes an experiment, the Development Cooperation Project, which was conducted at Aalto University in Finland to integrate social responsibility themes into higher engineering education.
van Rijn, Sophie; Schothorst, Patricia; van 't Wout, Mascha; Sprong, Mirjam; Ziermans, Tim; van Engeland, Herman; Aleman, Andre; Swaab, Hanna
Studies of individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis have revealed deviations in cognitive and neural development before the onset of psychosis. As affective impairments are among the core dysfunctions in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, this study assessed emotion processing and
Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.
It's a fact that companies so far have only scratched the surface of what can be achieved with social media. Whatever continent, industry, company size, current degree of social media adoption or your job title, the purpose of this book is to inspire you to see how you can raise the bar further to reap new rewards. It will give you the tools to make a difference to your organisation's social media strategy development and delivery going forward. In addition it will also give you more intellectual support and confidence to discuss social media on a higher level with peers, inspire colleagues or
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud
Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.
Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com
Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.
Begun, Audrey L; Berger, Lisa K; Otto-Salaj, Laura L; Rose, Susan J
In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative partnerships require considerable effort and understanding by all partners involved. This article provides to novice investigators and social work agencies new to research partnerships an integrated discussion of important issues to develop the groundwork necessary for building and maintaining effective university-community social work collaborations. Through experience gained from a series of social work research partnerships, as well as an overview of relevant literature, the authors offer a set of strategies for building and sustaining research collaborations between university and community-based social work professionals. The general topics discussed are technology exchange, adopting a longitudinal perspective, knowing your partners, and practical contracting/budgetary issues. The article has relevance to beginning social work researchers, social work educators, and social work practitioners seeking to engage in collaborative partnerships that improve social work practice through research and advance the knowledge base of the profession.
Torres-Harding, Susan R; Siers, Brian; Olson, Bradley D
The study describes the development of the Social Justice Scale (SJS). Practitioners, educators, students, and other members of the community differ on their attitudes and values regarding social justice. It is important to assess, not only individuals' attitudes and values around social values, but also other constructs that might be related to social justice behaviors. The implication of Ajzen in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50:179-211, (1991) theory of planned behavior suggests that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and social norms predict intentions, which then lead to behaviors. A scale was designed to measure social justice-related values, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and intentions based on a four-factor conception of Ajzen's theory. Confirmatory factor analysis and analyses for reliability and validity were used to test the properties of the scale.
Saeideh Sharifi fard
Full Text Available This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI through social networking sites (SNSs in Malaysia. As for moderating influences of gender and age, the results showed that gender significantly moderated purposed association between these four elements and the online PI, while the moderating effect of age was only recognized in PE. Findings of this research offer practitioners with better insights that would aid them in developing effective online marketing strategies to attract online purchasing users through SNSs.
Amit Kumar Chakrabarty
Full Text Available This paper deals with the identification of negative social aspects of tourism that hinders the sustainable tourism development and well being, seriously. The identification is exclusively based on the opinion of sample tourist vis-à-vis the opinion of local people. A methodology has been framed to determine the major, minor and other negative social aspects of tourism. Appling statistical technique on respondents’ opinion, the author identified five major negative social aspects of West Bengal tourism: growth of unscientific massage parlors, exploitation on tourists, over pricing, commercialization of country’s culture/customs and water pollution, which seriously affects the growth of sustainable tourism development. The identified minor negative social aspects are littering, pick pocketing, theft and female prostitution, which also affect tourism. Apart from these, the author identified numerous negative social aspects which affect the industry occasionally, as per capacity. The author suggests that sound ‘Security Systems Management Process’ at operational level should be implemented by the government to arrest the growth of these negative aspects so that they can be nipped in the bud. Other wise the motto of ‘sustainable development and well being’ of studied area will be impeded.
Faruq Ibnul Haqi
Full Text Available Social sustainability and sustainable urban developments are major challenges across the world both developed and developing countries. In general there is a conflict between the approach of sustainable development and social sustainability in the urban context. The concept of sustainability brings a key framework for extensive literature on urban design, architecture and planning. Nevertheless there is a considerable overlap between the social dimensions of sustainability and the theories or notions, for instance the ‘sustainable societies’ that are highlighted in the midst of other aspects: social equity and justice. Such society is widely expected to offer a situation for long-term social relations and activities which are sustainable, inclusive and equitable in a wider perception of the term (environmentally, socially and economically. The method adopted to address this aim involves a content analysis of available academic literature, with focus on the planning sustainable development, built environment, social sustainability, and urban planning fields. The findings demonstrate that in spite of some opposing evidence, many studies have confirmed that there has been displacement of the debate on the term of ‘sustainability’ from ‘ecological and environmental aspects into social and economic aspects’. It is related to how the community feel safe and comfortable living in their own communities, how have they felt of proud of the place where they live. The aim of the paper is to improve our understanding of current theories and practices of planning sustainable development and discuss whether the approach of sustainable development aligns with social sustainability objectives.
Garn, Alex; Byra, Mark
Describes how the Spectrum Teaching Styles can help physical educators develop an instructional environment that allows learners to meet the national content standards for physical education while providing learners with a quality educational experience. The paper discusses the development and use of the Spectrum and the development of…
Stansfeld, Stephen; Head, Jenny; Bartley, Mel; Fonagy, Peter
The effects of childhood social adversity on developing parent/child attachments may partially explain the effects of less advantaged childhood social position on adulthood mental health. Associations between social position, retrospectively recalled parental style and childhood emotional and physical deprivation and attachment were examined in 7,276 civil servants from the Whitehall II Study. Depressive symptoms were associated with insecure attachment style. Social position was not associated with attachment styles. However, fathers' social class was strongly associated with material and emotional deprivation. In turn, deprivation was associated with lower parental warmth. High parental warmth was associated with decreased risk of insecure attachment styles. Despite the methodological shortcomings of retrospective childhood data the results suggest material and emotional adversity influence the development of attachment through parental style, notably parental warmth.
Claudia E Feierstein
Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.
Astronomy for development projects conceive of development in very broad terms and seek to affect a wide range of social outcomes. The histories of education, development economics and science communication research indicate that positive social impacts are often difficult to achieve. Without a scientific approach, astronomy's potential as a tool for development may never be realised nor recognised. Evidence-informed project design increases the chances of a project's success and likely impact while reducing the risk of unintended negative outcomes. The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) Impact Cycle is presented here as a possible framework for integrating evaluation and evidence-based practice in global Astronomy outreach and education delivery. The suggested framework offers a way to gradually accumulate knowledge about which approaches are effective and which are not, enabling the astronomy community to gradually increase its social impact by building on its successes.
Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives. The in......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....
Victoria Vitalievna Chaban
Full Text Available The article reviewed and analyzed budget mechanism in regulating the development of the social sphere in Ukraine.The purpose of this article is to study the theoretical foundations of the functioning of the budgetary mechanism in regulating the development of the social sphere.When writing articles following methods were used: the statistical method of comparison and generalization, the dialectical method of deduction method.The results of the study can be used by the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ministry of social policy of Ukraine.
Neuhauss Stephan C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations.
Sobel, David M; Buchanan, David W; Butterfield, Jesse; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke
We propose a model of social cognitive development based not on a single modeling framework or the hypothesis that a single model accounts for children's developing social cognition. Rather, we advocate a Causal Model approach (cf. Waldmann, 1996), in which models of social cognitive development take the same position as theories of social cognitive development, in that they generate novel empirical hypotheses. We describe this approach and present three examples across various aspects of social cognitive development. Our first example focuses on children's understanding of pretense and involves only considering assumptions made by a computational framework. The second example focuses on children's learning from "testimony". It uses a modeling framework based on Markov random fields as a computational description of a set of empirical phenomena, and then tests a prediction of that description. The third example considers infants' generalization of action learned from imitation. Here, we use a modified version of the Rational Model of Categorization to explain children's inferences. Taken together, these examples suggest that research in social cognitive development can be assisted by considering how computational modeling can lead researchers towards testing novel hypotheses.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.
Djimeu, Eric W
Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.
Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović
Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.
Romich, Jennifer L.
Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…
Full Text Available Developing countries are facing dilemmas such as un-sustainability, and poverty, (especially rural poverty. Poor people are often seen as compelled to exploit their surrounding for short-term survival and are assumed to be the ones most exposed to natural resources degradation. In order that at the first; we review the extensive theoretical literature on social capital, poverty and sustainability and demonstrate the nuanced treatment these concepts have received in this literature. Problem Statement: Current research and observations indicate that (these dilemmas un-sustainability and rural poverty are linked. The only feasible way out of current crisis is to integrate resources. The linkage among environment/agriculture, poverty and social capital are complex and in many cases, poorly understood. The developing countries have been criticized for their inability to reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable agricultural development. Approach: there is a need for improving of social capital to integrate environment and people to alleviate poverty and receive to sustainable development. Social capital has come to be defined in a variety of ways, all of which have been linked to collective norms, values and relationships reflecting the involvement of human individuals in a common life based on family and community. Results: This study argue that social capital as a concept has over the last decade or more been gaining significance in relation to a number of linked fields of analyses, including the identification of factors influencing educational attainment, explanations of differing levels of participation, rural development and poverty alleviation. Conclusions/Recommendations: social capital enhancement appears to have direct links with farmer education in that community development is generally defined as a social learning process which serves to empower people and to involve them as citizens in collective activities aimed at socio- economic
Full Text Available Security is one of the basic needs of citizens in urban structures, it has particular importance due to the inclusion of solace and comfort for its citizens. Hence in urban studies, Security has always been regarded as one of the most important indicators in quality of life and urban planners. This study examines the sense of security of citizens in Dargaz urban development. In this thesis, the research methods are descriptive, analytical studies, documentary and field, and the SPSS software was used for analysis. In this survey the number of 384 residents between 15 and 50 years old in Dargaz is selected, the multi-stage cluster sampling were selected. The questionnaire results show that: Of the total 384 samples of the study, 17 percent had been feeling low security, 58 percent on average, and 25 percent had high security. Regression test results indicate that: Beta coefficient value of the variables in terms of economic, social, the role of defense and security forces, media performance, physical and social situation in the city, social capital and gender, has been able to explain 89% of the variance feel safe. The results of correlation and regression analysis corresponded with the theoretical approach research. We can say there is a significant positive relationship between the variables. So that the strength of one variable affects the other variable. Conversely, increasing and decreasing the negative effects of one variable on other variables can also have direct effects.
Moore, Holly; Craft, Tara K S; Grimaldi, Lisa M; Babic, Bruna; Brunelli, Susan A; Vannucci, Susan J
Recurrent hypoglycemia is a common problem among infants and children that is associated with several metabolic disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although studies have reported a relationship between a history of juvenile hypoglycemia and psychological health problems, the direct effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia have not been fully determined. Thus, in this study, we used an animal model to examine the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia during the juvenile period on affective, social, and motor function (assessed under euglycemic conditions) across development. To model recurrent hypoglycemia, rats were administered 5 U/kg of insulin or saline twice per day from postnatal day (P)10 to P19. Body weight gain was retarded in insulin-treated rats during the treatment period, but recovered by the end of treatment. However, insulin-treated rats displayed increases in affective reactivity that emerged early during treatment and persisted after treatment into early adulthood. Specifically, insulin-treated pups showed increased maternal separation-induced vocalizations as infants, and an exaggerated acoustic startle reflex as juveniles and young adults. Moreover, young adult rats with a history of recurrent juvenile hypoglycemia exhibited increased fear-potentiated startle and increases in behavioral and hormonal responses to restraint stress. Some of these effects were sex-dependent. The changes in affective behavior in insulin-exposed pups were accompanied by decreases in adolescent social play behavior. These results provide evidence that recurrent, transient hypoglycemia during juvenile development can lead to increases in fear-related behavior and stress reactivity. Importantly, these phenotypes are not reversed with normalization of blood glucose and may persist into adulthood.
Lassaad Ben Mahjoub
Full Text Available France is located at the crossroads of major European cultural currents, between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean, his attention to the preservation of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has evolved in recent years by taking several attempts and measures. Many studies were interested to evaluate the scope of social and environmental disclosure by using different measures; these criteria do not cover all features which can reflect all social and environmental concerns.We attempt to determine the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure in France by a new measure; it takes the form of an index; for this, we use a content analysis of annual reports in order to evaluate the items which describe the impact of firm activity on environment and community.Our findings show an acceptable level of social and environmental disclosure, in French companies, compared to others studies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1393
Hudson, Nathan W; Roberts, Brent W; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer
A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work-the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one's job-and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits-especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan.
Full Text Available Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g. genetic variation (of the OXTR, age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences and function. Secondly, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention.
Pileggi, Lea-Ann; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark
Previous studies suggest that leftward cradling bias may facilitate mother-infant relationships, as it preferentially locates the infant in the mother's left hemi-space, which is specialized for several social-affective processes. If leftward cradling bias is mediated by social-affective attachment processes, it should be reduced in humans who are deficient in such processes. Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) constitute a population with known deficits in social and emotional relating. A pilot study confirmed reduced bias in this group, and in the present study, we elaborated methods to assess also the impact of higher cognitive processes on cradling bias. Direct systematic observation was used to investigate the occurrence of cradling bias in ASD, non-ASD intellectually disabled children and typically developing children. Ninety-three participants aged 5-15 years cradled a life-like doll on four separate occasions. Intelligence and executive functions were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that ASD diagnosis was the only significant predictor of atypical cradling preference. While intellectually disabled and typically developing children clearly preferred to cradle to the left, no preference was evident in the ASD group. Results support the hypothesis that leftward cradling bias is associated with basic social-affective capacities.
Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles i...
Epstude, K.; Mussweiler, T.
Concordant and discordant affective reactions can occur after the mere perception of another person's affective expression. Most previous theorizing has been concerned with the explanation of affective concordance, typically referred to as emotional contagion, although discordant affect has received
Bourjade, Marie; Canteloup, Charlotte; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Gaunet, Florence
Gaze behaviour, notably the alternation of gaze between distal objects and social partners that accompanies primates' gestural communication is considered a standard indicator of intentionality. However, the developmental precursors of gaze behaviour in primates' communication are not well understood. Here, we capitalized on the training in gestures dispensed to olive baboons (Papio anubis) as a way of manipulating individual communicative experience with humans. We aimed to delineate the effects of such a training experience on gaze behaviour displayed by the monkeys in relation with gestural requests. Using a food-requesting paradigm, we compared subjects trained in requesting gestures (i.e. trained subjects) to naïve subjects (i.e. control subjects) for their occurrences of (1) gaze behaviour, (2) requesting gestures and (3) temporal combination of gaze alternation with gestures. We found that training did not affect the frequencies of looking at the human's face, looking at food or alternating gaze. Hence, social gaze behaviour occurs independently from the amount of communicative experience with humans. However, trained baboons-gesturing more than control subjects-exhibited most gaze alternation combined with gestures, whereas control baboons did not. By reinforcing the display of gaze alternation along with gestures, we suggest that training may have served to enhance the communicative function of hand gestures. Finally, this study brings the first quantitative report of monkeys producing requesting gestures without explicit training by humans (controls). These results may open a window on the developmental mechanisms (i.e. incidental learning vs. training) underpinning gestural intentional communication in primates.
Devaney, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Mary Utne; Tavegia, Mary; Resnik, Hank
In today's climate of increased emphasis on measuring achievement through high-stakes testing, academic subjects are too often divorced from the social context in which they are taught. We know that learning is a social process. In fact, many educators and other youth development practitioners recognize that social, emotional, and ethical development cannot be ignored in the name of better academic preparation, especially in the face of data showing that students are more disengaged than ever before. Social and emotional learning (SEL) offers educators and other youth development personnel a framework for addressing students' social and emotional needs in systematic way. SEL is the process of acquiring the skills to recognize and manage emotions, develop caring and concern for others, establish positive relationships, make responsible decisions, and handle challenging situations effectively. Research has shown that SEL has an impact on every aspect of children's development: their health, ethical development, citizenship, academic learning, and motivation to achieve. This chapter profiles one school in Illinois that has been implementing SEL programming for a number of years. The authors provide evidence of the impact of SEL on school climate, student behavior, and attitudes. Ultimately the authors see this as fostering the kind of understanding of the larger world that leads young people to make ethical choices. They propose that the lessons learned are applicable to a wide variety of settings, including other schools, after-school programs, and summer camps.
Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history participation in decision making through processes like voting vying for leadership position and participation in decision making meetings has been blinded by discrimination to certain groups of community members including women. This study assessed the social cultural factors affecting Maasai womens participation in decision making a case of Longido district. Purposive sampling was used to select the districts under the study. Decision to select Longido was based on the inhabitance of pastoral community. A total of 115 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The results show that majority would you vote for a woman to be an MP Councilor Village Chairman in your community. A considerable proportion of men refused to be led by a woman. Furthermore women were found not to effectively participate in politics through vying for leadership positions as many respondents voted for male contestant main reasons being no female contestant. Situations in which women are involved in decision making were found mainly to be on issues pertaining women development and family matters. Findings show that women are allowed to vote in the community but often the decision for a woman to vote was found to be determined by men. The study further found that women are not regarded elders and females ideas were not taken into account as male ideas in village meetings. The main barriers for women participation in leadership were found that men do not want women to compete in leadership and women ideas not accepted by most men. The study concluded that Maasai women participation in decision making is limited by social cultural factors like social identity social acceptance social roles and limiting cultural practices. It is recommended that civic education strategy and appropriate
A. Figen ERSOY
Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions
Hudson, Nathan W.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer
A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work—the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one’s job—and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness,...
Ravi Shankar; Leslie Chadwick; Shahzad Ghafoor; Farooq Khan
The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which recognizes thatcompanies have obligations that extend beyond short-run profit maximization toinclude notions of social and environmental concern, has increased considerably inrecent decades. The globalization of the world economy and the related tradeliberalization has brought forward a discussion of the importance of business as anactor in the development of society. The aim of this research is to analyse theeffectiveness of the CS...
pain as a signal that something is wrong and needs to be changed. Pain represents an opportunity to learn and develop--personally, organizationally, socially. When the cause of the pain is projected onto another party and conflict appears, the opportunity for social development may be seized...... and the parties may learn and grow, or it may be missed--lost in suppression, projections, fear, etc. Conflict is thus seen, not as an outcome of regrettably incompatible goals or activities, but as an active potential for learning and development. Some implications for conflict resolution practice are outlined....
Zelinska Haluna Olexiivna
Full Text Available The relevance of social responsibility education as a prerequisite for the development of innovative enterprises is determined. It was found that socially responsible must be education, business and government to society. Determined that education affects the efficiency of business quality prepared workforce, business in society – the purchasing power of the population, stable working conditions, providing jobs and so on. Therefore, regional educational management (REM in higher education must be socially responsible and to ensure a high level of implementation of not only traditional – academic and research functions, but also new – innovative and entrepreneurial. Analytical justified that social responsibility in education will be effective if the balance of interests between all regional social partners. Determined that the interaction between the production and the educational sphere should appear in the dissemination of knowledge about the basic principles of socially responsible management; production centers transfer of new technologies; direct centers (including the manufacturing and research institutions training and so on. It is proved that the formation of social responsibility in the family is the primary source of its formation in the subsequent stages of personality development.
Baarendse, Petra J J; Counotte, Danielle S; O'Donnell, Patricio; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J
Social experiences during youth are thought to be critical for proper social and cognitive development. Conversely, social insults during development can cause long-lasting behavioral impairments and increase the vulnerability for psychopathology later in life. To investigate the importance of social experience during the juvenile and early adolescent stage for the development of cognitive control capacities, rats were socially isolated from postnatal day 21 to 42 followed by re-socialization until they reached adulthood. Subsequently, two behavioral dimensions of impulsivity (impulsive action in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and impulsive choice in the delayed reward task) and decision making (in the rat gambling task) were assessed. In a separate group of animals, long-lasting cellular and synaptic changes in adult medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons were determined following social isolation. Juvenile and early adolescent social isolation resulted in impairments in impulsive action and decision making under novel or challenging circumstances. Moreover, socially isolated rats had a reduced response to enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission (using amphetamine or GBR12909) in the 5-CSRTT under challenging conditions. Impulsive choice was not affected by social isolation. These behavioral deficits were accompanied by a loss of sensitivity to dopamine of pyramidal neurons in the medial PFC. Our data show long-lasting deleterious effects of early social isolation on cognitive control and its neural substrates. Alterations in prefrontal cognitive control mechanisms may contribute to the enhanced risk for psychiatric disorders induced by aberrations in the early social environment.
María Pilar Teruel Melero
Full Text Available This article begins by analysing the importance of socio-affective education at school, considering that it should be framed within ethics. It then analyses why it is important to train primary teachers in emotional education, advocating that it should be articulated around two basic standpoints: theoretical training and personal, experienced training, highlighting that the second one is crucial in order for primary teachers to emotionally educate their pupils. The article further focuses on the main socio-affective competences the primary teacher should have to face the challenges of education in such an unsettled and complex world as ours, positioning ourselves in favour of a socio-affective, experienced and active methodology. Finally, we provide an overview of emotional education in the Spanish school system and in primary teacher initial training curricula.
Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Chmielewski, Michael; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin
Trait affect scales have been a mainstay of the assessment literature for more than 50 years. These scales have demonstrated impressive construct validity, including substantial relations with personality, satisfaction, and psychopathology. However, the accumulating evidence has exposed several limitations, including (a) problems associated with retrospective biases, (b) lower temporal stability because of enhanced susceptibility to transient error, and (c) reduced self-other agreement. These limitations motivated the creation of the Temperament and Affectivity Inventory (TAI), which uses a traditional personality format (i.e., full sentences rather than single words or short phrases). The 12 TAI scales were created based on factor analyses in two samples and validated in four additional samples. The scales are internally consistent, highly stable over time, and show strong convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity in relation to self-report and interview-based measures of personality and psychopathology. Thus, the TAI provides a promising new approach to assessing trait affectivity.
Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.
Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…
ABSTRACT Khatiwada, Prabesh. Social entrepreneurship as an approach to community development: a case study of social entrepreneurship in Kathmandu, Nepal. 66 pages. 1 appendix. Language: English. Autumn 2014. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelors of Social Services, Focus in Community Development Work. This is a qualitative and descriptive study. The aim of the research is to study the role of social entrepreneurship in community devel...
Hall, Andrea; Herrington, Jan
An effective online learning community requires the development of social presence, as this helps learners to project themselves online and feel a sense of community. A literature review found that cultural preferences are important in developing relationships online, which may explain why some learners in international contexts may not…
Ward, Carolyn; Blenkinsopp, John; McCauley-Smith, Catherine
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a research agenda to underpin leadership development activity in the social housing sector, in the light of an identified need for effective leadership in this sector owing to the continual reform and changes it faces. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is conducted by searching a…
Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…
Callahan, Carolyn M.; Sowa, Claudia J.; May, Kathleen M.; Tomchin, Ellen Menaker; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Cunningham, Caroline M.; Taylor, Wesley
This research monograph on the social and emotional development of gifted students' is divided into four parts. Part 1 of the report focuses on analysis of the literature. Parts 2-4 present results of seven qualitative and quantitative studies of adolescent development. In Part 2, Studies 1 and 2 expand Lazarus and Folkman's cognitive appraisal…
Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian
Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students w...
Ben-Ari, Rachel; Kedem-Friedrich, Peri
Describes a study of students in grades three, four, and five that tried an educational application derived from the social constructivism view based on theories of Vygotsky and Piaget to improve cognitive development in a heterogeneous class. Path analysis showed that complex learning techniques are related to cognitive development. (Author/LRW)
The report by the Stiglitz Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress highlighted the idea that sustainability in essence is about quality of life. This paper discusses and elaborates this notion. It argues that sustainable development should be seen as a process which does not focus on economic development alone,…
Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix
Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without
Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix
Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without
Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I
In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.
Cedillo Torres, Cristina A.; Mercedes Garcia-French; Rosemarie Hordijk; Kim Nguyen; Lana Olup
This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart) in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR practices of the four companies. Coca-Cola was criticized for over-exploiting and polluting water resources in India. Apple, Canon and Walmart were involved in social CSR issues. Walmart was caught...
Citizens′ political socialization cannot develop without certain circumstances.The circumstance factors as the outer conditions always play an important part in the citizens′ political socialization.It may hinder and restrict the development of the citizens political socialization and affect the effectiveness of the citizens′ political socialization when the circumstances are unfavourabe to the citizens′ political socializaiton.It can also promote the developmert of the citizens′ political socialization toward the active and correct ways and renew the anticipated effectiveness when the circumstances are favourable to the citizens′ political socialization.%影响公民政治社会化的环境影响因素是十分广泛而复杂的，但其中的家庭环境因素、学校环境因素、社团组织环境因素和大众传媒因素则更为具体地、经常地发挥作用。正是这些重要的“环境因素”影响着我国公民的政治观、人生观的形成，影响着我国公民的政治态度和政治心理。
Ostrov, Jamie M; Murray-Close, Dianna; Godleski, Stephanie A; Hart, Emily J
The central goal of this study was to examine the prospective associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior with social (i.e., peer rejection) and affective (i.e., anger, emotion regulation skills) processes during early childhood (N = 96, mean age = 42.80 months, SD = 7.57). A cross-lagged path analysis revealed that proactive relational aggression was uniquely associated with decreases in peer rejection, whereas reactive relational aggression was associated with increases in peer rejection over time. Proactive relational aggression predicted decreases in anger, whereas reactive relational aggression tended to be associated with increases in anger. Proactive relational aggression uniquely predicted increases in emotion regulation skills, whereas reactive relational aggression tended to be associated with decreases in emotion regulation skills over time. Finally, anger was significantly associated with increases in several subtypes of aggressive behavior. In sum, the findings provide further support for the distinction between subtypes of aggressive behavior in young children.
Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.
Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul
Tiger conservation in India represents an excellent case study of the many challenges facing conservation programs internationally. It is well understood that tigers are sensitive to human disturbances and large areas of habitat need to be protected for their conservation. Such protected areas in India are managed by the governments using an exclusionary approach. However, this approach is known to create several issues with local communities, including historical, legal, livelihood and management issues; with a volume of literature suggesting the inclusion of local communities in management. Yet, other evidence suggests that inclusion of communities in tiger conservation may lead to anthropogenic disturbances that can jeopardize tigers. The gravity of the situation is reflected in the recent disappearance of tigers from two key protected areas in India, the Sariska and Panna Tiger Reserves. This review paper connects the key literature from conservation biology, environmental history, management sciences, policy and political sciences to underline the gridlock of tiger conservation: it needs exclusive protected areas that antagonize communities, and it depends on the support of the same communities for success. We examine the possibility of reconciliation between these disciplines, and assert that research on tiger conservation needs to allow for an increasingly interdisciplinary approach. We call for a more integrated approach to tiger conservation, to examine the values inherent in conservation and to shed more light on the social factors that affect tiger conservation schemes.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a context for choosing the energy system that will replace fossil fuels. As fossil fuels, the energy source of industrialization, are depleted, the world enters into the third most important energy and social revolution in the development of civilization. Natural and social systems operate under the same principles of energy management. Growth, stability, or decline is determined by the interdependent relationship between energy and structure (Energy in Natural and Social Systems). The evolution of civilization over more than a million years can be seen as a successful quest to control greater amounts of energy through social organization in three different energy and social systems: hunting and gathering, agriculture, and fossil fuels (Two Energy and Social Revolutions). Many nations based on different energy and social structures have flourished and disappeared throughout history. The cases of Egypt, Rome, and Britain are used to illustrate the dynamic forces that affect the rise and fall of empires, dependence on foreign resources, and the changing purposes of social organization (The Influence of Energy on Nations). The energy perspective of the paper suggests the relationship between continuous growth and social discontinuity in U.S. history (Continuous Growth and Social Discontinuity in the U.S.). The physical and social consequences of future energy alternatives are discussed in terms of an Orwellian, Jeffersonian, and Malthusian type future (The Third Revolution: Orwell, Jefferson, or Malthus). The paper concludes with an endorsement of solar energy as the alternative most likely to afford a stable future in a humanly organized environment.
Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A
A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.
Meyer, Melissa B.; Kurtz, Matthew M.
Social-skill deficits are pervasive in schizophrenia and negatively impact many key aspects of functioning. Prior studies have found that measures of elementary neurocognition and social cognition are related to social-skills. In the present study we selected a range of neurocognitive measures and examined their relationship with identification of happy and sad faces and performance-based social-skills. Fifty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Results ...
Stasiewicz, Paul R; Bradizza, Clara M; Schlauch, Robert C; Coffey, Scott F; Gulliver, Suzy B; Gudleski, Gregory D; Bole, Christopher W
Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called affect regulation training (ART), which could be added to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N=77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT+ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT+HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT+ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT+ART when compared to CBT+HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers.
Bezemer, T.M.; Mills, N.J.
We investigated for early and late blooming walnut cultivars in California whether variation in nut phenology resulted in differences in nutritional quality and whether this, in turn, affected the performance of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the extent of nut damage. 2. Mid-season, dur
Idsoe, Ella Maria Cosmovici
We investigated whether perceived inclusion and exclusion with peers at school, as well as self-reported bullying exposure, affected positive and negative affect among 1161 students from grades five through seven. Positive affect was significantly, but only weakly, affected by perceived exclusion and inclusion. Negative affect was not related to…
Full Text Available In this article we want to present o new of form of group, which we consider as being important for the process of personal development. Groups are a form of gathering more people united by a common purpose. We believe that through their group, members can develop new skills and also can obtain the change in the direction they want. Socialization is the processthat we “share” along with others, by communicating and also by having close views towards different things in life. Appreciative socialization involves placing emphasis on those elements that have value to us, which are positive. We consider appreciative group socialization as a model of good practice that aims the development among group members and increasesempowerment process.
Nyborg, Sophie; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch; Clausen, Laura Tolnov
Through a case-study on the development of a contested wind farm project in the Northern part of Jutland in Denmark, this paper builds on an STS-approach to shed light on the contested acceptability of wind farm development, which has produced controversy and social contention over energy justice....... Wind energy projects on land in Denmark are increasingly subject to social contention. Research and policy are mostly directed towards understanding how 'public acceptance' of current market-driven ways of wind power development can be supported and less on exploring the potentiality of alternative...... paths or understanding processes of coalition formation and reasons for social contention that underlie socio-technical controversies over sustainable transitions. In this paper, we draw on case-study research, inquiring into the contested translation of a Danish wind farm site in the rural area...
Full Text Available Despite possible differences in official ideology the drawbacks of social organization and the absence of sound approach to social and personal conflicts cause constant demolition of existing formal institutions for the sake of the survival of the system. The neglect of these drawbacks brings about old problems to be transferred to the “new” state. The level of social and human capital and its proper utilization guarantees progressive development. The shifts in organizational policy is also reflected by the consequent shift in the theoretical paradigm, from treatment of a participant of the structure as an object, then as the user and finally as the client. The lack of social capital generates a vicious cycle, which brings about the necessity of object-based relations and the spread of all-pervasive protecting informality to compensate for object-based relations.
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the core of sustainable development of companies. On one hand, the corporate social responsibility of companies is a prerequisite for sustainable business, on the other - sustainable development sets specific requirements for the development of businesses in the context of increasing requirements to the degree of quality and reliability of financial information. In recent years, sustainable development has become a strategic issue for companies and this trend applies to Bulgarian companies too. Development of non-financial reporting is a very dynamic process, whose peak is the establishment of an integrated system of accountability. Current paper makes analyses of advantages of CSR linking it to the implementation of sustainable development goals through the integrated reporting following the requirements of the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.
Full Text Available Volunteering is one of manifestations of citizenship. It indicates the individual’s quality in terms of citizenship and the readiness to take an active part in public activities. The current paper analyses the phenomenon of volunteering (its place and role in ensuring public development and sustainability. The influence of volunteer - ing on the youth socialization and personal development of competences (in particular, social, professional and communicative is disclosed in the article. The article also highlights the motives and factors that promote and prevent the youth participation in voluntary activities.
The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.
Hayashi, Chisato; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Chiho; Nishihara, Reiko; Onoi, Miyuki
Social competence is one of the most important accomplishments of human development, and this skill in human relationships is learned through communication. Therefore, it is considered that delays in language development could be a barrier to building human relationships and social competence. Although it is well known that there are delays in language development in twins compared with that of singletons, little is known about how these linguistic delays affect the development of social competence. Because twin language is a language that is unique to each pair of twins and cannot be understood by either their mother or others, it may be assumed that the social competence of twins who have a twin language is less than that of twins who don't have a twin language. Therefore, in this prospective longitudinal study we also investigated the relationship between twin language and social competence. A mailed questionnaire survey was conducted in 958 mothers as a follow-up of a study conducted in 2004. As a result, 522 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used only 256 twins aged 6- 12-years-old (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In the second child of twins, a low birth weight, the appearance of twin language and gestosis of the mother were positively related with social unbalance (OR = 1.846, 2.022 and 1.903). On the other hand, with the first child, however, there was no such link. The present results indicate that twin language might influence social competence in school-age children. It has been believed that linguistic intervention is unnecessary, because most twin language disappears spontaneously. However, early intervention, for example linguistic assistance by public health nurses or psychologists and early enrollment in a preschool may be necessary for twins with a twin language, to avoid adverse consequences in social competence at school-age.
The paper analyzes the main social factors which affect the way of our speech, such as region, special class, age, sex and ethnicity. Because of these factors, people will adopt different ways of speech, formal or informal. Thus, we can communicate with other better.
Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Lochman, J.E.
In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations be
Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.
In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…
Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan
Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen
One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…
Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.
The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…
Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Weng, Apollo
Drawing from the social influence theory and acknowledging that the others' support within the work context affects employees' learning, values, and behaviours, an alternative framework was proposed to explain employees' learning satisfaction and future intention to participate in e-training programs in the current study. 578 survey data collected…
Radke, Sina; de Lange, F P; Ullsperger, M; de Bruijn, E R A
In social contexts, errors have a special significance and often bear consequences for others. Thinking about others and drawing social inferences in interpersonal games engages the mentalizing system. We used neuroimaging to investigate the differences in brain activations between errors that affect only agents themselves and errors that additionally influence the payoffs of interaction partners. Activation in posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) and bilateral insula was increased for all errors, whereas errors that implied consequences for others specifically activated medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an important part of the mentalizing system. The results demonstrate that performance monitoring in social contexts involves additional processes and brain structures compared with individual performance monitoring where errors only have consequences for the person committing them. Taking into account how one's behavior may affect others is particularly crucial for adapting behavior in interpersonal interactions and joint action.
Li, Dan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ye, Rong; Chen, Xingui; Xie, Xinhui; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai
Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated an effect of eye gaze direction on the processing of emotional expressions in adults with social anxiety. However, specific brain responses to the interaction between gaze direction and facial expressions in social anxiety remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the time course of such interaction using event-related potentials (ERPs) in participants with social anxiety. High socially anxious individuals and low socially anxious individuals were asked to identify the gender of angry or neutral faces with direct or averted gaze while their behavioral performance and electrophysiological data were monitored. We found that identification of angry faces with direct but not averted gaze elicited larger N2 amplitude in high socially anxious individuals compared to low socially anxious individuals, while identification of neutral faces did not produce any gaze modulation effect. Moreover, the N2 was correlated with increased anxiety severity upon exposure to angry faces with direct gaze. Therefore, our results suggest that gaze direction modulates the processing of threatening faces in social anxiety. The N2 component elicited by angry faces with direct gaze could be a state-dependent biomarker of social anxiety and may be an important reference biomarker for social anxiety diagnosis and intervention.
Welles Matias de Abreu
Full Text Available Comparative studies show significant results when compared with fiscal transparency social indicators in the framework of democratic processes. However, careful analysis of the consequences associated with fiscal transparency are still surprisingly scarce. The aim of this research is to verify the existence of relationship between fiscal transparency and local development in the Brazilian states. The theoretical framework is related to public budget, focusing on fiscal transparency, and social development. In addition, to control social development by groups of Brazilian regions, we use a dummy variable. Therefore, this paper contributes to find empirical evidence on the existence of directly proportional relationship between state fiscal transparency and local development in Brazil. Moreover, it is important to highlight that the regional issue is fundamental to explaining social development, which together with fiscal transparency should be consider essential for formulation and implementation of public policies focus on the reducing of poverty and inequality in Brazil. Therefore, we expect that his article collaborated with data and ideas in order to stimulate further studies related to the consequences of fiscal transparency, considering all government levels: state, municipality and federal.
Full Text Available Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a "classical" animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area.
Research on affect and self-esteem in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has focused on trait or average levels, but we know little about the dynamic patterns of these experiences in the daily lives of people with SAD. We asked 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls to provide end-of-day reports on their affect and self-esteem over two weeks. Compared to healthy adults, participants with SAD exhibited greater instability of negative affect and self-esteem, though the self-esteem effect...
Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Hovland, Wenche
- and on discussions of how the knowledge produced can contribute in the development of social work practice. We take two research projects as our point of departure, one from Denmark and one from Norway. In the Danish study, young people in contact with different social services (for young people experiencing self...... minutes each), we discuss the certain definitions and enactments of participation and co-research which each project holds – and the ways the young participants influence research questions, data production and analysis, and publication of the results. This point to a discussion across the two projects...... of how these studies and research processes can inform each other, and how this kind of knowledge (productions) can contribute in the development of social work practice across different national contexts. We would like workshop participants to actively discuss central questions – like for instance: What...
Siegeler, Katja; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia
The social environment plays an important role in modulating processes of the hormonal and behavioural profile of an animal in a variety of group-living species. In wild cavies for instance, unstable social environmental conditions during pregnancy and lactation lead to an infantilised biobehavioural profile of the male offspring. In the present study, the influence of the social environment during pregnancy and lactation on the male wild cavy offsprings' plasma testosterone development, reproductive capacity and stress system activity was investigated. To this purpose, 12 sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation were compared with 12 sons whose mothers had lived in a stable social environment during the same time. Plasma testosterone (T) and plasma cortisol (C) concentrations were determined from days 20 to 107 of age. Adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and different parameters of reproductive capacity (weights of testes, epididymides and accessory sex glands, cellular composition of the testes, DNA fragmentation indices and sperm motility parameters) were analysed at day 107 of age. TH activity and plasma C were unaffected by different social environmental conditions early in life. The developmental time course of T concentrations, however, was significantly different: Sons whose mothers had lived in an unstable social environment during pregnancy and lactation showed a delayed increase in T concentrations around adolescence compared to controls. In contrast, no reproduction-related parameters measured within this study differed significantly between the two groups. Thus, early social instability affects plasma testosterone development during adolescence in a significant way but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life.
Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.
Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih
Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality
Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Cedillo Torres, Cristina A.; Garcia-French, Mercedes; Hordijk, Rosemarie; Nguyen, Kim; Olup, Lana
This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart) in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR
Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.
This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is designed to help the CDA intern provide learning experiences in the social sciences for young children. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics related to the…
Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur
The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…
Rhodes, Margaret L.
Discusses two modes of thinking about ethics developed by Carol Gilligan. Argues that Gilligan's modes of thought (responsibility and rights) correspond to two ideals of social work practice: a rights perspective, based on liberal individualism, and a needs perspective, based on nineteenth century Christian virtue. (JAC)
Ghorbani, Amineh; Dignum, Virginia; Bots, Pieter; Dijkema, Gerhard
In this paper we introduce and motivate a conceptualization framework for agent-based social simulation, MAIA: Modelling Agent systems based on Institutional Analysis. The MAIA framework is based on Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework, and provides an extensive set of modelling
Sereno, Bertrand; Boursinou, Eleni; Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert
Sereno, B., Boursinou, E., Maxwell, K., & Angehrn, A. A. (2007). Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop (pp. 29-35). January, 11-12, 2007, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Coryn, Chris L. S.; Spybrook, Jessaca K.; Evergreen, Stephanie D. H.; Blinkiewicz, Meg
This article presents the development and evaluation of a measurement device designed to assess elementary-aged students' social-emotional learning needs. A sample of 633 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade elementary students from 11 public schools in a midsized Midwestern U.S. city was used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the 20-item…
Gunn, Curtis D.
Developing social justice awareness is a challenging task. Many educational institutions have limited discourse related to race and equity. This autoethnography examines one leader's attempt to become a transformational leader by having ongoing conversations about race and racism, applying the individualized transformative model of professional…
Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B
Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.
Cross, Tracy L.
This article discusses eight topics on the social and emotional development of gifted children. These issues bring to light some of the current thinking that can be helpful to parents, teachers, and counselors. Understanding what giftedness actually is and is not, how to identify it, moving from an entity model of giftedness to an incremental…
Bilyard, G.R.; McCabe, G.H.; White, K.A.; Gajewski, S.W.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Jaksch, J.A.; Kirwan-Taylor, H.A.; McKinney, M.D.
The social and legal framework within which bioremediation technologies must be researched, developed, and deployed in the US are discussed in this report. Discussions focus on policies, laws and regulations, intellectual property, technology transfer, and stakeholder concerns. These discussions are intended to help program managers, scientists and engineers understand the social and legal framework within which they work, and be cognizant of relevant issues that must be navigated during bioremediation technology research, development, and deployment activities. While this report focuses on the legal and social environment within which the DOE operates, the laws, regulations and social processes could apply to DoD and other sites nationwide. This report identifies specific issues related to bioremediation technologies, including those involving the use of plants; native, naturally occurring microbes; non-native, naturally occurring microbes; genetically engineered organisms; and microbial products (e.g., enzymes, surfactants, chelating compounds). It considers issues that fall within the following general categories: US biotechnology policy and the regulation of field releases of organisms; US environmental laws and waste cleanup regulations; intellectual property and patenting issues; technology transfer procedures for commercializing technology developed through government-funded research; stakeholder concerns about bioremediation proposals; and methods for assuring public involvement in technology development and deployment.
Movahed Abtahi, Mahsa; Kerns, Kathryn A
In middle childhood, more securely attached children show better emotion regulation when assessed as general tendencies (e.g. coping style), but studies looking at emotion in response to specific stressors have revealed mixed results. This study examined how attachment security, avoidance, and ambivalence - assessed with a story stem task (99 children, 9-11 years old) - relate to dynamic indices of affective and autonomic responses (baseline, reactivity, recovery). Reports of positive and negative affect, and high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), were assessed during a social stressor task. Securely attached children did not show reactivity effects, although they did show greater recovery of positive affect after the task ended. Avoidant children showed both less reactivity and recovery of negative affect, suggesting a dampened emotional response. Ambivalent children showed more reactivity and more recovery of negative affect. Autonomic response changes were only evident for ambivalent children, who showed less suppression of HF-HRV variability under stress.
The talk aims at showing the development of Locations before and after this moment, and how the way of thinking at the application changed for taking in account the improvements in the user experience of the application.
Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle
This article provides a review of what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know about the relationship between industrial clusters and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. In addition to the drivers of and barriers to the adoption of CSR initiatives...... focus on export-oriented industrial clusters, the risk that CSR becomes a form of economic and cultural imperialism, and the potential for joint-action CSR initiatives in clusters of small and medium-sized enterprises to offer a new form of greenwashing. From this review, the authors develop...... a theoretical model to explain why CSR has not become institutionalized in many developing country clusters, which in turn suggests that the vast majority of industrial clusters in developing countries are likely to engage in socially irresponsible behavior....
Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian
Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...... are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were...... exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in...
Fejerskov, Adam Moe
Determining the success of development projects and programmes is often portrayed and understood as a question of measurable impact and effectiveness. More often than not however, success is a negotiated truth, socially constructed between the involved stakeholders that does not require measurable...... results of impact, and may very well hold the opposite circumstances. By examining the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in the Horn of Africa, the article investigates one such case of development project success despite no substantial impact on the ground. Success in development cooperation......, the article argues, is not a matter of attaining impact, but is rather constructed in the overlapping space between representation and interpretation of events, actions and discourses, made and sustained socially between recipient and donor....
This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of us...
Cavazzana, Annachiara; Wesarg, Christiane; Parish-Morris, Julia; Lundström, Johan N; Parma, Valentina
Recognition of emotional facial expressions is a crucial skill for adaptive behavior that most often occurs in a multi-sensory context. Affective matching tasks have been used across development to investigate how people integrate facial information with other senses. Given the relative affective strength of olfaction and its relevance in mediating social information since birth, we assessed olfactory-visual matching abilities in a group of 140 children between the ages of 3 and 11 years old. We presented one of three odor primes (rose, fish and no-odor, rated as pleasant or unpleasant by individual children) before a facial choice task (happy vs. disgusted face). Children were instructed to select one of two faces. As expected, children of all ages tended to choose happy faces. Children younger than 5 years of age were biased towards choosing the happy face, irrespective of the odor smelled. After age 5, an affective matching strategy guided children's choices. Smelling a pleasant odor predicted the choice of happy faces, whereas smelling the unpleasant or fish odor predicted the choice of disgusted faces. The present study fills a gap in the developmental literature on olfactory-visual affective strategies that affect decision-making, and represents an important step towards understanding the underlying developmental processes that shape the typical social mind.
Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Clarke, Brandy L.; Rispoli, Kristin M.; Coutts, Michael J.
Research Findings: Children's early academic achievement is supported by positive social and behavioral skills, and difficulties with these skills frequently gives way to underachievement. Social and behavioral problems often arise as a product of parent-child interactional patterns and environmental influences. Few studies have examined the role…
Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda; Baroutsis, Aspa; Te Riele, Kitty; Hayes, Debra
This article considers the ways in which three alternative education sites in Australia support socially just education for their students and how injustice is addressed within these schools. The article begins with recognition of the importance of Nancy Fraser's work to understandings of social justice. It then goes on to argue that her framework…
Estell, David B.; Perdue, Neil H.
School engagement has long been seen as an important component of school completion, and research shows that social support in the home and school promotes engagement. However, many researchers have argued that it is not a unitary construct but rather a multifaceted phenomenon, and the role of peer social support has not been as well studied as…
Hofstetter, Heather N.; Hofstetter, Merlin I.
This paper describes the beliefs and values of a pluralistic approach to social change and of four competing approaches: social Darwinism, functionalism, militancy, and conflict theory. Stressing the alienation and dogmatism of the competing approaches, the authors relate each approach to its operation in community action projects. Social…
The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including…
Michiel M Spapé
Full Text Available In daily life, we often copy the gestures and expressions of those we communicate with, but recent evidence shows that such mimicry has a physiological counterpart: interaction elicits linkage, which is a concordance between the biological signals of those involved. To find out how the type of social interaction affects linkage, pairs of participants played a turn-based computer game in which the level of competition was systematically varied between cooperation and competition. Linkage in the beta and gamma frequency bands was observed in the EEG, especially when the participants played directly against each other. Emotional expression, measured using facial EMG, reflected this pattern, with the most competitive condition showing enhanced linkage over the facial muscle-regions involved in smiling. These effects were found to be related to self-reported social presence: linkage in positive emotional expression was associated with self-reported shared negative feelings. The observed effects confirmed the hypothesis that the social context affected the degree to which participants had similar reactions to their environment and consequently showed similar patterns of brain activity. We discuss the functional resemblance between linkage, as an indicator of a shared physiology and affect, and the well-known mirror neuron system, and how they relate to social functions like empathy.
Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morsø, Lars;
BACKGROUND: Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. METHODS: A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity...... of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social...... not predict pain catastrophizing or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' perceived social isolation predicts disability related to LBP. Further understanding of the role of social isolation in LBP is warranted....
Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla
Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research.
John Charles Walker
The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.
Full Text Available Background: Interpersonal violence (IPV is associated with higher risk of depression. Female Chinese rural-to-urban migrants may experience greater depression following exposure to IPV due to lack of social support and integration within their receiving communities. The current study estimated the prevalence of IPV among rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China, and evaluated the moderating effects of social resources on migrant's depression symptoms. Method: We recruited 1,368 women (1,003 migrants and 365 local-born of childbearing age from population and family planning centers in two districts using a quota sampling method matched to the 2012 population census. Chinese versions of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 Short Form, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale measured IPV, depression, and social support. Social integration was measured with a locally derived scale. Results: Migrants reported a similar prevalence for IPV (41.20% to local women (39.20%. Bivariate comparisons demonstrated that migrants reported greater depression (11.8±8.9 vs. 10.0±8.8, t=−3.27, p<0.001 and less social support (22.2±5.1 vs. 27.1±5.5, t=14.84, p<0.001. Regression analysis indicated that the effect of violence on depression symptoms for migrant women was moderated by social integration. Women who experienced violence and had greater integration in their community reported less depression than women who experienced violence but reported less social integration. Conclusion: A high prevalence of IPV was reported in our sample. Social integration is a key risk factor for migrant mental health. Social services aimed to reduce IPV and integrate migrants in their new communities are needed.
Banbury, Annie; Chamberlain, Daniel; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Len; Parkinson, Lynne
Social support is a key component in managing long-term conditions. As people age in their homes, there is a greater risk of social isolation, which can be ameliorated by informal support networks. This study examined the relationship between changes in social support networks for older people living in a regional area following weekly videoconference groups delivered to the home. Between February and June 2014, we delivered 44 weekly group meetings via videoconference to participants in a regional town in Australia. The meetings provided participants with education and an opportunity to discuss health issues and connect with others in similar circumstances. An uncontrolled, pre-post-test methodology was employed. A social network tool was completed by 45 (87%) participants either pre- or post-intervention, of which 24 (46%) participants completed the tool pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 14 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus groups were conducted. Following the intervention, participants identified increased membership of their social networks, although they did not identify individuals from the weekly videoconference groups. The most important social support networks remained the same pre- and post-intervention namely, health professionals, close family and partners. However, post-intervention participants identified friends and wider family as more important to managing their chronic condition compared to pre-intervention. Participants derived social support, in particular, companionship, emotional and informational support as well as feeling more engaged with life, from the weekly videoconference meetings. Videoconference education groups delivered into the home can provide social support and enhance self-management for older people with chronic conditions. They provide the opportunity to develop a virtual social support network containing new and diverse social connections.
Aga, Deribe Assefa
This dissertation sought to examine behavioral-related critical success factors in the context of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector development projects in Ethiopia. The dissertation applied both a cross-sectional survey design and an experimental design in separate settings, and it is orga
The poor classroom practices of English teachers at elementary level in Indonesia have been attributed to the inadequacy of pre-service education. Yet, whether in-service professional development (PD) also plays a role is unknown. This study investigated the perspectives of 23 teachers, 14 teacher educators and 3 school principals regarding the…
Witten, Molly Romer
Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…
Rijntjes, E.; Wientjes, A.T.; Swarts, H.J.; Rooij, de D.G.; Teerds, K.J.
The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary-induced mild fetal/neonatal hyperthyroidism influenced the initiation of spermatogenesis and the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population. Previously, the effects of neonatally induced hyperthyroidism have been investigated in
Maas, F.M.; Bakx, E.
Growth and flowering of shoots of rose ‘Mercedes’ were investigated as a function of the level and spectral quality of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Experiments were performed with single-shoot plants decapitated above the two most basal leaves with five leaflets. The development of
Miller, Peggy J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.
In this chapter, we argue that deeper insight into the social nature of self-development can be gained by adopting a dual focus on social relationships and meaning making. A key challenge for future scholarship will be to investigate the role of semiotic mediation in self-construction during the early years of life.
Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne
Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote
Full Text Available Introduction: The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions: The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV
Full Text Available This study aims to develop a social media GIS (Geographic Information Systems specially tailored to information exchange between regions. The conclusions of this study are summarized in the following three points.(1 Social media GIS is a geographic information system which integratesWeb-GIS, SNS and Twitter into a single system. A social media GIS was conducted for the collection of regional information in the eastern part of Yamanashi Prefecture. The social media GIS uses a design which displays its usefulness in multi-directional information transmission and in easing the limitations of space, time and continuity, making it possible to redesign systems in accordance with target cases.(2 During the operation of the social media GIS for about two months, most of the users were in their20s. Users exchanged regional information using the comment and button functions.(3The system was evaluated based on the results of a questionnaire to users and an access analysis oflog data during operationin order to identify measures for improvement of the system. Because of users’ high evaluations of its original functions, the overall operability of the system was highly evaluated. Most of the contributed information was only known to local residents, and it was evident that the system fulfilled its intended role.
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were assessed via maternal questionnaire at age 6. Path analyses using structural equation modeling were utilized to test the relations among the variables at ages 4, 5, and 6. A parent-driven model of emotion socialization emerged, wherein stronger relations were found among maternal negative affect and child externalizing emotions and behaviors than among maternal negative affect and child internalizing emotions and behaviors. Early child risk did not appear to alter the overall emotion socialization process, although higher levels of maternal and child negativity were observed for the children with a developmental risk. Results underscore the complexity of emotion socialization processes throughout the preschool period.
Full Text Available In 2015, the Caritas Center of the Diocese of Iasi became active in the social economy (SE sector by provision of training and by specific involvement on the product market. The experience was actually represented by a project focused on diversity: diversity as regards locations – the North East and South East regions, as well as services and products, all of them being presented in detail below. The major challenge was to maintain unity in this diversity, by promoting Caritas values and vision, as our social enterprises ensured increased visibility to our organization. For the future, our main goal will be represented by development of a management covering always greater areas, such as marketing and quality assurance. At the same time, human resources management within the organization as a whole will have to ensure training of personnel in these areas – which are new to some of the employees – or attracting people who acquired such skills in school or at previous jobs. In this continuous combination of economic and social sectors, the Caritas Center of the Diocese of Iasi will try to find a balance, this being in fact a goal for the society as a whole: a balance between social assistance and the innovative aspect ensured by social economy.
Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; Rodell, Jessica B; Long, David M; Zapata, Cindy P; Conlon, Donald E; Wesson, Michael J
Although a flurry of meta-analyses summarized the justice literature at the turn of the millennium, interest in the topic has surged in the decade since. In particular, the past decade has witnessed the rise of social exchange theory as the dominant lens for examining reactions to justice, and the emergence of affect as a complementary lens for understanding such reactions. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to test direct, mediating, and moderating hypotheses that were inspired by those 2 perspectives, to gauge their adequacy as theoretical guides for justice research. Drawing on a review of 493 independent samples, our findings revealed a number of insights that were not included in prior meta-analyses. With respect to social exchange theory, our results revealed that the significant relationships between justice and both task performance and citizenship behavior were mediated by indicators of social exchange quality (trust, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange), though such mediation was not apparent for counterproductive behavior. The strength of those relationships did not vary according to whether the focus of the justice matched the target of the performance behavior, contrary to popular assumptions in the literature, or according to whether justice was referenced to a specific event or a more general entity. With respect to affect, our results showed that justice-performance relationships were mediated by positive and negative affect, with the relevant affect dimension varying across justice and performance variables. Our discussion of these findings focuses on the merit in integrating the social exchange and affect lenses in future research.
Francisco Ganga Contreras
Full Text Available Lately, it has been seen progress in Latin America, mainly from an economic perspective. Currently, it has been conducted research aimed at sustaining the growth, but focused on the country's development, which can be converted into social capital. Democracy becomes a key factor on this challenge and thus confidence in individuals and institutions. In this sense, the central purpose of this paper is to analyze the most relevant aspects of trust, social capital and its impact on democracy and development. To achieve these objectives, it is primarily used secondary sources of information, which involved review of articles addressing this issue. The conclusion is that a society that aspires the development should coordinate institutions to solve the society’s problems and demands, so that society responds with appropriate confidence levels.
Alexandra J Umbers
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria in early pregnancy is difficult to study but has recently been associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying malarial FGR are poorly characterized, but may include impaired placental development. We used in vitro methods that model migration and invasion of placental trophoblast into the uterine wall to investigate whether soluble factors released into maternal blood in malaria infection might impair placental development. Because trophoblast invasion is enhanced by a number of hormones and chemokines, and is inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines, many of which are dysregulated in malaria in pregnancy, we further compared concentrations of these factors in blood between malaria-infected and uninfected pregnancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured trophoblast invasion, migration and viability in response to treatment with serum or plasma from two independent cohorts of Papua New Guinean women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in early pregnancy. Compared to uninfected women, serum and plasma from women with P. falciparum reduced trophoblast invasion (P = .06 and migration (P = .004. P. vivax infection did not alter trophoblast migration (P = .64. The P. falciparum-specific negative effect on placental development was independent of trophoblast viability, but associated with high-density infections. Serum from P. falciparum infected women tended to have lower levels of trophoblast invasion promoting hormones and factors and higher levels of invasion-inhibitory inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that in vitro models of placental development can be adapted to indirectly study the impact of malaria in early pregnancy. These infections could result in impaired trophoblast invasion with reduced transformation of maternal spiral arteries due to maternal hormonal and inflammatory disturbances, which may contribute to FGR by
Maas, F.M.; Bakx, E.
Growth and flowering of shoots of rose ‘Mercedes’ were investigated as a function of the level and spectral quality of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Experiments were performed with single-shoot plants decapitated above the two most basal leaves with five leaflets. The development of the two lateral shoots emerging from the axillary buds of these leaves was studied over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. In order to discriminate between the effects of irradiance level and light quality...
Full Text Available Professional development is a continuous trend of youth in Kosovo. The tendency of the students and other youth to reach relevant information, which affects their professional, pushes them to refer to various sources of information. So far the main sources of information are considered local newspapers, television advertisements and newsletters that have been displayed in different locations. Now these information platforms are considered inappropriate by the youth. They prefer more to use the social networks where they can access information. Social networks that are mostly used among the youth of our country are considered Facebook, Twiter and LinkedIn. This paper presents data on how students of the University of Prishtina regular use social networks.
Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence indicates that the indigenous gut microbiota exerts long-lasting programming effects on brain function and behaviour. Objective: In this study, we used the germ-free (GF mouse model, devoid of any microbiota throughout development, to assess the influence of the indigenous microbiota on social preference and repetitive behaviours (e.g. self-grooming. Methods and results: Using the three-chambered social approach task, we demonstrate that when adult GF mice were given a choice to spend time with a novel mouse or object, they spent significantly more time sniffing and interacting with the stimulus mouse compared to conventionally raised mice (specific pathogen-free, SPF. Time spent in repetitive self-grooming behaviour, however, did not differ between GF and SPF mice. Real-time PCR–based gene expression analysis of the amygdala, a key region that is part of the social brain network, revealed a significant reduction in the mRNA levels of total brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, BDNF exon I-, IV-, VI-, IX-containing transcripts, and NGFI-A (a signalling molecule downstream of BDNF in GF mice compared to SPF mice. Conclusion: These results suggest that differential regulation of BDNF exon transcripts in the amygdala by the indigenous microbes may contribute to the altered social development of GF mice.
Cornelle W Noorlander
Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.
Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E
Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.
Full Text Available This study aimed to adopt the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR to explore the intention of sustainable product development in Taiwan, as well as leading to the creation of influential factors that affect corporate sustainable product development intention. In this research, the induction analysis was conducted to understand the implementation of sustainable product development, and this was supplemented with questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate developmental intention. In addition, principal component analysis was used for factor analysis and content analysis in the 6 W expression method, leading to the creation of the influential factors. The research results have demonstrated that the factors affecting the intention of corporate sustainable product development include having a sustainable design and a development purpose, a corporate development purpose, sustainable development concepts, a sustainable design value, a sustainability concept, and a manufacturing process quality. For sustainable product development, corporate social responsibility needs to be most concerned with the added value of products, regulation requirements, and accommodation of the industrial chain, costs, and quality.
Cristina A. Cedillo Torres
Full Text Available This article studies four multinationals (Apple, Canon, Coca-Cola, Walmart in relation to their CSR reporting. It will present a general outlook of the company's profile and its compliance with CSR standards. The article will focus on conflict situations concerning the social and environmental CSR practices of the four companies. Coca-Cola was criticized for over-exploiting and polluting water resources in India. Apple, Canon and Walmart were involved in social CSR issues. Walmart was caught using child labour in Bangladesh and has faced gender discrimination charges. In 2010 the media reported on suicides at Foxconn, one of Apple's biggest suppliers. And although Canon did not mention any employee stress-related problems at its factories, they nevertheless occurred.This article will discuss the different CSR issues that emerged within the mentioned multinationals. It will provide a comparison of the companies' CSR reporting before and after the problematic events occurred. The case studies show whether the multinationals acted before a conflict emerged or adapted their CSR policy when the problem was already widely known. Thus, it analyses whether the companies adopted clear and quantifiable policies after the issues occurred. The conclusion points out that the companies not only reported on CSR but that they also adopted long-term commitments. The findings also suggest that the conflicts may have contributed to the adoption of these multinationals' CSR commitments.
ter Hoeven, C.L.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Purpose - The effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication on external stakeholders' perceptions and behaviours have been studied extensively; however, researchers have largely overlooked the effects of CSR communication on internal stakeholders. This study seeks to propose that, b
Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations (NGOs receiving organizational development assistance funded and facilitated by a third party frequently receive recommendations designed to improve their overall functioning. Research suggests that tailored in-person communication of recommendations results in increased implementation of recommendations. This study assessed whether the method and frequency of communication from an outside organization influenced Ethiopian NGOs’ ability to implement organizational development recommendations. A secondary study goal was to identify additional factors that facilitated or inhibited implementation of recommendations. Twenty two NGOs were surveyed about the amount, type, and timing of communication; their perception of the value of communication in implementing recommendations; barriers to implementation; and strategies used to overcome barriers to implementation. The frequency and level of personalization of communication was not consistently associated with organizational implementation of recommendations. Receiving communication was significantly associated with an organization’s motivation (mean = 4.5 ± 0.6, understanding (mean = 4.2 ± 0.6, and ability (mean = 3.9 ± 0.6 to implement recommendations (p value = 0.02. Respondents reported that external factors, including funding; staff time, expertise, and training; information systems; leadership; and government regulations on nonprofit administrative spending, strongly influenced their ability to implement recommendations.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The thymus constitutes the primary lymphoid organ for the majority of T cells. The phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is involved in lymphoid development. Defects in single components of this pathway prevent thymocytes from progressing beyond early T cell developmental stages. Protein kinase B (PKB is the main effector of the PI3K pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether PKB mediates PI3K signaling in the thymus, we characterized PKB knockout thymi. Our results reveal a significant thymic hypocellularity in PKBalpha(-/- neonates and an accumulation of early thymocyte subsets in PKBalpha(-/- adult mice. Using thymic grafting and fetal liver cell transfer experiments, the latter finding was specifically attributed to the lack of PKBalpha within the lymphoid component of the thymus. Microarray analyses show that the absence of PKBalpha in early thymocyte subsets modifies the expression of genes known to be involved in pre-TCR signaling, in T cell activation, and in the transduction of interferon-mediated signals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report highlights the specific requirements of PKBalpha for thymic development and opens up new prospects as to the mechanism downstream of PKBalpha in early thymocytes.
Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.
Arce-Gomez, Antonio, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Donovan, Jerome D., E-mail: email@example.com; Bedggood, Rowan E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) have played an increasingly important role in the conduct of planned interventions, providing proponents the capacity to assess and manage the social consequences of their activities. Whilst the SIA field has experienced significant conceptual and practical development over the last decade, efforts at consolidating this within one framework have been limited. In this paper, we incorporate this new knowledge by redeveloping and thus updating the SIA procedural framework developed by Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment. In doing so, this updated procedural framework has attempted to incorporate current ‘best practice’ that focuses on participatory approaches to undertaking an SIA. This involved making adaptions to two steps, expansions to five steps, integration of a stronger participatory approach to six steps, and the development of a new step, Management and Evaluation reflecting moves towards ex-post use of SIA processes. It is hoped that this consolidation of the literature of a decade's worth of key findings in SIA research will lead to further efforts towards a meta-evaluation of SIA literature and a platform from which newer developments may be further investigated.
Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L
The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.
Shane R. Brady; David A. McLeod; Jimmy A. Young
This paper will discuss social media technology in the context of social work education. While social media technology is prevalent in social work education, most discourse about ethical use of social media in the classroom has taken a prescriptive and overly cautious approach that neglects the context dependent nature that social work educators teach in as well as the overwhelmingly positive potential of social media technology in the classroom. This paper utilizes social constructivist theo...
Nelson Torro Alves
Full Text Available Trabalhos anteriores têm revelado vieses no reconhecimento de emoções e padrões diferenciais de ativação cerebral no transtorno de ansiedade social. No presente estudo, foi investigada a atribuição de emoções a faces neutras em 22 indivíduos com ansiedade social e 20 voluntários controles. Através do método da escolha forçada, participantes atribuíram emoções de alegria, medo, raiva ou tristeza a faces neutras. Verificou-se que homens e mulheres com ansiedade social atribuíram mais frequentemente emoções de raiva e tristeza às faces neutras, respectivamente. A atribuição de raiva por homens pode estar associada à tendência masculina em detectar sinais de hostilidade no ambiente social, enquanto que o aumento na atribuição de tristeza pelas mulheres pode estar associado à facilitação na identificação de emoções negativas. Os resultados sugerem que a ansiedade social afeta diferentemente os sexos e têm implicações importantes sobre o uso da face neutra como condição de base ou controle nas neurociências comportamentais.Previous research has revealed facial emotion recognition biases and distinctive patterns of brain activation in social anxiety disorder. We investigated the attribution of emotion to neutral facial displays in 22 subjects with social anxiety and 20 healthy controls. Using a forced choice paradigm, participants labeled neutral faces as happy, fearful, angry or sad. The most frequent emotional labels attributed by males and females to neutral faces were anger and sadness, respectively. These findings are discussed according to the notion that the attribution of anger by men may be associated with the male tendency to detect hostile environmental signs, whereas the increased attribution of sadness by females might be associated with facilitated identification of negative affect. The results suggest that social anxiety disorder differentially affects males and females and has important
Full Text Available Uncritical fostering of social development within the industrial paradigm often referred to as "unlimited growth", has caused so catastrophic effects that they could argumentatively be described as a real ecocide. This is not only reflected in the total pollution of environment, irrecoverable destruction of natural resources and non-renewable energy sources, but the very existence of elementary biological preconditions for survival of human and other life forms on Earth is endangered. Social development, perceived and applied as mere growth, has favored partial interests on behalf of those of the whole. It has also endorsed interests of present over future generations relying on partial, positivist knowledge against holism humanism and wisdom. These effects have contributed to the new knowledge of the necessity for radical change in dominant development paradigm. An alternative has been found by some authors in the concept of "sustainable development". This concept is based on the idea of adjustment of social growth and development to the natural adaptive capacities. The idea of sustainable development should represent a key for human duration in time and with this a concrete form of responsibility towards future generations. This strategy, now within the ecological paradigm, transcendent partiality of industrial paradigm and offers a uniquely new form for the rationalization of development. At the same time this strategy functions as a new form of ethics (biocentric instead of anthropocentric one and as a new model for wisdom of living. The concept of sustainable development is also the only operative way for radical and permanent elimination of the deepest causes of ecological crises instead of periodical and partial healing of its consequences.
Full Text Available The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.
Rafael Guerrero Burgos
Full Text Available The article looks at the process of social and economic development in the Guayaquil river basin based on a model of agro exports commodity chains. The territory or region is analyzed by looking at social and economic dynamics as opposed to political administrative divisions, which covers a wider area that extends to the provinces of Los Ríos, Manabí and Santa Elena. This article is part of a more extensive research project on Guayaquil and the region, that looks at rural urban linkages and how the common feature of the regional economy is the dependence of the rural periphery on Guayaquil either for industrial or export processing. By focusing on the main agro-commodity chains that shape the territory, including coffee, cocoa and banana for export, as well as rice and corn for the internal market, one can see how regional development was built on the basis of the rural economy.
Full Text Available The social impacts of products and service life cycles are increasingly of interest among policy makers and stakeholders. Workers’ issues are considered to be a source of key inventory data to assess social impacts, and are crucial in moving towards social sustainability. There is a need to develop a social inventory database for evaluating social impacts of products and services. This study aimed at the development of a social intensity dataset using an input–output analysis framework. The 2005 Asian International input–output table is used in this work. Six social issues are considered: total employment, paid workers, vulnerable employment, wages, fatal, and non-fatal occupational injuries. To verify the acceptability of this study, an estimation of total social footprint deduced from final consumption rates was carried out. The social intensities associated with 10 countries and 76 economic sectors were constructed. The results show that the social intensities from cradle to gate the agricultural sector has the highest in terms of total employment and vulnerable employment. Meanwhile, the mining sector in China has a higher non-fatal and fatal occupational injuries than the agriculture sector, secondary sector, and tertiary sector. The public administration sector and the education and research sector had a higher wages intensity than any other sectors due to these sectors being labor intensive and having higher wages. The social intensity in terms of total employment, paid workers, vulnerable employment, non-fatal injuries, and fatal accident cases in the developing countries was higher than the developed countries whereas wages intensity in developing countries was lower than that of developed countries. The social footprints resulting from the final consumption of each country show that the social footprints had transferred from the developing countries to the developed countries. Exports from China to the USA, Japan, South Korea
Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W
The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals.
Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.
Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.
Walle, Eric A
The onset of walking is a developmental transition that sets in motion a cascade of change across a range of domains, including social interactions and language learning. However, research on the unfolding of such change in the infant across this transition is limited. This investigation utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effect of walking acquisition on infant social development and parent perceptions of the infant to explore how changes in these factors relate with infant language development. Parents reported on infant social behaviors and their perception of the infant, as well as motor and language development, in 2-week intervals from 10.5 to 13 months of age. Mixed linear models revealed infant initiation of joint engagement (e.g., pointing, bringing objects to the parent) and following of the parent's joint engagement cues (e.g., point following, gaze following) increased as a function of infant walking experience, particularly between 2- and 4-weeks after the onset of walking, independent of age. Additionally, the parent's perception of the infant as an individual increased between 2- and 4-weeks after the infant began to walk. Finally, the unique relations of infant walking experience, following of social cues, and the parents' perception of the infant as an individual with infant language development were examined. Infant following of joint engagement behaviors and parent perception of the infant as an individual were related to receptive, but not productive, vocabulary size. Additionally, infant walking experience remained a significant predictor of infant receptive and productive language. These findings provide insight on important factors that change as the infant begins to walk. Future research utilizing more direct assessment of these factors is described, as well as general patterning of developmental change across the transition from crawling to walking.
imports lowered and the level of agriculture science and technology increased, the cost of production came down while the level of production rose...East Lansing, July 20, 2013. Sian Kam, Pau and Gert-Jan Stads, “Myanmar.” ASTI, Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators, IFPRI and DAR. June...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Promoting Agriculture Development for Social Stability in Myanmar
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L
Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.
Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward; Hain, Kate L; Van Vleet, Meredith
Social support theory typically explains perceived support's link to mental health as reflecting the role of specific supportive actions (i.e., enacted support).Yet enacted support typically is not linked to mental health and perceived support as predicted by theory. The links are examined among enacted support, affect, and perceived support when links reflected (a) aspects of support and affect that generalized across relationship partners and time (i.e., trait influences) and (b) aspects that reflected specific relationship partners (i.e., social influences). Multivariate generalizability analyses indicated that enacted support was linked to low negative affect as predicted by theory only when correlations reflected social influences. When correlations reflected trait influences, enacted support was linked to high negative affect. Furthermore, perceived and enacted support were strongly linked when correlations reflected social influences but not trait influences. Thus, findings for enacted support fit social support theory better when social influences were isolated from trait influences.
Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J
Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.
Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska
Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.
Cristian Bogdan Onete
Full Text Available Due to the transformations appeared in the contemporary society, the way natural resources are used, at the United Nations it has been ascertained that a development strategy must be found, strategy which would lead to an effective use or preservation of these ones for the following generations. The use of certain tools to streamline the activities and at the same time to reduce the use of exhaustible resources is required. The businesses conducted in the virtual environment can be an effective way to reach this purpose and social media provides the necessary tools to develop this kind of business. Within this article are presented the ways that social media can become a platform for sustainable business and a support for the development of goods and services that can become sustainable. To determine the image that business environment has on these aspects, a research has been carried out to determine the perception regarding social media and how sale and marketing activities can be realized through the agency of this one.
Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.
Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.......The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture...
Rory James Ridley-Duff
Full Text Available This paper is based on the keynote address to the 14th International Association of Public and Non-Profit Marketing (IAPNM conference. It explore the question "What impact do ethical values in the FairShares Model have on social entrepreneurial behaviour?" In the first part, three broad approaches to social enterprise are set out: co-operative and mutual enterprises (CMEs, social and responsible businesses (SRBs and charitable trading activities (CTAs. The ethics that guide each approach are examined to provide a conceptual framework for examining FairShares as a case study. In the second part, findings are scrutinised in terms of the ethical values and principles that are activated when FairShares is applied to practice. The paper contributes to knowledge by giving an example of the way OpenSource technology (Loomio has been used to translate 'espoused theories' into 'theories in use' to advance social enterprise development. The review of FairShares using the conceptual framework suggests there is a fourth approach based on multi-stakeholder co-operation to create 'associative democracy' in the workplace.
Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A
This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years.
Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee
Full Text Available The present research aims to explore a scale of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Iran. In this way, it reviews the literature exist on corporate social responsibility, gathers data and analyzes the data to test the emerging trends. After confirmation of reliability, factor analysis and multi dimensional scaling are used to an established survey instrument. Finally CSR was achieved as a construct with five dimensions: obligation to employees, obligation to customers and markets, obligation to social programs and natural environment, obligation to laws and regulations and obligation to society. These five dimensions represent the corporate accountability to some different groups of its stakeholders. In this study the convenient samples of managers and employees used in collecting data and developing the scale, however in exploratory studies, this type of sampling can be acceptable. Nevertheless, some limitations should be taken into consideration, while interpreting the findings of the study and generalizing them to general business environment. Therefore enlarging the sample size and using a random sampling method of managers and employees in future studies has to make Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR scale more useful and enhance the generalization.
Full Text Available This study aims to develop a social recommendation media GIS (Geographic Information Systems specially tailored to recommend tourist spots. The conclusions of this study are summarized in the following three points. (1 Social media GIS, an information system which integrates Web-GIS, SNS and recommendation system into a single system, was conducted in the central part of Yokohama City in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The social media GIS uses a design which displays its usefulness in reducing the constraints of information inspection, time and space, and continuity, making it possible to redesign systems in accordance with target cases. (2 The social media GIS was operated for two months for members of the general public who are more than 18 years old. The total numbers of users was 98, and the number of pieces of information submitted was 232. (3 The web questionnaires of users showed the usefulness of the integration of Web-GIS, SNS and recommendation systems, because the functions of reference and recommendation can be expected to support tourists’ excursion behavior. Since the access survey of log data showed that about 35% of accesses were from mobile information terminals, it can be said that the preparation of an optimal interface for such terminals was effective.
Full Text Available The terms “social” and “cultural” are ambiguous and can be used with different meanings. This paper tries to clarify the prevailing conceptions of the social factors that intervene in cognitive development, as found in developmental psychology. These conceptions are grouped into five main approaches, based on their theoretical commitments and the corresponding methodological strategies: 1 some theories treat the social world as an object of knowledge; 2 other theories see social life as consisting in a collection of symbolic interactions; 3 some approaches tend to consider socio-cultural variables as constituting an environment that influences individual subjects; 4 still other approaches interpret this symbolic context in a technical way, as made-up of means-ends relationships; 5 finally, there remains the possibility of studying the social subject as an institutional actor. This article evaluates the virtues and limitations of some of the approaches already followed by researchers, and explores others, which appear as promising but still untried.
Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C
Dictyostelium discoideum has been very useful for elucidating principles of development over the last 50 years, but a key attribute means there is a lot to be learned from a very different intellectual tradition: social evolution. Because Dictyostelium arrives at multicellularity by aggregation instead of through a single-cell bottleneck, the multicellular body could be made up of genetically distinct cells. If they are genetically distinct, natural selection will result in conflict over which cells become fertile spores and which become dead stalk cells. Evidence for this conflict includes unequal representation of two genetically different clones in spores of a chimera, the poison-like differentiation inducing factor (DIF) system that appears to involve some cells forcing others to become stalk, and reduced functionality in migrating chimeras. Understanding how selection operates on chimeras of genetically distinct clones is crucial for a comprehensive view of Dictyostelium multicellularity. In nature, Dictyostelium fruiting bodies are often clonal, or nearly so, meaning development will often be very cooperative. Relatedness levels tell us what benefits must be present for sociality to evolve. Therefore it is important to measure relatedness in nature, show that it has an impact on cooperation in the laboratory, and investigate genes that Dictyostelium uses to discriminate between relatives and non-relatives. Clearly, there is a promising future for research at the interface of development and social evolution in this fascinating group.
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
Full Text Available Three studies address the role of social consensus on evaluative standards in different comparative contexts. Previous research has documented that self-categorisation at the individual or group level changes social comparison effects in terms of assimilation and contrast. With regard to self-ratings of physical attractiveness, the present studies show that people who focus on group membership can benefit from including outstanding others in their reference group, whereas people who focus on their individual attributes run the risk of self-devaluation. It is argued that high consensus strengthens the association between evaluative standards and group membership and renders the inclusion of outstanding others more likely. Study 3 shows that the need to protect self-esteem moderates the influence of perceived consensus. Stressing the individual self led participants who received negative feedback to exclude outstanding others when consensus was low. Stressing the social self, however, led participants to include outstanding others when consensus was high.
Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.
How do infants decide what to do at the brink of a precipice? Infants could use two sources of information to guide their actions: perceptual information generated by their own exploratory activity and social information offered by their caregivers. The current study investigated the role of locomotor experience in using social information—both encouragement and discouragement—for descending drop-offs. Mothers of 30 infants (experienced 12-month-old crawlers, novice 12-month-old walkers, and experienced 18-month-old walkers) encouraged and discouraged descent on a gradation of drop-offs (safe “steps” and risky “cliffs”). Novice walkers descended more frequently than experienced crawlers and walkers and fell while attempting to walk over impossibly high cliffs. All infants showed evidence of integrating perceptual and social information, but locomotor experience affected infants’ use of social messages, especially on risky drop-offs. Experienced crawlers and walkers selectively deferred to social information when perceptual information is ambiguous. In contrast, novice walkers took mothers’ advice inconsistently and only at extreme drop-offs. PMID:27375507
Lana B. Karasik
Full Text Available How do infants decide what to do at the brink of a precipice? Infants could use two sources of information to guide their actions: perceptual information generated by their own exploratory activity and social information offered by their caregivers. The current study investigated the role of locomotor experience in using social information—both encouragement and discouragement—for descending drop-offs. Mothers of 30 infants (experienced 12-month-old crawlers, novice 12-month-old walkers, and experienced 18-month-old walkers encouraged and discouraged descent on a gradation of drop-offs (safe steps and risky cliffs. Novice walkers descended more frequently than experienced crawlers and walkers and fell while attempting to walk over impossibly high cliffs. All infants showed evidence of integrating perceptual and social information, but locomotor experience affected infants’ use of social messages, especially on risky drop-offs. Experienced crawlers and walkers selectively deferred to social information when perceptual information is ambiguous. In contrast, novice walkers took mothers’ advice inconsistently and only at extreme drop-offs.
Nehring, Volker; Müller, Josef K
Phoretic animals use their hosts for travelling to habitat patches suitable for reproduction. Some species, such as the mite Poecilochirus carabi, are phoretic as juveniles and cannot leave their habitat once they reach adulthood. Previous work has shown that mites exercise choice over the habitat...... in which they will mature and reproduce based on abiotic parameters, but it is hitherto unknown whether their social environment influences this choice. By manipulating the composition of their conspecific company we show that P. carabi perform the adult moult in the presence of prospective mating partners...... influence of the social environment on a phoretic's habitat choice and life history....
Social skills enable people to behave in the social space as they are expected to, to have satisfactory social relationships, to learn, to communicate with others and to solve conflicts. Mastering social skills enables individuals to effectively meet their own social needs, without harming others. People learn the appropriate management of social skills in lifelong socialization, because it lasts from our first breath to the very last exhalation. In the theoretical part of the thesis I am ...
Jussila, Jari; Menon, Karan; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao
The aim of the explorative study is to understand the role of crowdfunding in the development of the fanbase using data from two recent cases of competing business ecosystems. We conducted an event study that employed social set analysis (SSA) of Facebook data to uncover and better understand...... a customer perspective. Our paper focuses especially on the role of Jolla’s tablet crowdfunding campaign in the development of its fanbase in relation with Nokia’s tablet launch during Slush 2014 event. We discuss the results, present substantive interpretations of the findings, implications of crowdfunding...
Van Ham, M.; Manley, D.
In this chapter we investigate the process of ethnic minority segregation in English social housing. Successive governments have expressed a commitment to the con-tradictory aims of providing greater choice – through the introduction of choice based letting – for households accessing an increasingly
Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester
Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…