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Sample records for affects sexual differentiation

  1. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tower John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited

  2. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

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    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  3. Aspergillus asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are differentially affected by transcriptional and translational mechanisms regulating stunted gene expression.

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    Wu, J; Miller, B L

    1997-10-01

    The Stunted protein (StuAp) is a member of a family of transcription factors that regulate fungal development and cell cycle progression. Regulated stuA gene expression is required for correct cell pattern formation during asexual reproduction (conidiation) and for initiation of the sexual reproductive cycle in Aspergillus nidulans. Transcriptional initiation from two different promoters yields overlapping mRNAs (stuA alpha and stuAbeta) that upon translation yield the same protein. Here we show that multiple regulatory mechanisms interact to control (i) developmental competence-dependent expression of both transcripts and (ii) induction-dependent expression of stuA alpha, but not stuAbeta, by the conidiation-specific Bristle (BrlAp) transcriptional activator. Quantitative levels of both mRNAs are further modulated by (i) an activator(s) located at a far-upstream upstream activation sequence, (ii) feedback regulation by StuAp, and (iii) positive translational regulation that requires the peptide product of a micro-open reading frame unique to the stuA alpha mRNA 5' untranslated region. Gradients in stuA alpha expression were most important for correct cell and tissue type development. Threshold requirements were as follows: metula-phialide differentiation < ascosporogenesis < cleistothecial shell-Hülle cell differentiation. Altered stuA expression affected conidiophore morphology and conidial yields quantitatively but did not alter the temporal development of cell types or conidiophore density. By contrast, the sexual cycle showed both temporal delay and quantitative reduction in the number of cleistothecial initials but normal morphogenesis of tissue types.

  4. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Nielsen, O; Weilguny, D

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of sexual reproduction in yeast constitutes the highest level of differentiation observed in these unicellular organisms. The various ramifications of this system involve DNA rearrangement, transcriptional control, post-translational modification (such as protein phosphorylation) a...

  5. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

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    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  6. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  7. Human Sexuality: An Affective Classroom Approach

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    Ackerman, Kathi; Gumaer, Jim

    1976-01-01

    The affective education program on human sexuality in this study increased students' awareness about the human body without increasing feelings of anxiety. The sessions provided an atmosphere which helped students understand themselves better and increase their knowledge about personal interests. (Author)

  8. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

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    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  9. The influence of sexual music videos on adolescents' misogynistic beliefs: the role of video content, gender, and affective engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on how sexual music videos affect beliefs related to sexual aggression is rare and has not differentiated between the effects of music videos by male and female artists. Moreover, little is known about the affective processes that underlie the effects of sexual music videos. Using data from

  10. An Affective Sexual Awareness Program for Counselors

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    Christensen, Edward W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The authors developed a program to facilitate increased awareness of one's own sexuality as a basis for aiding others in that area. The program emphasizes small group participation in order to provide security to explore sexuality and its effects on interpersonal relationships. Overall response has been favorable. (Author)

  11. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W

    2015-01-01

    Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex and underst......Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex...... consumptionon these outcomes. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the revisedversion of the PCES were found to be very satisfactory. The results of the studyindicate that SEM consumption among MSM may play a positive role in MSM’ssexuality by enhancing their sex life, being a major source of sexual...

  12. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

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    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  13. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

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    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  14. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

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    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  15. Differential Effects of Women's Child Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Revictimization.

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    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined differential effects of sexual revictimization in community sample of 248 African-American and white women, ages 18 to 36. Findings suggest that unintended pregnancies and abortions were significantly associated with sexual revictimization. Women who reported more than one incident in both childhood and adulthood were also likely to have…

  16. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

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    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities.

  17. Sexual behavior in a cohort of patient affected by fibromyalgia and/or vulvodynia

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    Anna Ghizzani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, negatively impacts sexuality by provoking dispareunia, and loss of desire and of dyadic gratification. Chronic pain syndromes tend to associate and FM women have a higher probability to develop vulvodynia than women not affected by fibromyalgia. Vulvodynia, characterized by burning pain that interferes with sexual penetration, is classified as Genitopelvic/Penetration Disorders in DSM 5. The association between Fibromyalgia and vulvodynia is difficult to recognize because patients tend to attribute all symptoms to disease spread and not think that dyspareunia may have different origins. To establish the necessary criteria for the differential diagnosis between the two syndromes, we evaluated the characteristics of dyspareunia and sexual behavior of fibromyalgia patients versus vulvodynia patients and we found significant differences on the onset of burning pain, orgasmic capability, and sexual frequency.

  18. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

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    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.

  19. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

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    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  20. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

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    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  1. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

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    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed.

  2. Effect of environmentally-relevant concentrations of nonylphenol on sexual differentiation in zebrafish: a multi-generational study

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    Sun, Dong; Chen, Qi; He, Ning; Diao, Pan-pan; Jia, Li-xing; Duan, Shun-shan

    2017-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a persistent environmental chemical that can disrupt the organism’s endocrine system, and is detected in the surface water and sea. In this study, we investigated whether NP can alter transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation-related genes. Three generations of zebrafish were exposed to 0, 2, 20 and 200 μg·L−1 of NP, and transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation genes were assessed in 10, 20 and 40 dpf in the F1 and F2 generations. Growth of zebrafish exposed to 200 μg·L−1 of NP was inhibited at 125 dpf in the F1 generation. 20 μg·L−1 of NP resulted in 80% females in the F1 generation, but had no effect on the F2 generation. In terms of the sexual differentiation genes, the transcriptional expression of cyp19a1a and esr1 genes were upregulated in 20 μg·L−1 of NP in the F1 generation. But expression of the sexual differentiation genes were not affected in the F2 generation. Overall, NP could affect sexual differentiation and gene transcriptional expression in the F1 generation. The tolerance of contaminant in the offsprings was improved at low concentration. PMID:28230098

  3. Sex Determination and Sexual Organ Differentiation in Flowering Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yanan; Li Fenglan; Gao Shumin

    2004-01-01

    The research in the genetics of sex determination and the differentiation of reproductive organs in flowering plants has long been a topic in recent years. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that control sex determination in flowering plants relies on detailed studies of the differentiation of sexual organs. Current theories about sex chromosomes have illuminated the mechanisms of plant sex determination. In addition, recent progress in cloning floral homeotic genes which regulate the identity of the floral organs has generated molecular markers to compare the developmental programs of male, female and hermaphrodite flowers in several species. In this review, the authors focus attention on these recent findings and provide a brief overview of the genetics of plant sex determination and the mechanism of sex determination gene expression and gene programs.

  4. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?

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    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M Maria; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.5], any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95 % CI = 1.0-1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95 % CI = 0.4-0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men's sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women's. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women's sexual identity and women's same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse.

  5. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment m...

  6. F-actin distribution and function during sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J; Nielsen, O; Egel, R;

    1998-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is induced from the G1 phase of the cell cycle by nitrogen starvation and the presence of mating pheromones. We describe the distribution of F-actin during sexual differentiation. Cortical F-actin dots have previously been shown to be restricted...

  7. Eutrophication and predation risk interact to affect sexual trait expression and mating success.

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    Cothran, Rickey D; Stiff, Andy R; Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Relyea, Rick A

    2012-03-01

    Sexual traits are especially sensitive to low food resources. Other environmental parameters (e.g., predation) should also affect sexual trait expression by favoring investment in viability traits rather than sexual traits. We know surprisingly little about how predators alter investment in sexual traits, or how predator and resource environments interact to affect sexual trait investment. We explored how increasing phosphorous (P) availability, at a level mimicking cultural eutrophication, affects the development of sexual, nonsexual, and viability traits of amphipods in the presence and absence of predators. Sexual traits and growth were hypersensitive to low P compared to nonsexual traits. However, a key sexual trait responded to low P only when predator cues were absent. Furthermore, investment trade-offs between sexual traits and growth only occurred when P was low. The phenotypic changes caused by predator cues and increased P availability resulted in higher male mating success. Thus, eutrophication not only affects sexual trait expression but also masks the trade-off between traits with similar P demand. Sensitivity of sexually selected traits to changes in P, combined with the important roles these traits play in determining fitness and driving speciation, suggests that human-induced environmental change can greatly alter the evolutionary trajectories of populations.

  8. Sexual differentiation in the developing mouse brain: contributions of sex chromosome genes.

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    Wolstenholme, J T; Rissman, E F; Bekiranov, S

    2013-03-01

    Neural sexual differentiation begins during embryogenesis and continues after birth for a variable amount of time depending on the species and brain region. Because gonadal hormones were the first factors identified in neural sexual differentiation, their role in this process has eclipsed investigation of other factors. Here, we use a mouse with a spontaneous translocation that produces four different unique sets of sex chromosomes. Each genotype has one normal X-chromosome and a unique second sex chromosome creating the following genotypes: XY(*x) , XX, XY(*) , XX(Y) (*) . This Y(*) mouse line is used by several laboratories to study two human aneuploid conditions: Turner and Klinefelter syndromes. As sex chromosome number affects behavior and brain morphology, we surveyed brain gene expression at embryonic days 11.5 and 18.5 to isolate X-chromosome dose effects in the developing brain as possible mechanistic changes underlying the phenotypes. We compared gene expression differences between gonadal males and females as well as individuals with one vs. two X-chromosomes. We present data showing, in addition to genes reported to escape X-inactivation, a number of autosomal genes are differentially expressed between the sexes and in mice with different numbers of X-chromosomes. Based on our results, we can now identify the genes present in the region around the chromosomal break point that produces the Y(*) model. Our results also indicate an interaction between gonadal development and sex chromosome number that could further elucidate the role of sex chromosome genes and hormones in the sexual differentiation of behavior.

  9. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

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    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  10. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

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    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  11. Sleep deprivation affects sexual behavior and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in sexually experienced male rats.

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    Damasceno, Fabio; Skinner, Gabriela O; Cordeiro, Júlia F; Ferraz, Marcos R; Almeida, Olga M M S

    2008-06-09

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) produces alterations in dopaminergic systems and also modifies sexual behavior. In this work we evaluated PSD effects on the sexual response and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in dopaminergic pathways related to sexual behavior of naive and sexual experienced rats. Male Wistar rats had their sexual behavior evaluated in 6 copulatory tests, with a 4 days interval. In these tests, the animals interacted with a receptive female and parameters that compose each component of the male sexual reply (initiation, arousal and ejaculation) were evaluated. After the 5th test, the animals were randomly divided in 2 groups, control and PSD, and 96 h later they were submitted to the last copulatory test. PSD facilitated the excitatory and the ejaculatory component, increasing the copulatory efficiency. In addition, reduced mount frequency and ejaculation latency were observed. The temporal patterning of the sexual behavior was modified, with reduction in the number of mount bouts. PSD per se was not able to modify TH levels, but in PSD sexual trained rats, an increase in the number of TH-immunoreactive cellular bodies in all dopaminergic areas evaluated was detected. Our data suggest that PSD facilitates the sexual response and this facilitation combined to sexual training could be the consequence of increased TH levels in dopaminergic pathways related to sexual reply.

  12. Masculine sexual activity affects slow wave sleep in Golden hamsters.

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    Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-02-15

    The sleep pattern is modified by events occurring during wakefulness. In rats, it has been shown that male sexual behavior has a direct influence on sleeping patterns, increasing slow wave sleep (SWS) duration. On the other hand, the sexual behavior pattern of the male Golden hamster differs from the copulatory pattern of male rats. Male hamsters copulate faster and they do not display the motor inhibition observed in rats after each ejaculation. Moreover, close to exhaustion, hamsters display a behavioral pattern known as Long Intromission, which has been linked to an sexual inhibitory process. The present study was performed to determine the effects of male sexual activity on the sleep pattern in hamsters. Subjects were allowed to copulate for 30 and 60 min. In addition, the effect of locomotor activity was also assessed. The results show that male sexual behavior induced a significant increase of SWS II, with a reduction of wakefulness. No effect was observed on REM sleep. Locomotor activity produced only a slight effect on sleep. The results are discussed in terms of the similarities between the effects observed after sexual behavior on sleep in rats and hamsters, despite the substantial differences in the behavioral pattern.

  13. Relationships between conflict, affect and deviant sexual behaviors in rapists and pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, A; Proulx, J; Lusignan, R

    1994-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship in sexual offenders between conflict, affective states and particular sexual behaviors (fantasies and masturbatory activities while having such fantasies). To this end we developed the "Fantasy Report", a self-assessment method for recording affective components and sexual behaviors. Thirteen rapists and 9 pedophiles filled out the Fantasy Report every 2 days for a period of 60 days. In rapists, negative mood and the presence of conflicts coincided with both overwhelming deviant sexual fantasies and increased masturbatory activities while having such fantasies. Furthermore, the emotions most frequently reported by rapists following conflicts were loneliness, humiliation, anger and feelings of inadequacy and rejection. Affective components, however, were not associated with nondeviant sexual behaviors. For the pedophiles, the data revealed a significant relationship only between negative moods and deviant sexual fantasies. These data are interpreted to mean that, in sexual offenders, negative affect is a crucial component in the chain that leads to deviant sexual behaviors.

  14. Differential Annual Movement Patterns in a Migratory Species: Effects of Experience and Sexual Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Paulo E.; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies. PMID:21799853

  15. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  16. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  17. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  18. Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Sexual Experience among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effect of unsupportive family relations and low self-esteem on teenage sexual activity and alcohol use. Data from a telephone survey of 301 male and 242 female adolescents in Iowa suggested significant gender differences, with young women in unsupportive contexts seeking compensatory intimacy outside the family. (JB)

  19. The 'too muchness' of excitement: sexuality in light of excess, attachment and affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jessica; Atlas, Galit

    2015-02-01

    This paper brings together contemporary thinking about early attachment and affect regulation with our clinical and theoretical understanding of the problems of adult sexuality. In addition to recent theories of affect regulation and attachment, we incorporate Laplanche's idea of 'excess', which was an important transitional concept integrating real experience with fantasy in sexuality. We elaborate the idea of excess-- 'too-muchness' --to illuminate the early overwhelming of the psyche that affects the formation of sexuality. Linked to recent theoretical developments, this idea helps to grasp the relationship between sexual excitement and early affect regulation, showing how excitement becomes dangerous, thus impeding or distorting desire. The 'too-muchness' of excitement recalls the experience of being a stimulated, overwhelmed, unsoothed child and influences later inability to tolerate sexual arousal and the excitement affect. A clinical case illustrates this connection between attachment trauma, anxiety about sexuality, as well as shameful experiences of gender identity as an area of trauma. We emphasize the importance of working through the terrors and desires of the mother-baby relationship as they emerge in the transference-countertransference in order to develop the ability to hold excitement and stimulation without experiencing the too-much as the intolerable. This includes the working-through of ruptures related to overstimulation as well as the delicate balance of attention to fantasy and intersubjective work in the transference.

  20. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Resources on infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date Sexually ... Health Answers to women's and men's reproductive concerns Sexual Violence Prevention Sexual violence affects all people, particularly women ...

  1. Differential sexual survival of Drosophila melanogaster on copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinski, Michael A; Woodruff, Ronny C

    2017-04-01

    Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO4, even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity. In two of three crosses, CuSO4 caused significantly higher numbers of male offspring compared to female offspring. We hypothesized that these gender-based viability differences to copper exposure are caused by X-chromosome ploidy and X-linked genetic variation affecting metallothionein expression. Observed differential offspring viability responses among crosses to copper exposure also showed that different genetic backgrounds (autosomal and/or X-chromosome) can result in significant differences in heavy metal and metallothionein regulation. These results suggest that the effect of copper on offspring viability depends on both genetic background and gender, as both factors can affect the regulation of metallothionein proteins as well as homeostasis of biologically necessary heavy metals.

  2. Sexual differentiation of the brain requires perinatal kisspeptin-GnRH neuron signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jenny; Busby, Ellen R; Kirilov, Milen; Schütz, Günther; Sherwood, Nancy M; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-11-12

    Sex differences in brain function underlie robust differences between males and females in both normal and disease states. Although alternative mechanisms exist, sexual differentiation of the male mammalian brain is initiated predominantly by testosterone secreted by the testes during the perinatal period. Despite considerable advances in understanding how testosterone and its metabolite estradiol sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that generates the male-specific perinatal testosterone surge. In mice, we show that a male-specific activation of GnRH neurons occurs 0-2 h following birth and that this correlates with the male-specific surge of testosterone occurring up to 5 h after birth. The necessity of GnRH signaling for the sexually differentiating effects of the perinatal testosterone surge was demonstrated by the persistence of female-like brain characteristics in adult male, GnRH receptor knock-out mice. Kisspeptin neurons have recently been identified to be potent, direct activators of GnRH neurons. We demonstrate that a population of kisspeptin neurons appears in the preoptic area of only the male between E19 and P1. The importance of kisspeptin inputs to GnRH neurons for the process of sexual differentiation was demonstrated by the lack of a normal neonatal testosterone surge, and disordered brain sexual differentiation of male mice in which the kisspeptin receptor was deleted selectively from GnRH neurons. These observations demonstrate the necessity of perinatal GnRH signaling for driving brain sexual differentiation and indicate that kisspeptin inputs to GnRH neurons are essential for this process to occur.

  3. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; Jonker, M.R.; de Vries, M; van Oosterhout, A J M; Telenga, E; Ten Hacken, N H T; Postma, D S; van den Berge, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. METHODS:

  4. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; Jonker, M.R.; Vries, de Maaike; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Telenga, E.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Postma, D. S.; van den Berge, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. Methods:

  5. Effects of endocrine modulators on sexual differentiation and reproductive function in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Krister; Axelsson, Jeanette; Brunström, Björn

    2005-04-15

    A number of environmental contaminants have been shown to interfere with the endocrine system. Many of these compounds bind to estrogen receptors, thereby potentially disrupting estrogen-regulated functions. In this paper, we review some background data on avian sexual differentiation and present some of the results from our studies on effects of estrogenic chemicals administered during sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail. Initially, our goal was to elucidate whether a decreased male sexual behavior in quail is a suitable endpoint for studying long-term effects of exposure to estrogenic compounds during sexual differentiation in ovo. We thereafter tested some environmental pollutants, suspected to act via mimicking estrogens, using the test system developed. Results from our studies on the synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol, as well as the environmental pollutants bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and o,p'-DDT are reviewed in this paper. We conclude that the Japanese quail is well suited as an animal model for studying various long-term effects after embryonic exposure to estrogenic compounds. Depressed sexual behavior proved to be the most sensitive of the variables studied in males and we find this endpoint appropriate for studying effects of endocrine modulating chemicals in the adult quail following embryonic exposure.

  6. Familial disorders of sexual differentiation: a clinical and molecular genetic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.M. Boehmer (Annemie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractSexual determination and differentiation are series of events starting with the establishment of genetic sex at fertilization, proceeding with the translation of genetic sex into gonadal sex, and culminating in the translation of gonadal sex into body sex. This three-step model is still

  7. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  8. Travelling and Sticky Affects: Exploring Teens and Sexualized Cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette; Ringrose, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler's (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people's affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and…

  9. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  10. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

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    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  11. Touching the private parts: how gender and sexuality norms affect medical students' first pelvic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensdotter, Renita; Siwe, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Gynaecologists are in a position to challenge norms about gender and sexuality in relation to female genitals. Through their work they have the opportunity to educate patients, which is why teaching medical students to perform examinations in a gender sensitive way is significant. Medical students performing their first pelvic examination often experience the examination as uncomfortable because it is a body part that is connected to sex and to something private. This paper uses medical students' interpretations of performing their first pelvic examination as a means to discuss how cultural norms for gender, sexuality and female genitals affect these examinations. Issues raised include how cultural connotations of female genitals affect the pelvic examination, how female and male students relate differently to examining female genitals and the interpretations they make in relation to themselves. Findings show that the female genitals are perceived as a special body part connected to sexuality and intimacy. Students' gender also affects the interpretations they make during pelvic examinations. Norms of gender, sexuality and female genitals need to be challenged in the teaching and performance of pelvic examination in order to demystify this experience.

  12. Monocrotophos pesticide modulates the expression of sexual differentiation genes and causes phenotypic feminization in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Gao, Lei; Yang, Kunfeng; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-01-01

    Monocrotophos (MCP) is an organophosphorus pesticide moderately toxic to fish, and it has significant estrogenic properties in vivo. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.001, 0.010, and 0.100 mg/L 40% MCP pesticide in a semi-static manner from fertilization to 40 days post-hatching. Histological analyses were performed to determine whether sex differentiation in zebrafish was affected by MCP, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in sexual differentiation were quantified by real-time PCR to clarify the possible mechanism(s) of action. The results revealed a prominent increase in the proportion of females (71%) in the 0.100 mg/L MCP pesticide treatment as well as the presence of one intersex individual in each of the groups exposed to 0.001 and 0.100 mg/L MCP. MCP exposure stimulated forkhead transcription factor gene L2 (foxl2) expression and suppressed doublesex/mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) expression, indirectly leading to elevated gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) gene expression, which should promote phenotypic feminization. In addition, MCP treatment increased the transcription of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b), resulting in an indirect impact on sexual differentiation. The results from this investigation can be used for risk and hazard assessment of MCP pesticide.

  13. Our stolen figures: the interface of sexual differentiation, endocrine disruptors, maternal programming, and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The prevalence of adult obesity has risen markedly in the last quarter of the 20th century and has not been reversed in this century. Less well known is the fact that obesity prevalence has risen in domestic, laboratory, and feral animals, suggesting that all of these species have been exposed to obesogenic factors present in the environment. This review emphasizes interactions among three biological processes known to influence energy balance: Sexual differentiation, endocrine disruption, and maternal programming. Sexual dimorphisms include differences between males and females in body weight, adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, ingestive behavior, and the underlying neural circuits. These sexual dimorphisms are controlled by sex chromosomes, hormones that masculinize or feminize adult body weight during perinatal development, and hormones that act during later periods of development, such as puberty. Endocrine disruptors are natural and synthetic molecules that attenuate or block normal hormonal action during these same developmental periods. A growing body of research documents effects of endocrine disruptors on the differentiation of adipocytes and the central nervous system circuits that control food intake, energy expenditure, and adipose tissue storage. In parallel, interest has grown in epigenetic influences, including maternal programming, the process by which the mother's experience has permanent effects on energy-balancing traits in the offspring. This review highlights the points at which maternal programming, sexual differentiation, and endocrine disruption might dovetail to influence global changes in energy balancing traits.

  14. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  15. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  16. The sexual erotic market as an analytical framework for understanding erotic-affective exchanges in interracial sexually intimate and affective relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoya, Mara Viveros

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which erotic-affective exchanges in interracial relationships have been analysed in Latin America. It considers how race, gender and class operate within a market of values such that erotic, affective and economic status are shaped by racial, gender and class hierarchies. In this paper I analyse historical and social arrangements that embody the region's political economy of race and sex. Such a perspective allows me to address the simultaneous co-existence of socio-racial exclusion and inclusion and the repressive and productive effects of power, attraction and anxiety as aspects of lived experiences in relation to sexuality. From there, I outline an analytical framework that references an erotic or pleasure-based market in which capital and other resources are exchanged from a structural perspective stressing relationship alliances. I conclude by identifying the scope and limits of such an approach.

  17. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  18. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prosp...

  19. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes.

  20. Amyloid Beta Peptides Differentially Affect Hippocampal Theta Rhythms In Vitro

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    Armando I. Gutiérrez-Lerma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ is responsible for the early cognitive dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease. Both cholinergically and glutamatergically induced hippocampal theta rhythms are related to learning and memory, spatial navigation, and spatial memory. However, these two types of theta rhythms are not identical; they are associated with different behaviors and can be differentially modulated by diverse experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not application of soluble Aβ alters the two types of theta frequency oscillatory network activity generated in rat hippocampal slices by application of the cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists carbachol or DHPG, respectively. Due to previous evidence that oscillatory activity can be differentially affected by different Aβ peptides, we also compared Aβ25−35 and Aβ1−42 for their effects on theta rhythms in vitro at similar concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 μM. We found that Aβ25−35 reduces, with less potency than Aβ1−42, carbachol-induced population theta oscillatory activity. In contrast, DHPG-induced oscillatory activity was not affected by a high concentration of Aβ25−35 but was reduced by Aβ1−42. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of exerting a generalized inhibitory effect on neuronal network function.

  1. The Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins affect NPR1 differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike eHermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1 is the central regulator of the pathogen defense reaction systemic acquired resistance (SAR. NPR1 acts by sensing the SAR signal molecule salicylic acid (SA to induce expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR genes. Mechanistically, NPR1 is the core of a transcription complex interacting with TGA transcription factors and NIM1 INTERACTING (NIMIN proteins. Arabidopsis NIMIN1 has been shown to suppress NPR1 activity in transgenic plants. The Arabidopsis NIMIN family comprises four structurally related, yet distinct members. Here, we show that NIMIN1, NIMIN2 and NIMIN3 are expressed differentially, and that the encoded proteins affect expression of the SAR marker PR-1 differentially. NIMIN3 is expressed constitutively at a low level, but NIMIN2 and NIMIN1 are both responsive to SA. While NIMIN2 is an immediate early SA-induced and NPR1-independent gene, NIMIN1 is activated after NIMIN2, but clearly before PR-1. Notably, NIMIN1, like PR-1, depends on NPR1. In a transient assay system, NIMIN3 suppresses SA-induced PR-1 expression, albeit to a lesser extent than NIMIN1, whereas NIMIN2 does not negatively affect PR-1 gene activation. Furthermore, although binding to the same domain in the C-terminus, NIMIN1 and NIMIN2 interact differentially with NPR1, thus providing a molecular basis for their opposing effects on NPR1. Together, our data suggest that the Arabidopsis NIMIN proteins are regulators of the SAR response. We propose that NIMINs act in a strictly consecutive and SA-regulated manner on the SA sensor protein NPR1, enabling NPR1 to monitor progressing threat by pathogens and to promote appropriate defense gene activation at distinct stages of SAR. In this scenario, the defense gene PR-1 is repressed at the onset of SAR by SA-induced, yet instable NIMIN1.

  2. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  3. The Plasmodium falciparum, Nima-related kinase Pfnek-4: a marker for asexual parasites committed to sexual differentiation

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    Reininger Luc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasites undergo, in the vertebrate host, a developmental switch from asexual replication to sexual differentiation leading to the formation of gametocytes, the only form able to survive in the mosquito vector. Regulation of the onset of the sexual phase remains largely unknown and represents an important gap in the understanding of the parasite’s complex biology. Methods The expression and function of the Nima-related kinase Pfnek-4 during the early sexual development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum were investigated, using three types of transgenic Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 lines: (i episomally expressing a Pfnek-4-GFP fusion protein under the control of its cognate pfnek-4 promoter; (ii episomally expressing negative or positive selectable markers, yeast cytosine deaminase-uridyl phosphoribosyl transferase, or human dihydrofolate reductase, under the control of the pfnek-4 promoter; and (iii lacking a functional pfnek-4 gene. Parasite transfectants were analysed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In vitro growth rate and gametocyte formation were determined by Giemsa-stained blood smears. Results The Pfnek-4-GFP protein was found to be expressed in stage II to V gametocytes and, unexpectedly, in a subset of asexual-stage parasites undergoing schizogony. Culture conditions stimulating gametocyte formation resulted in significant increase of this schizont subpopulation. Moreover, sorted asexual parasites expressing the Pfnek-4-GFP protein displayed elevated gametocyte formation when returned to in vitro culture in presence of fresh red blood cells, when compared to GFP- parasites from the same initial population. Negative selection of asexual parasites expressing pfnek-4 showed a marginal reduction in growth rate, whereas positive selection caused a marked reduction in parasitaemia, but was not sufficient to completely abolish proliferation. Pfnek-4- clones are not affected in their

  4. Rat hippocampal GABAergic molecular markers are differentially affected by ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, José; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier; Ruano, Diego

    2003-04-01

    We previously reported that the pharmacological properties of the hippocampal GABAA receptor and the expression of several subunits are modified during normal ageing. However, correlation between these post-synaptic modifications and pre-synaptic deficits were not determined. To address this issue, we have analysed the mRNA levels of several GABAergic molecular markers in young and old rat hippocampus, including glutamic acid decarboxylase enzymes, parvalbumin, calretinin, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). There was a differential age-related decrease in these interneuronal mRNAs that was inversely correlated with up-regulation of the alpha1 GABA receptor subunit. Somatostatin and neuropeptide Y mRNAs were most frequently affected (75% of the animals), then calretinin and VIP mRNAs (50% of the animals), and parvalbumin mRNA (25% of the animals) in the aged hippocampus. This selective vulnerability was well correlated at the protein/cellular level as analysed by immunocytochemistry. Somatostatin interneurones, which mostly innervate principal cell distal dendrites, were more vulnerable than calretinin interneurones, which target other interneurones. Parvalbumin interneurones, which mostly innervate perisomatic domains of principal cells, were preserved. This age-dependent differential reduction of specific hippocampal inteneuronal subpopulations might produce functional alterations in the GABAergic tone which might be compensated, at the post-synaptic level, by up-regulation of the expression of the alpha1 GABAA receptor subunit.

  5. Carotenoid supplementation positively affects the expression of a non-visual sexual signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J-M Van Hout

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. After only 3-7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T, we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments.

  6. A genetic analysis of intersex, a gene regulating sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); Baker, B.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Sex-type in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by a hierarchically acting set of regulatory genes. At the terminus of this hierarchy lie those regulatory genes responsible for implementing sexual differentiation: genes that control the activity of target loci whose products give rise to sexually dimorphic phenotypes. The genetic analysis of the intersex (ix) gene presented here demonstrates that ix is such a terminally positioned regulatory locus. The ix locus has been localized to the cytogenetic interval between 47E3-6 and 47F11-18. A comparison of the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of homozygotes and hemizygotes for three point mutations at ix indicates that the null phenotypes of homozygotes diplo-X animals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. Analysis of X-ray induced, mitotic recombination clones lacking ix{sup +} function in the abdomen of diplo-X individuals indicates that the ix{sup +} product functions in a cell-autonomous manner and that it is required at least until the termination of cell division in this tissue. Taken together with previous analyses, our results indicate that the ix{sup +} product is required to function with the female-specific product of doublesex to implement appropriate female sexual differentiation in diplo-X animals. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions.

  8. Forms of Violence in the Affective-Sexual Relationships of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Riboli Marasca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents is a theme that has been highlighted by the literature as a result of its high rates of prevalence. It has different characteristics, while many factors are shown to be associated with its occurrence. The present study investigated the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents, focusing on the experiences as perpetrators and victims of different types of violence between partners. We conducted a quantitative study with a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, with 124 heterosexual adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years (M = 15.94, SD = 0.65. As measurement instruments we used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Family Background Questionnaire (FBQ, and the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI. The results showed percentages of violence that ranged from 14.7% for relational abuse committed to 97% for verbal/emotional violence suffered. We identified significant gender differences in the dimensions of threatening behavior (t = -3.172, p = 0.002 and physical violence (t = -3.037, p = 0.003 perpetrated by the participant, indicating that it is the girls who report that they practice this type of violence more often. No significant correlation was observed between experiences of violence in the family of origin and in the relationship with the partner (p > 0.05. However, there was an association between the occurrence of violence in the relationships of the adolescents and the presence of violence in the affective-sexual relationships of friends (p < 0.05. We highlight the importance of expanding the field of theory regarding this phenomenon, in order to assist with future interventions.

  9. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  10. Hernia uteri inguinalis in a case of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah; Babu, Rajashekara; Santhosh, Shivashankar

    2013-02-01

    An 18-year-old phenotypic male presented with an irreducible left inguinal mass, gynecomastia, and hypospadias. This mass on exploration was found to be a nonfunctional uterus with ipsilateral ovary and was excised. Further investigation confirmed the presence of a contralateral testis and a genotype of 46, XX. This confirmed the diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (formerly true hermaphroditism) with obstructed hernia uteri inguinalis. The patient was raised as a male. Subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia and neourethra construction with full thickness skin graft for hypospadias were performed. Hernia uteri inguinalis is rarely seen in this condition with only 2 cases being reported worldwide thus far, including our case.

  11. Clues in the differential diagnosis of primary vs secondary cough, exercise, and sexual headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rocío; Ramón, César; Pascual, Julio

    2014-10-01

    Activity-related headaches can be provoked by Valsalva maneuvers ("cough headache"), prolonged exercise ("exertional headache") and sexual excitation ("sexual headache"). These entities are a challenging diagnostic problem as can be primary or secondary and the etiologies for secondary cases differ depending on the headache type. In this paper we review the clinical clues which help us in the differential diagnosis of patients consulting due to activity-related headaches. Cough headache is the most common in terms of consultation. Primary cough headache should be suspected in patients older than 50 years, if pain does not predominate in the occipital area, if pain lasts seconds, when there are no other symptoms/signs and if indomethacin relieves the headache attacks. Almost half of cough headaches are secondary, usually to a Chiari type I malformation. Secondary cough headache should be suspected in young people, when pain is occipital and lasts longer than one minute, and especially if there are other symptoms/signs and if there is no response to indomethacin. Every patient with cough headache needs cranio-cervical MRI. Primary exercise/sexual headaches are more common than secondary, which should be suspected in women especially with one episode, when there are other symptoms/signs, in people older than 40 and if the headache lasts longer than 24 hours. These patients must have quickly a CT and then brain MRI with MRA or an angioCT to exclude space-occupying lesions or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  12. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  13. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  14. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  15. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  16. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  17. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  18. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.

  19. Sexuality and affection among elderly German men and women in long-term relationships: results of a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German "Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development" (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993-1995, 1997-1998, and 2004-2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the 'second language of sexuality': for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals.

  20. Sexuality and affection among elderly German men and women in long-term relationships: results of a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Müller

    Full Text Available Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German "Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development" (ILSE. At three measurement points, 1993-1995, 1997-1998, and 2004-2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the 'second language of sexuality': for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals.

  1. Factors Affecting Intervention Fidelity of Differentiated Instruction in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Elma M.; Walraven, Amber; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings in the first phase of a design-based research project as part of a large-scale intervention study in Dutch kindergartens. The project aims at enhancing differentiated instruction and evaluating its effects on children's development, in particular high-ability children. This study investigates relevant…

  2. Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

    2014-07-01

    Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms.

  3. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Barry

    Full Text Available Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role. Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an

  4. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  5. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  6. Human monocyte differentiation stage affects response to arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarez, Elizabeth; Pelaez, Carlos A; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    AA-induced cell death mechanisms acting on human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), U937 promonocytes and PMA-differentiated U937 cells were studied. Arachidonic acid induced apoptosis and necrosis in monocytes and U937 cells but only apoptosis in MDM and U937D cells. AA increased both types of death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells and increased the percentage of TNFalpha+ cells and reduced IL-10+ cells. Experiments blocking these cytokines indicated that AA-mediated death was TNFalpha- and IL-10-independent. The differences in AA-mediated cell death could be explained by high ROS, calpain and sPLA-2 production and activity in monocytes. Blocking sPLA-2 in monocytes and treatment with antioxidants favored M. tuberculosis control whereas AA enhanced M. tuberculosis growth in MDM. Such evidence suggested that AA-modulated effector mechanisms depend on mononuclear phagocytes' differentiation stage.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  8. How mothers' parenting styles affect their children's sexual efficacy and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, T W; Semin, G R

    1998-03-01

    The relations among mothers' parenting styles and adolescents' sexual self-efficacy and sexual experience were examined in a sample of 253 British adolescent-mother pairs. Also explored was whether adolescents' self-efficacy would be positively or negatively related to their sexual experience. Mothers' parenting styles were expected to influence children's locus of control, based on the theory that mothers who are involved with their children and mothers who stress independence contribute to the development of an internal locus of control in their children, increasing the children's feelings of sexual self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to test a longitudinal model. The results support the assumption that maternal involvement leads to higher levels of self-efficacy, whereas maternal control was associated with lower levels of self-efficacy. Sexual self-efficacy was associated with higher levels of sexual experience. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  9. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  10. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  11. Rapunzel’s complex: Social relations, and sexuality affectivity of adolescents with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana França Cescon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to reflect on the influence of HIV / AIDS on social relations, sexuality and adolescent affectivity. We conducted a literature review and subsequent theoretical discussion on the topic, with the methodology of qualitative analysis of texts and scientific articles. The findings of the study demonstrated that it is necessary to fully consider the various psychosocial aspects of this dynamic, since the psychological aspects significantly influence disease progression and quality of life of HIV patient. For adolescents, this influence becomes even greater, because puberty is a specific stage of biological development, emotional and social, where social interaction plays an important role for the construction of the subject's personality. It is hoped that this study may contribute to the reflection on the importance of creating themselves coping strategies and health care interventions geared to this particular group, especially with regard to the psychologist, who should seek to accommodate these demands subjects, contributing to a healthy psychosocial development, considering its specific features.

  12. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  13. Imetelstat, a telomerase inhibitor, differentially affects normal and malignant megakaryopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoyan, G; Kraus, T; Ye, F; Eng, K; Crispino, J D; Hoffman, R; Iancu-Rubin, C

    2017-03-08

    Imetelstat (GRN163L) is a specific telomerase inhibitor which has demonstrated clinical activity in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and in patients with solid tumors. The antitumor effects were associated with the development of thrombocytopenia, one of the common side effects observed in patients treated with imetelstat. The events underlying these adverse effects are not apparent. In this report we investigated the potential mechanisms that account for imetelstat's beneficial effects in MPN patients and the manner by which imetelstat treatment leads to a reduction in platelet numbers. Using a well-established system of ex vivo megakaryopoiesis, we demonstrated that imetelestat treatment affects normal megakaryocyte (MK) development by exclusively delaying maturation of MK precursor cells. By contrast, additional stages along MPN MK development were affected by imetelstat resulting in reduced numbers of assayable colony-forming unit (CFU)-MK and impaired MK maturation. In addition, treatment with imetelstat inhibited the secretion of fibrogenic growth factors by malignant but not by normal MK. Our results indicate that the delay observed in normal MK maturation may account for imetelstat-induced thrombocytopenia, while the more global effects of imetelstat on several stages along the hierarchy of MPN megakaryopoiesis may be responsible for the favorable clinical outcomes reported in MPN patients.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 08 March 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.78.

  14. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  15. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswell, Rachel; Girard, Madeline; Fricke, Claudia; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait) in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  16. Environmental endocrine disruptors and abnormalities of sexual differentiation and sexual development inchildren%环境内分泌干扰物与儿童性分化、性发育异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥婷; 蔡德培

    2011-01-01

    环境内分泌干扰物是普遍存在于环境中的一类外源性化学物质,这些物质可干扰体内天然激素的合成、释放、转运、与受体结合、代谢及清除等各个方面,干扰正常激素维持体内平衡和调节发育过程的作用.环境内分泌干扰物被证实是引起儿童性分化、性发育异常的重要致病因素.环境内分泌干扰物可扰乱下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴,干扰雄激素的生物合成、转运、与受体结合、代谢和清除以及通过环境-基因的交互作用来影响儿童的性分化、性发育进程.%Environmental endocrine disruptors are pollutants of many exogenous chemical classes,which are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and can interfere with the body 's natural steroidogenesis,secretion,transport,and receptor binding,biotransformation and removal of other aspects,thus,they may disturb normal hormone maintaining the organism 's balance and regulating development process.Therefore,exposure to these pollutants is one of the biggest factors that induce sex differentiation and sexual abnormality in children,which has been proved by many data from epidemiological researches.Environmental endocrine disruptors may influence the sexual differentiation and sexual development process of children by disturbing the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and affecting the biosynthesis,transport,receptor binding,metabolism and clearance of androgen as well as interacting with genes.

  17. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  18. Differential brain processing of audiovisual sexual stimuli in men: comparative positron emission tomography study of the initiation and maintenance of penile erection during sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tohru; Takao, Tetsuya; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Takasawa, Masashi; Oku, Naohiko; Hatazawa, Jun; Kaneko, Shigeo; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2007-07-01

    The human male psychosexual cycle consists of four phases: excitation, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Identification of the specific neural substrates of each phase may provide information regarding the brain's pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction. We previously analyzed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H(2)15O-positron emission tomography (PET) during the excitation phase (initiation of penile erection) induced by audiovisual sexual stimuli (AVSS) and identified activation of the cerebellar vermis, the bilateral extrastriate cortex, and right orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting a role of cognition/emotion in the excitement phase. In the present study, we analyzed rCBF of the same six healthy volunteers during the plateau phase (maintenance of penile erection) induced by AVSS and compared the results with those of the excitation phase. Penile rigidity was monitored in real time with RigiScan Plus during PET scanning. Images were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, and rCBF in the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate, and insula was measured. During the plateau phase, primary subcortical activation was noted in the right ventral putamen, indicating motivational factors in the sexual response via the limbic reward circuit. A significant increase in rCBF in the left hypothalamus was also observed during the plateau phase. The right anterior cingulate and left insula were specifically activated during the excitation phase but not during the plateau phase. These results indicate a significant role of the ventral putamen and the hypothalamus in the plateau phase and confirm that paralimbic and limbic components of the human brain differentially coordinate the sexual response in a psychosexual phase-dependent manner.

  19. The 13th J. A. F. Stevenson memorial lecture. Sexual differentiation of the brain: possible mechanisms and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, R A

    1985-06-01

    The mammalian brain appears to be inherently feminine and the action of testicular hormones during development is necessary for the differentiation of the masculine brain both in terms of functional potential and actual structure. Experimental evidence for this statement is reviewed in this discussion. Recent discoveries of marked structural sex differences in the central nervous system, such as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in the rat, offer model systems to investigate potential mechanisms by which gonadal hormones permanently modify neuronal differentiation. Although effects of these steroids on neurogenesis and neuronal migration and specification have not been conclusively eliminated, it is currently believed, but not proven, that the principle mechanism of steroid action is to maintain neuronal survival during a period of neuronal death. The structural models of the sexual differentiation of the central nervous system also provide the opportunity to identify sex differences in neurochemical distribution. Two examples in the rat brain are presented: the distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive fibers in the medial preoptic nucleus and of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. It is likely that sexual dimorphisms will be found to be characteristic of many neural and neurochemical systems. The final section of this review raises the possibility that the brain of the adult may, in response to steroid action, be morphologically plastic, and considers briefly the likelihood that the brain of the human species is also influenced during development by the hormonal environment.

  20. Differentiating Youth Who Sexually Abuse: Applying a Multidimensional Framework when Assessing and Treating Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that children with sexual behavior problems and adolescents who offend sexually are diverse populations consisting of several subtypes (Hall, Mathews, & Pearce, 2002; Pithers, Gray, Busconi, & Houchens, 1998; Worling, 2001). This article reviews the descriptive and empirical research related to identifying…

  1. Prolapso uretral: un diagnóstico diferencial del abuso sexual en niños Urethral prolapse: a differential diagnosis of sexual abuse in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Montes

    2009-10-01

    history of vaginal bleeding with suspected genital trauma, sexual abuse and child abuse after being thoroughly assessed by experts in the genital area and rigorous examination under sedation was diagnosed urethral prolapse and was treated and managed for that purpose. Conclusions: The concept of a forensic medical specialist is of great importance in the judicial process in a sexual offense, which is why forensic sexological examination requires a high standard that will lead to a correct diagnosis and should not miss the differential diagnosis in these patients to properly manage both medical and legal.

  2. How REM sleep deprivation and amantadine affects male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, M R; Ferraz, M M; Santos, R

    2001-01-01

    There are conflicting findings about the sexual effects of REM sleep deprivation (REMd). Otherwise, several studies show a dopaminergic hypersensitivity after REMd. The effect of REMd and amantadine (AMA) was studied for standard measures and temporal patterning in the first experiment, in four groups: normal with vehicle, normal with AMA (5.0 and 10 mg/kg), REMd with vehicle and REMd with AMA (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg). REMd reduced mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL) and mount number (MN) and increased copulatory efficiency (CE) and hit rate factor. REMd also reduced the mount bout number (MBN) and increased the sexual interaction (mount bout time, MBT) among male and female during copula. AMA stimulates initiation and hit rate factors and accelerates the temporal patterning of sexual behavior, evoking fewer and quicker mount bouts. In the experiments with combination of REMd and AMA administration, AMA did not increase behavior effects evoked by REM deprivation, probably due to a top or a bottom effect, depending on the measures considered. A second experiment studied the effects of AMA (1.25 to 5.0 mg/kg) and REMd on the sexual reflexes of nonimmobilized male rats. REMd enhanced the AMA effects upon the seminal emission reflex, but inhibited the penile erection reflex elicited by 1.25 mg/kg of AMA. Curiously, our results showed that REMd, like AMA, a dopaminergic agonist, causes similar effects of sexual behavior in the male rat, particularly those related to arousal mechanism and hit rate factor. The results are discussed and the effects of REMd probably involve dopaminergic hypersensitivity and increased sexual motivational response.

  3. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man.

  4. Abuso sexual infantil y síndrome de alienación parental: criterios diferenciales Child sexual abuse an parental alienation syndrome: Differential criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pereda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El abuso sexual infantil y los denominados casos de interferencias parental son situaciones de especial gravedad para los menores que las padecen, así como de evidente dificultad para su adecuado diagnóstico y abordaje profesional. Discernir cuando el profesional se encuentra ante uno u otro caso entraña una complejidad para la que son necesarios una formación adecuada y unos criterios fiables. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo aportar algunos de los criterios recogidos de las publicaciones al respecto, que pretenden facilitar la diferenciación entre ambas situaciones. El análisis del relato del menor, así como diferentes indicadores clínicos presentes en una parte importante de las víctimas de abuso sexual pueden ayudar al profesional a tomar una decisión al respecto. Los efectos de un error diagnóstico en cualquiera de estos casos conllevaría un gran perjuicio para el menor, su familia y el sistema social, siendo fundamental que el profesional evite participar activamente en una evaluación de este tipo si no se dispone de la adecuada formación y experiencia.Child sexual abuse and those cases of parental interferences are severe situations with negative consequences for children suffering them. Moreover, these situations are not easy to tackle regarding the diagnosis and professional approach. To distinguish when the professional is in front of one of the above mentioned situations is a complex task for which are needed a strong, solid training and trustworthy criteria. The main aim of the present work is to suggest some criteria, gathered from the publications in the field, which would be able to differentiate between actual child sexual abuse and parental interference. The analysis of the child's report, as well as different clinical indicators that are present in many victims of sexual abuse can help the professional to take the right decision. The effects of a diagnostic mistake in any of these cases would imply harm for

  5. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  6. Endotoxin Treatment of Pregnant Rats Affects Sexual Behavior of the Male Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, S.; Valkhof, N.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Schuiling, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The offspring of endotoxin-infused pregnant rats (0.2 µg endotoxin, 53.3 min, day 18 of pregnancy) did not exhibit different behavior in the Hebb-Williams-type maze test, but the males showed aberrations in the sexual behavior test. Because endotoxin did not cross the placental barrier, it was concl

  7. Automatic and Deliberate Affective Associations with Sexual Stimuli in Women with Superficial Dyspareunia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, M.; de Jong, P.J.; Huijding, J.; Laan, E.; ter Kuile, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further a

  8. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-12-07

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.

  9. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    ); and (iii) semi-structured interviews with service providers (n = 37). Results The mean number of sexual partners, frequency of multiple concurrent partnerships and engagement in transactional sex were significantly higher in the border community than in the national population. Knowledge about HIV...

  10. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  11. Communication Skills assessed at OSCE are not affected by Participation in the Adolescent Healthy Sexuality Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Penava

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical students’ communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.

  12. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  13. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemann, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.biemann@medizin.uni-halle.de [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Anne [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Alexander [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Riemann, Dagmar [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Knelangen, Julia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Koch, Holger [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Bernd [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  14. The differential effects of Autism and Down's syndrome on sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Stokes, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Although sexuality plays a major role in the socialization of people, few studies have examined the sexual behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Because of this, we decided to investigate sexuality in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (Ds) and to compare them with typically developing adolescents, by surveying their parents. Specifically, it was hypothesized that young people with ASD would display lower levels over five domains: social behavior, privacy, sex education, sexual behavior, and parental concerns, than peers with Ds and typically developing young people. In addition, we sought to verify developmental trends in five domains with age for each group. Overall, 269 parents participated; 94 parents of typically developing adolescents, 93 parents of adolescents diagnosed with Ds, and 82 parents of adolescents diagnosed with ASD. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Behavior Scale developed by Stokes and Kaur [] that assesses parents' reports of their child's: social behavior, privacy awareness, sex education, sexual behavior and parental concerns about the child's behaviors. It was found that three groups were significantly different on all five domains, adolescents with ASD reportedly displaying lower levels than other groups. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in knowledge of privacy and parental concerns with age for adolescents with ASD and a decline in sex education for adolescents with Ds. The results obtained emphasize the need to train adolescents with developmental disability, and especially for adolescents with ASD through sex education programs.

  15. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Carla B.; Cecatti, José G.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Ferreira, Elton C.; Angelini, Carina R.; Santos, Juliana P.; Zanardi, Dulce M.; Bussadori, Jamile C.; Cecchino, Gustavo N.; Souza, Renato T.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity. Method This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity) were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores. Results 638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups). The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003). Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM) had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001), and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01). Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor. Conclusion FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar

  16. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla B Andreucci

    Full Text Available to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity.This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores.638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups. The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003. Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001, and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01. Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor.FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar. Altered sexual response may

  17. A review of sexually transmitted bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis affecting cattle reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michi, Aubrey N; Favetto, Pedro H; Kastelic, John; Cobo, Eduardo R

    2016-03-15

    The objective is to discuss sexually transmitted diseases caused by Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) and Campylobacter fetus (C fetus) subsp. venerealis, with a focus on prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in cows and bulls. Diagnosis and control are problematic because these diseases cause severe reproductive losses in cows, but in bulls are clinically asymptomatic, which allows the disease to flourish, especially in the absence of legislated control programs. We review research regarding prophylactic systemic immunization of bulls and cows with antigens of T foetus and C fetus venerealis and their efficacy in preventing or clearing preexisting infections in the genital tract. Current diagnostic methods of C fetus venerealis and T foetus (microbial culture and PCR) should be improved. Review of the latest advances in bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis should promote knowledge and provide an impetus to pursue further efforts to control bovine sexually transmitted diseases.

  18. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  19. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.

  20. The environmental contaminant DDE fails to influence the outcome of sexual differentiation in the marine turtle Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podreka, S; Georges, A; Maher, B; Limpus, C J

    1998-04-01

    In many turtles, the temperature experienced during the middle of egg incubation determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex determination opens the possibility that endocrine-disrupting contaminants may also influence the outcome of sexual differentiation. In this study we investigate the potential effects of DDE (a common DDT metabolite) on sexual differentiation of Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle). Four clutches of eggs collected from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, were treated with DDE at the beginning of the thermosensitive period for sexual determination. An incubation temperature of 28 degrees C or less produces male hatchlings in this species, whereas 30 degrees C or more produces female hatchlings. Dosed eggs were consequently incubated at two temperatures (27.6 degrees C and 30.4 degrees C) on the upper and lower boundaries of the sex determination threshold for this species. DDE, ranging from 3.3 to 66.5 microg, was dissolved in 5, 10, and 25 microl ethanol and applied to eggshells above the embryo. Less than 2.5 ng/g DDE was present in eggs prior to dosing. Approximately 34% of the applied DDE was absorbed in the eggs, but only approximately 8% of applied DDE was found in embryos. Thus, treated eggs, corrected for background DDE, had up to 543 ng/g DDE. The sex ratio at these doses did not differ from what would be expected on consideration of temperature alone. Incubation time, hatching success, incidence of body deformities, hatching size, and weight were also within the limits of healthy developed hatchlings. This indicates that the eggs of C. mydas in the wild with concentrations of DDE less than 543 ng/g should produce hatchlings with relatively high hatching success, survival rate, and normally differentiated gonads.

  1. Sexually Dimorphic Differentiation of a C. elegans Hub Neuron Is Cell Autonomously Controlled by a Conserved Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Oren-Suissa, Meital; Bayer, Emily A; Hobert, Oliver

    2017-01-23

    Functional and anatomical sexual dimorphisms in the brain are either the result of cells that are generated only in one sex or a manifestation of sex-specific differentiation of neurons present in both sexes. The PHC neuron pair of the nematode C. elegans differentiates in a strikingly sex-specific manner. In hermaphrodites the PHC neurons display a canonical pattern of synaptic connectivity similar to that of other sensory neurons, but in males PHC differentiates into a densely connected hub sensory neuron/interneuron, integrating a large number of male-specific synaptic inputs and conveying them to both male-specific and sex-shared circuitry. We show that the differentiation into such a hub neuron involves the sex-specific scaling of several components of the synaptic vesicle machinery, including the vesicular glutamate transporter eat-4/VGLUT, induction of neuropeptide expression, changes in axonal projection morphology, and a switch in neuronal function. We demonstrate that these molecular and anatomical remodeling events are controlled cell autonomously by the phylogenetically conserved Doublesex homolog dmd-3, which is both required and sufficient for sex-specific PHC differentiation. Cellular specificity of dmd-3 action is ensured by its collaboration with non-sex-specific terminal selector-type transcription factors, whereas the sex specificity of dmd-3 action is ensured by the hermaphrodite-specific transcriptional master regulator of hermaphroditic cell identity tra-1, which represses the transcription of dmd-3 in hermaphrodite PHC. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into how neurons are specified in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  2. Age as a differential characteristic of rapists, pedophiles, and sexual sadists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Robert; Nussbaum, David; Chevolleau, Kelley; Davidson, Hannah

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of age in three categories of 168 sex offenders, including 53 rapists, 62 pedophiles, and 53 sadists. On the basis of the match between requisites of completing each type of sexual offense, we hypothesized that rapists would be less represented in the older age group, whereas pedophilic and sexually sadistic offenders would show a more muted decline with age. This hypothesis was supported by the data, clearly a showing smaller number of rapists in the over 40 group relative to the number of pedophiles and sadists (p = 0.0009.) Further examination of the files eliminated the alternate explanation ascribing this pattern to lack of opportunity in older rapists because of incarceration. These results suggest that age over 40 may mitigate incidence of recidivism in rapists, but not in pedophiles or sexual sadists. Approximately one third of the sexual sadists had committed either first- or second-degree murder, whereas none of the nonsadistic rapists or pedophiles had these crimes on their records. The data further justify categorization of sex offenders into nonsadistic rapist, sadistic rapist, and pedophilic offenders in future research to enhance precision in delineating demographic characteristics and putative causal explanations for sexual offending.

  3. Medical Conditions Differentially Affect the Development of IADL Disability: Implications for Medical Care and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Sylvia E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determined independent effects of nine self-reported medical conditions on the likelihood of developing specific instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) disabilities at three points in time. Various medical conditions differentially affect each specific IADL disability, and each IADL disability has its own set of predictors, which, in…

  4. Cognitive and Affective Orientations and Teaching Behaviors--A Study of Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that teachers can be differentiated by their cognitive or affective orientations, reflected in the objectives they select and in the stimuli and questions they present in the classroom. Proposes use of aptitude-treatment interactions in order to clarify the best methods to use for personalized teacher training. (JD)

  5. A sexually dimorphic corolla appendage affects pollen removal and floral longevity in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Niu

    Full Text Available The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.

  6. Factors affecting college students' perceptions of sexual relationships between high school students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromuth, M E; Holt, A; Parker, A L

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the effects of respondent gender, gender combination (male teacher/female student versus female teacher/male student), and teacher age (24 versus 39-years-old) on the perception of a sexual relationship between a teacher and a 16-year-old student. Participants were 80 male and 80 female undergraduates. A MANOVA yielded significant main effects for respondent gender and gender combination. Subsequent ANOVAs indicated that men generally viewed the experience more positively and that the male teacher/female student combination was viewed more negatively than the female teacher/male student pairing.

  7. The progestin levonorgestrel affects sex differentiation in zebrafish at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic progestins have become widespread environmental contaminants and may cause adverse effects on fish. In the present study, we investigated the effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) on sex differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Embryos were exposed to LNG at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 10, 33, and 100ng/L) and allowed to develop until sexual maturity. Histological examination at 63 days post fertilization (dpf) caused complete sex reversal and 100% males were observed in the 10, 33 and 100ng/L treatments; gross morphological and histological examination of gonads at 142dpf further confirmed 100% males at these exposure concentrations. The results indicate androgenic activity of LNG, and masculinization during zebrafish gonadal differentiation. The mRNA expression levels of genes involved in fish sex differentiation and gonadal development were examined at 28 and 42dpf. Down-regulation of the mRNA expression of aromatase (e.g., cyp19a1a, cyp19a1b), the forkhead transcription factor gene L2 (foxl2) and the Fushi tarazu factor-1d (nr5a1b) were observed. In contrast, transcription of the doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) gene was up-regulated. Androgen receptor (ar) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated at 28 and 42dpf. Co-exposure to flutamide (an androgen antagonist) and LNG, led to a decrease in the sex inversion potency of LNG. Our study has demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of LNG could alter sex differentiation and gonadal development in zebrafish. Our results also suggest a potentially high ecological risk of LNG to fish populations in LNG-contaminated aquatic environments.

  8. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  9. Historicizing affect, psychoanalyzing history: pedophilia and the discourse of child sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Within the last two decades in Australia, Britain, and the United States, we have seen a veritable explosion of cultural panic regarding the problem of pedophilia. Scarcely a day passes without some mention in the media of predatory pedophiles or organized pedophile networks. Many social constructionist historians and sociologists have described this incitement to discourse as indicative of a moral panic. The question that concerns me in this article is: If this incitement to discourse is indicative of a moral panic, to what does the panic refer? I begin by detailing, first, how social constructionism requires psychoanalytic categories in order to understand the notion of panic, and second, how a psychoanalytic reading of history might reveal important unconscious forces at work in the current pedophilia "crisis" that our culture refuses to confront. Here, I will suggest a repressed discourse of child sexuality is writ large. I will argue that the hegemonic discourse of pedophilia is contained largely within a neurotic structure and that many of our prevailing responses to pedophilia function as a way to avoid tackling crucial issues about the reality and trauma of childhood sexuality.

  10. Sexual selection affects the sizes of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J.ANDERSON; Alan F.DIXSON

    2009-01-01

    The accessory reproductive glands of male mammals contribute the bulk of the secretions in which spermatozoa are transported to the female tract during copulation. Despite their morphological diversity,and the chemical complexity of their products,little is known about the possible effects of sexual selection upon these glands in mammals. Here we consider the seminal vesicles and prostate glands in a sample of 89 species and 60 genera representing 8 Orders of mammals. The sizes of the accessory glands are analysed in relation to body weight and testes weight. Both the seminal vesicles size and prostate size (corrected for body weight) correlate positively with relative testes size in this sample; this finding remains highly significant after application of procedures to correct for possible phylogenetic biases in the data set. The accessory reproductive glands are also significantly larger in those mammals which have large relative testes sizes,and in which the likelihood of sperm competition is greatest. These results support the hypothesis that sexual selection has played an important role in the evolution of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles.

  11. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression.

  12. Catechins Variously Affect Activities of Conjugation Enzymes in Proliferating and Differentiated Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Lněničková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of processes in intestinal cells is essential, as most xenobiotics come into contact with the small intestine first. Caco-2 cells are human colorectal adenocarcinoma that once differentiated, exhibit enterocyte-like characteristics. Our study compares activities and expressions of important conjugation enzymes and their modulation by green tea extract (GTE and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG using both proliferating (P and differentiated (D caco-2 cells. The mRNA levels of the main conjugation enzymes were significantly elevated after the differentiation of Caco-2 cells. However, no increase in conjugation enzymes’ activities in differentiated cells was detected in comparison to proliferating ones. GTE/EGCG treatment did not affect the mRNA levels of any of the conjugation enzymes tested in either type of cells. Concerning conjugation enzymes activities, GTE/EGCG treatment elevated glutathione S-transferase (GST activity by approx. 30% and inhibited catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT activity by approx. 20% in differentiated cells. On the other hand, GTE as well as EGCG treatment did not significantly affect the activities of conjugation enzymes in proliferating cells. Administration of GTE/EGCG mediated only mild changes of GST and COMT activities in enterocyte-like cells, indicating a low risk of GTE/EGCG interactions with concomitantly administered drugs. However, a considerable chemo-protective effect of GTE via the pronounced induction of detoxifying enzymes cannot be expected as well.

  13. Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-feng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These findings confirm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus results in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes.

  14. Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-feng Jiang; Kai Yang; Xiao-qing Yang; Ying-fu Liu; Yuan-chi Cheng; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu

    2015-01-01

    It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron speciifc enolase, glial ifbrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunolfuorescence. Moreover, lfow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These ifndings con-ifrm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus re-sults in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes.

  15. Letting the Future In: a therapeutic intervention for children affected by sexual abuse and their carers:An evaluation of impact and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, John; Jessiman, Tricia; Patsios, Demi; Hackett, Simon; Phillips, Josie

    2016-01-01

    Letting the Future In is a structured guide to therapeutic intervention with children affected by sexual abuse. The guide was developed by the NSPCC and has been implemented by 20 NSPCC teams across England, Wales and Northern Ireland since 2011. It is available to children aged between four and 17 who have made a disclosure and experienced sexual abuse, live with a safe carer with no planned moves and have no diagnosed learning disability. Letting the Future In is grounded in an understandin...

  16. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  17. Deriving reliable fundamental parameters of PMS-rich star clusters affected by differential reddening

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, Charles; Lima, Eliade F

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach that improves the search for reliable astrophysical parameters (e.g. age, mass, and distance) of differentially-reddened, pre-main sequence-rich star clusters. It involves simulating conditions related to the early-cluster phases, in particular the differential and foreground reddenings, and internal age spread. Given the loose constraints imposed by these factors, the derivation of parameters based only on photometry may be uncertain, especially for the poorly-populated clusters. We consider a wide range of cluster {\\em (i)} mass and {\\em (ii)} age, and different values of {\\em (iii)} distance modulus, {\\em (iv)} differential and {\\em (v)} foreground reddenings. Photometric errors and their relation with magnitude are also taken into account. We also investigate how the presence of unresolved binaries affect the derived parameters. For each set of {\\em (i)} - {\\em (v)} we build the corresponding model Hess diagram, and compute the root mean squared residual with respect to the observed...

  18. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M.; McDonnell, Lisa P.; Nourse, Jamison L.; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2015-02-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation.

  19. Differentiating LGBT individuals in substance abuse treatment: analyses based on sexuality and drug preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Santa, Annesa Flentje

    2007-01-01

    In a prior study (Cochran & Cauce, 2006), LGBT individuals seeking treatment demonstrated greater substance use severity, more psychosocial stressors, and increased use of psychiatric services when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. That study, and similar to others in the field of LGBT research, collapsed LGBT individuals into a single category and did not examine individual differences within this category. The present study utilizes the same sample of LGBT clients (N = 610); however, an exploratory cluster analysis was conducted, based on drug preference, to determine which subcategories exist within this unique sample. In a subsequent set of analyses, the sample was divided based on sexuality to determine if there were differences between these groups on psychosocial functioning variables. Results indicated three distinct clusters, which differed in both demographic characteristics and severity of substance use problems. Groups based on sexuality differed in terms of primary problem substance, as well as psychosocial variables. Implications for treatment of these subgroups are discussed.

  20. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  1. Emotions and language about motion: Differentiating affective dominance with syntax from valence with semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Esteban, José; Dru, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    Motion as encoded in linguistic cues is used to differentiate affective valence and dominance. Participants were invited to rate their affective responses to different words along valence and dominance scales. The words were nouns describing static cues and verbs describing motion, connected to DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues. The results of three studies showed that valence and dominance could be differentiated through syntax and semantics of motion. On one hand, dominance feelings, compared to valence ones, are particularly influenced by motion encoded in syntactic classes (verbs vs. nouns). On the other hand, valence feelings, compared to dominance ones, are influenced by a semantics of motion through DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues, considered as polarities. A polarity correspondence effect is proposed to explain these results.

  2. The Affect of Symbols: Creating the Graphic Differential through Synesthesia and Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon James

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research with the semantic differential technique has established the cross-cultural generality of three basic affective dimensions identified as evaluation, potency, and activity. The purpose of this study is to develop a graphic equivalent of the pan-cultural short form semantic differential. This graphic differential is composed of bipolar scales made up of pictographic opposites on which subjects rate a concept by placing a check mark on the seven-point scale. Such a non-verbal instrument would be culture free and would have certain distinct advantages of the verbal semantic differential form. Data are reported for a pre-test of the graphic instrument in five language-culture communities (American English, Delhi Hindi, Finnish, German, and Japanese. The study succeeds in identifying several graphic scales that provide reliable and effective indices of the evaluation dimension of affect. These scales exhibit and conform to the symmetry law of Gestalt and could be used as a culture free attitude measure. With respect to the potency and activity dimensions, the results are less satisfactory, although some of the graphic scales can be used for this purpose when chosen indigenously (i.e. independently for each culture. Evidence of visual denotative contamination is found and discussed.

  3. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  4. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of

  6. Differential effects of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on carotenoid deposition in an avian sexually selected signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Cor; Tagliavini, James; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-based traits are under the control of testosterone (T) by up-regulation of carotenoid carriers (lipoproteins) and/or tissue-specific uptake of carotenoids. T can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2), and variation in conversion rate may partly explain some contradictory findings in the literature. Moreover, most studies on the effect of T on sexual signals have focused on the male sex only, while in many species females show the same signal, albeit to a lesser extent. We studied the effects of T, DHT, and E2 treatment in male and female diamond doves Geopelia cuneata in which both sexes have an enlarged red eye ring, which is more pronounced in males. We first showed that this periorbital ring contains very high concentration of carotenoids, of which most are lutein esters. Both T and DHT were effective in enhancing hue, UV-chroma and size in both sexes, while E2 was ineffective. However, E2 dramatically increased the concentration of circulating lipoproteins. We conclude that in both sexes both color and size of the secondary sexual trait are androgen dependent. The action of androgens is independent of lipoproteins regulation. Potential mechanisms and their consequences for trade-off are discussed. PMID:20824278

  7. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  8. The alpha-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Pawluski, Jodi L; Brock, Olivier; Douhard, Quentin; Bakker, Julie

    2010-04-01

    In rodent species, sexual differentiation of the brain for many reproductive processes depends largely on estradiol. This was recently confirmed again by using the alpha-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of alpha-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result represents a good model to determine the contribution of prenatal estradiol to the sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Female AFP-KO mice were defeminized and masculinized with regard to their neuroendocrine responses as well as sexual behavior. Since parental behavior is also strongly sexually differentiated in mice, we used the AFP-KO mouse model here to ask whether parental responses are differentiated prenatally under the influence of estradiol. It was found that AFP-KO females showed longer latencies to retrieve pups to the nest and also exhibited lower levels of crouching over the pups in the nest in comparison to WT females. In fact, they resembled males (WT and AFP-KO). Other measures of maternal behavior, for example the incidence of infanticide, tended to be higher in AFP-KO females than in WT females but this increase failed to reach statistical significance. The deficits observed in parental behavior of AFP-KO females could not be explained by any changes in olfactory function, novelty recognition or anxiety. Thus our results suggest that prenatal estradiol defeminizes the parental brain in mice.

  9. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    MN, Anil Kumar; Pai, NB; Rao, S; Rao, TSS; Goyal, N.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic di...

  10. Differential diagnosis of sexual pain in women (La diagnosi differenziale del dolore sessuale nella donna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Carli, MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dyspareunia, a pain that occurs in response to an attempted vaginalentry or to a sexual intercourse, is a clinical entity that recognizes multifactorial etiology. It may be due to organic diseases or to functional disorders suchas Hypoactive Syndrome Desire Disease (HSDD, vaginismus and provoked vulvodynia (PVD. A full history is fundamental for the diagnosis of functional syndromes. For PVD diagnosis, the gynaecologist must also have experience of syndromes of chronic widespread pain of unknownetiology such as fibromyalgia since these syndromes are frequently associated. In PVD local and diffuse hyperalgesia is associated with mechanismsof central sensitization. In PVD there is evidence suggesting local mechanisms of neuropathic nature, although local symptoms consist only in light erythema and oedema.

  11. Differentiating between genuine damage and falsified damage to a garment following an alleged sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Graham; Haider, Imran

    2012-11-01

    An allegation of sexual assault was made in which a bra was torn off by the assailant causing extensive damage; however, it was observed that the hook and eye fastening was still intact. It was felt that it was not possible for a garment to receive such damage without damage to the hook and eye fastening, thus indicating that the complainant caused the damage to the bra herself to support a false allegation. Reconstruction experiments were conducted in which the conditions of the allegation were simulated utilizing a range of similar bras. Following the infliction of damage, the hook and eye fastenings were examined. In eight of nine experiments, the hook and eye fastening were intact, despite the application of enough force to cause separation of the bra cups in five of the experiments. This shows that bras may suffer extensive damage without damage to the hook and eye fastening.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.

  13. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W.; Faass, O.; Ceccatelli, R.; Schlumpf, M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  14. Sexual competition affects biomass partitioning, carbon-nutrient balance, Cd allocation and ultrastructure of Populus cathayana females and males exposed to Cd stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Duan, Baoli; Xu, Gang; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-11-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to plant adaptation to soil heavy metal contamination, competition and neighbor effects have been largely overlooked, especially in dioecious plants. In this study, we investigated growth as well as biochemical and ultrastructural responses of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males to cadmium (Cd) stress under different sexual competition patterns. The results showed that competition significantly affects biomass partitioning, photosynthetic capacity, leaf and root ultrastructure, Cd accumulation, the contents of polyphenols, and structural and nonstructural carbohydrates. Compared with single-sex cultivation, plants of opposite sexes exposed to sexual competition accumulated more Cd in tissues and their growth was more strongly inhibited, indicating enhanced Cd toxicity under sexual competition. Under intrasexual competition, females showed greater Cd accumulation, more serious damage at the ultrastructural level and greater reduction in physiological activity than under intersexual competition, while males performed better under intrasexual competition than under intersexual competition. Males improved the female microenvironment by greater Cd uptake and lower resource consumption under intersexual competition. These results demonstrate that the sex of neighbor plants and competition affect sexual differences in growth and in key physiological processes under Cd stress. The asymmetry of sexual competition highlighted here might regulate population structure, and spatial segregation and phytoremediation potential of both sexes in P. cathayana growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  15. Microarray-based approach identifies differentially expressed microRNAs in porcine sexually immature and mature testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifan Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules which are proved to be involved in mammalian spermatogenesis. Their expression and function in the porcine germ cells are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We employed a miRNA microarray containing 1260 unique miRNA probes to evaluate the miRNA expression patterns between sexually immature (60-day and mature (180-day pig testes. One hundred and twenty nine miRNAs representing 164 reporter miRNAs were expressed differently (p<0.1. Fifty one miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 78 miRNAs were down-regulated in mature testes. Nine of these differentially expressed miRNAs were validated using quantitative RT-PCR assay. Totally 15,919 putative miRNA-target sites were detected by using RNA22 method to align 445 NCBI pig cDNA sequences with these 129 differentially expressed miRNAs, and seven putative target genes involved in spermatogenesis including DAZL, RNF4 gene were simply confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study indicated specific miRNAs expression in porcine testes and suggested that miRNAs had a role in regulating spermatogenesis.

  16. Sexual Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern causing distress can be classified as a dysfunction and can be lifelong or begin at any age. It can be situational or constant. Sexual disorders can affect men and women and are classified into four categories: desire disorders, ...

  17. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...

  18. Multidimensional Sexual Perfectionism and Female Sexual Function: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N

    2016-11-01

    Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual

  19. Weaned pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella display sexually dimorphic innate immune responses without affecting pathogen colonization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexually dimorphic innate immune responses have been observed in several species, but have not been studied in response to a live pathogen challenge in pigs. This study aimed to elucidate sexually dimorphic innate immune responses along with Salmonella translocation patterns in newly weaned pigs ora...

  20. Sexual selection in cane toads Rhinella marina: A male’s body size affects his success and his tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley BOWCOCK, Gregory P. BROWN, Richard SHINE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Male body size can play an important role in the mating systems of anuran amphibians. We conducted laboratory-based trials with cane toads Rhinella (Bufo marina from an invasive population in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia, to clarify the effects of a male's body size on his reproductive success and behavior (mate choice. Males were stimulated with a synthetic hormone to induce reproductive readiness. Larger body size enhanced a male toad's ability to displace a smaller rival from amplexus, apparently because of physical strength: more force was required to dislodge a larger than a smaller amplectant male. A male’s body size also affected his mate-choice criteria. Males of all body sizes were as likely to attempt amplexus with another male as with a female of the same size, and preferred larger rather than smaller sexual targets. However, this size preference was stronger in larger males and hence, amplexus was size-assortative. This pattern broke down when males were given access to already-amplectant male-female pairs: males of all body sizes readily attempted amplexus with the pair, with no size discrimination. An amplectant pair provides a larger visual stimulus, and prolonged amplexus provides a strong cue for sex identification (one of the individuals involved is almost certainly a female. Thus, a male cane toad’s body size affects both his ability to defeat rivals in physical struggles over females, and the criteria he uses when selecting potential mates, but the impacts of that selectivity depend upon the context in which mating occurs [Current Zoology 59 (6: 747–753, 2013].

  1. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  2. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  3. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  4. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  5. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  6. Spatial segregation of BMP/Smad signaling affects osteoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells.

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    Eva Heining

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are involved in a plethora of cellular processes in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Signaling specificity is achieved by dynamic processes involving BMP receptor oligomerization and endocytosis. This allows for spatiotemporal control of Smad dependent and non-Smad pathways. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal regulation within the BMP-induced Smad transcriptional pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we discriminate between Smad signaling events that are dynamin-dependent (i.e., require an intact endocytic pathway and dynamin-independent. Inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis in fluorescence microscopy and fractionation studies revealed a delay in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation after BMP-2 stimulation of C2C12 cells. Using whole genome microarray and qPCR analysis, we identified two classes of BMP-2 induced genes that are differentially affected by inhibition of endocytosis. Thus, BMP-2 induced gene expression of Id1, Id3, Dlx2 and Hey1 is endocytosis-dependent, whereas BMP-2 induced expression of Id2, Dlx3, Zbtb2 and Krt16 is endocytosis-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that short term inhibition of endocytosis interferes with osteoblast differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP production and qPCR analysis of osteoblast marker gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that dynamin-dependent endocytosis is crucial for the concise spatial activation of the BMP-2 induced signaling cascade. Inhibition of endocytic processes during BMP-2 stimulation leads to altered Smad1/5/8 signaling kinetics and results in differential target gene expression. We show that interfering with the BMP-2 induced transcriptional network by endocytosis inhibition results in an attenuation of osteoblast differentiation. This implies that selective sensitivity of gene expression to endocytosis provides an

  7. Genomic organization and splicing evolution of the doublesex gene, a Drosophila regulator of sexual differentiation, in the dengue and yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Arcà Bruno; Zazzaro Vincenzo; Milano Andreina; Lombardo Fabrizio; Mauro Umberto; Salvemini Marco; Polito Lino C; Saccone Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, doublesex (dsx) is the double-switch gene at the bottom of the somatic sex determination cascade that determines the differentiation of sexually dimorphic traits. Homologues of dsx are functionally conserved in various dipteran species, including the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. They show a striking conservation of sex-specific regulation, based on alternative splicing, and of the encoded sex-specific proteins, which are tr...

  8. Biogenic amines and their metabolites are differentially affected in the Mecp2-deficient mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villard Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT, MIM #312750 is a severe neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. Female patients are affected with an incidence of 1/15000 live births and develop normally from birth to 6-18 months of age before the onset of deficits in autonomic, cognitive, motor functions (stereotypic hand movements, impaired locomotion and autistic features. Studies on Mecp2 mouse models, and specifically null mice, revealed morphological and functional alterations of neurons. Several functions that are regulated by bioaminergic nuclei or peripheral ganglia are impaired in the absence of Mecp2. Results Using high performance liquid chromatography, combined with electrochemical detection (HPLC/EC we found that Mecp2-/y mice exhibit an alteration of DA metabolism in the ponto-bulbar region at 5 weeks followed by a more global alteration of monoamines when the disease progresses (8 weeks. Hypothalamic measurements suggest biphasic disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin at pathology onset (5 weeks that were found stabilized later on (8 weeks. Interestingly, the postnatal nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit identified previously does not parallel the reduction of the other neurotransmitters investigated. Finally, dosage in cortical samples do not suggest modification in the monoaminergic content respectively at 5 and 8 weeks of age. Conclusions We have identified that the level of catecholamines and serotonin is differentially affected in Mecp2-/y brain areas in a time-dependent fashion.

  9. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Carvalheira, Ana; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2017-01-01

    marginal. Conclusion: Older age can affect sexual satisfaction on individual, interpersonal, and culture-related levels. Future research in older adults' sexuality should focus on sexual well-being in women who are without partners, sexual satisfaction among aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender...... individuals and couples, the relationship between religiosity and sexual satisfaction, and employ a comparative, cross-cultural approach....

  10. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARγ Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARγ2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARγ, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARγ activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARγ activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARγ expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARγ activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARγ expression and activity. PMID:18274630

  11. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARgamma Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARgamma2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARgamma, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARgamma activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARgamma activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARgamma expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARgamma activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARgamma expression and activity.

  12. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  13. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  14. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) affects T cell differentiation in OVA induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirav, Eitan M; Henegariu, Octavian; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Clynes, Raphael; Herold, Kevan C

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for glycation end products (RAGE) has been previously implicated in shaping the adaptive immune response. RAGE is expressed in T cells after activation and constitutively in T cells from patients with diabetes. The effects of RAGE on adaptive immune responses are not clear: Previous reports show that RAGE blockade affects Th1 responses. To clarify the role of RAGE in adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms of its effects, we examined whether RAGE plays a role in T cell activation in a Th2 response involving ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice. WT and RAGE deficient wild-type and OT-II mice, expressing a T cell receptor specific for OVA, were immunized intranasally with OVA. Lung cellular infiltration and T cell responses were analyzed by immunostaining, FACS, and multiplex bead analyses for cytokines. RAGE deficient mice showed reduced cellular infiltration in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and impaired T cell activation in the mediastinal lymph nodes when compared with WT mice. In addition, RAGE deficiency resulted in reduced OT-II T cell infiltration of the lung and impaired IFNγ and IL-5 production when compared with WT mice and reduced infiltration when transferred into WT hosts. When cultured under conditions favoring the differentiation of T cells subsets, RAGE deficient T cells showed reduced production of IFNγ but increased production of IL-17. Our data show a stimulatory role for RAGE in T activation in OVA-induced asthma. This role is largely mediated by the effects of RAGE on T cell proliferation and differentiation. These findings suggest that RAGE may play a regulatory role in T cell responses following immune activation.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis and Differential Gene Expression on the Testis of Orange Mud Crab, Scylla olivacea, during Sexual Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiho, Khor; Fazhan, Hanafiah; Shahreza, Md Sheriff; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Noorbaiduri, Shaibani; Wong, Li Lian; Sinnasamy, Saranya

    2017-01-01

    Adequate genetic information is essential for sustainable crustacean fisheries and aquaculture management. The commercially important orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is prevalent in Southeast Asia region and is highly sought after. Although it is a suitable aquaculture candidate, full domestication of this species is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the sexual maturation process and the molecular mechanisms behind it, especially in males. To date, data on its whole genome is yet to be reported for S. olivacea. The available transcriptome data published previously on this species focus primarily on females and the role of central nervous system in reproductive development. De novo transcriptome sequencing for the testes of S. olivacea from immature, maturing and mature stages were performed. A total of approximately 144 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 160,569 transcripts with a total length of 142.2 Mb. Approximately 15–23% of the total assembled transcripts were annotated when compared to public protein sequence databases (i.e. UniProt database, Interpro database, Pfam database and Drosophila melanogaster protein database), and GO-categorised with GO Ontology terms. A total of 156,181 high-quality Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were mined from the transcriptome data of present study. Transcriptome comparison among the testes of different maturation stages revealed one gene (beta crystallin like gene) with the most significant differential expression—up-regulated in immature stage and down-regulated in maturing and mature stages. This was further validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, a comprehensive transcriptome of the testis of orange mud crabs from different maturation stages were obtained. This report provides an invaluable resource for enhancing our understanding of this species’ genome structure and biology, as expressed and controlled by their gonads. PMID:28135340

  16. Afecto, besos y condones: el ABC de las prácticas sexuales de las trabajadoras sexuales de la Ciudad de México Affection, kisses and condoms: the basics of sexual practices of female sex workers in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Allen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las prácticas sexuales de las trabajadoras sexuales de la Ciudad de México y explorar qué significan para ellas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio de abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo llevado a cabo, el primero, en 1992 y, el segundo, de 1991 a 1992. Una muestra representativa de trabajadoras sexuales (n=335 de un marco muestral respondió a un cuestionario y 52 de ellas participaron en seis grupos focales. Se calcularon frecuencias simples, medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión. Los datos cualitativos se interpretaron a la luz de la teoría fundamentada y la perspectiva feminista. RESULTADOS: Con clientes las trabajadoras sexuales aceptan la penetración vaginal y (menos la oral, mientras rechazan la penetración anal y los besos. Con parejas personales todas las prácticas sexuales son aceptadas. En su vida profesional las trabajadoras sexuales usan la disociación psico-corporal como una estrategia de defensa psicológica y para construir su identidad. Los servicios solicitados por el último cliente fueron: 98.4% vaginal, 39.1% oral, 7.7% anal y se reportó uso del condón con 94%. Con la pareja personal, 72.6% de las trabajadoras sexuales reportaron nunca usar el condón. La semana anterior al estudio las trabajadoras sexuales laboraron, en promedio, 3.7±1.5 días y tuvieron relaciones sexuales con 8.6 /±8.1 clientes. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario diseñar intervenciones que promuevan el sexo seguro entre trabajadoras sexuales en sus vidas privadas y profesionales.OBJECTIVE: To describe and explore the meanings of sexual practices among female sex workers (FSW in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative and quantitative study was carried out. The qualitative approach was conducted in 1992 and the latter from 1991 to 1992. The study population was a representative sample of FSW (n=335 who completed a questionnaire; 52 of them also participated in six focal groups. Simple frequencies, central

  17. Piper and Vismia Species from Colombian Amazonia Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro J. Lizcano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  18. Fluoxetine Dose and Administration Method Differentially Affect Hippocampal Plasticity in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Pawluski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications are one of the most common treatments for mood disorders. In humans, these medications are taken orally, usually once per day. Unfortunately, administration of antidepressant medications in rodent models is often through injection, oral gavage, or minipump implant, all relatively stressful procedures. The aim of the present study was to investigate how administration of the commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, via a wafer cookie, compares to fluoxetine administration using an osmotic minipump, with regards to serum drug levels and hippocampal plasticity. For this experiment, adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided over the two administration methods: (1 cookie and (2 osmotic minipump and three fluoxetine treatment doses: 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day. Results show that a fluoxetine dose of 5 mg/kg/day, but not 10 mg/kg/day, results in comparable serum levels of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine between the two administration methods. Furthermore, minipump administration of fluoxetine resulted in higher levels of cell proliferation in the granule cell layer (GCL at a 5 mg dose compared to a 10 mg dose. Synaptophysin expression in the GCL, but not CA3, was significantly lower after fluoxetine treatment, regardless of administration method. These data suggest that the administration method and dose of fluoxetine can differentially affect hippocampal plasticity in the adult female rat.

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  20. Activin Bioactivity Affects Germ Cell Differentiation in the Postnatal Mouse Testis In Vivo1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithraprabhu, Sridurga; Mendis, Sirisha; Meachem, Sarah J.; Tubino, Laura; Matzuk, Martin M.; Brown, Chester W.; Loveland, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligand activin A controls juvenile testis growth by stimulating Sertoli cell proliferation. Testicular levels are highest in the first postnatal week, when Sertoli cells are proliferating and spermatogonial stem cells first form. Levels decrease sharply as Sertoli cell proliferation ceases and spermatogenic differentiation begins. We hypothesized that changing activin levels also affect germ cell maturation. We detected an acute and developmentally regulated impact of activin on Kit mRNA in cocultures of Sertoli cells and germ cells from Day 8, but not Day 4, mice. Both stereological and flow cytometry analyses identified an elevated spermatogonium:Sertoli cell ratio in Day 7 testes from InhbaBK/BK mice, which have decreased bioactive activin, and the germ cell markers Sycp3, Dazl, and Ccnd3 were significantly elevated in InhbaBK/BK mice. The flow cytometry measurements demonstrated that surface KIT protein is significantly higher in Day 7 InhbaBK/BK germ cells than in wild-type littermates. By Day 14, the germ cell:Sertoli cell ratio did not differ between genotypes, but the transition of type A spermatogonia into spermatocytes was altered in InhbaBK/BK testes. We conclude that regulated activin signaling not only controls Sertoli cell proliferation, as previously described, but also influences the in vivo progression of germ cell maturation in the juvenile testis at the onset of spermatogenesis. PMID:20130270

  1. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Reddy, Sita, E-mail: sitaredd@usc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Comai, Lucio, E-mail: comai@usc.edu [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  2. Differential patterns of amygdala and ventral striatum activation predict gender-specific changes in sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Sansosti, Alexandra A; Bowman, Hilary C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-10

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior.

  3. Using a three-dimension head mounted displayer in audio-visual sexual stimulation aids in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K-H; Song, P-H; Park, T-C

    2005-01-01

    We designed this study to compare the efficacy of using a three-dimension head mounted displayer (3-D HMD) and a conventional monitor in audio-visual sexual stimulation (AVSS) in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction (ED). Three groups of subjects such as psychogenic ED, organic ED, and healthy control received the evaluation. The change of penile tumescence in AVSS was monitored with Nocturnal Electrobioimpedance Volumetric Assessment and sexual arousal after AVSS was assessed by a simple question as being good, fair, or poor. Both the group of healthy control and psychogenic ED demonstrated a significantly higher rate of normal response in penile tumescence (P<0.05) and a significantly higher level of sexual arousal (P<0.05) if stimulated with 3-D HMD than conventional monitor. In the group of organic ED, even using 3-D HMD in AVSS could not give rise to a better response in both assessments. Therefore, we conclude that using a 3-D HMD in AVSS helps more to differentiate psychogenic from organic ED than a conventional monitor in AVSS.

  4. Does dropping day 5 PEP follow-up affect outcomes? An audit of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis at a central London sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, C; Nwokolo, N; McOwan, A; Whitlock, G

    2015-07-01

    UK post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines were updated by the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. In 2013, we changed policy to omit day 5 PEP follow-up at 56 Dean Street as it was felt clinically unnecessary. This audit compares our performance against BASHH standards for PEP attenders during June 2012 and June 2013. We identified 162 PEP prescriptions; PEP assessment and appropriate sexually transmitted infection testing was done well. PEP completion rates and post-PEP HIV testing were lower than BASHH standards. Following omission of day 5 review, documentation that results have been checked was poor; however, attendance at follow-up was not adversely affected.

  5. In the face of war: examining sexual vulnerabilities of Acholi adolescent girls living in displacement camps in conflict-affected Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sheetal H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent girls are an overlooked group within conflict-affected populations and their sexual health needs are often neglected. Girls are disproportionately at risk of HIV and other STIs in times of conflict, however the lack of recognition of their unique sexual health needs has resulted in a dearth of distinctive HIV protection and prevention responses. Departing from the recognition of a paucity of literature on the distinct vulnerabilities of girls in time of conflict, this study sought to deepen the knowledge base on this issue by qualitatively exploring the sexual vulnerabilities of adolescent girls surviving abduction and displacement in Northern Uganda. Methods Over a ten-month period between 2004–2005, at the height of the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in Northern Uganda, 116 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were held with adolescent girls and adult women living in three displacement camps in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. The data was transcribed and key themes and common issues were identified. Once all data was coded the ethnographic software programme ATLAS was used to compare and contrast themes and categories generated in the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Our results demonstrated the erosion of traditional Acholi mentoring and belief systems that had previously served to protect adolescent girls’ sexuality. This disintegration combined with: the collapse of livelihoods; being left in camps unsupervised and idle during the day; commuting within camp perimeters at night away from the family hut to sleep in more central locations due to privacy and insecurity issues, and; inadequate access to appropriate sexual health information and services, all contribute to adolescent girls’ heightened sexual vulnerability and subsequent enhanced risk for HIV/AIDS in times of conflict. Conclusions Conflict prevention planners, resettlement programme developers, and

  6. Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice

    2008-05-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.

  7. Neural progenitor cell apoptosis and differentiation were affected by activated microglia in spinal cord slice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqing; Chu, Tak-Ho; Su, Huanxing; Guo, Anchen; Wu, Wutian

    2014-03-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation offers great potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). NPCs may replace lost neurons or oligodendrocytes and act as a source of neurotrophic factors to support survival of remaining cells. However, their efficiency was limited by poor survival after transplantation, and they tended more to differentiate into astrocytes, but not neurons and oligodendrocytes. This study investigated whether activated microglia is a factor that contributes to this phenomenon. Organotypic spinal cord slice (SCS) culture was used to mimic the local environment after SCI, and NPCs were co-cultured with them to share the culture medium. After specific depletion of microglia in the SCSs with clodronate loaded liposome, the apoptotic rate of NPCs decreased, more NPCs differentiated into neurons, and glial differentiation was impaired. This suggested that microglia may impair NPC survival, and neuronal differentiation, but improve astrocyte differentiation. In NPC transplantation strategy for SCI, microglia would be manipulated to improve the survival and neuronal differentiation of NPCs.

  8. Extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses.

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    Mirte Brom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that is highly dependent on the context for expression. This is supported by phenomena such as renewal and spontaneous recovery, which may help explain the persistence of appetitive behavior, and related problems such as addictions. Research on these phenomena in the sexual domain is lacking, where it may help to explain the persistence of learned sexual responses. METHOD: Men (n = 40 and women (n = 62 participated in a differential conditioning paradigm, with genital vibrotactile stimulation as US and neutral pictures as conditional stimuli (CSs. Dependent variables were genital and subjective sexual arousal, affect, US expectancy, and approach and avoid tendencies towards the CSs. Extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses were studied by context manipulation (AAA vs. ABA condition. RESULTS: No renewal effect of genital conditioned responding could be detected, but an obvious recovery of US expectancy following a context change after extinction (ABA was demonstrated. Additionally, women demonstrated recovery of subjective affect and subjective sexual arousal. Participants in the ABA demonstrated more approach biases towards stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the context dependency of extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses in humans. This knowledge may have implications for the treatment of disturbances in sexual appetitive responses such as hypo- and hypersexuality.

  9. Inhibition of Rho-kinase differentially affects axon regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhijeet R; Bobylev, Ilja; Zhang, Gang; Sheikh, Kazim A; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its down-stream effector Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important effector molecules of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Modulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been shown to promote axonal regeneration, however in vitro and animal studies are inconsistent regarding the extent of axonal outgrowth induced by pharmacological inhibition of ROCK. We hypothesized that injury to sensory and motor nerves result in diverse activation levels of RhoA, which may impact the response of those nerve fiber modalities to ROCK inhibition. We therefore examined the effects of Y-27632, a chemical ROCK inhibitor, on the axonal outgrowth of peripheral sensory and motor neurons grown in the presence of growth-inhibiting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). In addition we examined the effects of three different doses of Y-27632 on nerve regeneration of motor and sensory nerves in animal models of peripheral nerve crush. In vitro, sensory neurons were less responsive to Y-27632 compared to motor neurons in a non-growth permissive environment. These differences were associated with altered expression and activation of RhoA in sensory and motor axons. In vivo, systemic treatment with high doses of Y-27632 significantly enhanced the regeneration of motor axons over short distances, while the regeneration of sensory fibers remained largely unchanged. Our results support the concept that in a growth non-permissive environment, the regenerative capacity of sensory and motor axons is differentially affected by the RhoA/ROCK pathway, with motor neurons being more responsive compared to sensory. Future treatments, that are aimed to modulate RhoA activity, should consider this functional diversity.

  10. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  11. The effect of sex steroids on primary and secondary sex differentiation in the sexually dichromatic reedfrog (Hyperolius argus: Hyperolidae) from the Arabuko Sokoke Forest of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, T B; Menendez, K P

    1999-08-01

    The current study examined the role of steroids in primary and secondary sex differentiation in the African reedfrog (Hyperolius argus: Hyperolidae). This species is sexually dimorphic: males have a solid green dorsum and females are reddish-brown with large white spots. This study is the first to report the effects of sex steroids on the development of a sexually dichromatic species and the first to examine the role of sex steroids on development of the vocal sac. Both males and females metamorphosed solid green without spots. Approximately 2 months after metamorphosis, control females transformed to the female-typical color pattern. Control males never developed this color pattern (remained green), but developed vocal sacs. To examine the role of sex steroid hormones on primary (gonadal differentiation) and secondary (vocal sac development and dorsal coloration) sex differentiation, testosterone (T) or estradiol-17beta (E(2)) were administered throughout larval development. At metamorphosis, 53% of the controls were males, based on gross gonadal morphology and histology of a subsample. Both doses of T produced 100% males. All E(2)-treated animals had ovarian cavities and/or follicles when examined histologically (at both doses) but 50% had testicular tissue in addition to these ovarian characteristics. Both doses of T induced vocal sac development and both doses of E(2) induced female coloration. Thus, both T and E(2) induced secondary sex characteristics (vocal sac development and dorsal color change, respectively) but E(2) produced hermaphroditic gonads, whereas T induced complete sex reversal.

  12. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

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    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  13. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  14. Sexuality in old age

    OpenAIRE

    KOSOVÁ, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Age and sex are two terms that are not frequently associated with each other. Sexuality is a natural part of human nature, accompanying people throughout their whole lives, still in old age. The elderly are often considered asexual by society, and therefore they feel too shy to speak out about problems they are facing in their sexual lives. In this paper, physiological and psychosocial changes the old age brings about, ailments and sexual dysfunctions that may affect seniors´ sexuality, and m...

  15. LMNA knock-down affects differentiation and progression of human neuroblastoma cells.

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    Giovanna Maresca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB is one of the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood. Although genes, such as MYCN, have been shown to be involved in the aggressiveness of the disease, the identification of new biological markers is still desirable. The induction of differentiation is one of the strategies used in the treatment of neuroblastoma. A-type lamins are components of the nuclear lamina and are involved in differentiation. We studied the role of Lamin A/C in the differentiation and progression of neuroblastoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Knock-down of Lamin A/C (LMNA-KD in neuroblastoma cells blocked retinoic acid-induced differentiation, preventing neurites outgrowth and the expression of neural markers. The genome-wide gene-expression profile and the proteomic analysis of LMNA-KD cells confirmed the inhibition of differentiation and demonstrated an increase of aggressiveness-related genes and molecules resulting in augmented migration/invasion, and increasing the drug resistance of the cells. The more aggressive phenotype acquired by LMNA-KD cells was also maintained in vivo after injection into nude mice. A preliminary immunohistochemistry analysis of Lamin A/C expression in nine primary stages human NB indicated that this protein is poorly expressed in most of these cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time in neuroblastoma cells that Lamin A/C plays a central role in the differentiation, and that the loss of this protein gave rise to a more aggressive tumor phenotype.

  16. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

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    Angela P. Bastidas-Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs. hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold, as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair.

  18. Differential selection on pollen and pistil traits in relation to pollen competition in the context of a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Åsa; Strandh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sexual conflict and its evolutionary consequences are understudied in plants, but the theory of sexual conflict may help explain how selection generates and maintains variability. Here, we investigated selection on pollen and pistil traits when pollen arrives sequentially to partially receptive pistils in relation to pollen competition and a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in the mixed-mating annual Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). In this species the conflict is generated by early fertilizing pollen that reduces seed production, which is counteracted by delaying receptivity in the recipient. We performed sequential two-donor pollinations at early floral developmental stages involving two pollen deposition schedules (with or without a time lag of 1 day), using only outcross or self and outcross pollen. We investigated pollen and pistil traits in relation to siring success (male fitness) and seed production (female fitness). In contrast to previous findings in receptive pistils in C. heterophylla and in other species, last arriving pollen donors showed highest siring success in partially receptive pistils. The last male advantage was weaker when self pollen was the first arriving donor. Two measures of germination rate (early and late) and pollen tube growth rate of first arriving donors were important for siring success in crosses with a time lag, while only late germination rate had an effect in contemporary crosses. Curiously, late stigma receptivity was negatively related to seed production in our contemporary crosses, which was opposite to expectation. Our results in combination with previous studies suggest that pollen and pistil traits in C. heterophylla are differentially advantageous depending on stage of floral development and varying pollen deposition schedules. Variation in success of these traits over floral development time may result from sexually antagonistic selection. PMID:27562796

  19. SOX2 overexpression affects neural differentiation of human pluripotent NT2/D1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klajn, A; Drakulic, D; Tosic, M; Pavkovic, Z; Schwirtlich, M; Stevanovic, M

    2014-11-01

    SOX2 is one of the key transcription factors involved in maintenance of neural progenitor identity. However, its function during the process of neural differentiation, including phases of lineage-specification and terminal differentiation, is still poorly understood. Considering growing evidence indicating that SOX2 expression level must be tightly controlled for proper neural development, the aim of this research was to analyze the effects of constitutive SOX2 overexpression on outcome of retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation of pluripotent NT2/D1 cells. We demonstrated that in spite of constitutive SOX2 overexpression, NT2/D1 cells were able to reach final phases of neural differentiation yielding both neuronal and glial cells. However, SOX2 overexpression reduced the number of mature MAP2-positive neurons while no difference in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes was detected. In-depth analysis at single-cell level showed that SOX2 downregulation was in correlation with both neuronal and glial phenotype acquisitions. Interestingly, while in mature neurons SOX2 was completely downregulated, astrocytes with low level of SOX2 expression were detected. Nevertheless, cells with high level of SOX2 expression were incapable of entering in either of two differentiation pathways, neurogenesis or gliogenesis. Accordingly, our results indicate that fine balance between undifferentiated state and neural differentiation depends on SOX2 expression level. Unlike neurons, astrocytes could maintain low level of SOX2 expression after they acquired glial fate. Further studies are needed to determine whether differences in the level of SOX2 expression in GFAP-positive astrocytes are in correlation with their self-renewal capacity, differentiation status, and/or their phenotypic characteristics.

  20. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Kelsey Caetano-Anolles

    Full Text Available Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight. Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2, and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2. Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP, as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87 in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1 shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  1. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one generation of divergent selection

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    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a  sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero

  2. Mechanical stimuli on C2C12 myoblasts affect myoblast differentiation, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and galectin-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Lametsch, Rene; Karlsson, Anders H;

    2011-01-01

    to specific receptors on the cell surface. We showed that mechanical stimuli promote an increase of FAK phosphorylation. In order to further shed light in the process of myoblast induced differentiation by mechanical stimuli, we performed a proteomic analysis. Thirteen proteins were found to be affected...... by mechanical stimulation including Galectin-1, Annexin III, and RhoGDI. In this study we demonstrate how the combination of this method of mechanical stimuli and proteomic analysis can be a powerful tool to detect proteins that are potentially interacting in biochemical pathways or complex cellular mechanisms...... during the process of myoblast differentiation. We determined an increase in expression and changes in cellular localization of Galectin-1, in mechanically stimulated myoblasts. A potential involvement of Galectin-1 in myoblast differentiation is presented....

  3. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of neuronal differentiation-related genes in embryonic neural stem cells.

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    Qinlong Ma

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF can affect the processes of brain development, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The proliferation and differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs is essential for brain development during the gestation period. To date, there is no report about the effects of ELF-EMF on eNSCs. In this paper, we studied the effects of ELF-EMF on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs. Primary cultured eNSCs were treated with 50 Hz ELF-EMF; various magnetic intensities and exposure times were applied. Our data showed that there was no significant change in cell proliferation, which was evaluated by cell viability (CCK-8 assay, DNA synthesis (Edu incorporation, average diameter of neurospheres, cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry and transcript levels of cell cycle related genes (P53, P21 and GADD45 detected by real-time PCR. When eNSCs were induced to differentiation, real-time PCR results showed a down-regulation of Sox2 and up-regulation of Math1, Math3, Ngn1 and Tuj1 mRNA levels after 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure (2 mT for 3 days, but the percentages of neurons (Tuj1 positive cells and astrocytes (GFAP positive cells were not altered when detected by immunofluorescence assay. Although cell proliferation and the percentages of neurons and astrocytes differentiated from eNSCs were not affected by 50 Hz ELF-EMF, the expression of genes regulating neuronal differentiation was altered. In conclusion, our results support that 50 Hz ELF-EMF induce molecular changes during eNSCs differentiation, which might be compensated by post-transcriptional mechanisms to support cellular homeostasis.

  4. Mango Fruit Extracts Differentially Affect Proliferation and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Wong Taing; Jean-Thomas Pierson; Shaw, Paul N.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Gidley, Michael J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of human cancer cell proliferation is a common approach in identifying plant extracts that have potential bioactive effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanolic extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars, Irwin (IW), Nam Doc Mai (NDM), and Kensington Pride (KP), differentially affect proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I) signalling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Man...

  5. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  6. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  7. Temperature affect on caste differentiation and protein composition in Coptotermes formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caste systems, and the division of labor they make possible, are common underlying features of all social insects. In termites, multiple extrinsic factors have been shown to impact caste differentiation; for example, temperature has been shown to increase soldier production. The objective of this in...

  8. Perfil clínico de 62 casos de distúrbios da diferenciação sexual Clinical profile of 62 cases of sexual differentiation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabriel R. de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil clínico dos casos de distúrbios da diferenciação sexual em acompanhamento no Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione, no Rio de Janeiro, nos últimos cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Revisão dos prontuários dos pacientes, com o diagnóstico de genitália ambígua em acompanhamento nos últimos cinco anos, segundo os critérios clínicos descritos por Danish, em 1982. O registro mais antigo foi feito em 1981 e o mais recente de junho de 2006. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 62 casos de genitália ambígua: 26 com registro do sexo feminino e 36 com registro do sexo masculino. O diagnóstico mais freqüente foi o de hiperplasia congênita de supra-renal (33,9%, seguido de quadros sindrômicos (14,5% e disgenesias gonadais (9,7%. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 7,2 anos (de zero a 42 anos. CONCLUSÕES: A ambigüidade genital não é uma doença específica, mas um conjunto de alterações que direcionam o clínico a buscar diagnósticos específicos. A freqüência dessa afecção depende dos critérios diagnósticos utilizados. A adoção de critérios amplos aumenta a chance de detecção precoce do quadro bem como de cuidado adequado a crianças com distúrbios da diferenciação sexual.OBJECTIVE: To report patients with ambiguous genitalia assisted at the State Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the last five years. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all cases of ambiguous genitalia, classified according to Danish criteria (1982, who attended follow-up visits in the last five years. The oldest record is from 1981 and the most recent one, 2006. RESULTS: 62 patients with ambiguous genitalia were found: 26 of them assigned as females and 36 as males. The most frequent diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia (33.9%, followed by syndromic diseases (14.5% and gonadal dysgenesis (9.7%. The majority of patients with ambiguous genitalia were detected at

  9. Temperature, but not available energy, affects the expression of a sexually selected ultraviolet (UV colour trait in male European green lizards.

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    Katalin Bajer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV] this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.

  10. Identification of sexually dimorphic gene expression in brain tissue of the fish Leporinus macrocephalus through mRNA differential display and real time PCR analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Costa, Fernanda A; Wasko, A P

    2010-03-01

    Differentially expressed genes in males and females of vertebrate species generally have been investigated in gonads and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues. Therefore, we attempted to identify sexually dimorphic gene expression in the brains of adult males and females of Leporinus macrocephalus, a gonochoristic fish species that presents a ZZ/ZW sex determination system, throughout a comparative analysis using differential display reverse transcriptase-PCR and real-time PCR. Four cDNA fragments were characterized, representing candidate genes with differential expression between the samples. Two of these fragments presented no significant identity with previously reported gene sequences. The other two fragments, isolated from male specimens, were associated to the gene that codes for the protein APBA2 (amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2) and to the Rab 37 gene, a member of the Ras oncogene family. The overexpression of these genes has been associated to a greater production of the beta-amyloid protein which, in turns, is the major factor that leads to Alzheimer's disease, and to the development of brain-tumors, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a higher Apba2 gene expression in males, thus validating the previous data on differential display. L. macrocephalus may represent an interesting animal model to the understanding of the function of several vertebrate genes, including those involved in neurodegenerative and cancer diseases.

  11. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2010-01-01

    were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup...

  12. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...

  13. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  14. Demographic changes and marker properties affect detection of human population differentiation

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    Sanichwankul Kittipong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating genetically between populations is valuable for admixture and population stratification detection and in understanding population history. This is easy to achieve for major continental populations, but not for closely related populations. It has been claimed that a large marker panel is necessary to reliably distinguish populations within a continent. We investigated whether empirical genetic differentiation could be accomplished efficiently among three Asian populations (Hmong, Thai, and Chinese using a small set of highly variable markers (15 tetranucleotide and 17 dinucleotide repeats. Results Hmong could be differentiated from Thai and Chinese based on multi-locus genotypes, but Thai and Chinese were indistinguishable from each other. We found significant evidence for a recent population bottleneck followed by expansion in the Hmong that was not present in the Thai or Chinese. Tetranucleotide repeats were less useful than dinucleotide repeat markers in distinguishing between major continental populations (Asian, European, and African while both successfully distinguished Hmong from Thai and Chinese. Conclusion Demographic history contributes significantly to robust detection of intracontinental population structure. Populations having experienced a rapid size reduction may be reliably distinguished as a result of a genetic drift -driven redistribution of population allele frequencies. Tetranucleotide markers, which differ from dinucleotide markers in mutation mechanism and rate, are similar in information content to dinucleotide markers in this situation. These factors should be considered when identifying populations suitable for gene mapping studies and when interpreting interpopulation relationships based on microsatellite markers.

  15. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Adamzyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC. Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF. We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i considerable donor to donor variations, (ii protocol-dependent variations, and (iii variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  16. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

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    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

  17. Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+influx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aline O da Conceio; Gilsane Lino von Poser; Benoit Barbeau; Julie Lafond

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of crude methanol and n-hexane extracts of Hypericum connatum (H. connatum) and Hypericum caprifoliatum on trophoblast-like cells. Methods: BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast-like cells were submitted to different extract concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL) and evaluated in relation to cell viability and in vitro trophoblast differentiation and function. Cell viability was evaluated using WST-1 reagent. Differentiation was measured by luciferase production, hCG production/release, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation. The function of the trophoblast-like cells was measured by 45Ca2+influx evaluation. Results:The results showed a decrease in cell viability/proliferation. Both plants and different extracts induced a significant decrease in hCG production/release and luciferase production. H. connatum did not cause mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway disturbance;however, Hypericum caprifoliatum n-hexane extract at 15 µg/mL inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. The significant increase in Ca2+influx by JEG-3 cells was seen after short and long incubation times with H. connatum methanolic extract at 15 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants.

  18. Visual Cues of Object Properties Differentially Affect Anticipatory Planning of Digit Forces and Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Miller, Trevor; Marneweck, Michelle; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory planning of object manipulation showed initial task failure (i.e., object roll) when visual object shape cues are incongruent with other visual cues, such as weight distribution/density (e.g., symmetrically shaped object with an asymmetrical density). This suggests that shape cues override density cues. However, these studies typically only measured forces, with digit placement constrained. Recent evidence suggests that when digit placement is unconstrained, subjects modulate digit forces and placement. Thus, unconstrained digit placement might be modulated on initial trials (since it is an explicit process), but not forces (since it is an implicit process). We tested whether shape and density cues would differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit placement and forces during initial trials of a two-digit object manipulation task. Furthermore, we tested whether shape cues would override density cues when cues are incongruent. Subjects grasped and lifted an object with the aim of preventing roll. In Experiment 1, the object was symmetrically shaped, but with asymmetrical density (incongruent cues). In Experiment 2, the object was asymmetrical in shape and density (congruent cues). In Experiment 3, the object was asymmetrically shaped, but with symmetrical density (incongruent cues). Results showed differential modulation of digit placement and forces (modulation of load force but not placement), but only when shape and density cues were congruent. When shape and density cues were incongruent, we found collinear digit placement and symmetrical force sharing. This suggests that congruent and incongruent shape and density cues differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit forces and placement. Furthermore, shape cues do not always override density cues. A continuum of visual cues, such as those alluding to shape and density, need to be integrated.

  19. Mismatch in working hours and affective commitment : Differential relationships for distinct employee groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Sanders, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non-correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part-time working employees, attach more importance to their

  20. The Differential Effects of Labelling: How Do "Dyslexia" and "Reading Difficulties" Affect Teachers' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Simon; Elliott, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of primary school teachers' beliefs about working with poor readers. The primary research question was "does the way difficulties with reading are labelled affect the teachers' beliefs about their ability to intervene effectively?" An opportunity sample of teachers was surveyed using 2 questionnaires. One…

  1. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm.

  2. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  3. Differential Effects of Cognitive, Affective, and Proprioceptive Instructional Approaches on Vocabulary Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Ula Price; Manzo, Anthony V.

    The effectiveness of three instructional approaches was investigated in a study of how best to facilitate vocabulary acquisition. The three approaches were (1) the cognitive approach, a method employing dictionary worksheets and patterned after the most commonly used method of teaching vocabulary; (2) the affective approach, which urged students…

  4. Contrasting macrobenthic activities differentially affect nematode density and diversity in a shallow subtidal marine sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; van Colen, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2011-01-01

    By bioturbating and bio-irrigating the sea floor, macrobenthic organisms transport organic matter and oxygen from the surface to deeper layers, thereby extending the habitat suitable for smaller infauna. Next to these engineering activities, competition, disturbance and predation may also affect the

  5. Female attractiveness affects paternal investment: experimental evidence for male differential allocation in blue tits

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    Mahr Katharina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The differential allocation hypothesis (DAH predicts that individuals should adjust their parental investment to their current mate’s quality. Although in principle the DAH holds for both sexes, male adjustment of parental investment has only been tested in a few experimental studies, revealing contradictory results. We conducted a field experiment to test whether male blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus allocate their parental effort in relation to female ornamentation (ultraviolet colouration of the crown, as predicted by the DAH. Results We reduced the UV reflectance in a sample of females and compared parental care by their mates with that of males paired to sham-manipulated control females. As predicted by the DAH our results demonstrate that males paired with UV-reduced females invested less in feeding effort but did not defend the chicks less than males paired with control females. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies providing support for male differential allocation in response to female ornamentation.

  6. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

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    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  7. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily.

  8. An improved, non-isotopic method of screening cells from patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation for Y chromosomal DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M; Michalczak, K; Latos-Bielenska, A; Jaruzelska, J; Kuczora, I; Lopez, M

    1993-04-01

    The detection of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation is of crucial diagnostic importance. Here we present application of a PCR based method of detection of alphoid repeats of Y chromosomal origin. The method detects 0.01% of male DNA on a female DNA background. Out of 28 patients studied, in all cases where the Y chromosome or a part of it containing centromeric sequences was present, a positive amplification signal of Y chromosomal alphoid repeats was detected. In five cases the Y origin of marker chromosomes was diagnosed. The pattern of amplification signal distribution of the SRY gene was identical to that of Y specific alphoid primers, which confirms applicability of this method in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. The other diagnostic advantage is the ability to use dried blood specimens as an easy to handle and efficient source of DNA.

  9. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

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    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  10. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merchelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests th...

  11. Influence of the brain sexual differentiation process on despair and antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the rat forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M L; Martínez-Mota, L; Estrada-Camarena, E; Fernández-Guasti, A

    2014-03-01

    Sex differences exist in the depressive disorder prevalence and response to treatment. Several studies suggest that females respond better than males to the action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), suggesting that gonadal hormones modulate mood and the response to these drugs. Sexual steroid hormones exert organizational actions (perennial and on early development) and activational effects (transient and on differentiated tissues). The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the forced swim test (FST) in animals without treatment and after fluoxetine (FLX, 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Initially, we compared male and female adult rats under control conditions or after altering their sexual differentiation process (at day 5 postnatally, PN, 60μg of testosterone propionate to females and male castration to induce or preclude masculinization, respectively). To further analyze if the sex differences depend on organizational or activational steroid hormone action we tested the same animals before and after adult gonadectomy. To prevent variations depending upon the estrous cycle, control and masculinized females were tested in estrus. Control females showed lower immobility and required lower doses of FLX (5mg/kg), to show an antidepressant-like effect, than males (10mg/kg), even after adult gonadectomy. In control males adult orchidectomy prevented FLX's action. Neonatally masculinized females exhibited analogous levels of immobility than control ones; before ovariectomy they responded to FLX similar to controls, but after the surgery they did not respond to fluoxetine. Neonatally orchidectomized males exhibited similar immobility values and response to FLX than control females. The findings suggest that the sex difference in despair depends on the hormones organizational effects and, in males, the response to FLX relies on organizational and activational actions.

  12. Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-03-01

    Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05).

  13. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Matthew A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we expand our previous work on the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA on the murine hepatic transcriptome using novel statistical and bioinformatic approaches for evaluating microarray data. The analyses focuses on key differences in the transcriptomic response that will influence metabolism following consumption of FUNG (rich in 20:4n6, FISH (rich in 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 and COMB, the combination of the two. Results Using a variance-stabilized F-statistic, 371 probe sets (out of 13 K probe sets in the Affymetrix Mu11K chip set were changed by dietary treatment (P Conclusion Distinct transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized.

  14. Differential effects of single-dose escitalopram on cognitive and affective interference during Stroop task

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    Christoffer Gustaf Rahm

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Our aim was to study the regulatory role of serotonin (5-HT on two key nodes in the cognitive control networks - the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We hypothesized that increasing the levels of 5-HT would preferentially modulate the activity in ACC during cognitive control during interference by negative affects compared to cognitive control during interference by a superimposed cognitive task. Methods: We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation on 11 healthy individuals, comparing the effects of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on brain oxygenation level dependent signals in the ACC and the DLPFC using affective and cognitive counting Stroop paradigms (aStroop and cStroop. Results: Escitalopram significantly decreased the activity in rostral ACC during aStroop compared to cStroop (p< 0.05. In the absence of escitalopram, both aStroop and cStroop significantly activated ACC and DLPFC (Z≥2.3, p< 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that escitalopram in a region and task specific manner modified the cognitive control networks and preferentially decreased activity induced by affective interference in the ACC.

  15. Estrogen Receptor β Agonists Differentially Affect the Growth of Human Melanoma Cell Lines.

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    Monica Marzagalli

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive malignancy; its incidence is increasing worldwide and its prognosis remains poor. Clinical observations indicate that estrogen receptor β (ERβ is expressed in melanoma tissues and its expression decreases with tumor progression, suggesting its tumor suppressive function. These experiments were performed to investigate the effects of ERβ activation on melanoma cell growth.Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by counting the cells by hemocytometer. ERβ transcriptional activity was evaluated by gene reporter assay. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by restriction enzyme assay and ERβ isoforms were identified by qRT-PCR. We demonstrated that ERβ is expressed in a panel of human melanoma cell lines (BLM, WM115, A375, WM1552. In BLM (NRAS-mutant cells, ERβ agonists significantly and specifically inhibited cell proliferation. ERβ activation triggered its cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the antiproliferative activity of ERβ agonists was associated with an altered expression of G1-S transition-related proteins. In these cells, global DNA was found to be hypomethylated when compared to normal melanocytes; this DNA hypomethylation status was reverted by ERβ activation. ERβ agonists also decreased the proliferation of WM115 (BRAF V600D-mutant cells, while they failed to reduce the growth of A375 and WM1552 (BRAF V600E-mutant cells. Finally, we could observe that ERβ isoforms are expressed at different levels in the various cell lines. Specific oncogenic mutations or differential expression of receptor isoforms might be responsible for the different responses of cell lines to ERβ agonists.Our results demonstrate that ERβ is expressed in melanoma cell lines and that ERβ agonists differentially regulate the proliferation of these cells. These data confirm the notion that melanoma is a

  16. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  17. Environmental phosphate differentially affects virulence phenotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates causative of prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo-Puertas, M; Martínez-Zamora, MG; Rintoul, MR; Soto, SM; Rapisarda, VA

    2015-01-01

    K-12 Escherichia coli cells grown in static media containing a critical phosphate (Pi) concentration ≥25 mM maintained a high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase, impairing biofilm formation, a phenomenon that is triggered by polyP degradation. Pi concentration in human urine fluctuates according to health state. Here, the influence of environmental Pi concentration on the occurrence of virulence traits in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from acute prostatitis patients was evaluated. After a first screening, 3 isolates were selected according to differential biofilm formation profiles depending on media Pi concentration. For each isolate, biofilm positive and negative conditions were established. Regardless of the isolate, biofilm formation capacity was accompanied with curli and cellulose production and expression of some key virulence factors associated with adhesion. When the selected isolates were grown in their non-biofilm-forming condition, low concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin induced biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar to laboratory strains, polyP degradation induced biofilm formation in the selected isolates. Data demonstrated the complexity of UPEC responses to environmental Pi and the importance of polyP metabolism in the virulence of clinical isolates. PMID:26083279

  18. MicroRNA-199a-5p Affects Porcine Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-E Shi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, have emerged as novel and potent regulators of adipogenesis. However, few miRNAs have been fully investigated in porcine adipogenesis, given the fact that pig is not only an apropos model of human obesity research, but also a staple meat source of human diet. In this study, we showed that miRNA-199a-5p is highly expressed in porcine subcutaneous fat deposits compared to several other tissue types and organs measured alongside. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p in porcine preadipocytes significantly promoted cell proliferation while attenuating the lipid deposition in porcine adipocytes. By target gene prediction and experimental validation, we demonstrated that caveolin-1 (Cav-1 may be a bona fide target of miR-199a-5p in porcine adipocytes, accounting for some of miR-199a-5p’s functions. Taken together, our data established a role of miR-199a-5p in porcine preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, which is at least partially played by downregulating Cav-1.

  19. The thiol compounds glutathione and homoglutathione differentially affect cell development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Taras; Asard, Han; Potters, Geert; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important scavenger of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), precursor of metal chelating phytochelatins, xenobiotic defence compound and regulator of cell proliferation. Homoglutathione (hGSH) is a GSH homologue that is present in several taxa in the family of Fabaceae. It is thought that hGSH performs many of the stress-defence roles typically ascribed to GSH, yet little is known about the potential involvement of hGSH in controlling cell proliferation. Here we show that hGSH/GSH ratios vary across organs and cells and that these changes in hGSH/GSH ratio occur during dedifferentiation and/or cell cycle activation events. The use of a GSH/hGSH biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in impaired cytokinesis in isolated protoplasts, showing the critical importance of these thiol-compounds for cell division. However, exposure of isolated protoplasts to exogenous GSH accelerated cytokinesis, while exogenous hGSH was found to inhibit the same process. We conclude that GSH and hGSH have distinct functional roles in cell cycle regulation in Medicago sativa L. GSH is associated with meristemic cells, and promotes cell cycle activation and induction of somatic embryogenesis, while hGSH is associated with differentiated cells and embryo proliferation.

  20. Platinum-Based Drugs Differentially Affect the Ultrastructure of Breast Cancer Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adawi, Kawther; Al-Nabhani, Abdurahman; Al-Kindi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although platinum-based drugs (PBDs) are effective anticancer agents, responsive patients eventually become resistant. While resistance of some cancers to PBDs has been explored, the cellular responses of BC cells are not studied yet. Therefore, we aim to assess the differential effects of PBDs on BC ultrastructure. Three representative cells were treated with different concentrations and timing of Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin. Changes on cell surface and ultrastructure were detected by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In SEM, control cells were semiflattened containing microvilli with extending lamellipodia while treated ones were round with irregular surface and several pores, indicating drug entry. Prolonged treatment resembled distinct apoptotic features such as shrinkage, membrane blebs, and narrowing of lamellipodia with blunt microvilli. TEM detected PBDs' deposits that scattered among cellular organelles inducing structural distortion, lumen swelling, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Deposits were attracted to fat droplets, explained by drug hydrophobic properties, while later they were located close to cell membrane, suggesting drug efflux. Phagosomes with destructed organelles and deposits were detected as defending mechanism. Understanding BC cells response to PBDs might provide new insight for an effective treatment.

  1. The effects of differential prenatal and postnatal social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Terman, C R

    1975-05-01

    We compared the influence of different social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice. Between 12 and 48 hr after parturition, one-half of a litter from a population was exchanged with one-half of a litter from a bisexual pair. In each situation the remaining half-litter served as controls for the exchange procedure. The testes and vesicular weights of population-reared males were significantly larger than those of males reared by bisexual pairs, irrespective of prenatal enviroment. Generally, population-reared females also had larger reproductive organs than those reared by bisexual pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the adrenal weights of males or females, but females reared by bisexual pairs had larger absolute and relative adrenals than females reared in populations.

  2. Sexual differentiation of oxytocin stress responsiveness: effect of neonatal androgenization, castration and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D A; Saridaki, E; Lightman, S L

    1988-04-01

    The plasma OT increment following stress in rats is sexually dimorphic, females exhibiting greater responses than males. We have investigated the role of neonatal androgen secretion in determining the sex-typical level of response. Castration of male pups either surgically or functionally (GnRH antagonist treatment) within either 2 h or 5 days of birth did not elevate the OT responses of adult males. In contrast, androgenization of female pups (testosterone, 1.25 mg/pup) within 5 days of birth markedly reduced the OT stress responses of adults to a level insignificantly different to males. The results show that neonatal androgens can exert organizational effects on OT regulatory mechanisms. Since neonatal castration was ineffective it would appear that a prenatal defeminization or masculinization event determines OT stress responsiveness in males.

  3. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L;

    2016-01-01

    , variations in fiber size, vacuoles, and some internal nuclei associated with cytosolic glycogen accumulation and ongoing regeneration; structural damage was seen only in a minority of human patients. Neither liver nor brain isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase were upregulated in muscles, thus providing...... no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus......McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings...

  4. Daytime and nighttime wind differentially affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-05-01

    This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response.

  5. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds.

  6. Postnatal Hyperoxia Exposure Differentially Affects Hepatocytes and Liver Haemopoietic Cells in Newborn Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; Di Valerio, Valentina; Rapino, Monica; Zaramella, Patrizia; Dedja, Arben; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Porzionato, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Premature newborns are frequently exposed to hyperoxic conditions and experimental data indicate modulation of liver metabolism by hyperoxia in the first postnatal period. Conversely, nothing is known about possible modulation of growth factors and signaling molecules involved in other hyperoxic responses and no data are available about the effects of hyperoxia in postnatal liver haematopoiesis. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of hyperoxia in the liver tissue (hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells) and to investigate possible changes in the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB). Experimental design of the study involved exposure of newborn rats to room air (controls), 60% O2 (moderate hyperoxia), or 95% O2 (severe hyperoxia) for the first two postnatal weeks. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed. Severe hyperoxia increased hepatocyte apoptosis and MMP-9 expression and decreased VEGF expression. Reduced content in reticular fibers was found in moderate and severe hyperoxia. Some other changes were specifically produced in hepatocytes by moderate hyperoxia, i.e., upregulation of HIF-1α and downregulation of eNOS and NF-kB. Postnatal severe hyperoxia exposure increased liver haemopoiesis and upregulated the expression of VEGF (both moderate and severe hyperoxia) and eNOS (severe hyperoxia) in haemopoietic cells. In conclusion, our study showed different effects of hyperoxia on hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells and differential involvement of the above factors. The involvement of VEGF and eNOS in the liver haemopoietic response to hyperoxia may be hypothesized. PMID:25115881

  7. Consumption of different soymilk formulations differentially affects the gut microbiomes of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Raudales, Dina; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Bringe, Neal A; Cox, Stephen B; Dowd, Scot E; Miller, Michael J; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome in overweight and obese men. In a randomized double-blind study, participants (64 men, BMI > 25, 20-45 y old), organized in three groups, consumed 500 mL of LGS, S or M daily for 3 mo. Three fecal samples were collected before (baseline) and after 3 mo of consumption. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were monitored monthly and remained constant throughout the study (p > 0.05). Microbial composition was analyzed with qPCR and bTEFAP. Within groups, qPCR analysis showed that the total bacteria increased in all treatments over time (p LGS and M, respectively. Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in LGS (p = 0.003) and S (p LGS, S and M (p = 0.004, 0.005, 0.001; respectively). Unweighted UniFrac analysis revealed that the microbial communities were more similar within than between individuals. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased in both LGS and S groups and remained relatively unchanged in the M group (Time p = 0.012; Interaction p = 0.059). Indicator analysis revealed several genera that were indicative of each treatment including Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Consumption of the three beverages differentially altered the microbiota in overweight and obese men including a potentially beneficial alteration of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both soymilk groups.

  8. The relationship between endorsement of the sexual double standard and sexual cognitions and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, T.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of continue

  9. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  10. Morphogenesis in Mucor mucedo: mutations affecting gamone response and organ differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, T; Jockusch, H

    1978-02-27

    Mutants of Mucor mucedo minus strain that are affected in their trisporic acid (TA) mediated zygophore formation have been isolated. We have found mutants with cold sensitive (cs), with temperature sensitive (ts) and without zygophore formation as well as mutants with unstable zygophores (Zst-). From the appearence of certain pleiotropic phenotypes we deduce a one-dimensional sequence of states of competence of the mycelium to form different organs. TA appears to be a growth substance for zygophores acting on one transient state of competence. The fact that all isolates with lowered response to TA also have a lowered response to the mating type specific TA-precursor P strongly suggests that P has to be converted into TA before inducing zygophore growth. Furthermore, one mutant with lowered sensitivity to TA exhibits an excess zygophore formation in the presence of high TA-concentrations, while high concentrations of P cause a depressed zygophore formation (Fig. 6). Our interpretation of this behaviour is that P acts as an antagonist to TA in the regulation of zygophore growth.

  11. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  12. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  13. Field establishment and grain yield of maize affected by hydro-priming of differentially aged seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize seeds (cv. SC-AR68 with a 100% germination was kept as control, and two other sub-samples were artificially deteriorated at 40 °C for 2 and 3 days, reducing normal germination to 98% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, three seed lots of maize with different levels of vigor were provided. Each seed lot was then divided into four sub-samples, one unprimed and the other three lots were primed in distilled water at 15 °C for 7, 14 and 21 hours, and then dried back to initial moisture content (about 20% at a room temperature of 20–22 °C for 24 hours. The field experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Although germination percentage of seed lots was not significantly affected by hydro-priming, germination rate and seedling dry weight were considerably enhanced as a result of seed priming. Hydro-priming for 21 hours enhanced seedling emergence rate of all seed lots with different levels of vigor. This hydro-priming duration also increased grain yield of maize by about 32%, although this superiority was not statistically significant. This advantage in grain yield of plants from primed seeds was related with rapid germination and seedling growth and early emergence in the field.

  14. The diageotropica gene differentially affects auxin and cytokinin responses throughout development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, C; Lomax, T L

    1998-05-01

    The interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin throughout plant development are complex, and genetic investigations of the interdependency of auxin and cytokinin signaling have been limited. We have characterized the cytokinin sensitivity of the auxin-resistant diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a range of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated responses. Intact, etiolated dgt seedlings showed cross-resistance to cytokinin with respect to root elongation, but cytokinin effects on hypocotyl growth and ethylene synthesis in these seedlings were not impaired by the dgt mutation. Seven-week-old, green wild-type and dgt plants were also equally sensitive to cytokinin with respect to shoot growth and hypocotyl and internode elongation. The effects of cytokinin and the dgt mutation on these processes appeared additive. In tissue culture organ regeneration from dgt hypocotyl explants showed reduced sensitivity to auxin but normal sensitivity to cytokinin, and the effects of cytokinin and the mutation were again additive. However, although callus induction from dgt hypocotyl explants required auxin and cytokinin, dgt calli did not show the typical concentration-dependent stimulation of growth by either auxin or cytokinin observed in wild-type cells. Cross-resistance of the dgt mutant to cytokinin thus was found to be limited to a small subset of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated growth processes affected by the dgt mutation, indicating that auxin and cytokinin regulate plant growth through both shared and separate signaling pathways.

  15. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation.

  16. Vanillin differentially affects azoxymethane-injected rat colon carcinogenesis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.

  17. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable.

  18. Brivaracetam Differentially Affects Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents Without Impairing Sustained Repetitive Firing in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niespodziany, Isabelle; André, Véronique Marie; Leclère, Nathalie; Hanon, Etienne; Ghisdal, Philippe; Wolff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Brivaracetam (BRV) is an antiepileptic drug in Phase III clinical development. BRV binds to synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein and is also suggested to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). To evaluate whether the effect of BRV on VGSCs represents a relevant mechanism participating in its antiepileptic properties, we explored the pharmacology of BRV on VGSCs in different cell systems and tested its efficacy at reducing the sustained repetitive firing (SRF). Methods Brivaracetam investigations on the voltage-gated sodium current (INa) were performed in N1E-155 neuroblastoma cells, cultured rat cortical neurons, and adult mouse CA1 neurons. SRF was measured in cultured cortical neurons and in CA1 neurons. All BRV (100–300 μM) experiments were performed in comparison with 100 μM carbamazepine (CBZ). Results Brivaracetam and CBZ reduced INa in N1E-115 cells (30% and 40%, respectively) and primary cortical neurons (21% and 47%, respectively) by modulating the fast-inactivated state of VGSCs. BRV, in contrast to CBZ, did not affect INa in CA1 neurons and SRF in cortical and CA1 neurons. CBZ consistently inhibited neuronal SRF by 75–93%. Conclusions The lack of effect of BRV on SRF in neurons suggests that the reported inhibition of BRV on VGSC currents does not contribute to its antiepileptic properties. PMID:25444522

  19. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  20. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans.

  1. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.

  2. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

  3. Neurohormonal aspects of sexual drive in women

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Mazurkevich; T. A. Firsova

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a modern view on women,s sexual health. The reasons for the modern sexual revolution are explained. Various aspects and functional features of the body affecting the quality of sexual life of women are examined. The classification of female sexual disorders is presented. Influence of psychosocial factors on female sexual drive, as well as the role of sex steroids in the coordination of the anatomical and functional relationships of structures responsible for sexual functi...

  4. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  5. Dimorfismo sexual en el acebo, Ilex aquifolium: ¿coste de la reproducción, selección sexual o diferenciación fisiológica? Sexual dimorphism in holly Ilex aquifolium: cost of reproduction, sexual selection or physiological differentiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ RAMÓN OBESO

    2002-03-01

    (Aquifoliaceae: cost of reproduction, sexual selection (pollen competition and physiological differentiation between sexes. Here we present both published and new experimental and observational results. At flowering, males allocated more in reproduction than females; however at fruiting females allocated about ten times more in terms of carbon and about five times more in terms of nitrogen than males. Both sexes did not differ in leaf dynamics. Branch RGR usually showed greater values in male branches, but the results depended on the ecological context. Tree growth rate, estimated from mean width of annual rings over 10-30 yr, was significantly higher for males. Experimental debbuding in reproductive branches of females accounted for an increase in RGR compared to branches that matured fruits. When competition among males was examined, there were significant differences among male trees in pollen production per flower. The experimental crossing of five males and five females demonstrated strong maternal effects on fecundity, while non significant differences among males were found in their probability of sire progeny. There were some physiological differences between sexes. The efficiency of photosynthesis of leaves (measured as Fv' / Fm' on nonfruiting branches of females was higher than for leaves on branches of male trees under low-light conditions. On the other side, the water-use efficiency, measured by carbon isotope discrimination, was greater in males under xeric conditions. These results are used to discuss the importance of the above mentioned hypothesis

  6. Factors Associated with the Sexual Experiences of Underprivileged Mexican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, Raquel; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents.…

  7. Glutamine synthetase I-deficiency in Mesorhizobium loti differentially affects nodule development and activity in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Thapanapongworakul, Pilunthana; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Van Dao, Tan; Asahi, Toshimasa; Tada, Kuninao; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Mika

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the effect of glutamine synthetase (GSI) activity in Mesorhizobium loti on the symbiosis between the host plant, Lotus japonicus, and the bacteroids. We used a signature-tagged mutant of M. loti (STM30) with a transposon inserted into the GSI (mll0343) gene. The L. japonicus plants inoculated with STM30 had significantly more nodules, and the occurrence of senesced nodules was much higher than in plants inoculated with the wild-type. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per nodule inoculated with STM30 was lowered compared to the control. Also, the concentration of chlorophyll, glutamine, and asparagine in leaves of STM30-infected plants was found to be reduced. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a GSI deficiency in M. loti differentially affects legume-rhizobia symbiosis by modifying nodule development and metabolic processes.

  8. IL-10 conditioning of human skin affects the distribution of migratory dendritic cell subsets and functional T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Jelle J; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Sombroek, Claudia C; Lougheed, Sinéad M; Hooijberg, Erik; Stam, Anita G M; Santegoets, Saskia J A M; Tijssen, Henk J; Buter, Jan; Pinedo, Herbert M; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Scheper, Rik J; Koenen, Hans J P M; van de Ven, Rieneke; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2013-01-01

    In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC) and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14(+)CD141(+)DC-SIGN(+) DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a(+) subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells, migration of immature CD14(+) DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance.

  9. IL-10 conditioning of human skin affects the distribution of migratory dendritic cell subsets and functional T cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle J Lindenberg

    Full Text Available In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14(+CD141(+DC-SIGN(+ DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a(+ subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8(+ T cells, migration of immature CD14(+ DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance.

  10. Melatonin-receptor-1-deficiency affects neurogenic differentiation factor immunoreaction in pancreatic islets and enteroendocrine cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalabi, Andree; Fischer, Claudia; Korf, Horst-Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2013-09-01

    Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of neurons and in the control of energy balance and metabolism. It plays a key role in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Melatonin is an important rhythmic endocrine signal within the circadian system of mammals and modulates insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. In the mouse pars tuberalis, NeuroD mRNA levels show day/night variation, which is independent of the molecular clock gene mPER1 but depends on the functional melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). So far, little is known about the effect of melatonin on NeuroD synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, NeuroD protein levels and cellular localization were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in pancreatic islets and duodenal enteroendocrine cells of MT1- and mPER1-deficienct mice. In addition, the localization of NeuroD-positive cells was analyzed by double-immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. In duodenal enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic islets of WT and PER1-deficient mice, NeuroD immunoreaction showed a peak during the early subjective night. In contrast, this peak was absent in MT1-deficent mice. These data suggest that melatonin, by acting on MT1 receptors, affects NeuroD expression in the gastrointestinal tract and thus might contribute to circadian regulation in metabolic functions.

  11. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  12. Implicit and Explicit Sexual Attitudes: How Are They Related to Sexual Desire and Sexual Satisfaction in Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Alessandra; Belayachi, Sanaâ; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-01-01

    This article examines individual variability in sexual desire and sexual satisfaction by exploring the relation between these sexual aspects and sexual attitudes (implicit and explicit) and by taking gender into account, as this has been shown to be an influential factor. A total of 28 men and 33 women living in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual satisfaction, and explicit sexual attitudes. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was used to assess implicit sexual attitudes. Results showed higher levels of dyadic and solitary sexual desire in men than in women. No gender differences were found regarding sexual satisfaction or sexual attitudes. High dyadic sexual desire was associated with positive implicit and explicit sexual attitudes, regardless of gender. However, solitary sexual desire was significantly higher in men than women and was associated, in women only, with positive implicit sexual attitudes, suggesting that solitary sexual desire may fulfill different functions in men and women. Finally, sexual satisfaction depended on the combination of explicit and implicit sexual attitudes in both men and women. This study highlights the importance of considering both implicit and explicit sexual attitudes to better understand the mechanisms underlying individual variability in sexual desire and satisfaction.

  13. Genomic organization and splicing evolution of the doublesex gene, a Drosophila regulator of sexual differentiation, in the dengue and yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

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    Arcà Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, doublesex (dsx is the double-switch gene at the bottom of the somatic sex determination cascade that determines the differentiation of sexually dimorphic traits. Homologues of dsx are functionally conserved in various dipteran species, including the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. They show a striking conservation of sex-specific regulation, based on alternative splicing, and of the encoded sex-specific proteins, which are transcriptional regulators of downstream terminal genes that influence sexual differentiation of cells, tissues and organs. Results In this work, we report on the molecular characterization of the dsx homologue in the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Aeadsx. Aeadsx produces sex-specific transcripts by alternative splicing, which encode isoforms with a high degree of identity to Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster homologues. Interestingly, Aeadsx produces an additional novel female-specific splicing variant. Genomic comparative analyses between the Aedes and Anopheles dsx genes revealed a partial conservation of the exon organization and extensive divergence in the intron lengths. An expression analysis showed that Aeadsx transcripts were present from early stages of development and that sex-specific regulation starts at least from late larval stages. The analysis of the female-specific untranslated region (UTR led to the identification of putative regulatory cis-elements potentially involved in the sex-specific splicing regulation. The Aedes dsx sex-specific splicing regulation seems to be more complex with the respect of other dipteran species, suggesting slightly novel evolutionary trajectories for its regulation and hence for the recruitment of upstream splicing regulators. Conclusions This study led to uncover the molecular evolution of Aedes aegypti dsx splicing regulation with the respect of the more closely related Culicidae

  14. Hypoxic preconditioning differentially affects GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal cells in the injured cerebellum of the neonatal rat.

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    Sergio G Benitez

    Full Text Available In this study we examined cerebellar alterations in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with or without hypoxic preconditioning (Pc. Between postnatal days 7 and 15, the cerebellum is still undergoing intense cellular proliferation, differentiation and migration, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67 and the differentiation factor NeuroD1 were examined as markers of Purkinje and granule cells, respectively. We applied quantitative immunohistochemistry to sagittal cerebellar slices, and Western blot analysis of whole cerebella obtained from control (C rats and rats submitted to Pc, hypoxia-ischemia (L and a combination of both treatments (PcL. We found that either hypoxia-ischemia or Pc perturbed the granule cells in the posterior lobes, affecting their migration and final placement in the internal granular layer. These effects were partially attenuated when the Pc was delivered prior to the hypoxia-ischemia. Interestingly, whole nuclear NeuroD1 levels in Pc animals were comparable to those in the C rats. However, a subset of Purkinje cells that were severely affected by the hypoxic-ischemic insult--showing signs of neuronal distress at the levels of the nucleus, cytoplasm and dendritic arborization--were not protected by Pc. A monoclonal antibody specific for GAD67 revealed a three-band pattern in cytoplasmic extracts from whole P15 cerebella. A ∼110 kDa band, interpreted as a potential homodimer of a truncated form of GAD67, was reduced in Pc and L groups while its levels were close to the control animals in PcL rats. Additionally we demonstrated differential glial responses depending on the treatment, including astrogliosis in hypoxiated cerebella and a selective effect of hypoxia-ischemia on the vimentin-immunolabeled intermediate filaments of the Bergmann glia. Thus, while both glutamatergic and GABAergic cerebellar neurons are compromised by the hypoxic-ischemic insult

  15. The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2013-08-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.

  16. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  17. What Really Matters in Family Communication about Sexuality? A Qualitative Analysis of Affect and Style among African American Mothers and Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, Erika I.; Kuriloff, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The family--via communication (or lack thereof)--is a primary avenue for sexuality education. While most research on family sexuality communication has examined the content of parent-child communication (e.g. topics discussed), relatively few studies have assessed the process, the way in which communication occurs. This paper presents an analysis…

  18. A French Translation of the Pleasure Arousal Dominance (PAD Semantic Differential Scale for the Measure of Affect and Drive

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    Sandrine Detandt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate studies have repeatedly confirmed that three basic dimensions of human emotional behavior, called 'pleasure' (P, 'arousal' (A and 'dominance '(D are persistent in organizing human judgments for a wide range of perceptual and symbolic stimuli. The Mehrabian and Russell’s PAD semantic differential scale is a well-established tool to measure these categories, but no standardized French translation is available for research. The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the PAD. For this purpose, (1 Mehrabian and Russell’s PAD was trans- lated through a process of translations and back-translations and (2 this French PAD was tested in a population of 111 French-speaking adults on 21 images of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor structure; the French PAD also distributed the images in the affective space according to the expected boomerang-shape. The present version of PAD is thus a valid French translation of Mehrabian and Russell’s original PAD.

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse

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    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  20. Sexual differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans: the requirement for manganese and the correlation between phosphoglucomutase and the synthesis of reserve material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, B J

    1975-10-27

    Aspergillus nidulans was completely devoid of fruit bodies when grown on manganese deficient cultures. This result was shown earlier to be due to a lack of alpha-1,3 glucan in the cell wall. Several enzymes of carbon and nitrogen metabolism were investigated in an attempt to explain the absence of this reserve material. Synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase, were not strongly affected by manganese deficiency. However, phosphoglucomutase showed only 60% of the activity of the control cultures and it was argued that this was connected with the low amounts of alpha-1,3 glucan synthesized. Malate dehydrogenase was the enzyme the least affected by manganese deficiency and the two to threefold higher activity measured after glucose depletion might indicate the induction of the glyoxylate cycle. An impaired glutamine synthetase could explain the increase in activity observed for NAD-glutamine dehydrogenase.

  1. Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is sexually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusmano, Danielle M; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Mong, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids.

  2. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  3. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzichi, L; Giacomelli, C; Rossi, A; Sernissi, F; Scarpellini, P; Consensi, A; Bombardieri, S

    2012-09-28

    The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012) and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM) and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients' life.

  4. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ikeda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  5. The Role of Sexual Assault and Sexual Dysfunction in Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuan, Pilar M.; Langenbucher, James W.; Labouvie, Erich [UNIFESP

    2006-01-01

    Many women with sexual assault histories receive care in alcohol and other drug treatment programs. Affected women frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction, leading investigators to suggest self-medication may be one path to alcohol and other drug use disorders and relapse. This preliminary study examined sexual dysfunction and sexual assault in 71 women receiving treatment for addiction. Women with prior sexual assault scored higher than non-assaulted women on sexual dysfunction overall, a ...

  6. PRENATAL HYPOXIA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EMBRYOGENESIS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS CELL MIGRATION, NEURONAL PLASTICITY AND RAT BEHAVIOR IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

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    Dmitrii S Vasilev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5’ethynyl-2’deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns

  7. Evaluation of the effects of ethinylestradiol on sexual differentiation in the olvas-GFP/STII-YI medaka (transgenic Oryzias latipes) strain as estimated by proliferative activity of germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hano, Takeshi [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-17-5 Maruishi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452 (Japan); Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Oshima, Yuji, E-mail: yoshima@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kinoshita, Masato [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Minoru [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics for Reproduction, National Institute for Basic Biology, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 Aichi (Japan); Mishima, Noriko; Wakamatsu, Yuko; Ozato, Kenjiro [Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Stocks, Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Shimasaki, Yohei; Honjo, Tsuneo [Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    We evaluated the effects of 17(-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) on sexual differentiation in transgenic olvas-GFP/STII-YI medaka (Oryzias latipes) in terms of the proliferative activity of germ cells. This strain contains the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the regulatory region of the medaka vasa gene, and germ cell-specific expression of GFP can be visualized in living (transparent) individuals. From 0 days post-hatch (0 dph) onwards, juveniles were exposed to graded concentrations of EE{sub 2} (25.2-1710 ng/L) for 35 days. The gonads of live specimens were monitored by measuring their size and calculating their GFP-fluorescence area. GFP-fluorescent area in control females was about 10 times that in control males at 10 days posthatch (dph) whereas the gonadal size of 10 dph males that had been exposed to 158 ng/L of EE{sub 2} significantly increased up to twice the size of control males, indicating that abnormal sexual differentiation towards female might occur in these individuals. Histological examination and identification of the sex-linked marker SL1 indicated that male to female sex reversal occurred at EE{sub 2} exposure {>=}45.1 ng/L at 35 dph. These results suggest that observation of proliferative activity of germ cells in the olvas-GFP/STII-YI strain could be applied to facilitated screening fish model to detect adverse effects on sexual differentiation as early as 10 dph juveniles.

  8. The Langerhans islet cells of female rabbits are differentially affected by hypothyroidism depending on the islet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Morimoto, S; Cuevas, E

    2015-04-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin levels are controversial, and its impact on the Langerhans islet morphology of adult subjects has been poorly addressed. In spite of hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus are more frequent in females than in males, most studies using animal models have been done in males. The effect of hypothyroidism on the immunolabeling of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) of islet cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin concentrations, morphometry of islets, and immunostaining of TRs α1-2 and β1 and TSHR of islet cells in female rabbits. Control and hypothyroid (0.02% of methimazole for 30 days) animals were used to quantify blood levels of glucose and insulin, density of islets, cross-sectional area (CSA) of islets, number of cells per islet, cell proliferation, and the immunolabeling of TRs α1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR. Student's t or Mann-Whitney-U tests, two-way ANOVAs, and Fischer's tests were applied. Concentrations of glucose and insulin, as well as the insulin resistance were similar between groups. Hypothyroidism did not affect the density or the CSA of islets. The analysis of islets by size showed that hypothyroidism reduced the cell number in large and medium islets, but not in small ones. In small islets, cell proliferation was increased. The immunoreactivity of TRα1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR was increased by hypothyroidism in all islet sizes. Our results show that hypothyroidism affects differentially the islet cells depending on the size of islets.

  9. True or false? Memory is differentially affected by stress-induced cortisol elevations and sympathetic activity at consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Otgaar, Henry; Candel, Ingrid; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-11-01

    Adrenal stress hormones released in response to acute stress may yield memory-enhancing effects when released post-learning and impairing effects at memory retrieval, especially for emotional memory material. However, so far these differential effects of stress hormones on the various memory phases for neutral and emotional memory material have not been demonstrated within one experiment. This study investigated whether, in line with their effects on true memory, stress and stress-induced adrenal stress hormones affect the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of emotional and neutral false memories. Participants (N=90) were exposed to a stressor before encoding, during consolidation, before retrieval, or were not stressed and then were subjected to neutral and emotional versions of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott word list learning paradigm. Twenty-four hours later, recall of presented words (true recall) and non-presented critical lure words (false recall) was assessed. Results show that stress exposure resulted in superior true memory performance in the consolidation stress group and reduced true memory performance in the retrieval stress group compared to the other groups, predominantly for emotional words. These memory-enhancing and memory-impairing effects were strongly related to stress-induced cortisol and sympathetic activity measured via salivary alpha-amylase levels. Neutral and emotional false recall, on the other hand, was neither affected by stress exposure, nor related to cortisol and sympathetic activity following stress. These results demonstrate the importance of stress-induced hormone-related activity in enhancing memory consolidation and in impairing memory retrieval, in particular for emotional memory material.

  10. Charge and geometry of residues in the loop 2 β hairpin differentially affect agonist and ethanol sensitivity in glycine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daya I; Trudell, James R; Asatryan, Liana; Davies, Daryl L; Alkana, Ronald L

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies highlighted the importance of loop 2 of α1 glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the propagation of ligand-binding energy to the channel gate. Mutations that changed polarity at position 52 in the β hairpin of loop 2 significantly affected sensitivity to ethanol. The present study extends the investigation to charged residues. We found that substituting alanine with the negative glutamate at position 52 (A52E) significantly left-shifted the glycine concentration response curve and increased sensitivity to ethanol, whereas the negative aspartate substitution (A52D) significantly right-shifted the glycine EC₅₀ but did not affect ethanol sensitivity. It is noteworthy that the uncharged glutamine at position 52 (A52Q) caused only a small right shift of the glycine EC₅₀ while increasing ethanol sensitivity as much as A52E. In contrast, the shorter uncharged asparagine (A52N) caused the greatest right shift of glycine EC₅₀ and reduced ethanol sensitivity to half of wild type. Collectively, these findings suggest that charge interactions determined by the specific geometry of the amino acid at position 52 (e.g., the 1-Å chain length difference between aspartate and glutamate) play differential roles in receptor sensitivity to agonist and ethanol. We interpret these results in terms of a new homology model of GlyR based on a prokaryotic ion channel and propose that these mutations form salt bridges to residues across the β hairpin (A52E-R59 and A52N-D57). We hypothesize that these electrostatic interactions distort loop 2, thereby changing agonist activation and ethanol modulation. This knowledge will help to define the key physical-chemical parameters that cause the actions of ethanol in GlyRs.

  11. Abuso sexual e sociometria: um estudo dos vínculos afetivos em famílias incestuosas Abuso sexual y sociometría: un estudio de los vínculos afectivos en familias incestuosas Sexual abuse and sociometry: a study of affective bonds in incestuous families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delane Pessoa Matias

    2006-08-01

    en las familias incestuosas posibilita intervenciones terapéuticas más eficaces para el rescate de esas relaciones, esenciales a la convivencia de los individuos en el grupo familiar.The study described in this article had the purpose of studying the affective bonds in families where incestuous relations occurred. Two families attended by Núcleo de Combate à Violência e Exploração Sexual - da Secretaria de Ação Social do Estado do Ceará, a center of combat to violence and sexual abuse supported by the Secretariat of Social Action of the state were studied. The victims were females, one of them 07 years old and the other 14 years old, both sexually abused by the father and stepfather, respectively. The means for data collection was a sociometric test, which studies the social structures, through choices and rejections that occur within human groups. The results show the sociometric structure of the groups, as well as, the social status occupied by the participants. The analysis of data indicated that the victims show reduction of self-esteem and perception deficits. The study concludes that, the deep knowledge of the affective bonds within incestuous families allow more efficient therapeutics interventions, in order to recover the relations, considered essential to the coexistence of the individuals in the family group.

  12. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  13. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Zakharova, Anna N.; Kabachkova, Anastasia V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  14. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

  15. Mango Fruit Extracts Differentially Affect Proliferation and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Wong Taing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of human cancer cell proliferation is a common approach in identifying plant extracts that have potential bioactive effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanolic extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars, Irwin (IW, Nam Doc Mai (NDM, and Kensington Pride (KP, differentially affect proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I signalling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Mango flesh extracts from all three cultivars did not inhibit cell growth, and of the peel extracts only NDM reduced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Mango cultivar peel and flesh extracts did not significantly change ERK phosphorylation compared to controls; however, some reduced relative maximal peak [Ca2+]I after adenosine triphosphate stimulation, with NDM peel extract having the greatest effect among the treatments. Our results identify mango interfruit and intrafruit (peel and flesh extract variability in antiproliferative effects and [Ca2+]I signalling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and highlight that parts of the fruit (such as peel and flesh and cultivar differences are important factors to consider when assessing potential chemopreventive bioactive compounds in plants extracts.

  16. Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Nils; Yiğit, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

    2013-03-01

    Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system.

  17. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A;

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc......INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  18. Motivations and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of sexuality professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public.

  19. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  20. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-08-31

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity.

  1. Drosophila insulin-producing cells are differentially modulated by serotonin and octopamine receptors and affect social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangnan Luo

    Full Text Available A set of 14 insulin-producing cells (IPCs in the Drosophila brain produces three insulin-like peptides (DILP2, 3 and 5. Activity in IPCs and release of DILPs is nutrient dependent and controlled by multiple factors such as fat body-derived proteins, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides. Two monoamine receptors, the octopamine receptor OAMB and the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A, are expressed by the IPCs. These receptors may act antagonistically on adenylate cyclase. Here we investigate the action of the two receptors on activity in and output from the IPCs. Knockdown of OAMB by targeted RNAi led to elevated Dilp3 transcript levels in the brain, whereas 5-HT1A knockdown resulted in increases of Dilp2 and 5. OAMB-RNAi in IPCs leads to extended survival of starved flies and increased food intake, whereas 5-HT1A-RNAi produces the opposite phenotypes. However, knockdown of either OAMB or 5-HT1A in IPCs both lead to increased resistance to oxidative stress. In assays of carbohydrate levels we found that 5-HT1A knockdown in IPCs resulted in elevated hemolymph glucose, body glycogen and body trehalose levels, while no effects were seen after OAMB knockdown. We also found that manipulations of the two receptors in IPCs affected male aggressive behavior in different ways and 5-HT1A-RNAi reduced courtship latency. Our observations suggest that activation of 5-HT1A and OAMB signaling in IPCs generates differential effects on Dilp transcription, fly physiology, metabolism and social interactions. However the findings do not support an antagonistic action of the two monoamines and their receptors in this particular system.

  2. Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups' neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal.

  3. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 ... men (5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  4. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment.

  5. Sexual dysfunction with antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisant, L M; Carr, A A; Bottini, P B; Solursh, D S; Solursh, L P

    1994-04-11

    The relationship of antihypertensive drugs have a long history of association with sexual dysfunction; however, this relationship is poorly documented. There appears to be a higher rate of sexual dysfunction in untreated hypertensive men compared with normotensive men. Sexual dysfunction increases with age and is associated with physical and emotional symptoms. There are few studies assessing sexual dysfunction with female and African-American hypertensive patients. Sexual dysfunction is associated with impairment of quality of life and noncompliance. Since group data may hide individual drug effects, baseline data should be collected on all patients before initiating therapy with any antihypertensive agent. Although questionnaires may not provide objective information on sexual dysfunction, the response rate to direct questioning may be less than the response rate on a questionnaire and may be affected by the gender or race of the interviewer. Research protocols using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design should assess sexual dysfunction in men and women in a standardized fashion.

  6. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 differentially affect osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Bastidas-Coral; A.D. Bakker; B. Zandieh-Doulabi; C.J. Kleverlaan; N. Bravenboer; T. Forouzanfar; J. Klein-Nulend

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we i

  7. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  8. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  9. Healthy Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction, or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to ... women’s response intertwines both her physical and emotional sexual drive. This would explain how women can start, or be receptive to, a sexual ...

  10. Attitudes of teenagers towards sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Anes, Eugénia; Sousa, Filomena; Fernandes, Adília; Mata, Maria Augusta; Sousa, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The area of sexuality is seen as very relevant at any stage of life, but with speciic characteristics in adolescence. Attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and values related to sexuality in the life cycle stage, are factors that can inluence the health of adolescents, affecting the integrity of the various levels of functionality. To know the attitudes of teenagers towards sexuality and analyze its relationship with gender and religion. It is a study of quantitative approach, obser...

  11. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes.

  12. The use of differential scintigraphy in the clinical diagnosis of osseous and soft tissue changes affecting the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.; Jacobs, A.M.; Oloff, L.; Drago, J.J.

    Prompt recognition of cellulitis, osteomyelitis, diabetic osteolysis, Charcot neuroarthropathy, septic synovitis, and deep plantar abscesses in the diabetic foot is essential because the therapy is drastically different. Differential diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by recently developed scanning techniques.

  13. Influence of ERβ selective agonism during the neonatal period on the sexual differentiation of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patisaul Heather B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that sexual differentiation of the rodent hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is principally orchestrated by estrogen during the perinatal period. Here we sought to better characterize the mechanistic role the beta form of the estrogen receptor (ERβ plays in this process. Methods To achieve this, we exposed neonatal female rats to three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg of the ERβ selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN using estradiol benzoate (EB as a positive control. Measures included day of vaginal opening, estrous cycle quality, GnRH and Fos co-localization following ovariectomy and hormone priming, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH levels and quantification of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity. A second set of females was then neonatally exposed to DPN, the ERα agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT, DPN+PPT, or EB to compare the impact of ERα and ERβ selective agonism on kisspeptin gene expression in pre- and post-pubescent females. Results All three DPN doses significantly advanced the day of vaginal opening and induced premature anestrus. GnRH and Fos co-labeling, a marker of GnRH activation, following ovariectomy and hormone priming was reduced by approximately half at all doses; the magnitude of which was not as large as with EB or what we have previously observed with the ERα agonist PPT. LH levels were also correspondingly lower, compared to control females. No impact of DPN was observed on the density of kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir fibers or cell bodies in the arcuate (ARC nucleus, and kisspeptin-ir was only significantly reduced by the middle (1 mg/kg DPN dose in the preoptic region. The second experiment revealed that EB, PPT and the combination of DPN+PPT significantly abrogated preoptic Kiss1 expression at both ages but ARC expression was only reduced by EB. Conclusion Our results indicate that selective agonism of ERβ is not sufficient to completely achieve male

  14. Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation

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    Power Deborah M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DAX1 (NR0B1, a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study aimed at characterizing the European DAX1 gene and its developmental expression at the mRNA level. Methods A full length European sea bass DAX1 cDNA (sbDAX1 was isolated by screening a testis cDNA library. The structure of the DAX1 gene was determined by PCR and Southern blot. Multisequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis were used to compare the translated sbDAX1 product to that of other vertebrates. sbDAX1 expression was analysed by Northern blot and relative RT-PCR in adult tissues. Developmental expression of mRNA levels was analysed in groups of larvae grown either at 15°C or 20°C (masculinising temperature during the first 60 days, or two groups of fish selected for fast (mostly females and slow growth. Results The sbDAX1 is expressed as a single transcript in testis and ovary encoding a predicted protein of 301 amino acids. A polyglutamine stretch of variable length in different DAX1 proteins is present in the DNA binding domain. The sbDAX1 gene is composed of two exons, separated by a single 283 bp intron with conserved splice sites in same region of the ligand binding domain as other DAX1 genes. sbDAX1 mRNA is not restricted to the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis and is also detected in the gut, heart, gills, muscle and kidney. sbDAX1 mRNA was detected as early as 4 days post hatching (dph and expression was not affected by incubation temperature. Throughout gonadal sex differentiation (60–300 dph no dimorphic pattern of expression was observed. Conclusion The sbDAX1 gene and putative protein coding region is highly conserved

  15. Constructions and Negotiations of Sexuality in Canadian Federal Men's Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rose; Grills, Sylvia; Craig, Ailsa

    2016-12-01

    Nuances lacing the organization of sexuality across cultures and contexts shape sexual behavior and identity. In this article, the culture and understandings of sexual identity and behavior in Canadian men's federal prisons are examined to reveal how prisoners construct and interpret their own sexuality, as well as that of others, within the heteronormative prison space. Drawing from interviews with formerly incarcerated men, we explore how sexuality constitutes a product of dominant cultural discourses that differentiates between sexual behavior and identity. We frame how sexuality is constructed and regulated in prison within the theoretical context of shame and stigmatization, finding definitions of heterosexuality that do not preclude same-sex sexual activity.

  16. Sexual intercourse and cerebral aneurysmal rupture: potential mechanisms and precipitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Willie, Jon T; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dacey, Ralph G

    2011-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant cause of death in young and middle-aged individuals and causes tremendous morbidity in affected patients. Despite the identification of various risk factors, the series of events leading to the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms is poorly understood. Cerebral aneurysm rupture has been associated with sexual intercourse and other forms of physical exercise. In fact, multiple case series reported that coitus was the immediate preceding activity in 3.8-14.5% of patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH. This may be related to the large elevations in mean arterial blood pressure that occur in both males and females during sexual intercourse (130-175 and 125-160 mm Hg, respectively). While coitus and physical exercise share important physiological similarities, each may differentially affect the probability that a preformed aneurysm will rupture. In this literature review and synthesis, the authors analyze the physiological human response to sexual intercourse in an effort to delineate those factors that may precipitate aneurysmal rupture. The authors' analysis is based on the original data collected by Masters and Johnson. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review to address the link between sexual intercourse and intracranial aneurysmal rupture. While actual measurements of the physiological variables relevant to SAH were not performed in this article, the authors make reasonable assumptions based on the available data to help elucidate the mechanism of sexually induced aneurysmal rupture.

  17. Convivendo com a diferença: o impacto da sorodiscordância na vida afetivo-sexual de portadores do HIV/AIDS Conviviendo con la diferencia: el impacto de la serodiscordancia en la vida afectiva-sexual de portadores del VIH/SIDA Living with the difference: the impact of serodiscordance on the affective and sexual life of HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karina Reis

    2010-09-01

    en altera-ciones de la respuesta sexual humana y favoreciendo hasta la propia abstinencia sexual. Se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de atención por parte de equipos interdisciplinarios para los portadores de HIB/aids y también de sus parejas, a fin de proporcionarles asistencia integral, contemplando la sexualidad y las dificultades derivadas de la serodiscordancia.The purpose of this descriptive-exploratory qualitative study was to describe and analyze the impact of serodiscordance on the affective-sexual life of HIV/AIDS patients who have HIV seronegative heterosexual partners. Eleven HIV/AIDS carriers in outpatient clinic follow-up were interviewed, in a reference university-hospital in the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through recorded individual interviews and analyzed according to Prose analysis. Living with HIV/AIDS serodiscordance implies these couples have to deal with several intimacy-related difficulties, due to the possibility of HIV transmission to the seronegative partner. This has a negative effect on serodiscordant partners, reflecting in chan-ges in human sexual response, which could lead to sexual abstinence. Interdisciplinary care should be provided to HIV/AIDS carriers and their partners, thus providing comprehensive care regarding their sexuality and difficulties caused by serodiscordance.

  18. A VIOLAÇÃO DO PRINCÍPIO DA AFETIVIDADE EM FUNÇÃO DA ORIENTAÇÃO SEXUAL DA CRIANÇA E DO ADOLESCENTE / THE VIOLATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF AFFECTIVITY DUE TO CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ SEXUAL ORIENTATION

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    Gilsilene Passon Picoretti Francischetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to discuss the matter of affective abandonment of children and adolescents due to their sexual orientation. Firstly, it will underline the influence of moral and religious speeches upon the formation of society’s thinking, which includes the likely sexist and homophobic human behavior that might arise. Also, it will clarify some basic concepts that will help the reader to comprehend questions related to sexuality and gender. Furthermore, in order to understand the relevance of certain rights, the juridical concepts of child and adolescent shall be highlithed, as well as the main legal guarantees of these individuals, which are laid down on both the Child and Adolescent Statute and the current Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil. After this, it will emphasize the indispensability of human dignity among any family environment as an element which plays a major role towards the foundation of a harmonic society. Finally, the article will focus on the matter of affective abandonment due to one’s sexual orientation. The discussion will be geared by the intention of showing all the emotional damage that might be caused to a neglected child or adolescent’s life, specially when parents are the ones to blame.

  19. Clinical features and sociodemographic factors affecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending a central sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Sri Lanka

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    Sumadhya D Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is a relatively neglected area of research in Sri Lanka. Given the number of infections observed, an analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of patients would be valuable in prevention. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 359 newly registered women at a tertiary level sexually transmitted diseases clinic over a period of 18 months. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by culture of vaginal swabs collected from the posterior fornix. Results: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the sample was 7.2%. Of those who tested positive for trichomoniasis, 76% were in the age group of 21-45 years, 68% were married and living with a spouse and 60% were unemployed. A diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was associated with being married (OR, 1.6; CI, 0.56-4.41, age over 33 years (OR=1.3, CI, 0.55-2.9, being employed (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.56 - 2.94, having an education of less than ten years at school (OR, 3.0; CI 1.28-7.26 and not using condoms during the last sexual act (OR 2.0, CI 0.84-4.86. The risk was less among commercial sex workers (OR, 0.3, CI: 0.14-0.85, those with multiple sexual partners (OR, 0.2; CI; 0.073-0.408 and women reporting extramarital sexual relationships (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.128-0.733. Conclusions: Education on safe sex and recognition of symptoms is currently targeted at high risk groups such as commercial sex workers. Extending these programmes to the rest of the community will further reduce the risk of transmission of trichomonas.

  20. Do sexual e do coletivo

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    Cristina Mair Barros Rauter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of contemporary sexuality and subjectivity production, from a point of view that links sexuality to collectiveness and to the political processes that obstacle its expression. This perspective has psychopathological and political consequences, affecting also the capacity of producing social change in contemporary society

  1. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

  2. Drug addiction and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaazaa, Adham; Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany

    2013-09-01

    This article attempts to review the most current and the well-established facts concerning drug addiction and sexual dysfunction. Surprisingly, even though alcohol is prevalent in many societies with many myths surrounding its sexual-enhancing effects, current scientific research cannot provide a solid conclusion on its effect on sexual function. Unfortunately, the same concept applies to tobacco smoking; however, most of the current knowledge tends to support the notion that it, indeed, can negatively affect sexual function. Similar ambiguities also prevail with substances of abuse.

  3. Association Between Sexual Health and Delivery Mode

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    Mihyon Song, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that routine episiotomies at delivery should be avoided to improve postpartum maternal sexual function. Maternal age and cesarean section were found to affect postpartum sexual health. Song M, Ishii H, Toda M, Tomimatsu T, Katsuyama H, Nakamura T, Nakai Y, and Shimoya K. Association between sexual health and delivery mode. Sex Med 2014;2:153–158.

  4. Primary root protophloem differentiation requires balanced phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels and systemically affects root branching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Villalon, A.; Gujas, B.; van Wijk, R.; Munnik, T.; Hardtke, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Protophloem is a specialized vascular tissue in growing plant organs, such as root meristems. In Arabidopsis mutants with impaired primary root protophloem differentiation, brevis radix (brx) and octopus (ops), meristematic activity and consequently overall root growth are strongly reduced. Second s

  5. The relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem and its components

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...

  6. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, is related to neurophysiological responses elicited by sexual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn R. Steele

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior (downregulation of sexual desire or to engage with a romantic partner (upregulation of sexual desire. Some have suggested that those who have difficulty downregulating their sexual desires be diagnosed as having a sexual “addiction”. This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges that feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and poor ability to reduce those behaviors. However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear. If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P300 amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Methods: Fifty-two (13 female individuals who self-identified as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional (pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant photographs while electroencephalography was collected. Results: Larger P300 amplitude differences to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Conclusion: Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed.

  7. Different patterns of amygdala priming differentially affect dentate gyrus plasticity and corticosterone, but not CA1 plasticity.

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    Rose-Marie eVouimba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced activation of the amygdala is involved in the modulation of memory processes in the hippocampus. However, stress effects on amygdala and memory remain complex. The activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA was found to modulate plasticity in other brain areas, including the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated a differential effect of BLA priming on LTP in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG. While BLA priming suppressed long term potentiation (LTP in CA1, it was found to enhance it in the DG. However, since the amygdala itself is amenable to experience-induced plasticity it is thus conceivable that when activity within the amygdala is modified this will have impact on the way the amygdala modulates activity and plasticity in other brain areas. In the current study we examined the effects of different patterns of BLA activation on the modulation of LTP in the DG and CA1, as well as on serum corticosterone (CORT. In CA1, BLA priming impaired LTP induction as was reported before. In contrast, in the DG, varying BLA stimulation intensity and frequency resulted in differential effects on LTP, ranging from no effect to strong impairment or enhancement. Varying BLA stimulation patterns resulted in also differential alterations in Serum CORT, leading to higher CORT levels being positively correlated with LTP magnitude in DG but not in CA1.The results support the notion of a differential role for the DG in aspects of memory, and add to this view the possibility that DG-associated aspects of memory will be enhanced under more emotional or stressful conditions. It is interesting to think of BLA patterns of activation and the differential levels of circulating CORT as two arms of the emotional and stress response that attempt to synchronize brain activity to best meet the challenge. It is foreseeable to think of abnormal such synchronization under extreme conditions, which would lead to the development of maladaptive behavior.

  8. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity.

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    Jonathan Durkin

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α, RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2, ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt. A PCR-probe (39F/R amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1-5 minisatellites with 1-12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported.

  9. HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Pasquinelli Gianandrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection elicits the onset of a progressive immunodeficiency and also damages several other organs and tissues such as the CNS, kidney, heart, blood vessels, adipose tissue and bone. In particular, HIV infection has been related to an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and derangement in the structure of blood vessels in the absence of classical risk factors. The recent characterization of multipotent mesenchymal cells in the vascular wall, involved in regulating cellular homeostasis, suggests that these cells may be considered a target of HIV pathogenesis. This paper investigated the interaction between HIV-1 and vascular wall resident human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Results MSCs were challenged with classical R5 and X4 HIV-1 laboratory strains demonstrating that these strains are able to enter and integrate their retro-transcribed proviral DNA in the host cell genome. Subsequent experiments indicated that HIV-1 strains and recombinant gp120 elicited a reliable increase in apoptosis in sub-confluent MSCs. Since vascular wall MSCs are multipotent cells that may be differentiated towards several cell lineages, we challenged HIV-1 strains and gp120 on MSCs differentiated to adipogenesis and endotheliogenesis. Our experiments showed that the adipogenesis is increased especially by upregulated PPARγ activity whereas the endothelial differentiation induced by VEGF treatment was impaired with a downregulation of endothelial markers such as vWF, Flt-1 and KDR expression. These viral effects in MSC survival and adipogenic or endothelial differentiation were tackled by CD4 blockade suggesting an important role of CD4/gp120 interaction in this context. Conclusions The HIV-related derangement of MSC survival and differentiation may suggest a direct role of HIV infection and gp120 in impaired vessel homeostasis and in genesis of vessel damage observed in HIV-infected patients.

  10. [Sexual assaults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, Didier; Hédouin, Valéry

    2002-04-01

    Examining a victim of sexual assault is a medico-legal emergency. It has to be performed within 72 h, in appropriate conditions. A recent laceration of the hymen does not necessarily indicate a rape, and conversely absence of trauma to a rape victim does not negate the validity of her claim to rape. A normal clinical examination does not exclude the possibility of a sexual abuse. Unlawful sexual intercourse is defined by a sexual penetration without valid consent. Specimen collection, to be considered as an evidence, must be sealed. Toxicological samples have to be performed to search a rape under influence.

  11. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  12. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  13. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  14. The Prevalence of Sexual Behavior Stigma Affecting Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Across Sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Ketende, Sosthenes; Lyons, Carrie; Charurat, Manhattan E; Drame, Fatou Maria; Diouf, Daouda; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouanda, Seni; Anato, Simplice; Mothopeng, Tampose; Mnisi, Zandile; Baral, Stefan David

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been increased attention for the need to reduce stigma related to sexual behaviors among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) as part of comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programming. However, most studies focused on measuring and mitigating stigma have been in high-income settings, challenging the ability to characterize the transferability of these findings because of lack of consistent metrics across settings. Objective The objective of these analyses is to describe the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma in the United States, and to compare the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma between MSM in Southern and Western Africa and in the United States using consistent metrics. Methods The same 13 sexual behavior stigma items were administered in face-to-face interviews to 4285 MSM recruited in multiple studies from 2013 to 2016 from 7 Sub-Saharan African countries and to 2590 MSM from the 2015 American Men’s Internet Survey (AMIS), an anonymous Web-based behavioral survey. We limited the study sample to men who reported anal sex with a man at least once in the past 12 months and men who were aged 18 years and older. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to compare the prevalence of stigma between groups. Results Within the United States, prevalence of sexual behavior stigma did not vary substantially by race/ethnicity or geographic region except in a few instances. Feeling afraid to seek health care, avoiding health care, feeling like police refused to protect, being blackmailed, and being raped were more commonly reported in rural versus urban settings in the United States (P<.05 for all). In the United States, West Africa, and Southern Africa, MSM reported verbal harassment as the most common form of stigma. Disclosure of same-sex practices to family members increased prevalence of reported stigma from family members within all geographic settings (P<.001 for all). After

  15. The DCR protein TTC3 affects differentiation and Golgi compactness in neurons through specific actin-regulating pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Elena Berto

    Full Text Available In neuronal cells, actin remodeling plays a well known role in neurite extension but is also deeply involved in the organization of intracellular structures, such as the Golgi apparatus. However, it is still not very clear which mechanisms may regulate actin dynamics at the different sites. In this report we show that high levels of the TTC3 protein, encoded by one of the genes of the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DCR, prevent neurite extension and disrupt Golgi compactness in differentiating primary neurons. These effects largely depend on the capability of TTC3 to promote actin polymerization through signaling pathways involving RhoA, ROCK, CIT-N and PIIa. However, the functional relationships between these molecules differ significantly if considering the TTC3 activity on neurite extension or on Golgi organization. Finally, our results reveal an unexpected stage-dependent requirement for F-actin in Golgi organization at different stages of neuronal differentiation.

  16. Alcohol and cannabinoids differentially affect HIV infection and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC

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    Marisela eAgudelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, alcohol has been known to induce inflammation while cannabinoids have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role. For instance cannabinoids have been shown to reduce susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and attenuate HIV replication in macrophages. Recently, we demonstrated that alcohol induces cannabinoid receptors and regulates cytokine production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC. However, the ability of alcohol and cannabinoids to alter MDDC function during HIV infection has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to study the potential impact of alcohol and cannabinoids on differentiated MDDC infected with HIV, monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiated MDDC were infected with HIV-1Ba-L and treated with EtOH (0.1 and 0.2%, THC (5 and 10 uM, or JWH-015 (5 and 10 uM for 4-7 days. HIV infection of MDDC was confirmed by p24 and Long Terminal Repeats (LTR estimation. MDDC endocytosis assay and cytokine array profiles were measured to investigate the effects of HIV and substances of abuse on MDDC function. Our results show the HIV+EtOH treated MDDC had the highest levels of p24 production and expression when compared with the HIV positive controls and the cannabinoid treated cells. Although both cannabinoids, THC and JWH-015 had lower levels of p24 production and expression, the HIV+JWH-015 treated MDDC had the lowest levels of p24 when compared to the HIV+THC treated cells. In addition, MDDC endocytic function and cytokine production were also differentially altered after alcohol and cannabinoid treatments. Our results show a differential effect of alcohol and cannabinoids, which may provide insights into the divergent inflammatory role of alcohol and cannabinoids to modulate MDDC function in the context of HIV infection.

  17. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Ikeda; Yuzo Aikawa; Mitsuru Umeno; Susumu Higuchi; Eiichi Senoo; Ayako Haraguchi; Yasukazu Ogai; Nagisa Sugaya

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in...

  18. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  19. HMGB4 is expressed by neuronal cells and affects the expression of genes involved in neural differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhiainen, Ari; Zhao, Xiang; Vanttola, Päivi; Qian, Kui; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Gransalke, Kathleen; Grönholm, Mikaela; Unni, Emmanual; Meistrich, Marvin; Tian, Li; Auvinen, Petri; Rauvala, Heikki

    2016-09-01

    HMGB4 is a new member in the family of HMGB proteins that has been characterized in sperm cells, but little is known about its functions in somatic cells. Here we show that HMGB4 and the highly similar rat Transition Protein 4 (HMGB4L1) are expressed in neuronal cells. Both proteins had slow mobility in nucleus of living NIH-3T3 cells. They interacted with histones and their differential expression in transformed cells of the nervous system altered the post-translational modification statuses of histones in vitro. Overexpression of HMGB4 in HEK 293T cells made cells more susceptible to cell death induced by topoisomerase inhibitors in an oncology drug screening array and altered variant composition of histone H3. HMGB4 regulated over 800 genes in HEK 293T cells with a p-value ≤0.013 (n = 3) in a microarray analysis and displayed strongest association with adhesion and histone H2A -processes. In neuronal and transformed cells HMGB4 regulated the expression of an oligodendrocyte marker gene PPP1R14a and other neuronal differentiation marker genes. In conclusion, our data suggests that HMGB4 is a factor that regulates chromatin and expression of neuronal differentiation markers.

  20. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its cont

  1. Psychosexual Characteristics of Women Reporting Sexual Aggression Against Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-09-01

    Sexual aggression as committed by women has been the target of little empirical research and is still regarded as a myth by many people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosexual profile of young and educated women reporting sexual aggression against men. This is a cross-sectional study; a total of 260 female college students answered to an online survey. Among them, 93 (35.8%) reported having committed some form of sexual aggression against men: 46.2% of sexually aggressive women fell into the category of sexual coercion, 34.1% fell into the category of sexual abuse, and 19.8% reported having used physical force. Findings revealed that sexually aggressive women reported significantly higher levels of sociosexuality, sexual fantasies of dominance and submission, sexual compulsivity, sexual excitation, and sexual inhibition due to the threat of sexual performance failure. Data are expected to affect prevention strategies for a relevant yet understudied social concern.

  2. Identification of the active components in Shenmai injection that differentially affect Cyp3a4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Caiwen; He, Fang; Xia, Chunhua; Zhang, Hong; Xiong, Yuqing

    2013-04-01

    Shenmai injection (SMI) is a popular herbal preparation that is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis. In our previous study, SMI was shown to differentially affect CYP3A4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of midazolam (MDZ). The present study was conducted to identify the active components in SMI responsible for the differential effects on MDZ metabolism, using in vitro incubation systems (rat and human liver microsomes and a recombinant CYP3A4 system) to measure 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ. First, different fractions of SMI were obtained by gradient elution on an solid phase extraction system and individually tested for their effects on MDZ metabolism. The results demonstrated that lipid-soluble constituents were likely to be the predominant active components of SMI. Second, the possible active components were gradually separated on an high-performance liquid chromatography system under different conditions and individually tested in vitro for their effects on MDZ metabolism. Third, the active component obtained in the above experiment was collected and subjected to structural analysis, and identified as panaxytriol (PXT). Finally, it was validated that PXT had significant differential effects on 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ in various in vitro systems that were similar to those of SMI. We conclude that PXT is the constituent of SMI responsible for the differential effects on CYP3A4-mediated 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation of MDZ.

  3. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  4. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: galectin-1 is involved in differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole N; Moiseeva, Elena P

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has been shown that cells from the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 secrete factors that influence the behavior of osteoblast-like cells. Some of these factors with mitogenic activity have been found...... to 58 +/- 4%, 30 +/- 12, 72 +/- 9%, and 86 +/- 4%. In conclusion, galectin-1 modulated osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. These effects were affected by IGF-I. Thus, galectin-1 is likely be involved in the osteoblastic response, caused by prostate cancer cells metastasizing into bone....../ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One of these spots was identified as galectin-1. We examined whether PC3 CM, recombinant galectin-1 alone, or combined with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) had any effects on the proliferation or differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (h...

  5. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  6. Ectopic expression a tomato KNOX Gene Tkn4 affects the formation and the differentiation of meristems and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Hu, Guojian; Ren, Zhenxin; Deng, Wei; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-12-01

    The KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN genes are involved in maintenance of the shoot apical meristem which produces the whole above-ground body of vascular plants. In this report, a tomato homolog gene, named as Tkn4 (a nucleus targeted transcription factor) was identified and characterized. By performing RT-PCR, the transcript level of Tkn4 was separately found in stem, root, stamen, stigma, fruit and sepal but hardly visible in the leaf. Besides, Tkn4 was induced by a series of plant hormones. Overexpression of Tkn4 gene in tomato resulted in dwarf phenotype and strongly repressed the formation of shoot apical meristem, lateral meristem and cambiums in transgenic lines. The transgenic lines had wrinkled leaves and anatomic analysis showed that there was no obvious palisade tissues in the leaves and the layer of cells changed in vascular tissue (xylem and phloem). To explore the regulation network of Tkn4, RNA-sequencing was performed in overexpression lines and wild type plants, by which many genes related to the synthesis and the signal transduction of cytokinin, auxin, gibberellin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and tracheary element differentiation or extracellular matrix synthesis were significantly regulated. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Tkn4 plays important roles in regulating the biosynthesis and signal transduction of diverse plant hormones, and the formation and differentiation of meristems and vasculature in tomato.

  7. Repeated short climatic change affects the epidermal differentiation program and leads to matrix remodeling in a human organotypic skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrand, Laetitia-Barbollat; Thépot, Amélie; Muther, Charlotte; Boher, Aurélie; Robic, Julie; Guéré, Christelle; Vié, Katell; Damour, Odile; Lamartine, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is subject to frequent changes in ambient temperature and humidity and needs to cope with these environmental modifications. To decipher the molecular response of human skin to repeated climatic change, a versatile model of skin equivalent subject to “hot–wet” (40°C, 80% relative humidity [RH]) or “cold–dry” (10°C, 40% RH) climatic stress repeated daily was used. To obtain an exhaustive view of the molecular mechanisms elicited by climatic change, large-scale gene expression DNA microarray analysis was performed and modulated function was determined by bioinformatic annotation. This analysis revealed several functions, including epidermal differentiation and extracellular matrix, impacted by repeated variations in climatic conditions. Some of these molecular changes were confirmed by histological examination and protein expression. Both treatments (hot–wet and cold–dry) reduced the expression of genes encoding collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, suggesting a profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Strong induction of the entire family of late cornified envelope genes after cold–dry exposure, confirmed at protein level, was also observed. These changes correlated with an increase in epidermal differentiation markers such as corneodesmosin and a thickening of the stratum corneum, indicating possible implementation of defense mechanisms against dehydration. This study for the first time reveals the complex pattern of molecular response allowing adaption of human skin to repeated change in its climatic environment.

  8. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Randelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  9. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient. PMID:27057170

  10. Family Sources of Sexual Health Information, Primary Messages, and Sexual Behavior of At-Risk, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…

  11. Gênero e cotidiano escolar: dilemas e perspectivas da intervenção escolar na socialização afetivo-sexual dos adolescentes Gender and daily school: dilemmas and prospects of the school intervention in the affective-sexual socialization of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira da Rocha Rosistolato

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as classificações de gênero utilizadas por professores que desenvolvem projetos de orientação sexual na cidade do Rio de Janeiro para explicar as perspectivas e os dilemas da intervenção escolar na socialização afetivo-sexual dos adolescentes. O material empírico que sustenta as argumentações é composto de 16 entrevistas em profundidade, realizadas com docentes responsáveis pelos espaços escolares onde se desenvolvem projetos de orientação sexual no ensino fundamental do Rio de Janeiro: os Núcleos de Adolescentes Multiplicadores (NAMs. Também foram realizadas "observações participantes" em um curso de formação para professores que desejam trabalhar com orientação sexual na escola. As representações de gênero apresentadas oscilam entre classificações modernas e tradicionais sobre a feminilidade e a masculinidade. Os projetos eram coordenados majoritariamente por professoras, e a participação discente também era basicamente feminina. As professoras buscavam coerência entre sua atuação nos espaços escolar e familiar. Porém, ao mesmo tempo que orientavam seus alunos para combater as desigualdades de gênero, apresentavam dúvidas e incertezas quanto à possibilidade de educar seus filhos a partir de ideais igualitários de gênero, principalmente os filhos homens. Situações domésticas contrastavam com performances em sala de aula, apresentando tensões entre negação e afirmação das masculinidades e feminilidades tradicionais.This article examines the classification of gender used by teachers who develop projects on sexual education in Rio de Janeiro to explain the views and the dilemmas of school intervention in the affective-sexual socialization of adolescents. The empirical material that supports the arguments is composed by 16 in-depth interviews, conducted with teachers responsible for school spaces where sexual education projects are developed in basic schools of Rio de Janeiro

  12. Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p≤0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p≤0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p≤0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients.

  13. Modeling the two-locus architecture of divergent pollinator adaptation: how variation in SAD paralogs affects fitness and evolutionary divergence in sexually deceptive orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2015-01-01

    Divergent selection by pollinators can bring about strong reproductive isolation via changes at few genes of large effect. This has recently been demonstrated in sexually deceptive orchids, where studies (1) quantified the strength of reproductive isolation in the field; (2) identified genes that appear to be causal for reproductive isolation; and (3) demonstrated selection by analysis of natural variation in gene sequence and expression. In a group of closely related Ophrys orchids, specific floral scent components, namely n-alkenes, are the key floral traits that control specific pollinator attraction by chemical mimicry of insect sex pheromones. The genetic basis of species-specific differences in alkene production mainly lies in two biosynthetic genes encoding stearoyl–acyl carrier protein desaturases (SAD) that are associated with floral scent variation and reproductive isolation between closely related species, and evolve under pollinator-mediated selection. However, the implications of this genetic architecture of key floral traits on the evolutionary processes of pollinator adaptation and speciation in this plant group remain unclear. Here, we expand on these recent findings to model scenarios of adaptive evolutionary change at SAD2 and SAD5, their effects on plant fitness (i.e., offspring number), and the dynamics of speciation. Our model suggests that the two-locus architecture of reproductive isolation allows for rapid sympatric speciation by pollinator shift; however, the likelihood of such pollinator-mediated speciation is asymmetric between the two orchid species O. sphegodes and O. exaltata due to different fitness effects of their predominant SAD2 and SAD5 alleles. Our study not only provides insight into pollinator adaptation and speciation mechanisms of sexually deceptive orchids but also demonstrates the power of applying a modeling approach to the study of pollinator-driven ecological speciation. PMID:25691974

  14. Discriminating Coercive from Sadomasochistic Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shannon M; Smith, Felix; Quirk, Stuart W

    2016-07-01

    Sadomasochistic (SM) sexual interest is reported by a wide range of individuals. Within the sex offender literature, the presence of SM interest is often viewed as a herald of criminal sexual behavior; however, research indicates that SM interests are not predictive of coercive sexual behavior. In the current study, we measured a range of sexual fantasies and behaviors, and then applied cluster analyses to determine (1) if individuals endorsed elevated SM interests also endorsed coercive fantasies and, (2) to explore cluster membership correlates using measures of sensation seeking, externalizing and antisocial behaviors, attitudes toward rape, and empathic capacity. A total of 550 participants were recruited through a variety of on-line discussion areas. A four cluster solution best fit the data with distinct clusters observed for those endorsing SM behaviors and those reporting coercive sexual behavior. Additional analyses revealed greater endorsement of victim blaming attitudes and lower empathic concern among members of the coercive sexual behavior cluster. Elevated sensation seeking and externalizing behaviors were reported by members of clusters marked by SM and coercive sexual behavior. Results provide further support for the differentiation between SM and coercive sexual behaviors as representative of individuals with divergent attitudes, traits, and behaviors.

  15. Intermediate and long-term memories of associative learning are differentially affected by transcription versus translation blockers in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Susan; Scheibenstock, Andi; McComb, Chloe; Lukowiak, Ken

    2003-05-01

    Aerial respiratory behaviour in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, can be operantly conditioned. This associative learning then undergoes consolidation into a long-lasting memory which, depending on the training procedure used, causes intermediate-term memory (ITM; lasting 3 h) or long-term memory (LTM; lasting >6 h) to be formed. We determined the differential susceptibility of these two forms of memory to translation and transcription blockers. The injection of a translation blocker, Anisomycin, 2.5 h before training prevents the establishment of both ITM and LTM. On the other hand, injection of the transcription blocker Actinomycin D, 2.5 h before training, did not prevent the establishment of ITM, but did, however, prevent LTM formation. Thus in Lymnaea, following associative learning, both ITM and LTM are dependent on new protein synthesis. ITM appears to be dependent on protein synthesis from preexisting transcription factors, whilst LTM is dependent on protein synthesis from new transcription messages.

  16. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed.

  17. Chondrogenic differentiation of human subchondral progenitor cells is affected by synovial fluid from donors with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Jan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microfracture is a first-line treatment option for cartilage repair. In microfracture, subchondral mesenchymal cortico-spongious progenitor cells (CSP enter the defect and form cartilage repair tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of joint disease conditions on the in vitro chondrogenesis of human CSP. Methods CSP were harvested from the subchondral bone marrow. CSP characterization was performed by analysis of cell surface antigen pattern and by assessing the chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, histologically. To assess the effect of synovial fluid (SF on chondrogenesis of CSP, micro-masses were stimulated with SF from healthy (ND, osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis donors (RA without transforming growth factor beta 3. Results CSP showed the typical cell surface antigen pattern known from mesenchymal stem cells and were capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In micro-masses stimulated with SF, histological staining as well as gene expression analysis of typical chondrogenic marker genes showed that SF from ND and OA induced the chondrogenic marker genes aggrecan, types II and IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and link protein, compared to controls not treated with SF. In contrast, the supplementation with SF from RA donors decreased the expression of aggrecan, type II collagen, COMP and link protein, compared to CSP treated with SF from ND or OA. Conclusion These results suggest that in RA, SF may impair cartilage repair by subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells in microfracture, while in OA, SF may has no negative, but a delaying effect on the cartilage matrix formation.

  18. The Sexual Well-Being of Women Who Have Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…

  19. Neurohormonal aspects of sexual drive in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mazurkevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modern view on women,s sexual health. The reasons for the modern sexual revolution are explained. Various aspects and functional features of the body affecting the quality of sexual life of women are examined. The classification of female sexual disorders is presented. Influence of psychosocial factors on female sexual drive, as well as the role of sex steroids in the coordination of the anatomical and functional relationships of structures responsible for sexual function of women are described. Complex influence of sex hormones and neurotransmitters on sexual function of women; influence of effective hormonal oral contraception on female sexual drive are described. Intake of modern hormonal contraceptives saves reproductive health, enables family planning, and is also identified with the effect of wellbeing and comfort, including sexual. Analysis of the various mechanisms of combined oral contraceptives, effect on sexual activity of women is carried out. It is noted that progestogens in combined oral contraception have a unique specific effect on various tissues and systems of the body, including the sexual function. An assessment of the impact of the amount of estrogen in combined oral contraceptives on sexual function of women is performed. The data are presented on selective antiandrogenic action of chlormadinone acetate – gestogen included in the Belara combined oral contraceptive and not affecting the libido. 

  20. Neurohormonal aspects of sexual drive in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mazurkevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modern view on women,s sexual health. The reasons for the modern sexual revolution are explained. Various aspects and functional features of the body affecting the quality of sexual life of women are examined. The classification of female sexual disorders is presented. Influence of psychosocial factors on female sexual drive, as well as the role of sex steroids in the coordination of the anatomical and functional relationships of structures responsible for sexual function of women are described. Complex influence of sex hormones and neurotransmitters on sexual function of women; influence of effective hormonal oral contraception on female sexual drive are described. Intake of modern hormonal contraceptives saves reproductive health, enables family planning, and is also identified with the effect of wellbeing and comfort, including sexual. Analysis of the various mechanisms of combined oral contraceptives, effect on sexual activity of women is carried out. It is noted that progestogens in combined oral contraception have a unique specific effect on various tissues and systems of the body, including the sexual function. An assessment of the impact of the amount of estrogen in combined oral contraceptives on sexual function of women is performed. The data are presented on selective antiandrogenic action of chlormadinone acetate – gestogen included in the Belara combined oral contraceptive and not affecting the libido. 

  1. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    -side down by lifting its definition out of a limited biological frame of understanding and placing it on the boundary between the somatic and the psychical. However, the concept of attachment and the empirical research tradition have created a new focus for the studies of the infant that seems to block our...... vision of the sexual. Following a historic outline, we examine the theories that inspired by Laplanche, once more discuss infantile sexuality, and argue that infantile sexuality is clarified by combining the concept of the drive with what in effect is an inter-subjective point of view....

  2. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC on learning in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Winsauer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to D9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact or ovariectomized (OVX female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of D9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD 75 to 180 (early adulthood onward or PD 35 to 140 (adolescence onward. During this time, the 4 groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for D9-THC (0.56-56 mg/kg and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R antagonist rimonabant (0.32-10 mg/kg. Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic D9-THC, all of the D9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic D9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1 was affected more by OVX than chronic D9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal BDNF expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity.

  3. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  4. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  5. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Namli; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-01-01

    In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. ...

  6. Repeated short climatic change affects the epidermal differentiation program and leads to matrix remodeling in a human organotypic skin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutrand LB

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laetitia-Barbollat Boutrand,1 Amélie Thépot,2 Charlotte Muther,3 Aurélie Boher,2 Julie Robic,4 Christelle Guéré,4 Katell Vié,4 Odile Damour,5 Jérôme Lamartine1,3 1Departement de Biologie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, 2LabSkinCreations, 3CNRS UMR5305, Laboratoire de Biologie Tissulaire et d’Ingénierie Thérapeutique (LBTI, Lyon, 4Laboratoires Clarins, Cergy-Pontoise, 5Banque de Tissus et Cellules, Hospices Civiles de Lyon, Lyon, France Abstract: Human skin is subject to frequent changes in ambient temperature and humidity and needs to cope with these environmental modifications. To decipher the molecular response of human skin to repeated climatic change, a versatile model of skin equivalent subject to “hot–wet” (40°C, 80% relative humidity [RH] or “cold–dry” (10°C, 40% RH climatic stress repeated daily was used. To obtain an exhaustive view of the molecular mechanisms elicited by climatic change, large-scale gene expression DNA microarray analysis was performed and modulated function was determined by bioinformatic annotation. This analysis revealed several functions, including epidermal differentiation and extracellular matrix, impacted by repeated variations in climatic conditions. Some of these molecular changes were confirmed by histological examination and protein expression. Both treatments (hot–wet and cold–dry reduced the expression of genes encoding collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans, suggesting a profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Strong induction of the entire family of late cornified envelope genes after cold–dry exposure, confirmed at protein level, was also observed. These changes correlated with an increase in epidermal differentiation markers such as corneodesmosin and a thickening of the stratum corneum, indicating possible implementation of defense mechanisms against dehydration. This study for the first time reveals the complex pattern of molecular response allowing

  7. Differential precocious sexual development of Proctoeces lintoni (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) in three sympatric species of keyhole limpets Fissurella spp. may affect transmission to the final host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa, L; George-Nascimento, M; Ojeda, F P

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence, abundance, and developmental status of the digenetic trematode Proctoeces lintoni Siddiqui et Cable 1960 were compared in 3 species of keyhole limpets Fissurella. A total of 197 limpets was collected at Caleta Chome, south-central Chile. Fissurella picta and F. costata had the highest prevalence of infection, whereas F. picta showed the greatest abundance of parasites, which increased with host shell length. However, the frequency of P. lintoni specimens with eggs in the uterus was greatest in F. costata. These results suggest that an increased rate of development of a parasite in the intermediate host may shorten the residence time necessary for maturation in the final host. Thus, faster development of the parasite in F. costata suggests the possibility that the parasites transmitted through this host species have shorter maturation times in clingfishes than individuals transmitted via other limpet species.

  8. Carboxyl- and amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles differentially affect the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophage subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ann-Kathrin; Syrovets, Tatiana; Haas, Karina A; Loos, Cornelia; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Exposure to microenvironmental stimuli determines their polarization into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. M1 exhibit high expression of proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β, and M2 promote tissue repair, but likewise support tumor growth and cause immune suppression by expressing IL-10. Thus, the M1/M2 balance critically determines tissue homeostasis. By using carboxyl- (PS-COOH) and amino-functionalized (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles, the effects of surface decoration on the polarization of human macrophages were investigated. The nanoparticles did not compromise macrophage viability nor did they affect the expression of the M1 markers CD86, NOS2, TNF-α, and IL-1β. By contrast, in M2, both nanoparticles impaired expression of scavenger receptor CD163 and CD200R, and the release of IL-10. PS-NH2 also inhibited phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by both, M1 and M2. PS-COOH did not impair phagocytosis by M2, but increased protein mass in M1 and M2, TGF-β1 release by M1, and ATP levels in M2. Thus, nanoparticles skew the M2 macrophage polarization without affecting M1 markers. Given the critical role of the M1 and M2 polarization for the immunological balance in patients with cancer or chronic inflammation, functionalized nanoparticles might serve as tools for reprogramming the M1/M2 polarization.

  9. Tail-pinch stress and REM sleep deprivation differentially affect sensorimotor gating function in modafinil-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Tung, Che-Se; Chuang, Chia-Hsin; Lo, Shih-Mao; Ku, Yu-Chi

    2011-05-16

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a phenomenon in which a mild stimulus attenuates a cross-modality startle response to later intense stimulation. PPI is thought to index the central inhibitory mechanism through which behavioural responses are filtered. The present study compared the effects of two stress paradigms on the acoustic startle response (ASR) and on PPI in a rat model. The tail-pinch (TP) method produces an acute and immediate stressful condition, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) leads to a more persistent and long-term stress. Our results demonstrated that in rats, TP stress reduced the size of the ASR, and REMSD impaired PPI. The wake-promoting agent modafinil (MOD) had no effect on PPI if given alone. However, MOD reduced the ASR and PPI under TP stress, whereas only PPI was reduced by MOD after 96 h of REMSD. These results suggest that distinct stress paradigms differentially mediated sensorimotor gating abilities in terms of either responsiveness to the stimulus or information-filtering capabilities.

  10. Microtubule Destabilizer KIF2A Undergoes Distinct Site-Specific Phosphorylation Cascades that Differentially Affect Neuronal Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayuki Ogawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurons exhibit dynamic structural changes in response to extracellular stimuli. Microtubules (MTs provide rapid and dramatic cytoskeletal changes within the structural framework. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling networks underlying MT dynamics remain unknown. Here, we have applied a comprehensive and quantitative phospho-analysis of the MT destabilizer KIF2A to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of MT dynamics within neurons in response to extracellular signals. Interestingly, we identified two different sets of KIF2A phosphorylation profiles that accelerate (A-type and brake (B-type the MT depolymerization activity of KIF2A. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF stimulates PAK1 and CDK5 kinases, which decrease the MT depolymerizing activity of KIF2A through B-type phosphorylation, resulting in enhanced outgrowth of neural processes. In contrast, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA induces ROCK2 kinase, which suppresses neurite outgrowth from round cells via A-type phosphorylation. We propose that these two mutually exclusive forms of KIF2A phosphorylation differentially regulate neuronal morphogenesis during development.

  11. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurs in both men and women, and is normal. Knowing how your sexual response and feelings change, and how to enjoy your sex life despite these changes, is part of healthy aging. As we age, our bodies undergo changes that ...

  12. Teenage Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  13. Model of Intellectual Disability and the Relationship of Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Persons with an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchomiuk, Monika

    2013-06-01

    The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency medical services and physiotherapy. Tools of the author's design have been used in the research. Likert-type scale "Perspective of intellectual disability" has been used to determine the model of disability seen from the medical (individual) or social perspective. To examine the attitudes towards sexuality two tools of the author's own design have been used: a Likert-type scale "The essence of sexuality in persons with an intellectual disability" which has been used to analyze the cognitive aspect of the attitudes, and a semantic differential with notions concerning physical and psychosocial aspects of sexuality including the affective-evaluative aspect. As expected, significant correlations have been found between the model and the attitudes both in the cognitive and the affective-evaluative aspect. Higher scores for the individual model correlated with: (a) lover scores for most aspects of sexuality of people with intellectual disability, (b) perceiving them as asexual, (c) biological determinism in the sexual sphere. The social model concurred with positive values given to sexuality of people with intellectual disability and its normalization in the sphere of its determinants and symptoms.

  14. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the Streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: factors that affect differential hdcA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Andersen, Pia Skov;

    2010-01-01

    Histamine, a toxic compound that is formed by the decarboxylation of histidine through the action of microbial decarboxylases, can accumulate in fermented food products. From a total of 69 Streptococcus thermophilus strains screened, two strains, CHCC1524 and CHCC6483, showed the capacity...... to produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were studied. The hdc cluster began with the hdcA gene, was followed by a transporter (hdcP), and ended...... acquisition through a horizontal transfer mechanism. Transcriptional analysis of the hdc cluster revealed the existence of a polycistronic mRNA covering the three genes. The histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) of S. thermophilus demonstrated maximum expression during the stationary growth phase, with high...

  15. Stress affects a gastrin-releasing peptide system in the spinal cord that mediates sexual function: implications for psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sakamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many men suffering from stress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, report sexual dysfunction, which is traditionally treated via psychological counseling. Recently, we identified a gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP system in the lumbar spinal cord that is a primary mediator for male reproductive functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To ask whether an acute severe stress could alter the male specific GRP system, we used a single-prolonged stress (SPS, a putative rat model for PTSD in the present study. Exposure of SPS to male rats decreases both the local content and axonal distribution of GRP in the lower lumbar spinal cord and results in an attenuation of penile reflexes in vivo. Remarkably, pharmacological stimulation of GRP receptors restores penile reflexes in SPS-exposed males, and induces spontaneous ejaculation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, although the level of plasma testosterone is normal 7 days after SPS exposure, we found a significant decrease in the expression of androgen receptor protein in this spinal center. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the spinal GRP system appears to be a stress-vulnerable center for male reproductive functions, which may provide new insight into a clinical target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction triggered by stress and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lilli; Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Grimm, Michael; Zeöld, Anikó; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-08-15

    Plectin, a versatile 500-kDa cytolinker protein, is essential for muscle fiber integrity and function. The most common disease caused by mutations in the human plectin gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), is characterized by severe skin blistering and progressive muscular dystrophy. Besides displaying pathological desmin-positive protein aggregates and degenerative changes in the myofibrillar apparatus, skeletal muscle specimens of EBS-MD patients and plectin-deficient mice are characterized by massive mitochondrial alterations. In this study, we demonstrate that structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are a primary aftermath of plectin deficiency in muscle, contributing to myofiber degeneration. We found that in skeletal muscle of conditional plectin knockout mice (MCK-Cre/cKO), mitochondrial content was reduced, and mitochondria were aggregated in sarcoplasmic and subsarcolemmal regions and were no longer associated with Z-disks. Additionally, decreased mitochondrial citrate synthase activity, respiratory function and altered adenosine diphosphate kinetics were characteristic of plectin-deficient muscles. To analyze a mechanistic link between plectin deficiency and mitochondrial alterations, we comparatively assessed mitochondrial morphology and function in whole muscle and teased muscle fibers of wild-type, MCK-Cre/cKO and plectin isoform-specific knockout mice that were lacking just one isoform (either P1b or P1d) while expressing all others. Monitoring morphological alterations of mitochondria, an isoform P1b-specific phenotype affecting the mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and manifesting with upregulated mitochondrial fusion-associated protein mitofusin-2 could be identified. Our results show that the depletion of distinct plectin isoforms affects mitochondrial network organization and function in different ways.

  17. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  18. Diet- and Genetically-Induced Obesity Differentially Affect the Fecal Microbiome and Metabolome in Apc1638N Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Pfalzer

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC, and alterations in the colonic microbiome and metabolome may be mechanistically involved in this relationship. The relative contribution of diet and obesity per se are unclear. We compared the effect of diet- and genetically-induced obesity on the intestinal microbiome and metabolome in a mouse model of CRC. Apc1638N mice were made obese by either high fat (HF feeding or the presence of the Leprdb/db (DbDb mutation. Intestinal tumors were quantified and stool microbiome and metabolome were profiled. Genetic obesity, and to a lesser extent HF feeding, promoted intestinal tumorigenesis. Each induced distinct microbial patterns: taxa enriched in HF were mostly Firmicutes (6 of 8 while those enriched in DbDb were split between Firmicutes (7 of 12 and Proteobacteria (5 of 12. Parabecteroides distasonis was lower in tumor-bearing mice and its abundance was inversely associated with colonic Il1b production (p<0.05. HF and genetic obesity altered the abundance of 49 and 40 fecal metabolites respectively, with 5 in common. Of these 5, adenosine was also lower in obese and in tumor-bearing mice (p<0.05 and its concentration was inversely associated with colonic Il1b and Tnf production (p<0.05. HF and genetic obesity differentially alter the intestinal microbiome and metabolome. A depletion of adenosine and P.distasonis in tumor-bearing mice could play a mechanistic role in tumor formation. Adenosine and P. distasonis have previously been shown to be anti-inflammatory in the colon and we postulate their reduction could promote tumorigenesis by de-repressing inflammation.

  19. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Holscher, Hannah D; Padilla, Jaume; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Welly, Rebecca; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX) high capacity (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk) were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat) ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX) or without (sedentary, SED) running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group). We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05) line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026) in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05) with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially impacts

  20. Ivabradine and metoprolol differentially affect cardiac glucose metabolism despite similar heart rate reduction in a mouse model of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Fanny; Lauzier, Benjamin; Ruiz, Matthieu; Shi, Yanfen; Lachance, Dominic; Rivard, Marie-Eve; Bolduc, Virginie; Thorin, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2016-10-01

    While heart rate reduction (HRR) is a target for the management of patients with heart disease, contradictory results were reported using ivabradine, which selectively inhibits the pacemaker If current, vs. β-blockers like metoprolol. This study aimed at testing whether similar HRR with ivabradine vs. metoprolol differentially modulates cardiac energy substrate metabolism, a factor determinant for cardiac function, in a mouse model of dyslipidemia (hApoB(+/+);LDLR(-/-)). Following a longitudinal study design, we used 3- and 6-mo-old mice, untreated or treated for 3 mo with ivabradine or metoprolol. Cardiac function was evaluated in vivo and ex vivo in working hearts perfused with (13)C-labeled substrates to assess substrate fluxes through energy metabolic pathways. Compared with 3-mo-old, 6-mo-old dyslipidemic mice had similar cardiac hemodynamics in vivo but impaired (P ivabradine-treated hearts displayed significantly higher stroke volume values and glycolysis vs. their metoprolol-treated counterparts ex vivo, values for the ivabradine group being often not significantly different from 3-mo-old mice. Further analyses highlighted additional significant cardiac alterations with disease progression, namely in the total tissue level of proteins modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), whose formation is governed by glucose metabolism via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which showed a similar pattern with ivabradine vs. metoprolol treatment. Collectively, our results emphasize the implication of alterations in cardiac glucose metabolism and signaling linked to disease progression in our mouse model. Despite similar HRR, ivabradine, but not metoprolol, preserved cardiac function and glucose metabolism during disease progression.

  1. 环境内分泌干扰物对性分化和性发育的神经内分泌调控网络的影响%Effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on neuroendocrine regulatory networks related to sexual differentiation and sexual development:a review of recent studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高连连; 蔡德培

    2012-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) are pollutants of many exogenous chemical classes, which are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and can interfere with the neuroendocrine systems,disturb body's natural steroidogenesis, secretion, and receptor binding,removal of other aspects, thus lead to abnormal development of the human bodies and their progenies. Neuroendocrine regulatory networks, especially the regulatory networks of the hypothalamus play vital roles in sexual differentiation and the process of puberty. When neuroendocrine homeostasis is disrupted by environmental endocrine chemicals, a variety of perturbations about sexual differentiation and sexual development can ensue,particularly when endocrine disruption occurs during critical developmental periods. Emerging evidences have shown that the brain can be the direct targets of EEDs. Among neuroendocrine regulatory networks, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the kisspeptin/GPR54 system, glial cells, and brain aromatase are significantly disrupted by EEDs. Besides, EEDs also have trans —generational effects. This article will provide an overview of the effect of environmental endocrine disruption on neuroendocrine regulatory networks related to sexual differentiation and sexual development.%环境内分泌干扰物(environmental endocrine disrupters,EEDs)是环境中存在的一大类外源性化合物,可干扰机体神经内分泌系统,影响体内天然激素的合成、释放及与受体结合、代谢等过程,进而导致机体及其子代异常发育.神经内分泌调控网络(尤其是下丘脑调控网络)在机体性分化、性发育中发挥关键作用.神经内分泌系统稳态的失衡可致一系列的异常发育,尤其是处于性发育关键时期的胚胎期与青春期.越来越多的研究表明,大脑是EEDs直接作用位点,神经内分泌调控网络中受EEDs显著干扰的主要有促性腺激素释放激素(gonadotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH)

  2. Sadomasochism, sexual excitement, and perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1991-01-01

    Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement. Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions. Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement. Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred. Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement. Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement: wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object. The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.

  3. CaMKII binding to GluN2B is differentially affected by macromolecular crowding reagents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayton J Goodell

    Full Text Available Binding of the Ca2+/calmodulin(CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII to the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR subunit GluN2B controls long-term potentiation (LTP, a form of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory. Regulation of this interaction is well-studied biochemically, but not under conditions that mimic the macromolecular crowding found within cells. Notably, previous molecular crowding experiments with lysozyme indicated an effect on the CaMKII holoenzyme conformation. Here, we found that the effect of molecular crowding on Ca2+/CaM-induced CaMKII binding to immobilized GluN2B in vitro depended on the specific crowding reagent. While binding was reduced by lysozyme, it was enhanced by BSA. The ATP content in the BSA preparation caused CaMKII autophosphorylation at T286 during the binding reaction; however, enhanced binding was also observed when autophosphorylation was blocked. Importantly, the positive regulation by nucleotide and BSA (as well as other macromolecular crowding reagents did not alleviate the requirement for CaMKII stimulation to induce GluN2B binding. The differential effect of lysozyme (14 kDa and BSA (66 kDa was not due to size difference, as both dextran-10 and dextran-70 enhanced binding. By contrast, crowding with immunoglobulin G (IgG reduced binding. Notably, lysozyme and IgG but not BSA directly bound to Ca2+/CaM in an overlay assay, suggesting a competition of lysozyme and IgG with the Ca2+/CaM-stimulus that induces CaMKII/GluN2B binding. However, lysozyme negatively regulated binding even when it was instead induced by CaMKII T286 phosphorylation. Alternative modes of competition would be with CaMKII or GluN2B, and the negative effects of lysozyme and IgG indeed also correlated with specific or non-specific binding to the immobilized GluN2B. Thus, the effect of any specific crowding reagent can differ, depending on its additional direct effects on CaMKII/GluN2B binding. However, the

  4. Physical Activity Differentially Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Ovariectomized Female Rats Selectively Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is considered a relevant factor in obesity and associated metabolic diseases, for which postmenopausal women are particularly at risk. Increasing physical activity has been recognized as an efficacious approach to prevent or treat obesity, yet the impact of physical activity on the microbiota remains under-investigated. We examined the impacts of voluntary exercise on host metabolism and gut microbiota in ovariectomized (OVX high capacity (HCR and low capacity running (LCR rats. HCR and LCR rats (age = 27 wk were OVX and fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal fat ad libitum and housed in cages equipped with (exercise, EX or without (sedentary, SED running wheels for 11 wk (n = 7-8/group. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would hinder weight gain, increase metabolic health and shift the microbiota of LCR rats, resulting in populations more similar to that of HCR rats. Animals were compared for characteristic metabolic parameters including body composition, lipid profile and energy expenditure; whereas cecal digesta were collected for DNA extraction. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed, followed by analysis using QIIME 1.8.0 to assess cecal microbiota. Voluntary exercise decreased body and fat mass, and normalized fasting NEFA concentrations of LCR rats, despite only running one-third the distance of HCR rats. Exercise, however, increased food intake, weight gain and fat mass of HCR rats. Exercise clustered the gut microbial community of LCR rats, which separated them from the other groups. Assessments of specific taxa revealed significant (p<0.05 line by exercise interactions including shifts in the abundances of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Relative abundance of Christensenellaceae family was higher (p = 0.026 in HCR than LCR rats, and positively correlated (p<0.05 with food intake, body weight and running distance. These findings demonstrate that exercise differentially

  5. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  6. Effects of cyproterone acetate on sexual arousal patterns of pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Pawlak, A

    1993-12-01

    The antiandrogen treatment of sexual offenders has been shown to reduce the recidivism rate. The mechanism of action has been assumed to be through asexualization with its secondary effects on sexual behavior. This study shows that the mechanism may be more complex and may involve a differential effect on sexual arousal patterns. Treatment responses may differ in high and low plasma testosterone groups.

  7. A Sexuality Education Discourses Framework: Conservative, Liberal, Critical, and Postmodern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality education debates are layered with discourses based on markedly different constructions of sexuality. Rather than seeing these discourses as purely oppositional, this article frames them as complex and varied. It provides a new framework for understanding sexuality education which differentiates 28 discourses by orientation to education,…

  8. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Rodrigues Rissi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.

  9. Ankyrin and band 3 differentially affect expression of membrane glycoproteins but are not required for erythroblast enucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Peng, E-mail: peng-ji@fsm.northwestern.edu [Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Lodish, Harvey F. [Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankyrin and band 3 are not required for erythroblasts enucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of ankyrin does not affect erythroid membrane glycoprotein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of band 3 influences erythroid membrane glycoprotein expression. -- Abstract: During late stages of mammalian erythropoiesis the nucleus undergoes chromatin condensation, migration to the plasma membrane, and extrusion from the cytoplasm surrounded by a segment of plasma membrane. Since nuclear condensation occurs in all vertebrates, mammalian erythroid membrane and cytoskeleton proteins were implicated as playing important roles in mediating the movement and extrusion of the nucleus. Here we use erythroid ankyrin deficient and band 3 knockout mouse models to show that band 3, but not ankyrin, plays an important role in regulating the level of erythroid cell membrane proteins, as evidenced by decreased cell surface expression of glycophorin A in band 3 knockout mice. However, neither band 3 nor ankyrin are required for enucleation. These results demonstrate that mammalian erythroblast enucleation does not depend on the membrane integrity generated by the ankyrin-band 3 complex.

  10. ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonini Chiara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases p44ERK1 and p42ERK2 are crucial components of the regulatory machinery underlying normal and malignant cell proliferation. A currently accepted model maintains that ERK1 and ERK2 are regulated similarly and contribute to intracellular signaling by phosphorylating a largely common subset of substrates, both in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Results Here, we show that ablation of ERK1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 cells by gene targeting and RNA interference results in an enhancement of ERK2-dependent signaling and in a significant growth advantage. By contrast, knockdown of ERK2 almost completely abolishes normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of ERK1 but not of ERK2 in NIH 3T3 cells inhibits oncogenic Ras-mediated proliferation and colony formation. These phenotypes are independent of the kinase activity of ERK1, as expression of a catalytically inactive form of ERK1 is equally effective. Finally, ectopic expression of ERK1 but not ERK2 is sufficient to attenuate Ras-dependent tumor formation in nude mice. Conclusion These results reveal an unexpected interplay between ERK1 and ERK2 in transducing Ras-dependent cell signaling and proliferation. Whereas ERK2 seems to have a positive role in controlling normal and Ras-dependent cell proliferation, ERK1 probably affects the overall signaling output of the cell by antagonizing ERK2 activity.

  11. Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Maria Rosa Rodrigues; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio de Castro

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Viñuela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the escape response of aphids might cause a potential risk for virus dispersal. The spatio-temporal dynamics of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV, transmitted by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively, were evaluated at short and long term in the presence and absence of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. SADIE methodology was used to study the distribution patterns of both the virus and its vector, and their degree of association. Results suggested that parasitoids promoted aphid dispersion at short term, which enhanced CMV spread, though consequences of parasitism suggest potential benefits for disease control at long term. Furthermore, A. colemani significantly limited the spread and incidence of the persistent virus CABYV at long term. The impact of aphid parasitoids on the dispersal of plant viruses with different transmission modes is discussed.

  13. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, S A

    1982-01-01

    Commonly used drugs that may cause sexual dysfunction are reviewed. The anatomy and physiology of the normal sexual response are reviewed. The influence of drugs on neurogenic, hormonal, and vascular mechanisms may result in diminished libido, impotence, ejaculatory and orgasmic difficulties, inhibited vaginal lubrication, menstrual irregularities, and gynecomastia in men or painful breast enlargement in women. Parasympatholytic agents, which interfere with cholinergic transmission, may affect erectile potency, while adrenergic inhibiting agents may interfere with ejaculatory control. Central nervous system depressants or sedating drugs, drugs producing hyperprolactinemia, and antiandrogenic drugs also may affect the normal sexual response. Drugs such as antihypertensive and antipsychotic agents may induce sexual dysfunction that can result in patient noncompliance. Usually, drug-induced side effects are reversible with discontinuation of the offending agent.

  14. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs.

  15. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1–5) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results. All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P1. In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P4. The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion. The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  16. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  17. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  18. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Brini, Anna Teresa [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Girolamo, Laura de [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Niada, Stefania [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal

  19. [Sexuality and auto-immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georges; Vlatkovic, Dejan

    2010-03-24

    The idea that it might be a link between auto-immune affections and sexual disturbances could appear a vain purpose at a first glance. Nevertheless, as we start from a new point of view, it is understandable that we focus on a possible common tendency to develop self-aggression and self-destruction. Similarities which could play a role in the development of an auto-immune disease and of a sexual dixturbance as well.

  20. Differential neural processing of unpleasant haptic sensations in somatic and affective partitions of the insula in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Martina; Plener, Paul L; Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Grön, Georg; Abler, Birgit

    2015-12-30

    Altered perception and neural processing of pain have been observed during non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Evidence suggests that this phenomenon could be associated with the affective rather than the somatosensory dimension of pain. Sub-partitions of the insula have been suggested to process these different aspects differentially. In the present study, activation within the posterior, middle, and anterior partitions of the insula upon unpleasant electric stimulation was compared between subjects with a history of NSSI and healthy controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated a sample of 30 subjects, 14 of them with a lifetime history of NSSI. Unpleasant electric stimulation to the dorsum of the non-dominant hand was performed at four levels of increasing intensity. Significantly increasing posterior insula activation, which is likely to reflect the somatosensory aspects of unpleasant haptic sensations, was found upon parametrically increasing electric stimulation in both groups. By contrast, activation of the anterior insula, rather related to the more affective aspects of distressing stimuli, was significantly modulated only in the control group, but not in subjects with NSSI. These findings may support present hypotheses of altered processing of the more affective aspects of unpleasant or distressing experiences in NSSI, as a putatively relevant factor for understanding the etiology of this behavior.

  1. Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika Researchers think vaginal fluid may be ideal breeding ... in mice may offer insight into how the Zika virus is transmitted sexually and affects a fetus. ...

  2. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most victims ...

  3. Prenatal Valproate Exposure Differentially Affects Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons and Related Circuits in the Cortex and Striatum of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Emanuel; Filice, Federica; Schwaller, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a number of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases characterized by core behavioral symptoms in the domains of social interaction, language/communication and repetitive or stereotyped patterns of behavior. In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has evolved as a highly recognized rodent ASD model due to the robust behavioral phenotype observed in the offspring and the proven construct-, face- and predictive validity of the model. The number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV+) GABAergic interneurons has been consistently reported to be decreased in human ASD subjects and in ASD animal models. The presumed loss of this neuron subpopulation hereafter termed Pvalb neurons and/or PV deficits were proposed to result in an excitation/inhibition imbalance often observed in ASD. Importantly, loss of Pvalb neurons and decreased/absent PV protein levels have two fundamentally different consequences. Thus, Pvalb neurons were investigated in in utero VPA-exposed male (“VPA”) mice in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC), three ASD-associated brain regions. Unbiased stereology of PV+ neurons and Vicia Villosa Agglutinin-positive (VVA+) perineuronal nets, which specifically enwrap Pvalb neurons, was carried out. Analyses of PV protein expression and mRNA levels for Pvalb, Gad67, Kcnc1, Kcnc2, Kcns3, Hcn1, Hcn2, and Hcn4 were performed. We found a ∼15% reduction in the number of PV+ cells and decreased Pvalb mRNA and PV protein levels in the striatum of VPA mice compared to controls, while the number of VVA+ cells was unchanged, indicating that Pvalb neurons were affected at the level of the transcriptome. In selected cortical regions (mPFC, SSC) of VPA mice, no quantitative loss/decrease of PV+ cells was observed. However, expression of Kcnc1, coding for the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.1 specifically expressed in Pvalb neurons, was decreased by ∼40% in forebrain lysates of VPA mice

  4. Ecological factors differentially affect mercury levels in two species of sympatric marine birds of the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipfner, J.M., E-mail: mark.hipfner@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada); Hobson, K.A., E-mail: keith.hobson@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Elliott, J.E., E-mail: john.elliot@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    factors that might affect mercury burdens in marine predators. - Research Highlights: {yields} We measured mercury levels in two seabirds across two entire breeding seasons. {yields} Levels in rhinoceros auklets varied among years and foraging habitats, and peaked prior to laying. {yields} Levels in Cassin's auklets were much more constant. {yields} Lack of consistency within and between species accords with disparate results of earlier studies.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism and Aging in the Human Hyppocampus: Identification, Validation, and Impact of Differentially Expressed Genes by Factorial Microarray and Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guebel, Daniel V.; Torres, Néstor V.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: In the brain of elderly-healthy individuals, the effects of sexual dimorphism and those due to normal aging appear overlapped. Discrimination of these two dimensions would powerfully contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as “sporadic” Alzheimer. Methods: Following a system biology approach, top-down and bottom-up strategies were combined. First, public transcriptome data corresponding to the transition from adulthood to the aging stage in normal, human hippocampus were analyzed through an optimized microarray post-processing (Q-GDEMAR method) together with a proper experimental design (full factorial analysis). Second, the identified genes were placed in context by building compatible networks. The subsequent ontology analyses carried out on these networks clarify the main functionalities involved. Results: Noticeably we could identify large sets of genes according to three groups: those that exclusively depend on the sex, those that exclusively depend on the age, and those that depend on the particular combinations of sex and age (interaction). The genes identified were validated against three independent sources (a proteomic study of aging, a senescence database, and a mitochondrial genetic database). We arrived to several new inferences about the biological functions compromised during aging in two ways: by taking into account the sex-independent effects of aging, and considering the interaction between age and sex where pertinent. In particular, we discuss the impact of our findings on the functions of mitochondria, autophagy, mitophagia, and microRNAs. Conclusions: The evidence obtained herein supports the occurrence of significant neurobiological differences in the hippocampus, not only between adult and elderly individuals, but between old-healthy women and old-healthy men. Hence, to obtain realistic results in further analysis of the transition from the normal aging to incipient

  6. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  7. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  8. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce fem...

  9. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Yvette N; Thompson, Christopher S; McKay, Nicole S; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val(66)met or COMT val(158)met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III). COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e., met carriers relative to val homozygotes) was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  10. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler memory scale – third edition (WMS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Nicole Lamb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC, respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val66met or COMT val158met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III. COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e. met carriers relative to val homozygotes was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  11. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... words strike fear into the hearts of many parents. But talking to kids about sex is an important part of parenting. Children and adolescents need your guidance to help them make healthy and appropriate decisions about their sexual behavior. When it comes to ...

  12. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  13. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  14. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  15. Sexual Communication, Sexual Goals, and Students' Transition to College: Implications for Sexual Assault, Decision-Making, and Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.; Blayney, Jessica A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to understand college students' experiences and perceptions of sexual communication and sexual goals, and how they were affected by the transition from high school to college. Participants were heterosexual college students (N = 29). Single-sex focus groups were conducted and analyzed for themes. Major themes…

  16. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  17. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2016-05-07

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior.

  18. Differential responses of sexual and asexual Artemia to genotoxicity by a reference mutagen: Is the comet assay a reliable predictor of population level responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sandhya; Grant, Alastair

    2013-05-01

    The impact of chronic genotoxicity to natural populations is always questioned due to their reproductive surplus. We used a comet assay to quantify primary DNA damage after exposure to a reference mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate in two species of crustacean with different reproductive strategies (sexual Artemia franciscana and asexual Artemia parthenogenetica). We then assessed whether this predicted individual performance and population growth rate over three generations. Artemia were exposed to different chronic concentrations (0.78mM, 1.01mM, 1.24mM and 1.48mM) of ethyl methane sulfonate from instar 1 onwards for 3 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days and percentage tail DNA values were used for comparisons between species. The percentage tail DNA values showed consistently elevated values up to 7 days and showed a reduction from 14 days onwards in A. franciscana. Whilst in A. parthenogenetica such a reduction was evident on 21 days assessment. The values of percentage tail DNA after 21 days were compared with population level fitness parameters, growth, survival, fecundity and population growth rate to know whether primary DNA damage as measured by comet assay is a reliable biomarker. Substantial increase in tail DNA values was associated with substantial reductions in all the fitness parameters in the parental generation of A. franciscana and parental, F1 and F2 generations of A. parthenogenetica. So comet results were more predictive in asexual species over generations. These results pointed to the importance of predicting biomarker responses from multigenerational consequences considering life history traits and reproductive strategies in ecological risk assessments.

  19. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  20. Impaired SLAM-SLAM homotypic interaction between invariant NKT cells and dendritic cells affects differentiation of IL-4/IL-10-secreting NKT2 cells in nonobese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, Denis V; Caielli, Simone; Ronchi, Francesca; Coccia, Margherita; Facciotti, Federica; Nichols, Kim E; Falcone, Marika

    2008-07-15

    The regulatory function of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells for tolerance induction and prevention of autoimmunity is linked to a specific cytokine profile that comprises the secretion of type 2 cytokines like IL-4 and IL-10 (NKT2 cytokine profile). The mechanism responsible for iNKT cell differentiation toward a type 2 phenotype is unknown. Herein we show that costimulatory signals provided by the surface receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) on myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) to iNKT cells is crucial for NKT2 orientation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the impaired acquisition of an NKT2 cytokine phenotype in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes is due to defective SLAM-induced signals generated by NOD mDC. Mature mDC of C57BL/6 mice express SLAM and induce C57BL/6 or NOD iNKT cells to acquire a predominant NKT2 cytokine phenotype in response to antigenic stimulation with the iNKT cell-specific Ag, the alpha-galactosylceramide. In contrast, mature NOD mDC express significantly lower levels of SLAM and are unable to promote GATA-3 (the SLAM-induced intracellular signal) up-regulation and IL-4/IL-10 production in iNKT cells from NOD or C57BL/6 mice. NOD mice carry a genetic defect of the Slamf1 gene that is associated with reduced SLAM expression on double-positive thymocytes and altered iNKT cell development in the thymus. Our data suggest that the genetic Slamf1 defect in NOD mice also affects SLAM expression on other immune cells such as the mDC, thus critically impairing the peripheral differentiation of iNKT cells toward a regulatory NKT2 type.

  1. Humor and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  2. Predictors of Sexual Intercourse among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin

    2007-01-01

    Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse by…

  3. Hypoxaemia affects male reproduction: a case study of how to differentiate between primary and secondary hypoxic testicular toxicity due to chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter

    2013-07-01

    Classification for fertility is based on two conditions, namely on evidence of an adverse effect on sexual function and fertility and that the effect is not secondary to other toxic effects. To decide on an adverse effect is a relatively simple day-to-day decision in toxicology but whether this effect is secondary often leads to serious controversy. As the seminiferous epithelium operates on the verge of hypoxia, oxygen deficit can lead to secondary impairment of testicular function. This is well known from healthy mountaineers exposing themselves to high altitude. They have reduced blood oxygen content that goes in parallel with impairment of testicular function and this effect remains for some time in spite of a compensatory polycythaemia. Similar findings are described for experimental animals exposed to hypobaric oxygen/high altitude. In addition, testicular function is affected in severe diseases in humans associated with systemic oxygen deficit like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sickle cell disease or beta-thalassaemia as well as in transgenic animals simulating haemolytic anaemia or sickle cell disease. The problem of insufficient oxygen supply as the underlying cause for testicular impairment has received relatively little attention in toxicology, mainly because blood oxygen content is generally not measured in these animal experiments. The difficulties associated with the decision whether testicular toxicity is primary or secondary to hypoxia are exemplified by the results of inhalation studies with nickel subsulphide and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Both of these particulate substances lead to severe lung toxicity that might impair oxygen uptake, but testicular toxicity is only observed with GaAs. This may first be explained by different effects on the blood: nickel subsulphide inhalation leads to a compensatory erythropoiesis that may mitigate pulmonary lack of oxygen uptake. In contrast, GaAs exposure is associated with microcytic haemolytic

  4. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  5. Sexual coercion and behavior among a sample of sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives.

  6. Selective serotonin receptor stimulation of the medial nucleus accumbens differentially affects appetitive motivation for food on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Schall, Megan A; Choi, Eugene

    2012-03-09

    Previously, we reported that stimulation of selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially affected consumption of freely available food. Specifically, activation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake, while the stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptor subtypes decreased feeding [34]. The current experiments tested whether similar pharmacological activation of nucleus accumbens serotonin receptors would also affect appetitive motivation, as measured by the amount of effort non-deprived rats exerted to earn sugar reinforcement. Rats were trained to lever press for sugar pellets on a progressive ratio 2 schedule of reinforcement. Across multiple treatment days, three separate groups (N=8-10) received bilateral infusions of the 5-HT(6) agonist EMD 386088 (at 0.0, 1.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), the 5-HT(1/7) agonist 5-CT (at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), or the 5-HT(2C) agonist RO 60-0175 fumarate (at 0, 2.0, or 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) into the anterior medial nucleus accumbens prior to a 1-h progressive ratio session. Stimulation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in motivation as assessed by break point, reinforcers earned, and total active lever presses. Stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptors increased lever pressing at the 0.5 μg dose of 5-CT, but inhibited lever presses and break point at 4.0 μg/side. Injection of the 5-HT(2C) agonist had no effect on motivation within the task. Collectively, these experiments suggest that, in addition to their role in modulating food consumption, nucleus accumbens 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(1/7) receptors also differentially regulate the appetitive components of food-directed motivation.

  7. The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maycock3

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most studies address medical treatment of infertility and psychosocial outcomes caused by infertility-related stress, but few studies examine the infertility’s impact on sexuality.Aim: A literature review was conducted to answer the questions: 1 How is sexual self concept impacted in infertile individuals and their partners? 2 Does infertility have a negative impact on sexual relationships? 3 Is sexual function affected by infertility? In answering these questions, we may develop a better understanding of sexuality in the context of infertility, and thus better inform infertility management. Ultimately the aim is to improve the quality of life for infertile couples.Method: A literature search was conducted for publications from 1990 to 2011 via the electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus, which focused on sexuality in infertile subjects or couples.Results: In this review, all studies were descriptive quantitative studies which mapped the different aspects of sexuality in the context of infertility. The results suggested that infertility and its treatment approaches for fertilisationcould lead to changes in sexual self-esteem, sexual relationship and sexual function.Conclusion: The literature substantiated that many infertile subjects experienced trouble in various aspects of sexuality. However, further research should examine the reciprocal relations between sexual self concept, sexual relationship and sexual function in the context of infertility. How these changes affect the partners of infertile subjects should also be addressed.

  8. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    .4-2.2) or anogenital lesion (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0). Women aged 45 years or older were more likely to sustain a physical injury (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2) or an anogenital lesion (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our results challenge the typical stereotype of a violent rape attack by a stranger, which......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...... to 2010. METHODS: All women attending CVSA underwent a standardised data collection procedure. Descriptive bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between different assault characteristics and (1) the age of the victim and (2...

  9. Physiology of Women's Sexual Function: Basic Knowledge and New Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonia, Andrea; Giraldi, Annamaria; Chivers, Meredith L

    2010-01-01

    sexual arousal and orgasm. Methods.  A broad-based literature review of current knowledge of the psychological and biologic physiology aspects of women's sexual functioning. Results.  A comprehensive understanding of the anatomical, neurobiological, and psychological mechanisms behind sexual function......Introduction.  Data concerning the physiology of female sexual functioning are still obtained from animal studies, but an increasing amount of novel evidence comes from human studies. Aim.  To gain knowledge of psychological and biologic physiology of women's sexual functioning, mainly addressing...... and responses is of paramount importance. A biopsychological paradigm was considered when reviewing currently available data, thus considering aspects of: (i) sexual differentiation of the brain, which is critical for sex differentiation in behavior; (ii) central neurobiology of sexual function, highlighting...

  10. Etiology and Management of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar Muthugaduru Shivarudrappa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is the impairment or disruption of any of the three phases of normal sexual functioning, including loss of libido, impairment of physiological arousal and loss, delay or alteration of orgasm. Each one of these can be affected by an orchestra of factors like senility, medical and surgical illnesses, medications and drugs of abuse. Non-pharmacological therapy is the main stay in the treatment of sexual dysfunction and drugs are used as adjuncts for a quicker and better result. Management in many of the cases depends on the primary cause. Here is a review of the major etiological factors of sexual dysfunction and its management

  11. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce female sexual response, and may lead to anorgasmia and even frigidity. This procedure is now prohibited by law in Egypt.

  12. 性生活质量影响因素及PDE5抑制剂治疗勃起功能障碍后性生活质量改善的多中心临床研究%Factors affecting the quality of sexual life and quality of sexual life of ED patients after treatment of PDE5 inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪锴; 刘德风; 姜辉; 赵连明; 唐文豪; 毛加明; 张洪亮; 杨宇卓; 张哲

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the epidemiological data of the quality of sexual life in Chinese erec-tile dysfunction (ED)patients and the its possible affecting factors,and to observe the improvement of sexual life quality of ED patients after treatment of PDE5 -I.Methods:From June 2008 to November 2009,we enrolled ED patients to fill out a questionnaire on the quality of sexual life and efficacy of PDE5 -I treatment in 49 andrology or urology clinic centers all over China.ED patients were asked to fill out pre-treatment part of the questionnaire at first.Then they were given treatment with PDE5 -I,and completed the post-treatment after 4 weeks.The data were analyzed by using the software of SPSS 1 3.0.Results:In this study,5500 questionnaires were provided and 4507 valid questionnaires were collected.The mean age of ED patients was 42 years old.64.3%of them had never received any treatment before,and most patients’ED duration were less than 5 years (74. 5%).Half of these pa-tients thought that “erectile hardness”was the first critical factor in sexual life.28%,1 5% and 6. 7% of patients considered “erectile duration”,“orgasms”and “speed of erection”as the most important factor respectively.After treatment with PDE5 -I,the patients achieved apparent improvement in erectile hardness;95 .3%of patients could achieve grade 3 or 4 erection hardness,and 39. 8% of them returned to normal.At the same time,the quality and enjoyment of sexual life,the degree of satisfaction and the sexual frequency were also improved in these patients who were treated with PDE5 -I(P and improve the quality and satisfaction of sexual life.%目的:了解我国勃起功能障碍(ED)患者性生活质量的流行病学数据和影响性生活质量的因素,观察经PDE5-I治疗后性生活质量的改善情况。方法:从2008年6月至2009年11月,在中国的49个男科或泌尿科诊疗中心开展了一项关于对ED患者性生活质量情况(享受度、满

  13. In search for animal models of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, E.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is a disorder that affects around 40% of the population. Low sexual arousal and low sexual desire are the most common problems. The mechanisms underlying the disorder are still unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) the search for animal models of FSD, 2) the develo

  14. Evaluating sexual nursing care intervention for reducing sexual dysfunction in Indonesian cervical cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Afiyanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to describe the factors affecting successful nursing care intervention on sexuality. Methods: A one-group pre- and post-test design was used. Fifty-three cervical cancer survivors and their spouses were administered with nursing care intervention on sexuality in three sessions and evaluated after 6 weeks. Results: Sexual intervention reduced dyspareunia symptoms, improved vaginal lubrication, improved sexual satisfaction, and enhanced sexual arousal, sexual desire, and orgasm among cancer survivors and their spouses. The other influencing factors also simultaneously contributed to the success of nursing care intervention. Conclusions: Nursing care intervention on sexuality could be a part of supportive nursing care and an important aspect in standard nursing care for cancer patients in Indonesia.

  15. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  16. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Duisin, Dragana; Barisić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes.The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time.The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female's sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes.The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function.The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman's sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions.The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women's problematic sexual experiences.

  17. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  18. Sexual dysfunction in women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L

    2008-03-01

    Sexual dysfunction in women with epilepsy (WWE) is an important comorbidity. A significant minority of WWE have markedly decreased sexual interest and it appears that orgasmic dysfunction occurs more frequently in WWE than in control women. Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs can adversely affect sexual functioning by decreasing bioactive testosterone levels. Temporal lobe epilepsy of right-sided versus left-sided origin may also be a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. In addition to these factors, emerging evidence suggests that the serotonin transporter protein is related to temporal lobe epilepsy and it is postulated that this transporter may play a role in altered sexual functioning in epilepsy, perhaps through the serotonergic effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Strategies for modifying the contributors to sexual dysfunction in WWE will be discussed as well as the role of the neurologist in initiating management of this challenging comorbidity.

  19. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jennifer A; Clinton, Sarah M; Perry, Adam N; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B

    2013-02-01

    High- versus low-novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively bred for high-novelty exploration (bred-high responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared with low-novelty reactive rats (bred-low responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior-sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance.

  20. Adolescents’ emotions prior to sexual activity and associations with sexual risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Christopher; Swenson, Rebecca; Donenberg, Geri; Papino, Andrew; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the link between the emotional context of sexual situations and sexual risk, specifically by examining the relationship of teens’ recall of their affective states prior to sex with their sexual risk behaviors and attitudes. Adolescents (ages 13-19) attending therapeutic schools due to emotional and behavioral difficulties (n=247) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews regarding sexual behavior, including ratings of their emotions prior to last sexual activity. Positive emotions were most commonly endorsed (43-57% of participants), however, significant proportions (8-23%) also endorsed negative emotions prior to last sex. Both positive and negative emotions were significantly related to risk attitudes and behavior in regression analyses. The affective contexts of sexual experiences may be important predictors of risk in adolescence. PMID:24558097

  1. Prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Bellavista, S; Trimarco, R; Patrizi, A

    2012-08-01

    Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, transgenders and clients of SWs have in prostitution and in the outbreaks of STDs. In addition, we also want to highlight how new sexual networks, like the Internet, have become an increasingly important vehicle to sharing information about prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs. Finally we present what may be the prevention strategies and the goals in order to stem the spread of STDs among these hard-to-access groups.

  2. Sexuality in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org editorial staffSexual Dysfunction (Women)Read Article >>WomenSexual Dysfunction (Women)Learn about the symptoms, causes and treatment of sexual dysfunction disorders.April 2014September 2000familydoctor.org editorial staff ...

  3. Sexual Function before and after Total Hip Replacement: Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rotem Meiri, BPT; Talli Y. Rosenbaum, PT, MSc

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 1 million total hip replacements (THRs) are performed every year worldwide. Achieving decreased pain, increased mobility, and improved quality of life (QoL) are key factors in the decision to undergo THR. Sexual activity is a valued component of QoL; however, little is known about how THR affects sexual functioning or the extent to which health care providers address sexuality in THR patients. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the literature regarding sexuality ...

  4. In search for animal models of female sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is a disorder that affects around 40% of the population. Low sexual arousal and low sexual desire are the most common problems. The mechanisms underlying the disorder are still unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) the search for animal models of FSD, 2) the development of new treatments and 3) to investigate the effects of common used antidepressants on female sexual behavior. In the first part, two rat models are described which were validated with pharmac...

  5. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  6. A survey of current knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour in Italian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Drago; Giulia Ciccarese; Francesca Zangrillo; Giulia Gasparini; Ludovica Cogorno; Silvia Riva; Sanja Javor; Emanuele Cozzani; Francesco Broccolo; Susanna Esposito; Aurora Parodi

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 137...

  7. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  8. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2016-12-16

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  9. [The Christian ethic and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourton, J

    1991-03-01

    more frequently and clearly in social commentaries, instead of the usual advice to shed all inhibitions. Human sexuality should be examined in the context of the other elements of the interior life, including affectivity, liberty, and religiosity.

  10. The impact of rheumatic diseases on sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristano, Antonio G

    2009-06-01

    Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being's life and is more than of only the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. In rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients, pain and depression could be the principal factors contributing to sexual dysfunction. On the other hand, in women with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis sexual dysfunction is apparently most associated to vaginal discomfort or pain during intercourse. Finally, sexual dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia could be principally associated with depression, but the characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia (generalized pain, stiffness, fatigue and poor sleep) may contribute to the occurrence of sexual dysfunction. The treatment of sexual dysfunction will depend on the specific patient's symptoms, however, there are some general recommendations including: exploring different positions, using analgesics drug, heat and muscle relaxants before sexual activity and exploring alternative methods of sexual expression. This is a systemic review about the impact of several rheumatic diseases on sexual functioning. There are no previous overviews about this topic so far.

  11. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-06

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information.

  12. Sexual excitement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  13. Male Mating Success: Preference or Prowess? Investigating Sexual Selection in the Laboratory Using "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is the primary force affecting the evolution of the elaborate sexual displays common in animals, yet sexual selection experiments are largely absent from introductory biology laboratories. Here we describe the rationale, methodology, and results of several experiments using "Drosophila melanogaster" to demonstrate sexual selection…

  14. Sexual Health Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Talking about Sex Is Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Chelsea; Esmail, Shaniff

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated problems that children with visual impairments experience with sexual health education. The participants identified themes that affected their knowledge of sexual health and the need for sexual health education. Strategies that address sexual health issues for individuals with visual impairments are described.

  15. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  16. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  17. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  18. Effect of sexual coercion proclivity, insult and fantasy on emotional reactivity and appeal of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lindsey A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-08-01

    Fifty-nine heterosexual university males were assessed for Sexual Coercion Proclivity (SCP) and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Insult/nonsexually coercive fantasy material; no insult/sexually coercive fantasy material; or, insult/sexually coercive fantasy material. Although not differing in terms of anger or anxiety, the high SCP became more frustrated than the low group, particularly when exposed to both insult and sexually coercive (SC) fantasy material. Changes in negative affect predicted anticipated likelihood of engaging in SC among the low SCP group and anticipated enjoyment of SC in the high SCP group. Acculturation accounted for differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese men.

  19. Sexuality and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  20. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early...

  1. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.

  2. Sexual disclosures: connections to relational satisfaction and closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Tina A; Hess, Jon A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines sexual communication by describing the content of sexual disclosures within marital relationships and assessing the association between sexual disclosures and relational outcomes, specifically relational satisfaction and closeness. A survey administered to 293 married individuals (58% female) who had an average age of 40 years (range = 20-73), 13.7 years of marriage (range = 1 month to 54 years), and who reported high levels of relational satisfaction assessed the relation between the content of sexual disclosures and satisfaction and closeness. While sexual disclosures are made infrequently, positive affect and sexual preferences are disclosed more than negative topics and disclosing sexual information is positively related to relationship satisfaction, rρ(280) =.26, p sexual information and relationship satisfaction and closeness, as reported by individuals experiencing relationship satisfaction.

  3. Sexuality education in Malaysia: perceived issues and barriers by professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Zahra Fazli; Low, Wah Yun; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2014-07-01

    This research explored the perspectives of Malaysian professionals on the issues and barriers affecting the implementation of sexuality education in Malaysia. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 15 key professionals working in the field of sexuality and reproductive health in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was selected to analyze data. Barriers to sexuality education were perceived from 5 aspects: feasibility, acceptability, accountability, strategies, and community unawareness. Respondents believed that implementing national sexuality education is a time-consuming project. They regarded Malaysian multicultural society as a barrier to national sexuality education, and they believed that school-based sexuality education is not easily accomplished in Malaysia; also abstinence-only policy restricts the access of young people to accurate information. Lack of community involvement was perceived as a key concern to sexuality education. Campaigning to promote awareness of families, teachers, community leaders, and policy makers are recommended to help establishing national sexuality education in Malaysia.

  4. The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Northouse, L; Foley, S; Gilbert, S; Wood, D P; Balon, R; Montie, J E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects one in six American men. Erectile and sexual dysfunctions are long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment. PubMed database was searched for papers on prostate cancer-related sexual recovery for men and couples. The search yielded articles on (1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction, (2) men's psychological and culturally diverse adaptation to the sexual side effects; (3) the impact of prostate cancer on couples' relationships; and (4) interventions to promote sexual function. Erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment has been widely studied. Research on the sexual recovery of men and couples or understanding it in a cultural context is scarce. Greater focus on the impact of sexual sequelae of prostate cancer treatment on men as well as couples in diverse groups is needed. Clinical implications for treating sexual dysfunction and promoting sexual recovery for prostate cancer survivors and their partners are discussed. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  5. Sexuality related attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askun, Duysal; Ataca, Bilge

    2007-10-01

    In this study, sexual attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students were explored by taking many influential agents both at the distal and the proximal levels into consideration. A total of 563 students from three universities located in three cities completed a questionnaire that assessed their virginity status, first intercourse, sexual permissiveness, pornography usage, endorsement of traditional sexual double standards, and the perception of parental attitudes about sexuality. The results showed that women and students from rural areas were more traditional and conservative in their attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality. The perception of maternal restriction about sexuality was related to sexual conservatism, negative affective reaction at first coitus, and endorsing traditional sexual double standards. The results are discussed in terms of various degrees of influences originating from proximal and distal variables in the Turkish context.

  6. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun;

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  7. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  8. Will it help? Identifying socialization discourses that promote sexual risk and sexual health among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kyla Day; Ward, L Monique; Thomas, Khia; Foust, Monica; Levin, Dana; Trinh, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Because much of the existing research examining sexual communication to African American youth focuses on demographic and parental factors predicting sexual risk behaviors, less is known about factors predicting sexual health, and little is understood about the contributions of peer communications. The current study aimed to expand existing approaches by assessing which socialization discourses communicated by parents and peers contribute to sexual risk and health outcomes (sexual assertiveness, positive sexual affect, and condom self-efficacy). Participants were 631 African American undergraduates (73% female) who indicated the extent to which they had received from their parents and peers each of 28 messages representing four cultural discourses: abstinence, relational sex, sex positive, and gendered sexual roles. As expected, parents were perceived to emphasize relational sex and abstinence messages more than peers, and peers were perceived to communicate sex-positive and gendered sex role messages more than parents. Greater exposure to abstinence messages predicted lower levels of sexual experimentation, whereas exposure to sex-positive messages predicted higher levels. In addition, exposure to relational sex and sex-positive messages predicted higher levels of sexual assertiveness and positive sexual affect. Implications are discussed concerning sexual communications that could help Black youth develop healthy sexual perspectives.

  9. Sexuality and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  10. The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerad A Fox

    Full Text Available Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD. Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry or reduced (negative allometry size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width. Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution

  11. The dilemma of choosing a reference character for measuring sexual size dimorphism, sexual body component dimorphism, and character scaling: cryptic dimorphism and allometry in the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gerad A; Cooper, Allen M; Hayes, William K

    2015-01-01

    Sexual differences in morphology, ranging from subtle to extravagant, occur commonly in many animal species. These differences can encompass overall body size (sexual size dimorphism, SSD) or the size and/or shape of specific body parts (sexual body component dimorphism, SBCD). Interacting forces of natural and sexual selection shape much of the expression of dimorphism we see, though non-adaptive processes may be involved. Differential scaling of individual features can result when selection favors either exaggerated (positive allometry) or reduced (negative allometry) size during growth. Studies of sexual dimorphism and character scaling rely on multivariate models that ideally use an unbiased reference character as an overall measure of body size. We explored several candidate reference characters in a cryptically dimorphic taxon, Hadrurus arizonensis. In this scorpion, essentially every body component among the 16 we examined could be interpreted as dimorphic, but identification of SSD and SBCD depended on which character was used as the reference (prosoma length, prosoma area, total length, principal component 1, or metasoma segment 1 width). Of these characters, discriminant function analysis suggested that metasoma segment 1 width was the most appropriate. The pattern of dimorphism in H. arizonensis mirrored that seen in other more obviously dimorphic scorpions, with static allometry trending towards isometry in most characters. Our findings are consistent with the conclusions of others that fecundity selection likely favors a larger prosoma in female scorpions, whereas sexual selection may favor other body parts being larger in males, especially the metasoma, pectines, and possibly the chela. For this scorpion and probably most other organisms, the choice of reference character profoundly affects interpretations of SSD, SBCD, and allometry. Thus, researchers need to broaden their consideration of an appropriate reference and exercise caution in interpreting

  12. Evaluation of sexual attitude and sexual function in menopausal age; a population based cross-sectional study

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    Somayeh Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause and its physical, hormonal and psychosocial changes could affect women’s sexual function. There are controversial results regarding relationship between sexual attitudes and function. Objective: We aimed to evaluate sexual attitudes and sexual function among Iranian menopausal age women. Materials and Methods: This population based cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 menopausal women, aged 45-65 years. Based on a self-made questionnaire data were collected about women’s socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. Data were analyzed using SPSS and sexual function was compared between three groups of women who had positive, medium and negative attitudes regarding sexuality. Results: The mean age of women was 53.11±4.56 years. Seventy percent of them had at least one sexual problem. Feeling of dyspareunia was significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality (p=0.03. Comparing data obtained on their attitudes, sexual desire, orgasm and dyspareunia demonstrated significant differences (p=0.03, 0.04, and 0.04 respectively. Conclusion: Attitude regarding sexual function has a great impact on sexual activity of postmenopausal women that need to be considered in their health care programming.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Sexuality in Female Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in f...

  14. Survey of cervical cancer survivors regarding quality of life and sexual function

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    Wenjuan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The QOL and sexual function of cervical cancer survivors were lower than the general population. Treatment-related complications and sexual dysfunction significantly affected patients' QOL. Having health insurance was associated with better QOL. Sexual function was adversely affected by radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy.

  15. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

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    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  16. The conditioned medium from osteo-differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells affects the viability of triple negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

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    Librizzi, Mariangela; Tobiasch, Edda; Luparello, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of conditioned media (CM) from osteo-differentiating and adipo-differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from lipoaspirates of healthy female donors on the viability of triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB231. The CM of undifferentiated and differentiating MSCs were collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of culture. The effects of MSC CM on cell proliferation were assessed using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 24 h. The effects of osteo-differentiating cell CM on apoptotic promotion, cell cycle impairment, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, production of reactive oxygen species and autophagosome accumulation were analysed by flow cytometry and Western blot. MTT assay showed that only CM collected from osteo-induced cells at day 28 (d28O-CM) reduced tumour cell viability. Treatment with d28O-CM restrained cell cycle progression through G2 phase, elicited a caspase-8-driven apoptotic effect already after 5 h of culture, and down-regulated autophagosome accumulation and beclin-1 expression. The finding that factor(s) secreted by osteo-differentiating MSCs shows properties of an apoptotic inducer and autophagy inhibitor on triple-negative breast cancer cells may have an important applicative potential that deserves further investigation.

  17. Traditional Asian folklore medicines in sexual health

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    Peter Lim Huat Chye

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction is one of the important health problems affecting man and his partner. Recently, many treatments have evolved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or sexual health. Of the available treatments several are pharmacologically proven and tested medications. However, in Asia, there are significant users of unproven medications for sexual health. These medications are traditionally used by the folklore living in the countryside. These untested medications may have a profound effect on the body system and their interactions with other medications may be harmful. However, comprehensive accounts of such medications are unavailable. This paper descriptively highlights the common medications used for sexual health in Asia.

  18. Profile of sexuality in Moroccan chronic low back pain patients

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    Bahouq Hanane

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual life had an important role in preserving the good quality of life for patients and for their partner. Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP as other musculoskeletal diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of CLBP on the sexual life of patients and to identify the factors that affect their Sexual Quality of Life (SQOL. Methods One hundred CLBP sexually active patients were included. Patients and disease Characteristics were collected. Impact on sexual life (sexual intercourse and SQOL was also assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to analyze significant determinants associated with the SQOL disturbance. Results Eighty one percent of our patients complained about sexual difficulties related to CLBP. Libido decrease and painful intercourse position were reported respectively in 14.8 and 97.5% of cases. The most pain generating position was supine. Mean of sexual intercourse frequency decrease was at −10.4 ± 4.8 per month. SQOL score mean was at 44.6 ± 17.4%. Men suffered more than women from sexual problems (respectively 90% vs. 72%; p = 0.02. Men had worse SQOL than women (respectively 38.9 ± 17.2 vs. 50.3 ± 15.7%; p = 0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (p = 0.009, poor functional status (p = 0.03, male gender (p = 0.03 and sexual intercourse frequency decrease (p = 0.005 were the independent variables associated with the SQOL disturbance. Conclusion Our study suggests that sexuality is profoundly disturbed in CLBP patients; both their sexual intercourse and SQOL were affected. This disturbance seems to be associated with patient and disease characteristics. Sexuality should be taken into account in managing CLBP patients.

  19. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Methods Dat...

  20. Impact of Overactive Bladder Syndrome on Female Sexual Function

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    Serdar Toksöz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of female sexual dysfunction includes psychological, physiological and iatrogenic causes. Physiological and iatrogenic causes are abdominal surgery, menopause, smoking, spinal cord injuries and some antipsychotic, antihypertensive, and antidepressant drugs. When assessing sexual function, sexual function questionnaires, such as the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Sexual Function Questionnaire are used. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is 43% and it has been reported to increase depending on menopause and age. Estrogen, estrogen + testosterone and tibolone, PDE5, apomorphine, bupropion and flibanserin are used in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Overactive bladder is a disease affecting the quality of life and is characterized by urgency, frequency, nocturia and urge incontinence with especially filling phase of the bladder resulting from loss of detrusor muscle inhibition. The prevalence of overactive bladder in women in the United States has been reported to be 16.9%. Lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder syndrome are not known how to cause female sexual dysfunction. Menopause and partner status were the most important predictors for female sexual dysfunction. It has been reported that overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence provide prediction of development of female sexual dysfunction. Shame, fear of incontinence, and urinary incontinence as well as urge sensation during sexual intercourse in individuals with overactive bladder syndrome have been reported to be the main factors causing female sexual dysfunction. Pathophysiological relationship between the two disorders has not been elucidated and further clinical and experimental studies are needed in this regard.

  1. Sexual Functioning in Young Women and Men: Role of Attachment Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Cara R; Dang, Silvain S; Chang, Sabrina C H; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2016-07-01

    Prior research has documented various ways in which adult attachment styles are characteristic of differential behavioral and cognitive patterns within romantic relationships and sexuality. However, few studies have examined the direct influence of anxious or avoidant attachment orientation on sexual function. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of insecure attachment on sexual function. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires measuring attachment style and sexual functioning. Among women, attachment avoidance tended to be associated with impairments in all aspects of sexual function, whereas anxious attachment tended to be associated with declines in arousal, satisfaction, and ability to achieve orgasm. A different trend was seen in men: Anxious attachment tended to be associated with multiple facets of sexual dysfunction, while avoidant attachment did not correlate with any sexual function deficits and was associated with superior physiological competence. These results suggest that both anxious and avoidant attachment styles are important yet differential predictors of sexual function in men and women.

  2. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Yong-Yow, Sabrina; Wagner, Lauren; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-08-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to test the hypothesis that orexin is critical for sexual motivation and performance in male rats. First, cFos expression in orexin neurons was demonstrated following presentation of a receptive or non-receptive female without further activation by different elements of mating. Next, the functional role of orexin was tested utilizing orexin-B conjugated saporin, resulting in orexin cell body lesions in the hypothalamus. Lesions were conducted in sexually naive males and subsequent sexual behavior was recorded during four mating trials. Lesion males showed shortened latencies to mount and intromit during the first, but not subsequent mating trials, suggesting lesions facilitated initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive, but not experienced males. Likewise, lesions did not affect sexual motivation in experienced males, determined by runway tests. Finally, elevated plus maze tests demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behaviors in lesioned males, supporting a role for orexin in anxiety associated with initial exposure to the female in naive animals. Overall, these findings show that orexin is not critical for male sexual performance or motivation, but may play a role in arousal and anxiety related to sexual behavior in naive animals.

  3. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  4. Psychophysiological response patterns and risky sexual behavior in heterosexual and homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John

    2009-08-01

    The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.

  5. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  7. Scleroderma and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleroderma and Sexuality INTRODUCTION If you or your partner have been diagnosed with scleroderma, you may be wondering how this will ... will continue to find satisfaction and enjoyment through sexuality. If you are single, you may wonder how ...