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Sample records for affects perceived health

  1. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  2. A survey of how patient-perceived empathy affects the relationship between health literacy and the understanding of information by orthopedic patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Cheng-I; Tseng Chia-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of research examining patient-perceived empathy and its effect on low-literacy patients’ understanding of health information. This study investigated the moderating effect of patient-perceived empathy on the relationship between health literacy and understanding of preoperative information. Methods During a 2-month period, a total of 144 patients took a survey that included the Chinese-edition Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the Barrett-Lennar...

  3. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  4. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  5. How target and perceiver gender affect impressions of HIV risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eBarth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: People do not use condoms consistently but instead rely on intuition to identify sexual partners high at risk for HIV infection. The present study examined gender differences of intuitive impressions about HIV risk. Methods: Male and female perceivers evaluated portraits of unacquainted male and female targets regarding their risk for HIV, trait characteristics (trust, responsibility, attractiveness, valence, arousal, and health and willingness for interaction. Results: Male targets were perceived as more risky than female targets for both perceiver genders. Furthermore, male perceivers reported higher HIV risk perception for both male and female targets than female perceivers. Multiple regression indicated gender differences in the association between person characteristics and HIV risk. In male targets, only trustworthiness predicts HIV risk. In female targets, however, HIV risk is related to trustworthiness, attractiveness, health, valence (for male perceivers, and arousal (for female perceivers.Conclusion: The present findings characterize intuitive impressions of HIV risk and reveal differences according to both, target and perceiver gender. Considering gender differences in intuitive judgments of HIV risk may help devise effective strategies by shifting the balance from feelings of risk towards a more rational mode of risk perception and the adoption of effective precautionary behaviors.

  6. PERCEIVED RACISM AND NEGATIVE AFFECT: ANALYSES OF TRAIT AND STATE MEASURES OF AFFECT IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Brady, Nisha; THOMPSON, SHOLA; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Cassells, Andrea; Sweeney, Monica; MCFARLANE, DELANO; Contrada, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Racism is a significant psychosocial stressor that is hypothesized to have negative psychological and physical health consequences. The Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo & Matthews, 2003) suggests that low socioeconomic status may influence health through its effects on negative affect. We extend this model to study the effects of racism, examining the association of lifetime perceived racism to trait and daily negative affect. A multiethnic sample of 362 American–born Black and Latino adults com...

  7. How target and perceiver gender affect impressions of HIV risk

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander eBarth; Ralf eSchmaelzle; Freda-Marie eHartung; Britta eRenner; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People do not use condoms consistently but instead rely on intuition to identify sexual partners high at risk for HIV infection. The present study examined gender differences of intuitive impressions about HIV risk. Methods: Male and female perceivers evaluated portraits of unacquainted male and female targets regarding their risk for HIV, trait characteristics (trust, responsibility, attractiveness, valence, arousal, and health) and willingness for interaction. Results: Male targ...

  8. How target and perceiver gender affect impressions of HIV risk

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Alexander; Schmälzle, Ralf; Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    Background:People do not use condoms consistently but instead rely on intuition to identify sexual partners high at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The present study examined gender differences of intuitive impressions about HIV risk.Methods:Male and female perceivers evaluated portraits of unacquainted male and female targets regarding their risk for HIV, trait characteristics (trust, responsibility, attractiveness, valence, arousal, and health), and willingness for in...

  9. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  10. The effects of perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and perceived co-worker support on safety and health compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puah, Lee Na; Ong, Lin Dar; Chong, Wei Ying

    2016-09-01

    Although knowledge is cumulating, very little is known about the effects of various sources of support on safety and health compliance. This study goes beyond previous research by investigating the relationships among perceived support from organizations, supervisors and co-workers, and employees' safety and health compliance behaviour at chemical and petroleum process plants. The results of this study show that the support from organizations, supervisors and co-workers was significantly related to employees' safety and health compliance. Also, the findings reveal that perceived supervisor support has the strongest influence in ensuring employees' safety and health compliance behaviour. PMID:27049935

  11. Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders;

    2015-01-01

    to record the migration of individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a partially migratory fish, in the wild following exposure to manipulation of direct (predator presence/absence) and indirect (high/low roach density) perceived predation risk in experimental mesocosms. Following exposure, we released fish......) affected timing but not propensity showing that elevated risk carried over to alter migratory behaviour in the wild. Our key finding demonstrates predator-driven migratory plasticity, highlighting the powerful role of predation risk for migratory decision-making and dynamics....

  12. The association between insomnia and perceived health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university

  13. Perceived sexism as a health determinant in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucía; Gil González, Diana; Pérez, Glòria; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goals of the present study are to explore the association between perceived sexism and self-perceived health, health-related behaviors, and unmet medical care needs among women in Spain; to analyze whether higher levels of discrimination are associated with higher prevalence of poor health indicators and to examine whether these relationships are modified by country of origin and social class. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study is based on a cross-sectional design using data fro...

  14. Factors associated with perceived health among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, JongSerl; Nam, Sunghee; Chung, Ick-Joong; Kang, Hyunah; Nho, Choong Rai; Woo, Seokjin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influences of personal, social, and environmental-structural factors on the perceived health of Korean adolescents. Using a two-stage generalized hierarchical logistic linear multilevel model, this study found that general high school enrollment, younger age, normal weight, and frequent exercise increased the likelihood of a positive self-perception of health. Higher levels of parental concern and quality of school life also contributed to the likelihood of students perceiving themselves as healthy. In contrast, psychological symptoms and negative self-esteem decreased the likelihood that students perceived themselves as healthy. The results provide implications for disease prevention and health promotion programs. PMID:25144695

  15. Thinking versus feeling: differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data were obtained from four surveys focusing on smoking (N=268), fruit consumption (N=989), sunbed use (N=251) and sun protection (N=858). Correlational analyses showed that affective likelihood was more strongly correlated with worry compared to cognitive likelihood and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor model of perceived likelihood instead of a one-factor model (i.e. cognition and affect combined). Furthermore, affective likelihood was significantly associated with the various outcome variables, whereas the association for cognitive likelihood was absent in three studies. The findings provide support for the construct validity of the measures used to assess cognitive and affective likelihood. Since affective likelihood might be a better predictor of health behaviour than the commonly used cognitive operationalisation, both dimensions should be considered in future research. PMID:21767108

  16. Assessment of perceived health status in hypertensive and diabetes mellitus patients at primary health centers in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Mandhari

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The presence of both diseases was associated with lower physical scores of perceived health status. Health status was also affected by various demographic and clinical characteristics. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the study′s limitations.

  17. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  18. Emotional Sensitivity, Stress, and Perceived Health in Venezuelan Marines

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Guarino; Verloisse Herrera

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the possible relationship among stress, emotional sensitivity, coping and perceived health in cadets from the Navy Academy of Venezuela. Participants were 130 cadets (31 females and 99 males) evaluated on their level of stress, coping styles and emotional sensitivity, with the aim at determining the relationship between these variables and their perceived heatlh. Results support previous findings regarding the positive association between stress and the deterioratio...

  19. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether perceive

  20. Disability Mediates the Impact of Common Conditions on Perceived Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Adroher, Nuria D.; Chatterji, Somnath; He, Yanling; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; O'Neill, Siobhan; Hormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Xavier, Miguel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. Methods and Findings: WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate). W

  1. Watch this! Observed tool use affects perceived distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloesch, Emily K; Davoli, Christopher C; Roth, Noam; Brockmole, James R; Abrams, Richard A

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that being able to interact with an object causes it to be perceived as being closer than objects that cannot be interacted with. In the present study, we examined whether that compression of perceived space would be experienced by people who simply observed such interactions by others with no intention of performing the action themselves. Participants judged the distance to targets after observing an actor reach to an otherwise unreachable target with a tool (Experiment 1) or illuminate a distant target with a laser pointer (Experiment 2). Observing either type of interaction caused a compression of perceived space, revealing that a person's perception of space can be altered through mere observation. These results indicate that shared representations between an actor and observer are engaged at the perceptual level easily and perhaps automatically, even in the absence of cooperation or an observer's own intention to interact. PMID:22231725

  2. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging.

  3. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  4. Emotional style, health and perceived quality of life in pregnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Guarino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the possible relationship among emotional style (rumination and emotional inhibition and the perceived health and quality of life of pregnant women. To do so, a sample of 94 Venezuelan women on their first trimester of pregnancy completed questionnaires measuring the studied variables: Rumination, Emotional Inhibition, Global Health and perceived Quality of Life. Results support previous findings regarding the positive association between negative emotional style and the deterioration of the health status, while brings new evidence of the inverse relationship between these individual difference and the quality of life in this particular group, who has been poorly studied in its psychosocial dimension. 

  5. Perceived health problems in subjects with varying cardiovascular diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R A; Imperial, E; Kelleher, P; Brunker, P; Gass, G

    1991-10-01

    To study perceived health problems in subjects with differing cardiovascular status, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was administered to 210 subjects 55 years of age and over. Subjects were categorized as being cardiovascular "Normals," being hypertensive, having isolated coronary artery disease, or both being hypertensive and having coronary artery disease. An analysis of variance between the four cardiovascular strata on each of the six subscales of the NHP yielded significant differences between the groups on the subscales Pain, Physical Mobility, Energy, and Social Isolation. Subsequent conservative post hoc analyses of the group means on each of these variables indicated that the group with isolated coronary artery disease differed significantly from both the hypertensives and the Normals in Physical Mobility. For the Pain subscale the subjects with isolated coronary artery disease differed significantly from those with hypertension. There were no differences among the four cardiovascular groups in perceived health problems on the subscales Emotional Reactions and Sleep. PMID:1744912

  6. Oxygenated-blood colour change thresholds for perceived facial redness, health, and attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Blood oxygenation level is associated with cardiovascular fitness, and raising oxygenated blood colouration in human faces increases perceived health. The current study used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC psychophysics design to quantify the oxygenated blood colour (redness change threshold required to affect perception of facial colour, health and attractiveness. Detection thresholds for colour judgments were lower than those for health and attractiveness, which did not differ. The results suggest redness preferences do not reflect a sensory bias, rather preferences may be based on accurate indications of health status. Furthermore, results suggest perceived health and attractiveness may be perceptually equivalent when they are assessed based on facial redness. Appearance-based motivation for lifestyle change can be effective; thus future studies could assess the degree to which cardiovascular fitness increases face redness and could quantify changes in aerobic exercise needed to increase facial attractiveness.

  7. Disability mediates the impact of common conditions on perceived health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Alonso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined the extent to which disability mediates the observed associations of common mental and physical conditions with perceived health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: WHO World Mental Health (WMH Surveys carried out in 22 countries worldwide (n = 51,344 respondents, 72.0% response rate. We assessed nine common mental conditions with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and ten chronic physical with a checklist. A visual analog scale (VAS score (0, worst to 100, best measured perceived health in the previous 30 days. Disability was assessed using a modified WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS, including: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, role functioning (life activities, family burden, stigma, and discrimination. Path analysis was used to estimate total effects of conditions on perceived health VAS and their separate direct and indirect (through the WHODAS dimensions effects. Twelve-month prevalence was 14.4% for any mental and 51.4% for any physical condition. 31.7% of respondents reported difficulties in role functioning, 11.4% in mobility, 8.3% in stigma, 8.1% in family burden and 6.9% in cognition. Other difficulties were much less common. Mean VAS score was 81.0 (SD = 0.1. Decrements in VAS scores were highest for neurological conditions (9.8, depression (8.2 and bipolar disorder (8.1. Across conditions, 36.8% (IQR: 31.2-51.5% of the total decrement in perceived health associated with the condition were mediated by WHODAS disabilities (significant for 17 of 19 conditions. Role functioning was the dominant mediator for both mental and physical conditions. Stigma and family burden were also important mediators for mental conditions, and mobility for physical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of the decrement in perceived health associated with common conditions is mediated by disability. Although the decrement is similar for physical and mental conditions, the pattern of

  8. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  9. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ? 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS : Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36; health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD, Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS : Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001, with chronic disease (p < 0.0001, who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01, who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over

  10. A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions : Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health con

  11. Perceived facial adiposity conveys information about women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinlin, Rowan M; Watkins, Christopher D; Welling, Lisa L M; DeBruine, Lisa M; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-05-01

    Although several prominent theories of human facial attractiveness propose that some facial characteristics convey information about people's health, empirical evidence for this claim is somewhat mixed. While most previous research into this issue has focused on facial characteristics such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism, a recent study reported that ratings of facial adiposity (i.e., perceptions of fatness in the face) were positively correlated with indices of poor physical condition in a sample of young adults (i.e., reported past health problems and measures of cardiovascular fitness). These findings are noteworthy, since they suggest that perceived adiposity is a potentially important facial cue of health that has been overlooked by much of the previous work in this area. Here, we show that ratings of young adult women's facial adiposity are (1) better predicted by their body weight than by their body shape (Studies 1 and 2), (2) correlated with a composite measure of their physical and psychological condition (Study 2), and (3) negatively correlated with their trait (i.e., average) salivary progesterone levels (Study 3). Together, these findings present further evidence that perceived facial adiposity, or a correlate thereof, conveys potentially important information about women's actual health. PMID:23560669

  12. Perceived hotness affects behavior of basketball players and coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal

    2013-07-01

    Although "hot hands" in basketball are illusory, the belief in them is so robust that it not only has sparked many debates but may also affect the behavior of players and coaches. On the basis of an entire National Basketball Association season's worth of data, the research reported here shows that even a single successful shot suffices to increase a player's likelihood of taking the next team shot, increase the average distance from which this next shot is taken, decrease the probability that this next shot is successful, and decrease the probability that the coach will replace the player. PMID:23630221

  13. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  14. What’s in a Face? How Face Gender and Current Affect Influence Perceived Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel A.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    Faces drive our social interactions. A vast literature suggests an interaction between gender and emotional face perception, with studies using different methodologies demonstrating that the gender of a face can affect how emotions are processed. However, how different is our perception of affective male and female faces? Furthermore, how does our current affective state when viewing faces influence our perceptual biases? We presented participants with a series of faces morphed along an emotional continuum from happy to angry. Participants judged each face morph as either happy or angry. We determined each participant’s unique emotional ‘neutral’ point, defined as the face morph judged to be perceived equally happy and angry, separately for male and female faces. We also assessed how current state affect influenced these perceptual neutral points. Our results indicate that, for both male and female participants, the emotional neutral point for male faces is perceptually biased to be happier than for female faces. This bias suggests that more happiness is required to perceive a male face as emotionally neutral, i.e., we are biased to perceive a male face as more negative. Interestingly, we also find that perceptual biases in perceiving female faces are correlated with current mood, such that positive state affect correlates with perceiving female faces as happier, while we find no significant correlation between negative state affect and the perception of facial emotion. Furthermore, we find reaction time biases, with slower responses for angry male faces compared to angry female faces. PMID:27733839

  15. Perceived factors affecting distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lone; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the evidence on perceived factors affecting distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer to provide evidence for improving support and care.The specific...... review question is: What are the perceived factors that contribute to an increase or a reduction in distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer?...

  16. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  17. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  18. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  19. Physician contact by older Asian Americans: the effects of perceived mental health need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Nguyen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Duy NguyenSilver School of Social Work, New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: The use of physicians is more common than of behavioral specialists, especially in underserved Asian American communities. Despite a rapidly aging Asian American population, research has overlooked older people. This study examines the way mental health need affects the number of physician contacts by older Asian Americans.Method: This study uses data on self-identified Asian Americans aged over age 50 years derived from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. A total of 1191 Asian Americans from Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese backgrounds were studied. Replicate weights were applied to account for the survey’s complex sampling methods. Linear regression was used to identify the number of physician contacts.Results: Overall, respondents had seen a doctor an average of five times in the previous 12 months; 7% perceived that they had a mental health need. Perceiving a mental health need was associated with a decreased number of physician contacts for Filipino and Korean Americans.Conclusion: This study revealed interethnic differences among older Asian Americans’ contact with physicians. As older Filipino and Korean Americans who perceive a mental health need have fewer contacts with their physician, correctly identifying mental health needs in the health care system for these groups is crucial. Health and mental health professionals can work toward reducing mental health disparities by accounting for older Asian Americans’ help-seeking patterns when designing evidence-based interventions.Keywords: minority groups, Asians, health service use

  20. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders : results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J-P.; Angermeyer, M. C.; Levinson, D.; de Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K. M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R. C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability. Me

  1. Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, M.; Lampila, P.; Shepherd, R.;

    2012-01-01

    consumers’ responses to health claims that either promise to reduce a targeted disease risk or improve well-being in comparison to other types of health-related messages, and how attitudes towards nutritionally healthy eating, functional food and previous experience relating to products with health claims...... affect the consumers’ perceptions of nutrition and health claims. The data (N = 2385) were collected by paper and pencil surveys in Finland, the UK, Germany and Italy on a target group of consumers over 35 year old, solely or jointly responsible for the family’s food shopping. The results showed...... risk reduction with detailed information about function and health outcome. Previous experience with products with health claims and interest in nutritionally healthy eating promoted the utility of all claims, regardless of whether they were health or nutrition claims. However, to be influenced...

  2. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  3. How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

    2013-09-01

    Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences.

  4. The Housing Graduate Assistantship: Factors that Affect Choice and Perceived Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roger B., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed graduate housing assistants (N=147) to determine what factors affected their choice and perceived job satisfaction. Results showed most assistants were unmarried master's degree students who chose a housing assistantship for personal satisfaction and learning experiences. Most found the experience satisfying. (JAC)

  5. Perceived Instructor Affective Support in Relation to Academic Emotions and Motivation in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations among perceived instructor affective support, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, behavioural engagement and academic help seeking in college classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 277 college students enrolled in a teacher training department of a major…

  6. Perceived Thermal Discomfort and Stress Behaviours Affecting Students’ Learning in Lecture Theatres in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE [1] and Olgyay [2].The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only

  7. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  8. Assessment of Perceived Health Status in Hypertensive and Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Primary Health Centers in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Hasni, Alya; Al-Sumri, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics on perceived health status in primary health centers in Oman. Methods: In a cross-sectional retrospective study, 450 patients (aged ≥ 18 years) seen at six primary health centers in Wilayat A’ Seeb in the Muscat region, Oman, were selected. Perceived health status of the physical (PSCC) and mental (MSCC) components of quality-of-life were assessed using the 12-item short form health survey (SF-12). The analyses were performed using univariate statistical techniques. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54 ± 12 years and they were mostly female (62%). The presence of both diabetes mellitus and hypertension was associated with lower physical scores compared to those with diabetes alone (p = 0.001) but only marginally lower than those with hypertension alone (p = 0.066). No significant differences were found across the disease groups in mental scores (P = 0.578). Age was negatively correlated (p < 0.001) but male gender (P < 0.001), married (p < 0.001), literate (p < 0.001) and higher income (p = 0.002) were all associated with higher physical scores. Moreover, longer disease duration was associated with lower physical scores (p < 0.001). With regards to the mental status, male (p = 0.005), marriage (P = 0.017) and higher income (p < 0.001) were associated with higher mental scores. Polypharmacy was associated with lower physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p = 0.005) scores. Conclusions: The presence of both diseases was associated with lower physical scores of perceived health status. Health status was also affected by various demographic and clinical characteristics. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the study's limitations. PMID:22174966

  9. How Weight Affects the Perceived Spacing between the Thumb and Fingers during Grasping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie A Butler

    Full Text Available We know much about mechanisms determining the perceived size and weight of lifted objects, but little about how these properties of size and weight affect the body representation (e.g. grasp aperture of the hand. Without vision, subjects (n = 16 estimated spacing between fingers and thumb (perceived grasp aperture while lifting canisters of the same width (6.6cm but varied weights (300, 600, 900, and 1200 g. Lifts were performed by movement of either the wrist, elbow or shoulder to examine whether lifting with different muscle groups affects the judgement of grasp aperture. Results for perceived grasp aperture were compared with changes in perceived weight of objects of different sizes (5.2, 6.6, and 10 cm but the same weight (600 g. When canisters of the same width but different weights were lifted, perceived grasp aperture decreased 4.8% [2.2 ‒ 7.4] (mean [95% CI]; P < 0.001 from the lightest to the heaviest canister, no matter how they were lifted. For objects of the same weight but different widths, perceived weight decreased 42.3% [38.2 ‒ 46.4] from narrowest to widest (P < 0.001, as expected from the size-weight illusion. Thus, despite a highly distorted perception of the weight of objects based on their size, we conclude that proprioceptive afferents maintain a reasonably stable perception of the aperture of the grasping hand over a wide range of object weights. Given the small magnitude of this 'weight-grasp aperture' illusion, we propose the brain has access to a relatively stable 'perceptual ruler' to aid the manipulation of different objects.

  10. Perceived risk of HIV infection and mental health in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Hsieh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The emerging literature on HIV/AIDS and mental health in sub-Saharan Africa stresses that HIV-positive status is significantly related to mental illness. However, the literature has neglected an equally important concern in contexts where HIV is highly prevalent, namely, whether and how an HIV/AIDS epidemic affects the mental well-being of individuals in the general population, regardless of their HIV status. OBJECTIVE This paper adopts an innovative perspective for addressing this public mental health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. It examines the relationship between perceived risk of HIV infection and mental health in rural Malawi and evaluates four psychosocial mechanisms that potentially influence the relationship, including (1 worry about being infected and fear of death, (2 health and economic conditions, (3 social support, and (4 the stigma of HIV/AIDS. METHODS The analysis uses data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health collected in 2006 and 2008. Random-effects and fixed-effects linear regression models are used to predict mental health status (measured by the SF-12 Mental Component Summary scale. RESULTS Regardless of HIV status, the perceived risk of infection has a strong negative relationship with mental health outcomes. This relationship is in part associated with the individual's health, fear of death (or pessimism about survival, and marital/cohabitation status CONCLUSIONS Mental health concerns in the context of an HIV/AIDS epidemic need to be addressed not only for HIV-infected individuals, but also for those who are not infected but are uncertain and fearful about being infected and about the ensuing life changes.

  11. Perceived Health Status and Influencing Factors for the Extreme Elderly in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁渊; 曾尔亢; 吴植恩; 陈仲文; 李谨邑; 卢祖洵

    2004-01-01

    Perceived health status is one of the important meansof evaluating quality of life,1 and has attracted increas-ing attention as a focus of research. Studies have pointedout that perceived health status is important in affectinghealth seeking behaviors because people will only seekmedical attention when they perceive that they areunhealthy. Furthermore, aside from age and sex, per-ceived health status has been recognized as the stron-gest “early-warning index” for pre-estimating deathrates.2-5 Prior studies ...

  12. Factors affecting the use and perceived benefit of ITE and BTE hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfield, A; Dillon, H

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that might affect hearing aid use, satisfaction and perceived benefit. A further aim was to look at which variables affect the choice of hearing aid, in particular, an in-the-ear (ITE) versus a behind-the-ear (BTE) device. Twenty-nine elderly hearing-impaired people with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted with both an ITE and a BTE hearing aid with similar electroacoustic performance. Both hearing aids were linear with output compression limiting and were fitted in a randomized order. After wearing each device for a six-week period, subj ets were asked to select the hearing aid they preferred. Variables significantly related to hearing aid choice, use and perceived benefit included ease of management, accuracy with which the NAL-R insertion gain target was achieved, earmould comfort and the type of hearing aid the client preferred initially.

  13. Affective and Neural Reactivity to Criticism in Individuals High and Low on Perceived Criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Hooley, Jill M.; Greg Siegle; Gruber, Staci A.

    2012-01-01

    People who have remitted from depression are at increased risk for relapse if they rate their relatives as being critical of them on a simple self-report measure of Perceived Criticism (PC). To explore neural mechanisms associated with this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine how people with different levels of PC responded to hearing criticism from their own mothers. To maximize variability in affective reactivity, depressed, recovered depressed, and healthy contr...

  14. Effects of Perceived Procedural Justice and Exchange Ideology on Employees' Affective Commitment: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Naguib Moussa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined how perceived procedural justice and exchange ideology affect employees’ commitment inSaudi private sector companies. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 104Saudi employees. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis and regression analysis, were used to analyze thedata. The results revealed that perception of organizational procedural justice influenced employees’commitment towards their organizations. Employees with high exchange ide...

  15. Biased perception about gene technology: How perceived naturalness and affect distort benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Hartmann, Christina; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, the participants showed biased responses when asked to evaluate the benefits of gene technology. They evaluated the importance of additional yields in corn fields due to a newly introduced variety, which would increase a farmer's revenues. In one condition, the newly introduced variety was described as a product of traditional breeding; in the other, it was identified as genetically modified (GM). The two experiments' findings showed that the same benefits were perceived as less important for a farmer when these were the result of GM crops compared with traditionally bred crops. Mediation analyses suggest that perceived naturalness and the affect associated with the technology per se influence the interpretation of the new information. The lack of perceived naturalness of gene technology seems to be the reason for the participants' perceived lower benefits of a new corn variety in the gene technology condition compared with the perceptions of the participants assigned to the traditional breeding condition. The strategy to increase the acceptance of gene technology by introducing plant varieties that better address consumer and producer needs may not work because people discount its associated benefits. PMID:26505287

  16. Out of control mortality matters: the effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Pepper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate. Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people’s health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours.

  17. Access to women's health care: a qualitative study of barriers perceived by homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Browner, C H; Lejano, Elena; Arangua, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Homelessness is an escalating national problem and women are disproportionately affected. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on the special circumstances associated with being a homeless woman. For instance, while both genders experience serious barriers to obtaining health care, homeless women face an additional burden by virtue of their sexual and reproductive health needs. The current study was conducted as the first stage of a qualitative/quantitative investigation of homeless women's access and barriers to family planning and women's health care. We interviewed 47 homeless women of diverse ages and ethnic backgrounds. A qualitative approach was initially taken to explore the factors homeless women themselves perceive as barriers to their use of birth control and women's health services, and factors they believe would facilitate their use. Key findings are that health is not a priority for homeless women, that transportation and scheduling can be particularly burdensome for homeless women, and that being homeless leads some to feel stigmatized by health care providers. Despite being homeless, having children was extremely important to the women in our study. At the same time, those interested in contraception confronted significant barriers in their efforts to prevent pregnancies. We conclude with suggested interventions that would make general, gynecological, and reproductive health care more accessible to homeless women.

  18. Servant leadership and affective commitment in the Chinese public sector: the mediating role of perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Miao, Qing

    2014-10-01

    This study examined a possible mediating mechanism between servant leadership and the affective commitment in Chinese employees. Servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and affective commitment was assessed among 239 full-time employees in the Chinese public sector in three rounds of surveys. Servant leadership influenced affective commitment through perceived organizational support. The effect of servant leadership exists in Chinese culture as well as Western cultures.

  19. Associations of Emotional Distress and Perceived Health in Persons With Atrial Fibrillation and Their Partners Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalteg, Tomas; Benzein, Eva; Sandgren, Anna; Malm, Dan; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-08-01

    Individual behavior affects and is affected by other people. The aim of this study was to examine if emotional distress in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and their spouses was associated with their own and their partner's perceived health. Participants included 91 dyads of patients and their spouses. Emotional distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and perceived health was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for dyad-level analyses of associations, using structural equation modeling. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were associated with lower levels of perceived health in patients and spouses. Higher levels of depression in patients were associated with lower levels of vitality in spouses and vice versa. As AF patients and their spouses influence each other, health-care interventions should consider the dyad to address dyadic dynamics. This may benefit the health of the individual patient and of the couple. PMID:27385260

  20. Facial contrast is a cue for perceiving health from the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Jones, Alex L; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Morizot, Frederique

    2016-09-01

    How healthy someone appears has important social consequences. Yet the visual cues that determine perceived health remain poorly understood. Here we report evidence that facial contrast-the luminance and color contrast between internal facial features and the surrounding skin-is a cue for the perception of health from the face. Facial contrast was measured from a large sample of Caucasian female faces, and was found to predict ratings of perceived health. Most aspects of facial contrast were positively related to perceived health, meaning that faces with higher facial contrast appeared healthier. In 2 subsequent experiments, we manipulated facial contrast and found that participants perceived faces with increased facial contrast as appearing healthier than faces with decreased facial contrast. These results support the idea that facial contrast is a cue for perceived health. This finding adds to the growing knowledge about perceived health from the face, and helps to ground our understanding of perceived health in terms of lower-level perceptual features such as contrast. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100405

  1. Perceived health status associated with transport choice for short distance trips.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheepers, C.E. Wendel-Vos, G.C.W. Wesemael, P.J.V. van Hertog, F.R.J. den Stipdonk, H.L. Int Panis, L.L.R. Kempen, E.E.M.M. van & Schuit, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between active transport and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and a healthy body weight in the Netherlands. Data were collected by an online questionnaire (N = 3663) in the Netherlands. Data collection was conducted over a period of one calendar year starting July 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between choice of transport mode (bicycling vs car use and walking vs car use) and perceived ...

  2. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Spisak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the attractiveness halo – a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition versus cooperation between groups and exploratory change versus stable exploitation. It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait – for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation – whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait. The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed.

  3. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R; Blaker, Nancy M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Moore, Fhionna R; Krebbers, Kleis F B

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the "attractiveness halo"-a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait-for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation-whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed. PMID:25414653

  4. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Purang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.

  5. Affective and neural reactivity to criticism in individuals high and low on perceived criticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hooley

    Full Text Available People who have remitted from depression are at increased risk for relapse if they rate their relatives as being critical of them on a simple self-report measure of Perceived Criticism (PC. To explore neural mechanisms associated with this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine how people with different levels of PC responded to hearing criticism from their own mothers. To maximize variability in affective reactivity, depressed, recovered depressed, and healthy control participants (n = 33 were classified as high or low in PC based on a median split. They were then exposed to personally-relevant critical and praising comments from their mothers. Perceived Criticism levels were unrelated to depression status and to negative mood change after hearing criticism. However, compared to low PC participants, those who scored high on PC showed differential activation in a network of regions associated with emotion reactivity and regulation, including increased amygdala activity and decreased reactions in prefrontal regulatory regions when they heard criticism. This was not the case for praise. Criticism may be a risk factor for relapse because it helps to "train" pathways characteristic of depressive information processing. The Perceived Criticism measure may help identify people who are more susceptible to this vulnerability.

  6. Do Public Relations and Journalism’s Converging Roles Affect How They Perceive Each Other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Media relations is historically a core activity qualifying public relations from other communication-related professions and is widely practiced in many organizations. Despite the increasing use of digital media to directly communicate with publics, journalists are still key stakeholders...... profession, roles, practices and relationships. A mixed method, including face-to-face interviews and an online survey, was used to collect and analyse the data. Results indicate that public relations and journalism’s converging roles is affecting how these communicators perceive each other in a favorable...

  7. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  8. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  9. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  10. Italian university students' self-perceived health and satisfaction of life

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    Chiara de Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing, therefore, it should not be considered as simply the absence of disease. In this light, the assessment of self-perceived health and life satisfaction plays an important role as it allows addressing the subjective perception of physical health, as well as mental health and social functioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study analyzed data from 8516 university students enrolled in the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk". In particular, it addressed self-perceived health and life satisfaction, reported somatic and psychological symptoms and ability to cope with daily problems of university students from 18 to 30 years old. RESULTS: Overall, 77.1% of students declared to have a good or very good health and the mean score of life satisfaction was 7.46. In respect to somatic and psychological symptoms, 25.8% of students reported to suffer almost daily of at least one among headache, stomach pain, back pain, tiredness, nervousness, dizziness and troubles falling asleep. Results varied on the basis of sex, with women showing lower self-perceived health compared to men and reporting more symptoms. Furthermore, self-perceived health was shown better in younger students and in those belonging to higher socio-economic level. DISCUSSION: The survey showed that concern exists with respect to university students' self-perceived health, which is different from that arising from other evidence. Female students had a significant lower self-perceived health and reported somatic and psychological symptoms more commonly than men. On the other hand, results about life satisfaction seem to be aligned with the literature. CONCLUSION: One of the most important implications of the study is the need to address self-perceived health and reported symptoms in university students in order to monitor them and initiate interventions aimed at improving

  11. Determinants of perceived sexism and their role on the association of sexism with mental health.

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    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Katherine; Pérez, Glòria; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study sought to compare the socioeconomic factors related to perceived sexism in employed and non-employed Spanish women and to examine whether the relationship of perceived sexism with mental health outcomes is reduced when such factors are taken into account. Data were taken from the 2006 Spanish Health Survey, including women aged 20-64 years (n=10,927). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the independent relationships between socioeconomic variables and perceived sexism and also between perceived sexism and poor mental health. In this latter case, socioeconomic variables were included by blocks in the logistic models. Perceived sexism was higher among employed women (3.9% vs. 2.8% among non-employed) and mainly among those in a managerial position (11.35%; adjusted OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.30-5.67) and having irregular working hours (5.5%; adjusted OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.10-2.34). Socioeconomic and family characteristics were associated with perceived sexism among women. Perceived sexism was associated with poor mental health, and this remained the case when different independent variables were taken into account. These results highlight the importance of taking into account gender discrimination in different aspects of our society, such as work and family organization, and in planning mental health interventions.

  12. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

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    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  13. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states. PMID:22844519

  14. Perceived Health Issues: A perspective from East-African immigrants

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    M. P-L Shipp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This Study explores Somali and Ethiopian community leaders’ perceptions about health issues in their communities and the barriers to access and utilization of primary health care services. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders and thematic analysis was used to analyze interviews. Participants identified chronic diseases, the unhealthy behaviors associated with them, and mental health as major health issues. Infectious diseases were secondarily mentioned as important health concerns. Lack of insurance and limited understanding of the health system were viewed as barriers to utilizing health care services. Other identified needs were: better education within immigrant communities about major health issues, enhanced cultural awareness of health care providers, improved health care access, and assistance with the acculturation process. Recommendations to improve the communities’ health status included enhancing providers' cultural competence, educating immigrants about major health issues, and increasing mental health care access.

  15. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Melissa M; Kane, Robert L; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than h...

  16. The association of demographic and socioeconomic determinants and self-perceived health

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    Janković Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inequalities in health are evident in the whole world and present an important and consistent public health issue. The highest contribution to the inequality in heath is attributable to the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the demographic (gender, age, marital status and type of settlement and socioeconomic determinants of health (education and Wealth Index, and self-perceived health. Methods. In the study the data from 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia were used. The interview involved 14,522 adults aged ≥20 years. The association between the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health as independent variables, and self-perceived health as dependent variable were examined using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The minimum level of significance was p<0.05. Results. According to our study, the elderly and females significantly more often perceived their health as poor. Respondents living in rural settings were less likely to perceive their health as poor compared to those living in urban settings (odds ratio was 0.82 in males and 0.75 in females. Males with low education were three times more likely to perceive their health as poor (odds ratio was 3.46 in relation to males with high education. This association was more pronounced in females (odds ratio was 5.37. The same pattern was observed for Wealth Index. Conclusion. This study showed that demographic and socioeconomic inequalities in self-perceived health are present in Serbia. Comprehensive public health policies and interventions for reducing these inequalities are urgently needed with the primarily focus on the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups.

  17. Self-perceived health and clinical characteristics in young adult students from the brazilian northeast

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    Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the association between socioeconomic situation, clinical characteristics referred and the family history of cardiovascular disease, with the Self-perceived health of young adults education and their implications for clinical characteristics observed. Method Analytical study conducted with 501 young adults who are students in countryside city in the Brazilian Northeast. We used binary logistic regression. Results The final model explained 83.3% of the self-perceived positive health, confirming the association of Self-perceived health with male, residence in the community, have excellent/very good lifestyle and does not have or do not know that there are cases of stroke in the family. Conclusion Health perception was often optimistic, being important to identify devices to be worked closer to their perception of their actual health condition, increasing the effectiveness of health promotion activities undertaken by professionals.

  18. Perceived stigma reductions following participation in mental health services integrated within community-based HIV primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Eugene W; Shahane, Amit A; Brown, Jennifer L; Campos, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    HIV stigma remains a significant challenge for individuals living with HIV disease that can adversely affect overall well-being and patterns of HIV health service engagement. Finding ways to effectively address stigma concerns is, therefore, an important consideration in the clinical management of HIV disease. This study examined changes in perceived stigma in a sample of 48 adults living with HIV disease as an outcome of their participation in a mental health services program integrated with community-based HIV primary care. Participants completed a self-report instrument that provided a multidimensional measure of perceived HIV stigma, including distancing, blaming, and discrimination dimensions. This scale was administered at the baseline mental health service visit and then re-administered at the three-month follow-up point. Study results showed reductions in self-reported perceived HIV stigma over time for the distancing (t = 4.01, p = 0.000, d = 0.43), blaming (t = 2.79, p = 0.008, d = 0.35), and discrimination (t = 2.90, p = 0.006, d = 0.42) dimensions of stigma. These findings suggest that participation in HIV mental health services may have a favorable impact on perceived HIV stigma. Implications of these findings are discussed, including possible mechanisms that might explain the observed results as well as suggested directions for future research in this area. Randomized controlled trials would represent an important next step to investigate the extent to which HIV mental health services can reduce levels of perceived HIV stigma. PMID:24093931

  19. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea: a nationally representative survey.

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    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight

  20. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

  1. On the joys of perceiving: Affect as feedback for perceptual predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-09-01

    How we perceive, attend to, or remember the stimuli in our environment depends on our preferences for them. Here we argue that this dependence is reciprocal: pleasures and displeasures are heavily dependent on cognitive processing, namely, on our ability to predict the world correctly. We propose that prediction errors, inversely weighted with prior probabilities of predictions, yield subjective experiences of positive or negative affect. In this way, we link affect to predictions within a predictive coding framework. We discuss how three key factors - uncertainty, expectations, and conflict - influence prediction accuracy and show how they shape our affective response. We demonstrate that predictable stimuli are, in general, preferred to unpredictable ones, though too much predictability may decrease this liking effect. Furthermore, the account successfully overcomes the "dark-room" problem, explaining why we do not avoid stimulation to minimize prediction error. We further discuss the implications of our approach for art perception and the utility of affect as feedback for predictions within a prediction-testing architecture of cognition.

  2. The ties that bind: perceived social support, stress, and IBS in severely affected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    LACKNER, J. M.; BRASEL, A. M.; QUIGLEY, B M.; KEEFER, L.; KRASNER, S. S.; POWELL, C.; KATZ, L. A.; SITRIN, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Methods Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Key Results Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. Conclusions & Inferences This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels. PMID:20465594

  3. Self-perceived health status in older adults: regional and sociodemographic inequalities in Spain

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    Beatriz Fernandez-Martinez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess regional and sociodemographic differences in self-perceived health status among older adults. METHODS: A face-to-face quality of life survey was conducted in a representative sample of the Spanish population comprising 1,106 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 or more in 2008. Logistic regression models were used to explain self-perceived health status according to the EuroQol Group Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS. Independent variables included sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics level 1 (NUTS1: group of autonomous regions and level 2 (NUTS 2: autonomous regions. RESULTS: Younger and better off respondents were more likely to have a positive self-perceived health status. Having no chronic conditions, independence in performing daily living activities and lower level of depression were also associated with positive self-perceived health status. People living in the south of Spain showed a more negative self-perceived health status than those living in other regions. CONCLUSION: The study results point to health inequality among Spanish older adults of lower socioeconomic condition and living in the south of Spain. The analysis by geographic units allows for international cross-regional comparisons.

  4. Education in mental health promotion and its impact on the participants' attitudes and perceived mental health

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    Tomaras Vlassis D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline and the last session (end of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each, over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b the applicability of this

  5. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

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    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  6. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Kim C; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R; Hurlburt, Michael S; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care. PMID:26152770

  7. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Kim C; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R; Hurlburt, Michael S; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care.

  8. Affect of perceived barriers to entrepreneurship on the career choice decision of students: A study of Uttarakhand state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have tried to evaluate the affect of perceived barriers to entrepreneurship on the career choice intentions of students with special reference to taking up entrepreneurship as a career choice. It is a quantitative study wherein we have taken data of 530 young students studying in the final year of various professional courses of Uttarakhand state of India. The results confirmed relationship between the strength of perceived barriers to entrepreneurship and their decision to take up entrepreneurship as a preferred career choice. A relationship was also established between the personality type of student and his strength of perceived barriers.

  9. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Turnover Intention: Mediating Role of Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction

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    Muhammad Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Now days, it has become challenging for employers to remain competitive because of the fierce competition. One of the keys to remain competitive is to have best human resource. Therefore, every organization aims to hire best men from markets and their rival firms. Hiring men from the rival firms has created the problem of employee turnover. Employee turnover has become critical issue for HR practitioners and managers as it not only affect other employees’ level of satisfaction, but also affect organizational performance. Researchers in the past have focused a number of aspects to reduce employees’ turnover among which perceived organizational support is less focused aspect. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the impact of perceived organizational support on employee turnover intention through the mediation of job satisfaction and affective commitment. SEM has confirmed that job satisfaction and affective commitment perform the role of mediation between perceived organizational support and turnover intention.

  10. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  11. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

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    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Use of Preventive Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Amal N.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Among nearly 55,000 adults participating in the California Health Interview Survey during 2001, we assessed whether they reported experiencing discrimination in health care during the prior year and whether these perceptions were related to their use of 6 preventive health services for heart disease, diabetes, prostate cancer screening, and flu shots during this time period. Discrimination was reported by about 5% of adults, most often related to their type or lack of insurance, race/ethnicit...

  13. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  14. Perceived School Safety is Strongly Associated with Adolescent Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Miesje M.; Bun, Clothilde J. E.; Tempelaar, Wanda M.; de Wit, Niek J.; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M.; Boks, Marco P. M.

    2014-01-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary sc

  15. An Association between College Students' Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health…

  16. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  17. Perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection: results of a nationwide survey of occupational health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses' educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  18. Thoughts about death and perceived health status in elderly patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroemberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To explore thoughts about death and perceived health status in elderly patients with heart failure during a 6 month period after a deterioration needing hospitalisation. Methods: A descriptive, mixed methods design was used. Health was measured with EuroQol-5D, thoughts about death with multipl

  19. The Components of Self-Perceived Health in the Kailali District of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Freidoony

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3% and 60 (19.7% perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions.

  20. Manipulating Greek musical modes and tempo affects perceived musical emotion in musicians and nonmusicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ramos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The combined influence of tempo and mode on emotional responses to music was studied by crossing 7 changes in mode with 3 changes in tempo. Twenty-four musicians aged 19 to 25 years (12 males and 12 females and 24 nonmusicians aged 17 to 25 years (12 males and 12 females were required to perform two tasks: 1 listening to different musical excerpts, and 2 associating an emotion to them such as happiness, serenity, fear, anger, or sadness. ANOVA showed that increasing the tempo strongly affected the arousal (F(2,116 = 268.62, mean square error (MSE = 0.6676, P < 0.001 and, to a lesser extent, the valence of emotional responses (F(6,348 = 8.71, MSE = 0.6196, P < 0.001. Changes in modes modulated the affective valence of the perceived emotions (F(6,348 = 4.24, MSE = 0.6764, P < 0.001. Some interactive effects were found between tempo and mode (F (1,58 = 115.6, MSE = 0.6428, P < 0.001, but, in most cases, the two parameters had additive effects. This finding demonstrates that small changes in the pitch structures of modes modulate the emotions associated with the pieces, confirming the cognitive foundation of emotional responses to music.

  1. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times.

  2. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times. PMID:24251877

  3. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-González Diana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008 amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related. The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12, change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI. Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %. Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60, and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80. 40% (95% CI 24-53 PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  4. Physician variation in perceived barriers to personal health

    OpenAIRE

    Rubenfire M; Weber A.; Howe M; Krishnan SM; Salata BM; Kosteva ARB; Jackson EA

    2012-01-01

    Adam RB Kosteva1, Brian M Salata1, Sangeetha Mahadevan Krishnan2, Michael Howe3, Alissa Weber3, Melvyn Rubenfire2,3, Elizabeth A Jackson2,31Michigan Cardiovascular Research and Reporting Program, 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Physicians’ personal health habits are associated with their counseling habits regarding physical activity. We sought to examine physicians’ o...

  5. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection: Results of a Nationwide Survey of Occupational Health Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with...

  6. Social Hierarchy and Health among Adolescents: The Role of Perceived Class Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ritterman, Miranda Lucia

    2010-01-01

    There is a well-established inverse graded relationship between social class and infant, child, and adult health but this gradient is inconsistent and understudied among adolescents. The empirical inquiry into health inequalities among adolescents is of particular significance because health in adulthood is strongly influenced by early life circumstances. Current research suggests that social stratification, as reflected by adolescent perceived class identity, may be an important determinant...

  7. Perceived Racial Discrimination as a Predictor of Health Behaviors: the Moderating Role of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Brodish, Amanda B.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Peck, Stephen; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been implicated in undermining the mental and physical health of racial/ethnic minorities. Researchers have begun to explore the indirect role of health behaviors as one factor in helping to explain this relationship. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between PRD and a wide range of health behaviors using a prospective, longitudinal design and to explore the role of gender in moderating these relationships. Using data from ...

  8. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  9. Health literacy, self-perceived health and self-reported chronic morbidity among older people in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Jerliu, Naim; Sørensen, Kristine; Ramadani, Naser; Hysa, Bajram; Brand, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe health literacy among the older population of Kosovo, an Albanian speaking post-war country in the Western Balkans, in the context of self-perceived health status and self-reported chronic morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including 1753 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (886 men, 867 women; mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; response rate: 77%). Participants were asked to assess, on a scale from 1 to 5, their level of difficulty with regard to access, understanding, appraisal and application of health information. Sub-scale scores and an overall health literacy score were calculated for each participant. Information on self-perceived health status, presence and number of chronic diseases and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Mean values of the overall health literacy score and all sub-scale scores (access, understanding, appraisal and application) were lower among older people who reported a poorer health status or at least one chronic condition compared with individuals who perceived their health status as good or had no chronic conditions (p < 0.001 for all). Our findings provide valuable evidence on the independent and inverse association between health literacy levels and self-perceived health and chronic morbidity in this post-war European population. The putative link with chronic morbidity and lower adherence to health services is hard to establish through this cross-sectional study. Prospective population-based studies should be conducted in Kosovo and other transitional settings to replicate these findings and properly address the causal relationship between health literacy and health status. PMID:24604915

  10. School Administrator Self-Perceived Leadership Styles Affect on Occupational Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricle, William H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the variables of self-perceived leadership styles and occupational burnout among school administrators in the states of Texas and Louisiana. The purpose of this study was to investigate if relationships exist between school administrator self-perceived leadership styles and occupational burnout. A review of the literature…

  11. Changes in perceived health between one and five years after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; Thorsén, Ann-Mari; Liljedahl, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    the five years after stroke onset. METHODS: Of 83 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of ESD compared to conventional rehabilitation, 50 (home rehabilitation group, n=28, conventional rehabilitation group, n=22) were followed up at one and five years after stroke with regard to perceived...... between the groups at one or five years after stroke with regard to SIP total and the physical and psychosocial dimensions. Perceived health did not change significantly between one and five years in the home rehabilitation group whereas it had deteriorated significantly in the conventional rehabilitation...... group (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the long term outcome with regard to perceived health status is more favourable after ESD than after conventional rehabilitation. Our results suggest that the environment is a key component to be considered in the rehabilitation process of stroke patients....

  12. How emotions stimulate people affected by cancer to use personalised health websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Hadzidedic Bazdarevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on helping people affected by cancer – which is the leading cause of death worldwide - by identifying their personalisation needs for health websites. The aim is to identify a set of personalisation features that users prefer on these websites. Delving in a less explored area, the study also seeks to understand how user emotional states correlate with their needs for personalisation, to better define user models for health websites. Through a controlled experiment, based on the survey questionnaire method, we established that participants perceived that personalisation features offered on the evaluated website do meet their needs. More interestingly, perceived personalisation needs are influenced by certain emotions, primarily positively valenced emotions (e.g., interest. Finally, two factors positively impact intentions to reuse the website: personalisation needs and post-usage emotions. The outcomes of this study inform on ways to increase user engagement on health websites and improve online support available to people affected by cancer.

  13. Reactions to perceived fairness: The impact of mortality salience and self-esteem on ratings of negative affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory''s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state self-e

  14. The Distinct Roles of Sociometric and Perceived Popularity in Friendship: Implications for Adolescent Depressive Affect and Self-Esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litwack, S.D.; Aikins, J.W.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the similarities and distinctions between two types of popularity, sociometric and perceived, in their associations with friendship characteristics and how they in turn are related to depressive affect and self-esteem. Among 245 eighth graders, sociometr

  15. The Distinct Roles of Sociometric and Perceived Popularity in Friendship: Implications for Adolescent Depressive Affect and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwack, Scott D.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the similarities and distinctions between two types of popularity, sociometric and perceived, in their associations with friendship characteristics and how they in turn are related to depressive affect and self-esteem. Among 245 eighth graders, sociometric popularity was associated with a greater…

  16. Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the…

  17. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  18. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  19. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  20. Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS): Reliability, Validity and Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Edwin; Hill, Eddie; Zhu, Xihe; Freidt, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS). Data for PHORS were collected from three different trail sites (Appalachian Trail, Pacific Crest Trail, and First Landing State Park) during three separate time periods, allowing for cross-validation and invariance testing. Exploratory…

  1. Perceived need for mental health care and barriers to care in the Netherlands and Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Meadows, G.; Bobevski, I.; Graham, A.; Verhaak, P.; Meer, K. van der; Penninx, B.; Bensing, J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of Australian and Dutch people with anxiety or depressive disorder aims to examine people's perceived needs and barriers to care, and to identify possible similarities and differences. METHODS: Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being and the Nethe

  2. Perceived need for mental health care and barriers to care in the Netherlands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Marijn; Meadows, Graham; Bobevski, Irene; Graham, Annette; Verhaak, Peter; van der Meer, Klaas; Penninx, Brenda; Bensing, Jozien

    2011-01-01

    This study of Australian and Dutch people with anxiety or depressive disorder aims to examine people's perceived needs and barriers to care, and to identify possible similarities and differences. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being and the Netherlands Study of De

  3. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.; Johner, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4Tech S., Lausanne (Switzerland); Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Oliveira Fernandes, E. De [IDMEC-FUEP, Porto (Portugal); Mueller, B. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Aizlewood, C. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a checklist during a walk-through survey. Occupant questionnaires were used to determine satisfaction about comfort (thermal visual, acoustical and indoor air quality (IAQ)) and their health (Sick Building Syndrome and allergies). Building-averaged collected data are compared, looking for correlations between building characteristics on one hand, and perceived comfort and health on the other hand. Strong correlations are found between perceived IAQ, thermal, acoustic and lighting comfort, confirming results from other studies. Significant correlations between the perceived comfort and building related symptoms were also found, comfortable and healthier buildings being well distinct from uncomfortable ones. Differences of perceived comfort or health between low- and high-energy buildings show that it is possible to design buildings that are healthy, comfortable and energy efficient. (author)

  4. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  5. How Affective Is a "Like"?: The Effect of Paralinguistic Digital Affordances on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs. PMID:27635443

  6. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219 and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1 Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2 workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3 workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4 few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for

  7. Impact of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health Screening in Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Charles P.; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Taylor, Teletia R.; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women’s Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a ...

  8. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-González Diana; Ronda-Pérez Elena; Agudelo-Suárez Andrés A; Vives-Cases Carmen; García Ana M; Ruiz-Frutos Carlos; Felt Emily; Benavides Fernando G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, ...

  9. Self-perceived health in functionally independent older people: associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Machón, Mónica; Vergara, Itziar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Larrañaga, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-perceived health (SPH) is a powerful indicator of the health status of elderly people. This issue has been widely studied in oldest populations considering altogether functionally independent and dependent individuals. The objective of this study was to describe SPH and to identify the main factors that have an impact on SPH in a sample of functionally independent community-dwelling older adults. Methods For this cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were carried out ...

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Carme Borrell; Laia Palència; Xavier Bartoll; Umar Ikram; Davide Malmusi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination harms immigrants’ health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on immigration. Methods: Cross-sectional study including immigrants from low-income countries aged ≥15 years in 18 European countries (European Social Survey, 2012) (sample of 1271 men and 1335 ...

  11. Direct facility funding as a response to user fee reduction: implementation and perceived impact among Kenyan health centres and dispensaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing pressure for reduction of user fees, but this can have adverse effects by decreasing facility-level funds. To address this, direct facility funding (DFF) was piloted in Coast Province, Kenya, with health facility committees (HFCs) responsible for managing the funds. We evaluated the implementation and perceived impact 2.5 years after DFF introduction. Quantitative data collection at 30 public health centres and dispensaries included a structured interview with the in-charge, record reviews and exit interviews. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with the in-charge and HFC members at 12 facilities, and with district staff and other stakeholders. DFF procedures were well established: HFCs met regularly and accounting procedures were broadly followed. DFF made an important contribution to facility cash income, accounting for 47% in health centres and 62% in dispensaries. The main items of expenditure were wages for support staff (32%), travel (21%), and construction and maintenance (18%). DFF was perceived to have a highly positive impact through funding support staff such as cleaners and patient attendants, outreach activities, renovations, patient referrals and increasing HFC activity. This was perceived to have improved health worker motivation, utilization and quality of care. A number of problems were identified. HFC training was reportedly inadequate, and no DFF documentation was available at facility level, leading to confusion. Charging user fees above those specified in the national policy remained common, and understanding of DFF among the broader community was very limited. Finally, relationships between HFCs and health workers were sometimes characterized by mistrust and resentment. Relatively small increases in funding may significantly affect facility performance when the funds are managed at the periphery. Kenya plans to scale up DFF nationwide. Our findings indicate this is warranted, but should include improved training

  12. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge about self-perceived health can help us understand the health status and needs among migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU) which is essential to improve equity and integration. The objective was to examine and compare self-perceived health among migrant......-country comparisons could be carried out, still, they revealed a parallel pattern of self-perceived health among similar migrants/ethnic minority groups.   Conclusions Policies to improve social and health status, contextual factors, and access to healthcare among migrants and ethnic minorities are essential...

  13. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Results Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy, and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Conclusions Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance.

  14. Impact of an Oral Health Education Workshop on Parents’ Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Behavioral Control among African Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Amin; Pawan Nyachhyon; Maryam Elyasi; Muhammed Al-Nuaimi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evalua...

  15. The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schreckenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic, perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general.

  16. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population.......University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life...... as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent...

  17. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  18. Speckle metrology in the nanoworld, as it is perceived today, and how it may affect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    2010-09-01

    My memory goes back to my early collage studies that were almost entirely on the scale of "macroworld", as we practiced/perceived it some four decades ago. Since that time things have changed a lot constantly decreasing the scales of interest, at times at rather rapid pace, with monumental advances leading to the scales we work with today and plan for tomorrow. During that change/transition there were "meso" and "micro" developments characterized by changes in scales/sizes of things of interest. Today's scale of interest is "nano" and we are already not only working with "picotechnology", but are even reaching beyond while constantly "planning and projecting" the scales/worlds of the future. Advancement of any technology, especially new emerging ones as we witness/experience them today, is facilitated by the use of all available solution strategies. One of the emerging strategies that affect almost anything currently being developed and/or used, in the today's nanoworld, is based on recent advances of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Today MEMS affect almost everything we do from household appliances, via cars we drive and planes that whisk us from continent to continent, to spaceships used for search of/and exploration of other worlds. The modern microsensors are also used to explore for and produce petroleum products that are used in multitude of today's applications. To facilitate these advances a great majority of MEMS is used in the form of sensors. However development of MEMS in general and sensors in particular poses one of the greatest challenges in today's experimental mechanics. Among MEMS, the greatest contemporary interest is in the area of inertial sensors because they have numerous uses ranging from everyday applications to highly specialized ones, including many industrial platforms. As such they have tremendous potential to affect future of humanity. However, advances in MEMS, such as pressure and temperature sensors as well as gyroscopes and

  19. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall, socio-demographic characteristics (five variables, health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables, as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints. A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62% reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02, depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94 and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03. Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population.

  20. Mastery, perceived stress and health-related behaviour in northeast Arnhem Land: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2006-09-01

    link between mastery and health-related behaviour, and extends evidence of this association to a remote Indigenous population. Mastery's association with perceived stress, its age-specific association with health behaviour, and findings of low mastery amongst young men, highlights a need for life course research accounting for contextual factors affecting Indigenous peoples.

  1. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

  2. Perceived conflict in the couple and chronic illness management: Preliminary analyses from the Quebec Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudon Catherine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the relationship with the spouse/partner appears crucial among patients with multiple chronic conditions where illness management is complex and multifaceted. This study draws on data from the Quebec Health Survey (QHS to examine, among patients with one or more chronic conditions, the relation between marital status, the perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and what the patients do to manage their illness as well as how they perceive their health. Methods Data from the QHS 1998 were used. The sample included 7547 coupled adults who had one or more chronic health problems lasting more than 6 months. Independent variables included marital status, perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and the number of chronic conditions. Illness management was defined broadly as a measure of the patient's efforts at self-care and an illness status indicator, including visits to the generalist and the specialist, the use of telephone health line in the last 12 months, self-rated general health, mental health, and a measure of psychological distress. Linkages between the independent variables and illness management were assessed for males and females separately with logistic regressions, while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results Female patients who did not live with their partner and had never been married were more likely to report a negative perception of their general health and a higher psychological distress than those who were married. Perceived conflict with the partner was linked to a negative perception of mental health and a higher psychological distress among both men and women. Compared to patients with only one chronic condition, males who reported more than one chronic condition were more likely to have consulted a generalist prior to the survey and used the telephone health line, whereas females were more likely to have consulted a specialist. Both males and

  3. Factors perceived to affect employee satisfaction and productivity at a mine in the Northern Cape / Mzwandile Anthony Maki

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Mzwandile Anthony

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the factors perceived to negatively affect employee satisfaction and productivity at the mine. More especially the analysis focuses on the implementation of the incentive schemes without the involvement of the workers 'unions, a situation which has led to misunderstanding between management and the unions. The study also focused on the following specific objectives: • To investigate the effect of lncentive Schemes on employee satisfaction, employee re...

  4. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  5. A closer look at the developmental interplay between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health. PMID:24819301

  6. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders. PMID:8782954

  7. Predicting perceived health in Angolan elderly: the moderator effect of being oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, José Manuel; Gutiérrez, Melchor; Sancho, Patricia; Galiana, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the predicting effects of variables measuring social support, dependence/active perceptions, and generativity, on this facet of well-being when controlled for socio-demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and institutionalization). The research tries to extend previous literature by assessing them in a multivariate context, studying differential effects of these variables in young old and oldest old, and offering evidence of the scarcely studied population of Angola. The sample was formed by 737 young old and 266 oldest old. It was built a hierarchical regression, in which, among the different predictors, interactions effects between age and the psychosocial factors were included. Results provide evidence of the qualitative different perceived health and well-being of the young old and oldest old. When predicting perceived health of the Angolan oldest old, psychosocial factors lose much of its importance, and age itself and the limitations that accompanied it seem to be the key point.

  8. Adolescent students who work: gender differences in school performances and self-perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vilma S; Cooper, Sharon P; Roberts, Robert E; Araújo-Filho, José B

    2005-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study, the hypotheses that adolescent students who work have poorer school performances, more sick days, and poor self-perceived health were examined. From a one-stage random cluster area sampling of 2512 households in Bahia, Brazil, 888 students 10-21 years of age were asked to answer questionnaires. School dropouts were more common among working students independently of gender. Both full-time (PRadjusted = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.49-3.96) and part-time (PRadjusted = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.28-3.35) working males were more likely to report frequent class skipping. Among females, paid jobs also were associated with poor self-perceived health, but not after adjustment for age and SES. Brazilian labor legislation for adolescent workers needs to be revised to take into account that jobs can compromise educational achievement. PMID:16130971

  9. The labyrinth of health as perceived by two groups of community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine a group of 16 health visitors and a group of 16 community mental health nurses perceptions of health and health awareness. The study was mainly qualitative and exploratory in nature with some quantitative data being collected to condense the data. All 32 respondents were interviewed using a semistructured, tape recorded format. The content of the data was scrutinized and emerging patterns, themes, and concepts were noted and coded using a tried and tested theoretical process. The findings were related to the questions asked and comparisons were drawn between the information received from each group. An examination of the data revealed that the group of health visitors defined health terms of 'functional' states, described health in physical terms, and practiced physical exercises as their health valuing behaviours in order to keep themselves healthy. This key theme also emerged with reference to their value of health at family and global levels. Taking their health for granted and being grateful for it when they saw someone in the community less well off than themselves was also highlighted as a major theme. The group of community mental health nurses defined their health in 'being' states and described health in a holistic manner. They perceived the value and concept of 'freedom' to be related to and embraced within the concept, definition and value of health at individual, family and global levels. They practiced aesthetic health valuing behaviours to enhance their appreciation of health and self. Mental health, the ability to make choices, being self actualizing and the capacity to love and be loved were the key themes emerging throughout this group's responses. It would be interesting to develop this research from a community health perspective. PMID:11249317

  10. Latina and Non-Latina Mothers' Perceived Health Barriers and Benefits and Their Relationship to Children's Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Krista B; Lundahl, Alyssa; Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Caballos, Miguel; McChargue, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Disparities exist in rates of overweight/obesity between Latino and non-Latino populations. Attention should be given to risk factors that may be modifiable through interventions involving both the parent and child. The current study sought to identify ethnic differences in parental health beliefs and their relation to children's health behaviors. Methods Latina and non-Latina mothers (N = 203) at rural and urban clinics and health departments completed self-report questionnaires. Key information included beliefs about barriers and benefits to health practices and children's health behaviors. Results Children of Latina mothers consumed significantly more soda and fried foods and exercised less than children of non-Latina mothers. Latina mothers were significantly more likely to perceive barriers to healthy eating and significantly less likely to perceive benefits to healthy eating and physical activity than non-Latina mothers. Ethnicity mediated the relationship between maternal views of health benefits and soda consumption. Conclusions Policy changes are needed to promote health education and increase the accessibility of healthy foods and safe places to exercise for Latino families.

  11. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  12. Patients' perceived level of social isolation affects the prognosis of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morsø, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived social isolation is prevalent among patients with low back pain (LBP) and could be a potential prognostic factor for clinical outcomes following an episode of LBP. METHODS: A secondary analysis of an original prospective cohort study, which investigated the validity...... of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social...... not predict pain catastrophizing or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' perceived social isolation predicts disability related to LBP. Further understanding of the role of social isolation in LBP is warranted....

  13. How authenticity, narrator, and plot of a story affect perceived brand image

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wen-yeh (Rene)

    2010-01-01

    Many successful brands have employed brand story to communicate with consumers. Brand story plays a part in helping consumers make sense of the brand. This study intended to investigate the relationship between brand story's demensions, including authenticity, narrator, plot, and consumers' perceptions of brand image. A 2x2x2 experimental design was employed to test the effect of abovementioned dimensions on perceived brand image. Findings suggested that brand story with high authenticity, cl...

  14. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  15. Influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious decis

  16. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  17. The Paradoxical Role of Perceived Control in Late Life Health Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith G Chipperfield

    Full Text Available Research has established the health benefits of psychological factors, including the way individuals appraise outcomes. Although many studies confirm that appraising outcomes as controllable is adaptive for health, a paradoxical possibility is largely ignored: Perceived control may be detrimental under some conditions. Our premise was that appraising health as controllable but at the same time ascribing little value to it might signal a dysfunctional psychological mindset that fosters a mistaken sense of invincibility. During face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of older adults (age range = 72-99, we identified individuals with such a potentially maladaptive "invincible" mindset (high perceived control and low health value and compared them to their counterparts on several outcomes. The findings were consistent with our hypotheses. The invincibles denied future risks, they lacked the activating emotion of fear, and they visited their physicians less often over a subsequent five-year period. Moreover, in contrast to their counterparts, the invincibles did not appear strategic in their approach to seeking care: Even poor health did not prompt them to seek the counsel of a physician. The recognition that psychological appraisals are modifiable highlights the promise of remedial methods to alter maladaptive mindsets, potentially improving quality of life.

  18. The Paradoxical Role of Perceived Control in Late Life Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Pekrun, Reinhard; Barchfeld, Petra; Lang, Frieder R; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Research has established the health benefits of psychological factors, including the way individuals appraise outcomes. Although many studies confirm that appraising outcomes as controllable is adaptive for health, a paradoxical possibility is largely ignored: Perceived control may be detrimental under some conditions. Our premise was that appraising health as controllable but at the same time ascribing little value to it might signal a dysfunctional psychological mindset that fosters a mistaken sense of invincibility. During face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of older adults (age range = 72-99), we identified individuals with such a potentially maladaptive "invincible" mindset (high perceived control and low health value) and compared them to their counterparts on several outcomes. The findings were consistent with our hypotheses. The invincibles denied future risks, they lacked the activating emotion of fear, and they visited their physicians less often over a subsequent five-year period. Moreover, in contrast to their counterparts, the invincibles did not appear strategic in their approach to seeking care: Even poor health did not prompt them to seek the counsel of a physician. The recognition that psychological appraisals are modifiable highlights the promise of remedial methods to alter maladaptive mindsets, potentially improving quality of life.

  19. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia N. Aziz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive affect on child health.

  20. Impact of an Oral Health Education Workshop on Parents’ Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Behavioral Control among African Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the impact of an educational workshop on parental knowledge, attitude, and perceived behavioral control regarding their child’s oral health. Materials and Methods. A one-time oral health education workshop including audio/visual and hands-on components was conducted by a trained dentist and bilingual community workers in community locations. Participants were African parents of children who had lived in Canada for less than ten years. The impact of the workshop was evaluated by a questionnaire developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Results. A total of 105 parents participated in this study. Participants were mainly mothers (mean age 35.03±5.4 years who came to Canada as refugee (77.1% and had below high school education (70%. Paired t-test showed a significant difference in participants’ knowledge of caries, preventive measures, and benefits of regular dental visits after the workshop (P value<0.05. A significant improvement was also found in parental attitudes toward preventive measures and their perceived behavioral control (P<0.05. Parents’ intention to take their child to a dentist within six months significantly altered after the workshop (P value<0.05. Conclusions. A one-time hands-on training was effective in improving parental knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention with respect to their child’s oral health and preventive dental visits in African immigrants.

  1. Constraints perceived by psychiatrists working in community mental health services. Development and pilot study of a novel instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Mackinnon, Andrew; Curci, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    An inventory of institutional constraints perceived as limiting therapeutic choices was developed and completed by psychiatrists working in Italian public mental health services. Constraints considered most limiting were social and institutional pressures toward social control, violence risk assessment and prevention, and lack of control over workload. The total mean score of the perceived constraints instrument was significantly negatively correlated with ratings of perceived freedom in therapeutic choices and with overall job satisfaction. Reliability was good (alpha = 0.85). Addressing perceived constraints may result in more choice options to reach therapeutic goals in a collaborative framework with patients, and improve job satisfaction.

  2. Perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior in two communities in the nam theun 2 hydroelectric project area in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayasone S; Erlanger TE; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Tanner M; Utzinger J; Odermatt P

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To compare perceived ill-health and health seeking behavior between two communities affected by the large Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).Methods:Two different affected areas:Nakai plateaubeing remote,sparcely populated and mountainous,and Xe Bang Fai lowland plains,more densely populated and comparatively affluent were included.Data were obtained from two cross-sectional household-based health and socio-economic surveys.Results:We found pronounced differ-ences in the frequency of self-reported fever,cough,headache and myalgia according to location.On the Na-kai plateau,45.1 % of the individuals with ill-health report (recall period:2 weeks)went to a local health volunteer compared to only 7.2 % in the Xe Bang Fai area (P <0.001).In Nakai,there were disproportion-ately more illiterates seeking help from local health volunteers when compared to those who attended at least primary schooling (49.2 % versus 17.5 %,P <0.01).Self-medication with antimalarials was more common in Xe Bang Fai than on Nakai (32.3 % versus 7.0 %,P <0.001).The mean amount of money spent per health consultation was US $1.7 in Nakai and US $7.2 in Xe Bang Fai.Conclusion:The observed differ-ences in self-reported ill-health and health seeking behavior among these two Lao communities need to be con-sidered when implementing setting-specific mitigation measures as part of the public health action plan of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project.

  3. Role of affective attitudes and anticipated affective reactions in predicting health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M; McEachan, R.; Taylor, N; O'Hara, J.; Lawton, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two measures of affect-affective attitude (AA) and anticipated affective reaction (AAR)- have frequently been used individually, but rarely simultaneously, in correlational studies predicting health behaviors. This research assessed their individual and combined impact in predicting intention and action for a range of health behaviors, controlling for theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables. Method: Self-reported intentions and performance of health behaviors were the main outco...

  4. Working alliance, interpersonal trust and perceived coercion in mental health review hearings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Vidis

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background There is some evidence that when mental health commitment hearings are held in accordance with therapeutic jurisprudence principles they are perceived as less coercive, and more just in their procedures leading to improved treatment adherence and fewer hospital readmissions. This suggests an effect of the hearing on therapeutic relationships. We compared working alliance and interpersonal trust in clinicians and forensic patients, whose continued detentions were reviewed by two different legal review bodies according to their legal category. Methods The hearings were rated as positive or negative by patients and treating psychiatrists using the MacArthur scales for perceived coercion, perceived procedural justice (legal and medical) and for the impact of the hearing. We rated Global assessment of Function (GAF), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) and Interpersonal Trust in Physician (ITP) scales six months before the hearing and repeated the WAI and ITP two weeks before and two weeks after the hearing, for 75 of 83 patients in a forensic medium and high secure hospital. Results Psychiatrists agreed with patients regarding the rating of hearings. Patients rated civil hearings (MHTs) more negatively than hearings under insanity legislation (MHRBs). Those reviewed by MHTs had lower scores for WAI and ITP. However, post-hearing WAI and ITP scores were not different from baseline and pre-hearing scores. Using the receiver operating characteristic, baseline WAI and ITP scores predicted how patients would rate the hearings, as did baseline GAF and PANSS scores. Conclusions There was no evidence that positively perceived hearings improved WAI or ITP, but some evidence showed that negatively perceived hearings worsened them. Concentrating on functional recovery and symptom remission remains the best strategy for improved therapeutic relationships.

  5. Working alliance, interpersonal trust and perceived coercion in mental health review hearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Vidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that when mental health commitment hearings are held in accordance with therapeutic jurisprudence principles they are perceived as less coercive, and more just in their procedures leading to improved treatment adherence and fewer hospital readmissions. This suggests an effect of the hearing on therapeutic relationships. We compared working alliance and interpersonal trust in clinicians and forensic patients, whose continued detentions were reviewed by two different legal review bodies according to their legal category. Methods The hearings were rated as positive or negative by patients and treating psychiatrists using the MacArthur scales for perceived coercion, perceived procedural justice (legal and medical and for the impact of the hearing. We rated Global assessment of Function (GAF, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, Working Alliance Inventory (WAI and Interpersonal Trust in Physician (ITP scales six months before the hearing and repeated the WAI and ITP two weeks before and two weeks after the hearing, for 75 of 83 patients in a forensic medium and high secure hospital. Results Psychiatrists agreed with patients regarding the rating of hearings. Patients rated civil hearings (MHTs more negatively than hearings under insanity legislation (MHRBs. Those reviewed by MHTs had lower scores for WAI and ITP. However, post-hearing WAI and ITP scores were not different from baseline and pre-hearing scores. Using the receiver operating characteristic, baseline WAI and ITP scores predicted how patients would rate the hearings, as did baseline GAF and PANSS scores. Conclusions There was no evidence that positively perceived hearings improved WAI or ITP, but some evidence showed that negatively perceived hearings worsened them. Concentrating on functional recovery and symptom remission remains the best strategy for improved therapeutic relationships.

  6. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p valuenuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/nuclear power. These factors are considered as important indicators and they can be used for suggesting future policy amendments and public referendum on the decision of the operation of the planned NPP.

  7. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  8. Health beliefs and perceived need for mental health care of anxiety and depression--the patients' perspective explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Marijn A; Verhaak, Peter F M; Bensing, Jozien M; van der Meer, Klaas

    2008-07-01

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and non-patients. Patients give multi-dimensional explanations for depression and see both psychological and medication treatment as helpful. People who suffer from depression have more positive beliefs about biological etiology and medication treatment than healthy people, or those with less severe depressive symptoms. Anxiety patients view psychological interventions as their best treatment option. Between 49% and 84% of the patients with depression or anxiety perceive a need for treatment, mostly for counseling and medication. All patients prefer psychological treatment forms to medication. A majority of patients view antidepressants as addictive and many perceive stigma and see practical and economic barriers to care. The most vulnerable groups in terms of seeking and receiving mental health care for depression and anxiety seem to be minority groups, as well as younger and older patients. More research is required into the specific needs of anxiety and depression patients. Open communication between patient and provider could lead to valuable improvements in treatment.

  9. Facial Feedback Affects Perceived Intensity but Not Quality of Emotional Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek S. Lobmaier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by conflicting evidence in the literature, we re-assessed the role of facial feedback when detecting quantitative or qualitative changes in others’ emotional expressions. Fifty-three healthy adults observed self-paced morph sequences where the emotional facial expression either changed quantitatively (i.e., sad-to-neutral, neutral-to-sad, happy-to-neutral, neutral-to-happy or qualitatively (i.e. from sad to happy, or from happy to sad. Observers held a pen in their own mouth to induce smiling or frowning during the detection task. When morph sequences started or ended with neutral expressions we replicated a congruency effect: Happiness was perceived longer and sooner while smiling; sadness was perceived longer and sooner while frowning. Interestingly, no such congruency effects occurred for transitions between emotional expressions. These results suggest that facial feedback is especially useful when evaluating the intensity of a facial expression, but less so when we have to recognize which emotion our counterpart is expressing.

  10. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  11. The relationship between perceived own health state and health assessments of anchoring vignettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Andreas; Häuser, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Self-reported health depends on the internal frame of reference and on response styles. One way of studying this dependency is using anchoring vignettes. Response shift effects are assumed to induce a negative correlation between self-reported health and the health assessments attributed to the vignettes. Method: A representative sample of the German adult population (N = 2,409) was selected. Participants were asked to rate their health state and the health states of two rather complex vignet...

  12. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination. PMID:27079055

  13. Does parental unemployment affect adolescents' health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Geckova, A.M.; Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the associations between mother's and father's employment status separately and together and the subjective health of children; and how parental education and financial strain can modify these associations. Methods: Data were obtained from 2836 respondents aged 14 to 22 years (me

  14. [Relationship between perceived health status and career choice in a sample of wage-earners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derriennic, F; Maillard, C; Fassina, N; Fortier-Launois, M; Lamarre, G; Le Chevanton, N; Monfort, C; Neel, B; Pasquier, C; Rabusson-Corvisart, D

    1995-01-01

    Many factors were related with subjective health status (SHS), but few studies have focused on identifying some intrinsic personal factors like the choice of job and perceived working situations. The present paper examines the relationships among such factors in a large French sample. Data were collected from 21,378 subjects who were randomly selected from the lists of male and female wage earners who were followed up by 380 occupational physicians and who were born in 1938, 1943, 1948 or 1953. SHS was evaluated using the French version of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Socio-demographic and job characteristics were assessed by means of closed questions during the annual medical examination. Results showed that low subjective health status was related to sex, age and perceived working situation: for each of the six areas of the NHP (pain, physical mobility, energy, sleep, social isolation, emotional reactions) there was a lower SHS for women and a decrease with age for both sexes. The poorer the perceived working situations the worse was the SHS. Using general linear models it appeared that independently of these factors and the socio-economical category dichotomized in upper classes versus lower classes, those who had claimed to have not chosen their job had a lower SHS, whatever the area of SHS. Awaiting the second survey in 1995, it is difficult to explain these results from this cross sectional analysis: is the choice of job a possible risk factor or an artefact due to some unmeasured confounding factors like motivation or job satisfaction. PMID:7784675

  15. The Perceived Informational Value and Affective Consequences of Choice Behavior and Intermediate Difficulty Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wulf-Uwe; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Four experiments are presented that examine the affective and the informational explanations of risk-preference behavior. Experiments I and II provide a phenomenological analysis of the affective and informational determinants of choice behavior while Experiments III and IV investigates at what level of difficulty individuals most desire…

  16. Climate change: a review of its health impact and perceived awareness by the young citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mohamad, Osman Bin; Zarim, Zainal bin Abu

    2014-07-01

    In recent time climate change and its impact on human health and awareness constitute a set of complex and serious consequences to be tackled by an individual country. Climate change is not merely an environmental issue, but also it is a threat that goes beyond national borders. The purpose of this study is to identify the awareness and the impact of climate change, perceived by the young citizens in Malaysia by focusing on gender differences. Based on a survey of 200 respondents from different public and private University's students in Malaysia, this research used descriptive statistics and T-test to look into the research objective. The results revealed media can play an important role in the awareness of climate change. Meanwhile the male respondents have shown considerable attention on the physical impact of climate change like heat related stress. On the other hand female respondents have shown considerable attention to the psychological impact by the climate change. From a pragmatic perspective, the findings from this research will assists the policy makers to understand more about the perceived awareness on the climate change issues of the young citizens which ultimately assist them to inaugurate new initiatives to confront the challenges of climate changes. This research is among the pioneer study on the issue of the perceived awareness in regards to climate change in Malaysia by focusing on gender differences. PMID:24999143

  17. Change in self-rated general health is associated with perceived illness burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Jensen, Per; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe;

    2015-01-01

    Background: iabetic patients’ lifestyle adaptations to improve glycaemic control are not always followed by improvements in self-rated general health (SRH). The perceived impact of diabetes on patients’ daily lives may influence changes in their SRH. This paper examines the association of illness...... more pronounced illness burden. Conclusions: Much as one would expect, many patients increased their SRH during the first year after diabetes diagnosis. This increase in SRH was not associated with indicators of illness severity or factors reflecting socio-demographic circumstances, but patients...

  18. Health promotion practices as perceived by primary healthcare professionals at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Samar; Alshoshan, Feda; Al Shaman, Ghada; Tawfeeq, Nasser; Alasmary, May; Ahmed, Anwar E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, several research studies have investigated health promotion practices in Saudi healthcare organizations, yet no published literature exists on health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals working for the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNG-HA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of 206 primary healthcare professionals at the MNG-HA. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to investigate the attitudes, awareness, satisfaction, and methods regarding health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals. Results: Of the 206 primary healthcare professionals surveyed, 58.1% reported awareness of health promotion programs conducted in the hospitals and 64.6% reported that the health promotion system in the hospitals needs to be improved. Language barriers and cultural beliefs were viewed as obstacles to carrying out effective health promotion by 65% and 64.6% of primary healthcare professionals, respectively. The majority (79.9%) of the primary healthcare professionals perceived themselves as having the necessary skills to promote health and 80.6% believed that printed educational materials are the most prevalent method of health promotion/education, whereas 55.8% reported that counseling was the most preferred method of health promotion. Conclusion: The awareness level of health promotion policies, strategies, and programs conducted in the hospitals was not found to be satisfactory. Therefore, widespread training programs are recommended to improve the health promotion system in the hospitals. These programs include facilitating behavioral change, introducing health promotion policies and strategies in hospitals, mandatory workshops, and systematic reminders.

  19. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicaceae vegetables. These health promoting affects are due to a range of phytochemicals including primary (carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acid) and secondary metabolites (phenolics and glucosino...

  20. The way the quality of health services is perceived and treated by the managerial personnel of public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rybarczyk-Szwajkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managerial knowledge and skills as well as profound understanding of goals and objectives of management determine the effectiveness and efficiency in all areas of managerial activities. In particular, this applies to the quality of healthcare services, perceived as a compliance between the effects (of medical treatment and the assumed relevant objectives (defined/desired health condition. The aim of the research was to distinguish and define the way the health service quality is perceived by the hospital managerial personnel. Material and Methods: The questionnaire was mailed to 836 members of the managerial personnel of public hospitals in the Łódź province. Of this number 122 questionnaires were returned. Results: Only 22 (18.49% of respondents presented the definition of quality. Attempts to meet patients’ expectations and to satisfy them were found to be the prevailing perception of the healthcare quality and 96.64% of respondents considered competences of medical staff contributory. Almost 64% of respondents disagree with the opinion that the number of medical staff does not affect the service quality. According to the respondents, a 46% increase in financial resources on average could significantly improve the quality of healthcare services. More than half (66.76% of respondents claim that healthcare services that are available cover 82% of patients’ needs. Almost 57% (56.52% of respondents consider that the subordinate- superior relationship influences their work involvement. According to 42.61% of respondents, the offered incentives encourage actions for the quality improvement. Conclusions: The results of the research indicate the need to develop a clear cut definition of the health service quality by the managerial personnel of public hospitals and to change their understanding, perception and treatment of the discussed issue, which provides a basis for the effective and efficient hospital management. Med Pr 2016

  1. Food, Class, and Health: The Role of the Perceived Body in the Social Reproduction of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L.; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    The association between social class and cardiovascular health is complex, involving a constant interplay of factors as individuals integrate external information from the media, health care providers, and people they know with personal experience to produce health behaviors. This ethnographic study took place from February 2008 to February 2009 to assess how cardiovascular health information circulating in Kansas City influenced a sample of 55 women in the area. Participants were primarily C...

  2. What is important, what needs treating? How GPs perceive older patients’ multiple health problems: a mixed method research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junius-Walker Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GPs increasingly deal with multiple health problems of their older patients. They have to apply a hierarchical management approach that considers priorities to balance competing needs for treatment. Yet, the practice of setting individual priorities in older patients is largely unexplored. This paper analyses the GPs’ perceptions on important and unimportant health problems and how these affect their treatment. Methods GPs appraised the importance of health problems for a purposive sample of their older patients in semi-structured interviews. Prior to the interviews, the GPs had received a list of their patients’ health problems resulting from a geriatric assessment and were asked to rate the importance of each identified problem. In the interviews the GPs subsequently explained why they considered certain health problems important or not and how this affected treatment. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis and quantitative methods. Results The problems GPs perceive as important are those that are medical and require active treatment or monitoring, or that induce empathy or awareness but cannot be assisted further. Unimportant problems are those that are well managed problems and need no further attention as well as age-related conditions or functional disabilities that provoke fatalism, or those considered outside the GPs’ responsibility. Statements of professional actions are closely linked to explanations of important problems and relate to physical problems rather than functional and social patient issues. Conclusions GPs tend to prioritise treatable clinical conditions. Treatment approaches are, however, vague or missing for complex chronic illnesses and disabilities. Here, patient empowerment strategies are of value and need to be developed and implemented. The professional concepts of ageing and disability should not impede but rather foster treatment and care. To this end, GPs need to be able to

  3. When does Subliminal Affective Image Priming Influence the Ability of Schizophrenic Patients to Perceive Face Emotions?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaina, Lucia M.; Rana, Kunjan D.; Cotos, Ionela; Li-Yang, Chen; Huang, Melissa A.; Podea, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Deficits in face emotion perception are among the most pervasive aspects of schizophrenia impairments which strongly affects interpersonal communication and social skills. Material/Methods Schizophrenic patients (PSZ) and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed 2 psychophysical tasks. One, the SAFFIMAP test, was designed to determine the impact of subliminally presented affective or neutral images on the accuracy of face-expression (angry or neutral) perception. In the second tes...

  4. Women's Greater Ability to Perceive Happy Facial Emotion Automatically: Gender Differences in Affective Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Uta-Susan Donges; Anette Kersting; Thomas Suslow

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral...

  5. Attitudes and perceived barriers of tertiary level health professionals towards incident reporting in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raees Malik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A limited framework of incident reporting exists in most of the health care system in Pakistan. This poses a risk to the patient population and therefore there is a need to find the causes behind the lack of such a system in healthcare settings in Pakistan. Aims: To determine the attitudes and perceived barriers towards incident reporting among tertiary care health professionals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study was done in Shifa International Hospitals and consisted of a questionnaire given to 217 randomly selected doctors and nurses. Mean ± SD of continuous variables and frequency (percentage % of categorical variables are presented. Chi square statistical analysis was used to test the significance of association among doctors and nurses with various outcome variables (motivators to report, perceived barriers, preferred person to report and patient’s outcome that influence reporting behaviors. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Student doctors and student nurses were not included in the study. Results: Unlike consultant, registrars, medical officers and nurses (more than 95% are willing to report, only 20% of house officers will report the incident happened through them. Sixty nine percent of doctors and 67% of nurses perceive ‘administration sanction’ as a common barrier to incident reporting. Sixty percent of doctors and 80% of nurses would prefer reporting to the head of the department. Conclusions: By giving immunity from administrative sanction, providing prompt feedback and assurance that the incident reporting will be used to make changes in the system, there is considerable willingness of doctors and nurses to take time out of their busy schedules to submit reports.

  6. Diabetes in homeless persons: barriers and enablers to health as perceived by patients, medical, and social service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Nancy C; Tubb, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    The ways homelessness and diabetes affect each other is not well known. The authors sought to understand barriers and enablers to health for homeless people with diabetes as perceived by homeless persons and providers. The authors performed semistructured interviews with a sample of participants (seven homeless persons, six social service providers, and five medical providers) in an urban Midwest community. Data analysis was performed with the qualitative editing method. Participants described external factors (chaotic lifestyle, diet/food availability, access to care, and medications) and internal factors (competing demands, substance abuse, stress) that directly affect health. Social service providers were seen as peripheral to diabetes care, although all saw their primary functions as valuable. These factors and relationships are appropriately modeled in a complex adaptive chronic care model, where the framework is bottom up and stresses adaptability, self-organization, and empowerment. Adapting the care of homeless persons with diabetes to include involvement of patients and medical and social service providers must be emergent and responsive to changing needs.

  7. Factors associated with perceived discrimination in health services of Brazil: Results of the Brazilian National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Ferreira, Arthur Pate de Souza; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with perceived discrimination in the health services of Brazil. It is a population-based epidemiological study using data from the 2013 National Health Survey, which had a complex sample design in three phases. For each domicile sampled, one individual aged 18 or over was selected (resulting in n = 62,202). The outcome analyzed was: Perception of discrimination by doctors or health professionals, suffered in the health services. A logistic regression model was estimated, adjusted for confounding factors. Discrimination was reported by 10.5% of the Brazilian population. The factors most frequently indicated were: lack of money (5.7%); and social class (5.6%). The adjusted model showed that the groups with the highest chance of feeling discriminated against were: women; individuals without complete primary education; non-whites; and those without a health insurance plan. The fact that one-tenth of the Brazilian population reported feeling discriminated against in the health services shows the need for regulation and wide debate in relation to the Brazilian laws that guarantee universal and equal access to the public and private health services. PMID:26910145

  8. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care.

  9. Perceived health improvement through a mindfulness meditation development program in fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Justo Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of a mindfulness developmentmeditation program on perceived health in a group of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Thirty-three patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia participated. A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest/follow-up design was carried out, with oneexperimental group and one control group. The SF-36 Questionnaire was used as the evaluation instrument. The statistical analyses done show an improvement in the dimensions physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, social functioning, role emotional, mentalhealth, and mental component at the end of the intervention. These improvements are maintained in the follow-up test given three months after intervention. These results are in agreement with other studies which have found mindfulness techniques to be effective in improving patients with fibromyalgia. Nevertheless, the study shows various limitations that would have to be corrected in successivestudies to bring more validity to the results.

  10. The labile lipid fraction of meat: from perceived disease and waste to health and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aldai, N; Turner, T D; Aalhus, J L; Rolland, D C; Kramer, J K G; Dugan, M E R

    2012-11-01

    The fatty acid composition of beef and pork has been stigmatized due to their relationships with several diseases from cardiovascular disease to cancer. Meat lipids are, however, one of the few components of meat that can be modified in content and composition, and can present opportunities for value added production and health promotion. Until regulations and policies are in place to define requirements for fatty acid enrichment, however, the process remains relatively academic. Once practical goals are in place for fatty acid enrichment in meat, both theory and practice need to converge for successful production of fatty acid enriched meat. The present review covers aspects of policy in Canada, and requirements for research networks to respond to theoretical and practical challenges associated with production of fatty acid enriched meat. Finally, needs for education and marketing are outlined which must be in place to truly realize a transition of meat lipids from perceived disease and waste to health and opportunity. PMID:22546816

  11. The relationship of health-care managers' spirituality to their self-perceived leadership practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, James Gary; Fottler, Myron D; Kilpatrick, Ann Osbourne

    2008-11-01

    This exploratory survey examines the relationship between selected dimensions of spirituality and self-perceived effective leadership practices of health-care managers. Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory and Beazley's Spiritual Assessment Scale were administered to a sample of health-care managers. Significant statistical relationships were found between and among the dimensions of both subscales. Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant difference in three effective leadership practices by 'more spiritual than non-spiritual' managers. The confirmatory factor analysis of our theory-based model revealed a moderately positive correlation between spirituality and leadership (r = 0.50). The paper concludes with a conceptual theory postulating a rationale for the relationship between spirituality and effective leadership.

  12. A cross-cultural assessment of perceived health problems in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R A; Imperial, E; Zhuo, D; Lu, Y; Watts, G; Kelleher, P; Brunker, P; Gass, G; Cue, R; Cross, J

    1992-01-01

    To study cross-cultural differences in perceived health problems in the elderly the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) developed by Hunt et al. was administered to subjects from the People's Republic of China and Australia. The Australian stratum was further categorized according to cardiovascular status. Analyses of covariance (with age as the covariate) on each of the six subscales of the NHP yielded significant differences for 'Energy', 'Pain', 'Emotional reactions', 'Social isolation' and 'Physical mobility'. No differences were found for the 'Sleep' subscale. Through comparisons between the mean scores for the four strata and from normative data it is concluded that it is likely that the NHP is 'culture free' on the dimensions 'Energy', 'Pain', 'Emotional reactions', 'Social isolation' and 'Physical mobility'. PMID:1520893

  13. The utilization and perceived usefulness of health care and other support services by people exposed to traumatic events related to the war in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Frančišković

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore which health care and other support services people exposed to traumatic events related to the war use, how helpful they perceive them in the course of their post-war adaptation and whether utilization and perceived usefulness depend on the mental health status of participants. Methods. A community sample of 3304 adults exposed to at least one war-related traumatic event was randomly selected in different regions in the former Yugoslavia. A specifically designed instrument, the Matrix for the Assessment of Community and Healthcare Services, was used to record service utilization and their perceived usefulness. The mental health status of participants was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results. Primary health care was the most frequently used type of service (80.5%. Services providing help with leisure activities, social support and social contacts were perceived as most helpful. Participants with current post-traumatic stress disorder used all types of health care services and employment support services significantly more often than participants without mental disorders and participants with other mental disorders. They were more satisfied with primary health care services than participants without mental disorders and less satisfied with financial and material support services as compared to participants with other mental disorders. Conclusions. The frequency of utilization of different types of services varies greatly in war affected communities. Medical services are widely used and therefore have a central role in the care provision following a war. Services providing help with leisure activities and social support are most appreciated and may be more widely established.

  14. Food, class, and health: the role of the perceived body in the social reproduction of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    The association between social class and cardiovascular health is complex, involving a constant interplay of factors as individuals integrate external information from the media, health care providers, and people they know with personal experience to produce health behaviors. This ethnographic study took place from February 2008 to February 2009 to assess how cardiovascular health information circulating in Kansas City influenced a sample of 55 women in the area. Participants were primarily Caucasian (n = 41) but diverse in terms of age, income, and education. Themes identified in transcripts showed women shared the same idea of an ideal body, young and thin, and associated this perception with ideas about good health, intelligence, and morality. Transcript themes corresponded to those found at health events and in the media that emphasized individual control over determinants of disease. Women's physical appearance and health behaviors corresponded to class indicators. Four categories were identified to represent women's shared beliefs and practices in relation to class, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Findings were placed within an existing body of social theory to better understand how cardiovascular health information and women's associated beliefs relate to health inequality. PMID:22746270

  15. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  16. Does dental health education affect inequalities in dental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Lothian 1991 dental health campaigns on 5-year-old schoolchildren's oral hygiene and gingival health in relation to deprivation. A stratified random sample of 486 children was selected from 92 primary schools in the city of Edinburgh. Clinical examinations...... took place immediately before (T1), a month after (T2) and 4 months after the campaign (T3). A total of 342 (70 per cent) children received all 3 examinations. Oral hygiene and gingival health were examined using a modified Silness and Löe and the Ainamo and Bay Index. Toothbrushes and take...... to established social indicators. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in plaque scores at T2 and T3 (P gingival health improved at T2 and T3 (P

  17. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Walid El Ansari; Reza Oskrochi; Ghollamreza Haghgoo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, l...

  18. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar Sharma; Madanmohan Trakroo,; Velkumary Subramaniam; Rajajeyakumar, M.; Bhavanani, Anand B; Ajit Sahai

    2013-01-01

    Context: Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Aim: Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Materials and Method...

  19. Relational Regulation Theory : A New Approach to Explain the Link Between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational regulatio

  20. Relational Regulation Theory: A New Approach to Explain the Link between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational regulation theory (RRT) hypothesizes that main effects…

  1. Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

  2. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-03-03

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p health.

  3. Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160304.html Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival 2 studies highlight disparities in outcomes for uninsured and Medicaid patients To use the sharing features on this ...

  4. How Does Bullying Affect Health and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does bullying affect health & well-being? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Bullying can lead to physical injury, social problems, emotional ...

  5. The self-perceived health needs of the rural elderly who live alone.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1992-04-01

    A randomised cross-sectional survey of Public Health Nurses (PHN) registers was carried out in two rural counties, Westmeath and Longford, Ireland. 200 elderly people living alone, consisting of 50 aged 65-74 years in each of the two counties and 50 aged > or = 75 years expressed their health needs in terms of physical, mental and social well-being. 50% lived in accommodation with inadequate bathroom facilities and only 38.9% were content with their current accommodation. 37.9% felt their finances were inadequate while 15.7% were unsure of their eligibility for different entitlements. 17.6% had personal experience of crime. 39.4% lacked a means of obtaining emergency help. The majority (61.7%) perceived themselves as enjoying excellent\\/good health. The unmet demand for services, other than transport, varied from 11.6% for laundry services to 0% for PHN visits. Transport services were judged inadequate by 51.5% of the study group. It is concluded that by analysing and cross-analysing in terms of variables used in this study, aspects of health care needs could be targetted for different subgroups within the elderly alone group. While not complete in themselves they would help in the targetting of scarce resources.

  6. Dimensions of Perceived Racism and Self-Reported Health: Examination of Racial/Ethnic Differences and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Leslie R. M.; Jhalani, Juhee; Pencille, Melissa; Atencio-Bacayon, Jennifer; Kumar, Asha; Kwok, Jasmin; Ullah, Jahanara; Roth, Alan; Chen, Daniel; Crupi, Robert; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Many details of the negative relationship between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and health are poorly understood. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine racial/ ethnic differences in the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-reported health, identify dimensions of discrimination that drive this relationship, and explore psychological mediators. Methods Asian, Black, and Latino(a) adults (N=734) completed measures of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, self-reported health, depression, anxiety, and cynical hostility. Results The association between perceived discrimination and poor self-reported health was significant and did not differ across racial/ethnic subgroups. Race-related social exclusion and threat/harassment uniquely contributed to poor health for all groups. Depression, anxiety, and cynical hostility fully mediated the effect of social exclusion on health, but did not fully explain the effect of threat. Conclusions Our results suggest that noxious effects of race-related exclusion and threat transcend between-group differences in discriminatory experiences. The effects of race-related exclusion and threat on health, however, may operate through different mechanisms. PMID:21374099

  7. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicace

  8. Perceived quality of health care services among people with osteoarthritis – results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønhaug G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gudmund Grønhaug,1 Jon Hagfors,2 Ingebjørg Borch,2 Nina Østerås,1 Kåre Birger Hagen11National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, 2Norwegian Rheumatism Association, Oslo, NorwayObjective: To assess the perceived quality of care received by people with osteoarthritis (OA in Norway and explore factors associated with the quality of care.Methods: A national survey in which members of the Norwegian Rheumatism Association with OA registered as their main diagnosis completed a questionnaire. The perceived quality of care was reported on a 17-item OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator questionnaire, covering both pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects of OA care. In addition, the four-page questionnaire covered areas related to demographic characteristics, the location and impact of the OA, and utilization and satisfaction with health care services. The quality of care is calculated as pass rates, where the numerator represents the number of indicators passed and the denominator represents the number of eligible persons.Results: In total, 1,247 participants (response rate 57% completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 68 years (standard deviation 32 and 1,142 (92% were women. Respondents reported OA in hand only (12.4%, hip only (7.3%, knee only (10.4%, in two locations (42% or all three locations (27%. The overall OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator pass rate was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46%–48%, and it was higher for pharmacological aspects (53% [51%–54%] than for non-pharmacological aspects of care (44% [43%–46%]. The pass rate for the individual quality indicators ranged from 8% for “referral for weight reduction” to 81% for “receiving advice about exercises”. Satisfaction with care was strongly associated with perceived quality. The pass rate for those who were “very satisfied” was 33% (25%–40% higher than those who were “very unsatisfied” with care.Conclusion: While the OA

  9. Health behaviors, affect, and academic performance : three longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Lavinia Heidy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health behaviors are a fundamental and highly fluctuating component of everyday life. Evidence capturing these natural daily fluctuations is limited. Therefore, this dissertation investigates how these daily dynamics in health behaviors are associated with other important aspects of young adults’ everyday lives and bridges separate research strands by integrating health behaviors, affect, stress, and academic performance in three intensive longitudinal studies. Method: These three ...

  10. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  11. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne H Eide

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.

  12. Perceived Relationships among Components of Insurance Service for Users of Complementary Health Insurance Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Sebjan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the components of the services provided by complementary voluntary health insurance (CVHI, to which users ascribe different levels of importance. Research model that consists of four constructs (importance of quality service, additional coverage, price discounts of CVHI and insurance company reputation and an indicator of the importance of insurance premium of CVHI was tested with structural equation modelling (SEM on the sample of 300 Slovenian users of CVHI. Our findings show that - according to the users - the importance of the component of CVHI service (insurance premium is reflected in the perceived importance of other components of CVHI (additional coverage, quality, price discounts and insurance company reputation.

  13. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  14. Care Professionals' Perceived Usefulness of eHealth for Post-Discharge Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoody, Nadia; Hägglund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Despite many attempts to provide appropriate tools for supporting stroke patients in their care and rehabilitation processes, there is still room for improvement. We propose an online care and rehabilitation planning tool as a potential eHealth service for stroke patients. The aim is to study the care professionals' perceived usefulness of the planning tool. We developed and presented a functional prototype to a neurology team in Stockholm. Three focus groups were performed with the care professionals in the team and the data were analysed based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Although care professionals mentioned challenges such as time limitation for using the tool and issues related to the responsibility of the system, they were positive towards the tool and its potential usefulness in ease of understanding the rehabilitation process and support for collaboration. PMID:27577452

  15. Mothers’ perceived physical health during early and middle childhood: Relations with child developmental delay and behavior problems

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; n = 116) or typical development (TD; n = 129) was examined across child ages 3–9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that mothers in the DD group experienced poorer health from age 3 but that the two groups showed similar growth across ...

  16. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiana Piovesan; José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes; Renata Saraiva Guedes; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured i...

  17. Elderly’s Physical-Functional Fitness and Perceived Functional Capacity and Health after Participation in a Hydrotherapy Program

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Cristina Sacramento Pereira; Marlene Baião; João Herculano de Carvalho; Vanda Correia

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated how physical activity in older people benefits their physical fitness, health and well-being. The relation between physical activity and perceived functional capacity and health is yet to be considered. This study is a quantitative research design that investigated the improvement of the physical-functional fitness and the perception of the functional capacity and health of an elderly group participating in a water-based exercise program (hydrotherapy). The d...

  18. Odour annoyance in the neighbourhood of livestock farming: perceived health and health care seeking behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooiveld, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Sman-de Beer, F. van der; Smit, L.A.M.; Vogelaar, M.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.J.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objectives. Odour annoyance forms the main source of environmental stress in residents living in the proximity of animal feeding operations (AFOs) and it has been associated with reduced health. This study aims to gain more insight into the association between AFOs in the neighbourh

  19. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health. PMID:20942361

  20. Students' Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidassey-Manilal, Shalin; Wright, Caradee Y; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Albers, Patricia N; Garland, Rebecca M; Matooane, Mamopeli

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14-18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed. PMID:27338423

  1. Students’ Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidassey-Manilal, Shalin; Wright, Caradee Y.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Albers, Patricia N.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Matooane, Mamopeli

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14–18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed. PMID:27338423

  2. Students’ Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Bidassey-Manilal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252 aged ~14–18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%, had low concentration (96.8% and felt sleepy (94.1% during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed.

  3. ART integration in oral health care systems in Latin American countries as perceived by directors of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a situation analysis of: a prevalence of ART training courses; b integration of ART into the oral healthcare systems and; c strengths and weaknesses of ART integration, in Latin American countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire, consisting of 18 questions, was emailed to directors of national or regional oral health departments of all Latin American countries and the USA. For two countries that had not responded after 4 weeks, the questionnaire was sent to the Dean of each local Dental School. The questions were related to ART training courses, integration of ART in the dental curriculum and the oral healthcare system, barriers to ART implementation in the public health system and recommendations for ART implementation in the services. Factor analysis was used to construct one factor in the barrier-related question. Means and percentages were calculated. RESULTS: The response rate, covering 55% of all Latin American countries, was 76%. An ART training course had been given in all Latin American countries that responded, with more than 2 having been conducted in 64.7% of the respondent countries. ART was implemented in public oral health services in 94.7 % of the countries, according to the respondents. In 15.8% of the countries, ART was applied throughout the country and in 68.4%, in some areas or regions of a country. ART had been used for more, or less, than three years in 42.1% and 47.4% of the countries, respectively. Evaluation and monitoring activities to determine the effectiveness of ART restorations and ART sealants had been carried out in 42.1% of the countries, while evaluation training courses had taken place in only 3 countries (15.8%. Respondents perceived the "increase in the number of treated patients" as the major benefit of ART implementation in public oral health services. The major perceived barrier factors to ART implementation were "operator opinion" and "high

  4. Perceived Health Locus of Control, Self-Esteem, and Its Relations to Psychological Well-Being Status in Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moshki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health locus of control (HLC has been associated with a variety of ailments and health outcomes and de­signed to predict behaviors and cognitive processes relevant to mental and physical health. This study investigated the relation­ships between perceived health locus of control, self-esteem, and mental health status among Iranian students. Methods: In this analytical study the subjects were recruited from students in Gonabad University of Medical Sci­ences, Iran, who studied in the first year (N=154. Students completed the questionnaires for assessing demographic, per­ceived health locus of control, self - esteem and psychological well- being data. Results: The statistical analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived Internal HLC and self-esteem with psychologi­cal well-being. The positive correlation of the perceived Chance HLC with psychological well-being was statisti­cally significant (r= 0.21, P< 0.01 and the positive correlation of the perceived Internal HLC with self-esteem was statisti­cally significant (r= 0.25, P< 0.01. A significantly direct relationship between low perceived Internal HLC, self-esteem and psychological problems was found among these students. Conclusion: The findings will be addressed in relation to their implications for effective mental health education based on health locus of control especially internal and powerful others beliefs associated with self-esteem for students. This will re­quire additional monitoring and uninterrupted trying in order to be effective.

  5. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massay Deodatus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation

  6. Characterizing the (Perceived) Newsworthiness of Health Science Articles: A Data-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin; Paul, Michael J; Elhadad, Noémie; Wallace, Byron C

    2016-01-01

    Background Health science findings are primarily disseminated through manuscript publications. Information subsidies are used to communicate newsworthy findings to journalists in an effort to earn mass media coverage and further disseminate health science research to mass audiences. Journal editors and news journalists then select which news stories receive coverage and thus public attention. Objective This study aims to identify attributes of published health science articles that correlate with (1) journal editor issuance of press releases and (2) mainstream media coverage. Methods We constructed four novel datasets to identify factors that correlate with press release issuance and media coverage. These corpora include thousands of published articles, subsets of which received press release or mainstream media coverage. We used statistical machine learning methods to identify correlations between words in the science abstracts and press release issuance and media coverage. Further, we used a topic modeling-based machine learning approach to uncover latent topics predictive of the perceived newsworthiness of science articles. Results Both press release issuance for, and media coverage of, health science articles are predictable from corresponding journal article content. For the former task, we achieved average areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.666 (SD 0.019) and 0.882 (SD 0.018) on two separate datasets, comprising 3024 and 10,760 articles, respectively. For the latter task, models realized mean AUCs of 0.591 (SD 0.044) and 0.783 (SD 0.022) on two datasets—in this case containing 422 and 28,910 pairs, respectively. We reported most-predictive words and topics for press release or news coverage. Conclusions We have presented a novel data-driven characterization of content that renders health science “newsworthy.” The analysis provides new insights into the news coverage selection process. For example, it appears epidemiological papers concerning common

  7. Factors Affecting Oral-Dental Health in Children in the Viewpoints of Mothers Referred to the Health Centers in Qom City: Using the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Gharlipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Many dental problems such as tooth decay starts from childhood. In this regard, attitudes and beliefs of mothers about oral-dental health are important. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting oral-dental health in children of the mothers who referred to the Qom health centers by using of the Health Belief Model. Materials and Methods This is cross-sectional descriptive analytic study that was performed among mothers who had Children's health dossier in the Qom health centers, Iran. By using of multi-stage sampling and sample size formula, 300 mothers were selected randomly from health assessment centers. Required data from target group were collected by the questionnaire about Health Belief Model in the field of oral health. The data were analyzed using SPSS -20. Results The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the mothers' behavior towards oral-dental health with perceived benefits and self-efficacy (r=0.16, P

  8. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Machín, Núria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; Värnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is associated with (1) the time spent on the Internet, (2) the time spent on different Web-based activities (social media use, gaming, gambling, pornography use, school work, newsreading, and targeted information searches), and (3) the perceived consequences of engaging in those activities. Methods A random sample of 2286 adolescents was recruited from state schools in Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Questionnaire data comprising Internet behaviors and mental health variables were collected and analyzed cross-sectionally and were followed up after 4 months. Results Cross-sectionally, both the time spent on the Internet and the relative time spent on various activities predicted mental health (Peffects that were not fully accounted for by perceived consequences. The longitudinal analyses showed that sleep loss due to Internet use (ß=.12, 95% CI=0.05-0.19, P=.001) and withdrawal (negative mood) when Internet could not be accessed (ß=.09, 95% CI=0.03-0.16, Peffect on mental health in the long term. Perceived positive consequences of Internet use did not seem to be associated with mental health at all. Conclusions The magnitude of Internet use is negatively associated with mental health in general, but specific Web-based activities differ in how consistently, how much, and in what direction they affect mental health. Consequences of Internet use (especially sleep loss and withdrawal when Internet cannot be accessed) seem to predict mental

  9. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires, infor

  10. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  11. [The look into the look: how patients' suffering is perceived by health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzana, Emanuela; Spada, Simonetta; Braibanti, Paride; Lembo, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    The literature about the surgical treatment of the urologic patient shows an increased attention to the outcome measures related to the quality of life and satisfaction of the treated subject. In this context, a crucial position must be attributed to the quality of the relationships among all the subjects involved in the therapeutic process, and especially among caregivers and patients. Cognitive and emotional dimensions play an important role at this regard, to which a spread sensitivity as for the "local culture" of care must correspond. The aim of this study is to identify the health workers' perception and representation of the cognitive and emotional needs of the patients and their relationship with the organizational complexity of the department. The study was implemented in the Urology Department of the Ospedali Riuniti in Bergamo. It involved eleven health workers (two medical doctors and nine nurses). Each of them underwent a semi-structured interview. The anonymous interview transcripts were analyzed using the T-Lab thematic content analysis program. The study highlighted sensitive areas such as: informative dialogue with the patient, reactivity facing the intervention according to gender, the subject's self-adapting process to the clinical environment and the organizational functioning of the department. The health workers' need of new approaches to meet the needs of the subjects under treatment and their family is underlined. Furthermore, the requirement of consistent functional organizational changes to improve the quality of relationships in the process of care is pointed out. The health workers reported both critical situations, efforts, perceived difficulties and important relational resources to face them. PMID:21452162

  12. An analogue investigation of the relationships among perceived parental criticism, negative affect, and borderline personality disorder features: the role of thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheavens, Jennifer S; Zachary Rosenthal, M; Daughters, Stacey B; Nowak, Jennifer; Kosson, David; Lynch, Thomas R; Lejuez, C W

    2005-02-01

    The current study examined the relationships among biological predisposition, social environment, emotion regulation, and features characteristic of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Using an analogue sample, we examined whether thought suppression mediated the relationship of negative affective intensity/reactivity and perceived parental criticism with a composite of BPD features including impulsivity, interpersonal sensitivity, and aggression. Results indicated that thought suppression fully mediated the relationship between negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD features and partially mediated the relationship between BPD features and perceived parental criticism. Clinical implications, directions for further research, and limitations of the present study are discussed. PMID:15629754

  13. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  14. Perceived risk of predation affects reproductive life-history traits in Gambusia holbrooki, but not in Heterandria formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomen Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less documented, and appreciated, is the potential for predator presence to directly suppress prey reproduction and affect life-history characteristics. For the first time, we tested the effects of visual predator cues on reproduction of two prey species with different reproductive modes, lecithotrophy (i.e. embryonic development primarily fueled by yolk and matrotrophy (i.e. energy for embryonic development directly supplied by the mother to the embryo through a vascular connection. Predation risk suppressed reproduction in the lecithotrophic prey (Gambusia holbrokii but not the matrotroph (Heterandria formosa. Predator stress caused G. holbrooki to reduce clutch size by 43%, and to produce larger and heavier offspring compared to control females. H. formosa, however, did not show any such difference. In G. holbrooki we also found a significantly high percentage (14% of stillbirths in predator-exposed treatments compared to controls (2%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct empirical evidence of predation stress affecting stillbirths in prey. Our results suggest that matrotrophy, superfetation (clutch overlap, or both decrease the sensitivity of mothers to environmental fluctuation in resource (food and stress (predation risk levels compared to lecithotrophy. These mechanisms should be considered both when modeling consequences of perceived risk of predation on prey-predator population dynamics and when seeking to understand the evolution of reproductive modes.

  15. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Coletta, Maria; Sörensen, Silvia; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kaukeinen, Kim; Tu, Xin; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Family members' responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers' perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item "I expect my health to get worse" (OR = 0.90, p < 0.05). Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p's < 0.05). Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes. PMID:27144023

  16. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hoerger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Family members’ responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers’ perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item “I expect my health to get worse” (OR = 0.90, p<0.05. Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p’s < 0.05. Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes.

  17. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  18. Perceived Health After Kidney Transplantation : A Cross-sectional Comparison of Long-term and Short-term Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, T.; Niesing, J.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; Westerhuis, R.; Ploeg, R. J.; Ranchor, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Although increased longevity of grafts has led to a growing number of long-term kidney transplant recipients, knowledge about the perceived health of these patients remains limited. A cross-sectional sample of 609 patients (60% response) was stratified into a short-term (1 and 8 and .05). Furthermor

  19. Differences in perceived health status between kidney transplant recipients and dialyzed patients are based mainly on the selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Prihodova, Lucia; Majernikova, Maria; Nagyova, Iveta; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Roland, Robert; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation offers longer survival, less morbidity and lower costs than dialysis. It is also believed to improve quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the perceived health status (PHS) of dialyzed patients on a waiting list with kidney transplant recipients a

  20. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  1. Digital Game Playing Motives among Adolescents: Relations to Parent-Child Communication, School Performance, Sleeping Habits, and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…

  2. Knowledge about asthma and COPD: associations with sick leave, health complaints, functional limitations, adaptation, and perceived control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.; Borne, B. van den; Orbon, K.H.; Rooijackers, J.; Weel, C. van; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to investigate associations between knowledge about the disease and sick leave, health complaints, functional limitations, adaptation and perceived control. Patients with asthma (n = 101) and COPD (n = 64) underwent lung function tests and completed questionnaires. In addition, all were as

  3. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in tuberculosis diagnostic process: a cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjanarko B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bagoes Widjanarko,1 Dyah Anantalia Widyastari,2 Martini Martini,3 Praba Ginandjar3 1Department of Health Education and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia Purpose: Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians.Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables.Results: Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%–75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled.Conclusion: Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients’ treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The

  4. The way the quality of health services is perceived and treated by the managerial personnel of public hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rybarczyk-Szwajkowska; Dominika Cichońska; Romuald Holly

    2016-01-01

    Background: Managerial knowledge and skills as well as profound understanding of goals and objectives of management determine the effectiveness and efficiency in all areas of managerial activities. In particular, this applies to the quality of healthcare services, perceived as a compliance between the effects (of medical treatment) and the assumed relevant objectives (defined/desired health condition). The aim of the research was to distinguish and define the way the health service quality is...

  5. Reliability of a population survey tool for measuring perceived health problems: a study of patients with osteoarthrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, S. M.; McKenna, S. P.; J. Williams

    1981-01-01

    A study is described which tested the reliability of the Nottingham Health Profile, a standardised measure of perceived health status suitable for use with both large groups and individual patients. Patients with osteoarthrosis, uncomplicated by other diagnosed conditions, were given the questionnaire to fill in on two separate occasions four weeks apart. Analysis of data showed that all sections of the profile achieved a high level of reliability with coefficients of correlation ranging from...

  6. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  7. Effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozo, Ozlem; Anahar, Selin; Ateş, Gizem; Etel, Evren

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on the depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia. The sample was composed of 71 caregivers of children with leukemia living in Turkey. The obtained data were analyzed by path analysis. The results show that caregivers of children with leukemia experience higher levels of depressive symptoms when they have negative illness representation and lower levels of depressive symptoms when they perceive higher levels of social support. Moreover, they perceive higher social support when they perceive high quality of information provided by health-care professionals. It can be suggested that intervention programs which aim to increase caregivers' social support and change their illness representation in a positive way would be helpful for the caregivers showing depressive symptoms. PMID:19898925

  8. Perceived psychosocial impairment associated with eating disorder features: responses to a mental health literacy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Caroline; Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether and to what extent young adults are aware of the adverse impact of eating disorder features (EDF) on psychosocial functioning is unclear, although such awareness may affect the experience and behavior of sufferers. The aim of the current study was to examine young adults’ perceptions of psychosocial impairment associated with EDF, and the potential effect on these perceptions of an eating disorders “mental health literacy” (ED-MHL) intervention. Methods Undergraduate studen...

  9. Perceived risk of HIV infection and mental health in rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The emerging literature on HIV/AIDS and mental health in sub-Saharan Africa stresses that HIV-positive status is significantly related to mental illness. However, the literature has neglected an equally important concern in contexts where HIV is highly prevalent, namely, whether and how an HIV/AIDS epidemic affects the mental well-being of individuals in the general population, regardless of their HIV status. OBJECTIVE This paper adopts an innovative perspective for addressing this...

  10. Physician contact by older Asian Americans: the effects of perceived mental health need

    OpenAIRE

    Duy Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Duy NguyenSilver School of Social Work, New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: The use of physicians is more common than of behavioral specialists, especially in underserved Asian American communities. Despite a rapidly aging Asian American population, research has overlooked older people. This study examines the way mental health need affects the number of physician contacts by older Asian Americans.Method: This study uses data on self-identified Asian Americans aged over age 50 ye...

  11. Lifestyle Course as an Investment in Perceived Improved Health among Newly Arrived Women from Countries outside Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvig Ekblad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Family reunification was the most common reason (34% for resettlement in Sweden in 2013. About one-fifth of the population is foreign-born. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a culturally tailored clinical health-promotion intervention. The intervention was conducted by licensed clinicians and a local coordinator. Sessions were five-weeks long, two hours a week. The quantitative data cover results from 54 participants, mainly Arabic and Somali-speaking, who participated in 10 groups. The participants’ perceived health improved significantly over the three measures. They also shared that their health significantly improved according to moderate effect size. The qualitative data, analyzed using revised content analysis, reflected one general theme: “the intervention is an investment in perceived improved health”, and four categories: “perceived increased health literacy”, “strength, empowerment and security”, “finding a new lifestyle”, and “the key to entry into Swedish society is language”. An intervention focusing on the prevention of ill-health, on health as a human right, and on empowerment, and aimed at female newcomers, has practical implications.

  12. The utilization and perceived usefulness of health care and other support services by people exposed to traumatic events related to the war in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Frančišković; Z. Šuković; Z. Tovilović; D. Ajduković; M. Bogić; A. Kučukalić; D. Lečić-Toševski; N. Morina; M. Popovski; S. Priebe

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore which health care and other support services people exposed to traumatic events related to the war use, how helpful they perceive them in the course of their post-war adaptation and whether utilization and perceived usefulness depend on the mental health status of participants.

  13. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  14. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed.

  15. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    .... small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive as disproportionately affecting their exports to the... Commission reports on SMEs released in 2010, including definitions of ``SME,'' ``disproportionate,'' and ``barrier,'' any relevant literature, and information gathered from SMEs and others. As requested by...

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  17. Self – perceived and clinically diagnosed dental and periodontal health status among young adults and their implications for epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sgan-Cohen Harold D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical (normative and subjective (self-assessment evaluation of caries and periodontal diseases have been reported to demonstrate a significant disparity. The dental public health team is obligated to recognize and understand this gap. The objectives of the study were to investigate the practical values of using questionnaires (self–perceived assessment as compared to clinical examinations (normative assessment and to evaluate the implications of the results in understanding the public's perception of oral health. Methods The investigation was performed on 4920, 21 year-old Israeli adults upon release from compulsory military service between 1996 and 1998. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire inquiring how they would rate their personal dental and periodontal health levels. Clinical examinations, employing the DMFT and CPITN indices, were performed to determine normative oral health status. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall proportions using the clinical examinations as a gold standard. Results The sensitivity (disease perception for dental status was found to be 0.34, while the specificity (health perception was found to be 0.83. The positive predictive value for perceived dental status was found to be 0.68, whereas the negative predictive value was found to be 0.54. The sensitivity for perceived periodontal status was found to be 0.28, while the specificity was found to be 0.83. The positive predictive value for perceived periodontal status was found to be 0.05, whereas the negative predictive value was found to be 0.97. Regarding the overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self–assessment and professional assessment for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusions Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status both in the individual and public

  18. Social Capital, Acculturation, Mental Health, and Perceived Access to Services among Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…

  19. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring. PMID:27281376

  20. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  1. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  2. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  3. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  4. Reaction to political and socioeconomic transition and self-perceived health status in the adult population of Gjilan region, Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Qazimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of our study was to assess the association of reaction to political and socioeconomic transition with self-perceived general health status in adult men and women in a region of Kosovo, a post-war country in the Western Balkans which has proclaimed independence in 2008. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Gjilan region of Kosovo in 2014, including a representative sample of 867 primary health care users aged ≥35 years (419 men aged 54.3±10.9 years and 448 women aged 54.0±10.1 years; overall response rate: 87%. Reaction to political and socioeconomic aspects of transition was assessed by a three-item scale (trichotomized in the analysis into positive attitude, intermediate attitude, and negative attitude towards transition, which was previously used in the neighbouring Albania. Self-reported health status was measured on a 5-point scale which was dichotomized in the analysis into “good” vs. “poor” health. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of reaction to transition with self-rated health status. Results: In crude/unadjusted models, negative attitude to transition was a “strong” predictor of poor self-perceived health (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.7-3.8. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic factors and socioeconomic characteristics, the association was attenuated and was only borderline statistically significant (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.6, P=0.07. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important association between reaction to transition and self-perceived health status in the adult population of the newly independent Kosovo. Policymakers and decision-makers in post-war countries such as Kosovo should be aware of the health effects of attitudes towards political and socioeconomic aspects of transition, which is seemingly an important psychosocial factor.

  5. Perceived impact by administrators of psychiatric emergency services after changes in a state's mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Koch, Alison

    2006-06-01

    As a safety net, psychiatric emergency services are sensitive to system changes. To determine the impact of a state's changes in its mental health system, administrators of publicly funded psychiatric emergency services were surveyed. They reported few (M=0.8) negative changes in coordination of care but 77% endorsed change in administrative burden (54% saying it negatively affected quality of services). Reporting negative effect of administrative burden was associated with treating more persons with substance abuse problems and greater challenge posed by distance to local providers. These results suggest that impact of state-level changes was not uniform but associated with local characteristics.

  6. Health beliefs and perceived need for mental health care of anxiety and depression - the patients' perspective explored.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Meer, K. van der

    2008-01-01

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and non-patients. Patients give multi-dimensi

  7. Health believes and perceived need of mental health care for anxiety and depression – the patient’s perspective explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.; Bensing, J.; Veer, K. van der

    2008-01-01

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and nonpatients. Patients give multi-dimensio

  8. Health beliefs and perceived need for mental health care of anxiety and depression - The patients' perspective explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Marijn A.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Bensing, Jozien M.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and non-patients. Patients give multi-dimensi

  9. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p emotional clarity reported better emotional role (r = .14; p emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health. PMID:26936220

  10. A Structural Equation Model of the Effects of Negative Affectivity, Leader-Member Exchange, and Perceived Job Mobility on In-role and Extra-role Performance: A Chinese Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui; Law; Chen

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) with the effects of perceived job mobility on in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We further model negative affectivity as the antecedent of both LMX and perceived job mobility and suggest that LMX and perceived job mobility mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and performance. We obtained matching data from supervisor and subordinates in a major battery manufacturing company in southern China. Subordinates provided the negative affectivity, perceived job mobility, and LMX assessment, and their immediate supervisors provided the in-role performance and OCB assessment. Results from a structural equation analysis show that both LMX and perceived job mobility predicted OCB. Instead of being a direct antecedent of OCB, the relationship between negative affectivity and OCB is found to be mediated by LMX and perceived job mobility. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9924139

  11. Current practice of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and patient-perceived health outcomes in adrenal insufficiency - a worldwide patient survey

    OpenAIRE

    Forss M; Batcheller G; Skrtic S; Johannsson G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim was to survey current practice in glucocorticoid replacement therapy and self-perceived health outcomes in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Methods Participants were recruited via patient organizations to respond anonymously to a web-based survey developed by clinical experts. Unique entries were set up for each patient organization enabling geographical localization of the entries. Results 1245 participants responded (primary adrenal insufficiency: 84%; second...

  12. Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad brea...

  13. Australians with osteoarthritis: satisfaction with health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources

    OpenAIRE

    Basedow, Martin; Hibbert,Peter; Hooper,Tamara; Runciman, William; Esterman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Martin Basedow,1 Peter Hibbert,1 Tamara Hooper,1 William Runciman,1 Adrian Esterman,2 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of Australian patients who suffer from osteoarthritis (OA) with their health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources. Methods: A self-administered questionnair...

  14. Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Essa, Jumanah S.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition, Health, and Food Security Practices, Concerns, and Perceived Barriers of Latino Farm/Industry Workers in Virginia Jumanah S. Essa ABSTRACT Farm and industry workers are a growing population in the United States (U.S.) and are critical to the success of the agriculture industry. In 1993, the Migrant Legal Services estimated that there were 42,000 migrant and seasonal farm workers in the state of Virginia (Wilson, 1998). These workers are essential in the state's producti...

  15. Coping mediates the association between type D personality and perceived health in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-nan; Chen, Zhansheng; Zhang, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence show that Type D personality is a risk factor for morbidity, mortality, and quality of life of patients with coronary vascular disease. Few studies examined coping as a potential behavioral mechanism to explain the harmful effect of Type D personality. Purpose: This study examined the association between Type D personality, coping, and perceived health among Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: One hundred seventeen CHD patients complete...

  16. Relationship of psychological and oral health statuses with self-perceived halitosis in a Jordanian population: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Alzoubi, Firas Q.; Karasneh, Jumana A.; Daamseh, Nidal M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-perceived halitosis could be a symptom of a psychosomatic or psychogenic disorder. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the relationship of self-perceived halitosis with psychological and oral health statuses. Methods One hundred participants with a history of halitosis were enrolled from a teaching hospital. They were divided into the self-perceived and suggested groups if they sensed and did not sense the malodor, respectively. Demographic and socioeconomic i...

  17. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in the tuberculosis diagnostic process? A cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Bagoes; Widyastari, Dyah Anantalia; Martini, Martini; Ginandjar, Praba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians. Methods This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables. Results Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%–75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled. Conclusion Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients’ treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The result may serve as a basic consideration to develop a policy for enhancing motivation of laboratory technicians in order to improve the TB control program.

  18. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  19. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health. PMID:26552201

  20. Maintaining life satisfaction in adolescence: Affective mediators of the influence of perceived emotional intelligence on overall life satisfaction judgments in a two-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás eSanchez-Alvarez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in a two-year study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys who completed the self-report Perceived Emotional Intelligence Scale (PEIS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS three times at one-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  1. Financial crisis. How it affects the public health and health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Sarafis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The economic situation affects health indicators like life expectancy, morbidity, mortality and access to health services. Methodology: Α research in bibliography was done in Pubmed, Scopus, Sciverse with key words: health, health systems, economic crisis, unemployment, poverty. Results: Unemployment is also associated with increased daily alcohol consumption, suicides increase, domestic violence, and it reduces road deaths at 1.4%. In particular, poverty leads to disease as people are forced to live in degraded environment, fed poorly and work in dangerous and unhealthy environments. Conclusions: In particular, the economic crisis is leading to job insecurity, unemployment and poverty that eventually lead to the exclusion of more people something that is responsible for various mental disorders. Health systems on the other hand in crisis are facing financial problems because of reduced government spending on health due to economic scarcity and because of disruption of foreign economic aid from richer countries, which cover a large part of health funding.

  2. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  3. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  4. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-09-26

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  5. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively. A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency, lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency, and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI, along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches, and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK and mood swings (Egypt. Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest

  6. Perceived Racism and Mental Health among Black American Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Todd, Nathan R.; Neville, Helen A.; Carter, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The literature indicates that perceived racism tends to be associated with adverse psychological and physiological outcomes; however, findings in this area are not yet conclusive. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed 66 studies (total sample size of 18,140 across studies), published between January 1996 and April 2011, on the…

  7. Health-related quality of life in children with heart failure as perceived by children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Ivan; Cephus, Constance E; Cassedy, Amy; Kudel, Ian; Marino, Bradley S; Jefferies, John L

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in paediatric heart failure management have resulted in improved survival and a focus on long-term outcomes including health-related quality of life. We compared health-related quality of life in children with heart failure with healthy patients, children with chronic conditions, and children with cardiovascular disease. Families (n=63) and children (n=73) aged 2-20 years with heart failure were enrolled and compared with data previously published for healthy patients (n=5480), those with chronic conditions (n=247), and those with cardiovascular disease (n=347). Patients and parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 and the Cardiac 3.0 Module health-related quality-of-life questionnaires. PedsQL scores including Total, Psychosocial Health Summary, and Physical were compared between groups. In general, patients with heart failure had lower scores than the healthy population (p=0.001), and comparable scores with those with chronic conditions. Parents perceived no difference in physical scores for children with heart failure when compared with healthy children, and perceived higher scores for children with heart failure when compared with those with chronic conditions (p⩽0.003). Furthermore, children with heart failure had decremental health-related quality-of-life scores as the American Heart Association stage of heart failure increased, such that patients with stage C heart failure had scores similar to children with severe cardiovascular disease. Children with heart failure reported significantly impaired health-related quality of life compared with healthy children and similar scores compared with children with chronic conditions. Parental perceptions appear to underestimate these impairments. Children with heart failure appear to have progressive impairment of health-related quality of life with advancing stage of heart failure.

  8. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on perceived stress and psychological health in patients with tension headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Omidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Programs for improving health status of patients with illness related to pain, such as headache, are often still in their infancy. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR is a new psychotherapy that appears to be effective in treating chronic pain and stress. This study evaluated efficacy of MBSR in treatment of perceived stress and mental health of client who has tension headache. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with tension type headache according to the International Headache Classification Subcommittee were randomly assigned to the Treatment As Usual (TAU group or experimental group (MBSR. The MBSR group received eight weekly classmates with 12-min sessions. The sessions were based on MBSR protocol. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS were administered in the pre- and posttreatment period and at 3 months follow-up for both the groups. Results: The mean of total score of the BSI (global severity index; GSI in MBSR group was 1.63 ± 0.56 before the intervention that was significantly reduced to 0.73 ± 0.46 and 0.93 ± 0.34 after the intervention and at the follow-up sessions, respectively (P < 0.001. In addition, the MBSR group showed lower scores in perceived stress in comparison with the control group at posttest evaluation. The mean of perceived stress before the intervention was 16.96 ± 2.53 and was changed to 12.7 ± 2.69 and 13.5 ± 2.33 after the intervention and at the follow-up sessions, respectively (P < 0.001. On the other hand, the mean of GSI in the TAU group was 1.77 ± 0.50 at pretest that was significantly reduced to 1.59 ± 0.52 and 1.78 ± 0.47 at posttest and follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001. Also, the mean of perceived stress in the TAU group at pretest was 15.9 ± 2.86 and that was changed to 16.13 ± 2.44 and 15.76 ± 2.22 at posttest and follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: MBSR could reduce stress and improve

  9. Social context and perceived agency affects empathy for pain: an event-related fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitsuki, Yuko; Decety, Jean

    2009-08-15

    Studying of the impact of social context on the perception of pain in others is important for understanding the role of intentionality in interpersonal sensitivity, empathy, and implicit moral reasoning. Here we used an event-related fMRI with pain and social context (i.e., the number of individuals in the stimuli) as the two factors to investigate how different social contexts and resulting perceived agency modulate the neural response to the perception of pain in others. Twenty-six healthy participants were scanned while presented with short dynamic visual stimuli depicting painful situations accidentally caused by or intentionally caused by another individual. The main effect of perception of pain was associated with signal increase in the aMCC, insula, somatosensory cortex, SMA and PAG. Importantly, perceiving the presence of another individual led to specific hemodynamic increase in regions involved in representing social interaction and emotion regulation including the temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, the functional connectivity pattern between the left amygdala and other brain areas was modulated by the perceived agency. Our study demonstrates that the social context in which pain occurs modulate the brain response to other's pain. This modulation may reflect successful adaptation to potential danger present in a social interaction. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underpinning implicit moral reasoning that concern actions that can harm other people. PMID:19439183

  10. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  11. [Is subjective well-being perceived by non-health care workers different from that perceived by nurses? Relation with personality and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M

    2013-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB), usually called 'happiness', is influenced directly by psychological factors. Personality and resilience (capacity of recover from adversity) are included among these factors. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that resilience is an essential and inherent characteristic for the nursery staff. This study has aimed to analyze personality factors (including resilience) related with SWB (satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect) in a nursery staff sample (n=59) of intensive care and cardiological units, and a non-health care workers sample (n=50) mainly made up of government employees and teachers. Multiple regression analyses showed that SWB was associated with more resilience and less neuroticism in the nursery staff. Extraversion and conscientiousness (positively related), and neuroticism (negatively related) were the significant predictors of SWB in the non-health care workers group. Finally, mediational analyses revealed that resilience measured the relationships between extraversion (total mediation) and neuroticism (partial mediation) with SWB in the nursery staff group, but not in the group of non-health care workers. The results show the importance of resilience for nursery staff of intensive care units, since they are constantly exposed to human suffering and to a continually adverse occupational environment. Likewise, the discussion stresses that resilience is a means for nursing staff to cope with the occupational stress and that resilient nurses are a crucial element in our health care system.

  12. Perceived importance of five different health issues for gay and bisexual men: implications for new directions in health education and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the perceived importance of five health issues for gay and bisexual men (N = 660) using time-space sampling in gay bars/clubs and bathhouses in New York City: "HIV & STDs," "Drugs & Alcohol," "Body Image," "Mental Health," and "Smoking." This study compared ratings based on demographic differences, recent substance use, recent sexual risk behavior, and whether or not participants owned a smart device (e.g., "smart" phone, iPad, iPod touch). Contrary to research indicating that gay and bisexual men may be experiencing HIV prevention fatigue, this study identified that HIV and STIs were perceived as most important. Drugs and alcohol and mental health were also rated high, suggesting that providers may be well served to include mental health and drugs and alcohol as part of their comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. A majority of participants (72%) owned a smart device. Smart device owners rated health issues similarly to those who did not, suggesting that such devices may be a useful platform to reach gay and bisexual men for health education and prevention. PMID:23093075

  13. Mental disorders and their association with perceived work stress: an investigation of the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S

    2013-04-01

    The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace. PMID:23458060

  14. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  15. Factors affecting the health of migrants and their impact on Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasopoulou M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization from a public health perspective, has endangered the health of migrants due to the deteriorating socio-economic conditions of living and working. The protection of health is a fundamental human right, which must be guaranteed by institutions, without distinction. Purpose: the present study is to investigate the factors that affect the health of migrants and their impact on public health. Method: A search was made in electronic databases for review and research studies using the keywords «Aggravating Health Factors», «Immigrants» and «Public Health» alone or in combination. The search was extended to include the databases of the European Union (EU, the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations (UN. Conclusions: The review findings, since the majority of the research studies show that for the protection of Public Health, interventions awareness of migrants about the importance of prevention, the adoption of healthy lifestyles and behavior modification. are necessary. The ultimate goal of interventions, should be the full integration of special operations in the existing National Health System and the smooth integration of immigrants in the productive, despite of social exclusion.

  16. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  17. Perceived barriers to success for resident physicians interested in immigrant and refugee health

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, Jonathan D.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Song, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-cultural care is recognized by the ACGME as an important aspect of US residency training. Resident physicians' preparedness to deliver cross-cultural care has been well studied, while preparedness to provide care specifically to immigrant and refugee populations has not been. Methods We administered a survey in October 2013 to 199 residents in Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Medicine/Pediatrics at the University of Minnesota, assessing perceived knowledge, attitudes, and e...

  18. Low-Level Evidence Suggests that Perceived Ability to Evaluate and Trust Online Health Information is Associated with Low Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To review, based on research evidence, the correlation between low health literacy and four outcomes of interest: (1 the ability to evaluate online health information based on (2 perceived reliability and accuracy, (3 trust in the Internet as an information source, and (4 the application of established evaluation criteria. Design – Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Setting –MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete as well as articles discovered through the snowball method. Subjects – 38 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching five online databases and Google Scholar, and hand searching of references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a two-phase screening process in which two researchers participated to address reliability. Data, including study characteristics and metadata, predictors, assessment methods, and outcomes, were extracted from relevant studies, and then synthesized narratively. Main Results – Following duplication removal 13,632 records were retrieved, 254 of which were identified for full-text assessment. Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies were non-experimental and therefore graded as a low level of evidence; 35 were cross-sectional designs, 1 a focus group, and 2 were observational studies. Studies varied widely in population definition and sample size and were published between 2001 and 2013, primarily in North America. Overall, a positive association was identified between health literacy and outcomes related to the ability to evaluate or trust Internet health information, while findings were inconsistent related to perceived quality of information and the application of evaluative criteria. Four studies examined the impact of health literacy levels on one or more of the outcomes of interest. The most prevalent

  19. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-11-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants' skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  20. Perceived importance of five different health issues for gay and bisexual men: Implications for new directions in health education and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the perceived importance of five health issues for gay and bisexual men (N=660) using time-space sampling in gay bars/clubs and bathhouses in New York City: “HIV & STDs,” “Drugs & Alcohol,” “Body Image,” “Mental Health,” and “Smoking.” This study compared ratings based on demographic differences, recent substance use, recent sexual risk behavior, and whether or not participants owned a smart device (e.g., “smart” phone, iPad, iPod touch). Contrary to research indicating th...

  1. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  2. Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC (∼140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine

  3. The Perceived Importance of Role-Specific Competencies for Health Care Leaders Establishes the Need to Expand Role Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to determine the extent to which individuals who have differing health care leadership roles perceived the importance of selected leadership competencies in their specific roles based on their experience. A total of 313 participants responded to the health care questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified factor structure and Cronbach α at .96 supported the reliability of the factor analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance tested the 4 health care leadership roles to determine if an effect was present among the competencies. A subsequent analysis of variance test was conducted on the competencies to confirm an effect was present, and a Games-Howell post hoc test followed. These tests indicated that there was a significant difference in rating the perceived importance of specific leadership competencies by the health care leaders in each competency domain. The participants included in this study consisted of the chief executive officer (CEO), director of nursing (DON), operating room director (ORD), and director of radiology (DOR). Based on the Games-Howell post hoc test, a commonality existed between the leaders. The CEOs and DONs often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception when compared with the ORDs and DORs. Similarly, the ORD and DOR variables often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception compared with the CEO and DON variables. This study positively indicated that health care leadership's perception of competencies does differ between the various leadership roles. PMID:27111689

  4. What is important, what needs treating? How GPs perceive older patients’ multiple health problems: a mixed method research study

    OpenAIRE

    Junius-Walker Ulrike; Wrede Jennifer; Schleef Tanja; Diederichs-Egidi Heike; Wiese Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier Eva; Dierks Marie-Luise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background GPs increasingly deal with multiple health problems of their older patients. They have to apply a hierarchical management approach that considers priorities to balance competing needs for treatment. Yet, the practice of setting individual priorities in older patients is largely unexplored. This paper analyses the GPs’ perceptions on important and unimportant health problems and how these affect their treatment. Methods GPs appraised the importance of health problems for a ...

  5. Blunted Cortisol Awakening Response and Poor Self-Perceived Health in Informal Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with eating disorders (EDs) entails being under high chronic stress, with negative consequences for health. However, most previous research has only evaluated self-report measures of health, biological markers being poorly studied. In this regard, the evaluation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) could add significant information about the biological basis of health disturbances in this population. The main aim of the present study was to compare CAR and self-reported health between informal caregivers (ICs) of people with EDs and non-caregivers. Furthermore, we explored the effect of the nature of the diagnosis, comparing ICs of people with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. ICs had a blunted CAR, and more anxiety and insomnia, and social dysfunction, together with poorer perceived general health than non-caregivers. ICs of people with anorexia nervosa had higher levels of morning cortisol and burden, and more social dysfunction and severe depression than those of people with bulimia nervosa. Our results demonstrate marked health problems in ICs of people with EDs, especially when the care recipient has anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:27188221

  6. Study on Situational Influences Perceived in Nursing Discipline on Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meimanat Hosseini; Tahereh Ashk Torab; Mohammad Hossein Taghdisi; Safar Ali Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participa...

  7. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and life satisfaction in a 2-years study. Participants were 269 high school students (145 girls and 124 boys) who completed the self-report perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale three times at 1-year intervals. The three-step longitudinal design corroborated earlier research indicating that positive and negative affect mediate the relationships between EI and life satisfaction. Students with high PEI tended to have more positive experiences and fewer negative experiences, which contributed to their greater life satisfaction. No sex differences were found in the multi-group analyses, suggesting that the causal relationships are similar in both sexes. These findings extend our understanding of the complex network of relationships involving PEI and life satisfaction in adolescence. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:26834654

  8. Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor schoolchildren of rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Toty, Abale; Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2005-01-01

    Differences in the state of health between rural and urban populations living in Africa have been described, yet only few studies analysed inequities within poor rural communities. We investigated disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to formal health services among more than 4000 schoolchildren from 57 primary schools in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire, as measured by their socioeconomic status. In a first step, we carried out a cross-sectional parasitological survey. Stool specimens and finger prick blood samples were collected and processed with standardized, quality-controlled methods, for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths, intestinal protozoa and Plasmodium. Then, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the appraisal of self-reported morbidity indicators, as well as housing characteristics and household assets ownership. Mean travel distance from each village to the nearest health care delivery structure was provided by the regional health authorities. Poorer schoolchildren showed a significantly higher infection prevalence of hookworm than better-off children. However, higher infection prevalences of intestinal protozoa (i.e. Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba butschlii) were found with increasing socioeconomic status. Significant negative associations were observed between socioeconomic status and light infection intensities with hookworm and S. mansoni, as well as with several self-reported morbidity indicators. The poorest school-attending children lived significantly further away from formal health services than their richer counterparts. Our study provides evidence for inequities among schoolchildren's parasitic infection status, perceived ill health and access to health care in a large rural part of Côte d'Ivoire. These findings call for more equity-balanced parasitic disease control interventions, which in turn might be an important strategy for poverty alleviation

  9. Annoyance, sleep disturbance, health aspects, perceived risk and residential satisfaction around Schiphol airport: Summary of results of a questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Evaluation and Monitoring Programme for Schiphol airport, a questionnaire on the prevalence of self-rated annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived general health, respiratory complaints, satisfaction in the study area was sent to a randomly selected sample of 30,000 people living within 25 km of Schiphol airport. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors in relation to the exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution. Exposure to aircraft noise was based on model calculations. The airport`s proximity to the respondent`s home was used as a proxy for air pollution caused by aircraft. The survey response rate was 39%. The results of this study show that annoyance from aircraft noise is greater than expected, also when the effect of selective non-response is taken into account. There is a relation between aircraft noise and noise annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived health, use of medication, risk perception and residential satisfaction in the study area. The proximity of the airport was directly related to annoyance due to odours and soot from aircraft, respiratory complaints, and the use of medication for asthma and/or allergy

  10. Reliability of a population survey tool for measuring perceived health problems: a study of patients with osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S M; McKenna, S P; Williams, J

    1981-12-01

    A study is described which tested the reliability of the Nottingham Health Profile, a standardised measure of perceived health status suitable for use with both large groups and individual patients. Patients with osteoarthrosis, uncomplicated by other diagnosed conditions, were given the questionnaire to fill in on two separate occasions four weeks apart. Analysis of data showed that all sections of the profile achieved a high level of reliability with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.77 to 0.85 on part I and from 0.44 to 0.86 on part II. Patients reported many problems in the areas of physical mobility, pain, sleep, and energy, but rather fewer in the areas of social isolation and emotional reactions. With the exception of family relationships, most respondents reported a high level of disruption of their daily activities. Patients were very consistent in the number and type of problems which they affirmed. PMID:7338705

  11. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani El-Alayli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how public/private affection and marginalization relate to relationship satisfaction. Women in committed same-sex and different-sex relationships completed surveys of public affection, private affection, marginalization, and relationship satisfaction online. As predicted, women in same-sex relationships displayed less public affection than those in different-sex relationships, an effect mediated by general societal marginalization. Both private and public affection predicted higher relationship satisfaction, whereas feelings of marginalization by friends/family predicted lower relationship satisfaction. We discuss implications for relationship counseling and propose new ways of looking at marginalization.

  12. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467

  13. Religiousness and perceived social support as predictive factors for mental health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krok, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study: The study is to investigate predictive values of the religious meaning system, the centrality of religiosity and social support for mental health outcomes. Although there is some evidence about associations of religiousness and social support with mental health, insufficient data exists to explain which dimensions of religiousness and social support are related to mental health outcomes. Material and methods: Participants were 206 people (108 women and 98 men randomly recruited in southern parts of Poland. Their ages ranged from 18 to 78 years, with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD =16.44. All participants filled in the four questionnaires: The Religious Meaning System Questionnaire, The Centrality of Religiosity Scale, The Berlin Social Support Scales, and The General Health Questionnaire-28. Results: Both religiousness and social support are associated with mental health outcomes, but the character of these associations depends on particular dimensions. The religious meaning system and the centrality of religiosity showed negative links with the dimension of mental health called somatic symptoms. Actually received support was associated with better mental health, whereas need for support and protective buffering support were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. Discussion and conclusions: The findings support the hypotheses that religiousness and social support are predictive factors for mental health outcomes, though their effects are rather moderate or weak. Both religion and social support can influence mental health by imbuing life with a sense of meaning and significance, and offering fellowship in times of stress and suffering.

  14. Oral self-care practices, dental attendance and self-perceived oral health status among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Omozehio Iwuala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.

  15. Benefits and problems of electronic information exchange as perceived by health care professionals: an interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesman Floris J; Verheij Robert A; Zwaanswijk Marieke; Friele Roland D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Various countries are currently implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from health care providers. This study aims to increase our understanding of health care providers' attitude towards the n-EPR, by investigating their perceptions of the benefits and problems of electronic information exchange in health care and the n-EPR in particular. Methods The...

  16. Associations between self-medication, health literacy, and self-perceived health status: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication.

  17. The Relationship between Perceived Racism/Discrimination and Health among Black American Women: A Review of the Literature from 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lora L.; Johnson, Rhonda; VanHoose, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature investigating the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and health among black American women. Methods Searches for empirical studies published from January 2003 to December 2013 were conducted using PubMed and PsycInfo. Articles were assessed for possible inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. In addition, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) system for rating the strength of scientific evidence was used to assess the quality of studies included in the review. Results Nineteen studies met criteria for review. There was mixed evidence for general relationships between perceived racism/discrimination and health. Consistent evidence was found for the relationship between adverse birth outcomes, illness incidence, and cancer or tumor risk and perceived racism/discrimination. Inconsistent findings were found for the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and heart disease risk factors. There was no evidence to support the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and high blood pressure. Conclusions There is mixed evidence to support the association between perceived racism/discrimination and overall objective health outcomes among black American women. The strongest relationship was seen between perceived racism/discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Better understanding the relationship between health and racism/discrimination can aid in identifying race-based risk factors developing primary prevention strategies. Future studies should aim to investigate the role of perceived racism/discrimination as a specific chronic stressor within discrete pathogenesis models. PMID:25973361

  18. Morbidity, self-perceived health and mortality among non-Western Immigrants and their descendants in Denmark in a life phase perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jervelund, Signe Smith; Malik, Sanam; Ahlmark, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    To enable preventive policies to address health inequity across ethnic groups, this review overviews the current knowledge on morbidity, self-perceived health and mortality among non-Western immigrants and their descendants in Denmark. A systematic search in PUBMED, SCOPUS, Embase and Cochrane...

  19. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Kamran; Gholamreza Sharifirad; Yousef Shafaeei; Siamak Mohebi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in...

  20. Study on situational influences perceived in nursing discipline on health promotion: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of "choosing the field," "unfavorable environmental factors," "negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health," "positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health", "needs," "attractiveness (aesthetics)," and "coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline." Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients.

  1. Benefits and problems of electronic information exchange as perceived by health care professionals: an interview study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Verheij, R.A.; Wiesman, F.J.; Friele, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various countries are currently implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from health care providers. This study aims to increase our understanding of health care prov

  2. Teachers' Role Breadth and Perceived Efficacy in Supporting Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzer, Kelly R.; Rickwood, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are considered well placed to identify issues concerning students' mental health and well-being and can play a critical role in the helping process for their concerns. However, little is known about the views of teachers regarding their role in supporting student mental health and how well-equipped they feel to fulfil it. The aim of this…

  3. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Akerlof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126. We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  4. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  5. Study on situational influences perceived in nursing discipline on health promotion: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of "choosing the field," "unfavorable environmental factors," "negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health," "positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health", "needs," "attractiveness (aesthetics)," and "coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline." Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

  6. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  7. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. PMID:25634909

  8. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  9. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2011-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured interviews. These associations were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). The prevalence of regular use of dental service was 47.8%. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and those who rated their oral health as "poor" used the service less frequently. The distribution of the kind of oral healthcare assistance used (public/private) varied across socioeconomic groups. The better-off children were less likely to have used the public service. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were strong predictors for the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren. PMID:21359493

  10. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiana Piovesan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index. Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured interviews. These associations were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval. The prevalence of regular use of dental service was 47.8%. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and those who rated their oral health as "poor" used the service less frequently. The distribution of the kind of oral healthcare assistance used (public/private varied across socioeconomic groups. The better-off children were less likely to have used the public service. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were strong predictors for the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

  11. Elderly’s Physical-Functional Fitness and Perceived Functional Capacity and Health after Participation in a Hydrotherapy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cristina Sacramento Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated how physical activity in older people benefits their physical fitness, health and well-being. The relation between physical activity and perceived functional capacity and health is yet to be considered. This study is a quantitative research design that investigated the improvement of the physical-functional fitness and the perception of the functional capacity and health of an elderly group participating in a waterbased exercise program (hydrotherapy. The data was collected in three different moments of the exercise program through a battery of tests of physical-functional fitness established by Batista and Sardinha (2005 and a questionnaire adapted from SABE project (Lebrão and Duarte, 2003. Twenty-six elderly persons (23 women and 3 men aged between 60 and 84 years old participated in a 31-week hydrotherapy program (twice a week; 45 minutes by session. Friedman test was used for assessing statistical differences between the physical-functional fitness and the questionnaire responses in each of the three evaluation moments. Results revealed that this program was enough to improve the physical-functional fitness of the elderly, as well as the perception they had about their health and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  12. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs.The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention.Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.

  13. Perceived Impacts of a Public Health Training Center Field Placement Program Among Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik eJohansson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is heightened interest in identifying the impact of the federally-funded Public Health Training Center (PHTC program. Although evaluation studies have been conducted of public health training in general, evaluations of PHTC programs are rare. Field placement components are Congressionally-mandated requirements of PHTCs. Field placements are typically intensive, supervised externships for students to gain public health experience with local health departments or non-profit organizations. We have found no published evaluations of PHTC field placement components. This may be because of their small size and unique nature. We designed and evaluated a 200-hour field placement program at an established Public Health Training Center. The evaluation included pre/post surveys measuring public health core competencies, and post-experience interviews. We found significant increases in three competency domains among trainees: policy development and program planning, communication skills, and community dimensions of practice. These outcomes contribute to an evidence base on the efficacy of PHTC field placement programs, and underscore their role in public health training.

  14. Australians with osteoarthritis: satisfaction with health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basedow, Martin; Hibbert, Peter; Hooper, Tamara; Runciman, William; Esterman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of Australian patients who suffer from osteoarthritis (OA) with their health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was conducted with a sample of 560 Australian patients who suffer from OA with questions about satisfaction with health care providers and the helpfulness of different treatment options and information sources. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of satisfaction. Thematic analysis was undertaken for attitudinal factors associated with satisfaction. Results A total of 435 participants returned questionnaires (response rate 78%). Most respondents were highly satisfied with the care provided by their general practitioner (GP) (84%), communication with their GP (88%), time spent with their GP (84%), and their ability to talk freely with their GP about their medical problem (93%), but less satisfied with their ability to talk freely about associated emotional problems (77%). Satisfaction with pharmacists (80%), rheumatologists (76%), and orthopedic surgeons (72%) was high. Joint replacement surgery (91%), prescription anti-inflammatory medications (66%), aids and assistive devices (65%), intra-articular injections (63%), and prescription painkiller medications (62%) were perceived as effective treatments. Less highly rated treatments were exercise (48%), physiotherapy (43%), and complementary medicines (29%). A majority of patients were satisfied with the information to manage their OA (65%). From the multivariable logistic regression analysis, four GP satisfaction factors were found to be predictors of overall satisfaction with GP care: the amount of time that the GP spends with the patient (P=0.005), the information the GP provides about what to expect (P<0.001), the communication between patient and GP (P=0.001), and the information that the GP provides about medications

  15. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits in relation to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action. PMID:26881848

  16. Perceived stress as a risk factor for changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of stress on changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: The analyses were based on 7066 women and men...... health behaviour (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, overweight) and cardiac risk profile (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes). RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of stress compared to those with low levels of stress were less likely to quit smoking (OR = 0.58; 95% CI...... in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile....

  17. Perceived neighborhood quality, sleep quality, and health status: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Lauren; Terrence D. Hill; Friedman, Elliot; Nieto, F Javier; Galvao, Loren W; Engelman, Corinne D; Malecki, Kristen M.C.; Peppard, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Why does living in a disadvantaged neighborhood predict poorer mental and physical health? Recent research focusing on the Southwestern United States suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods favor poor health, in part, because they undermine sleep quality. Building on previous research, we test whether this process extends to the Midwestern United States. Specifically, we use cross-sectional data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a statewide probability sample of Wisconsin a...

  18. The associations between organizational social capital, perceived health, and employeese performance in two dutch companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between organizational (bonding, bridging, and linking) social capital, employees' health, and employees' performance. METHODS: Linear regression on cross-sectional data among 718 employees in two Dutch companies. RESULTS: Organizational social capital was sign

  19. Surgical correction of pectus carinatum improves perceived body image, mental health and self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K.;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical correction of pectus carinatum on health- related quality of life and self-esteem. METHODS: Between May 2012 and May 2013, a prospective observational single-center cohort study was conduct- ed on consecutive patients...... undergoing surgical correction of pectus carinatum at our institution. Patients filled in questionnaires on health-related quality of life and self-esteem before and six months after surgery. RESULTS: Disease-specific health-related quality of life was improved by 33% (95% CI: 23; 44%) according to responses...... to the Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults. The improvement for generic mental health-related quality of life was 7% (95% CI: 3; 12%) in responses to the Short Form-36 Questionnaire. The improvement in self-esteem was 9% (95% CI: 2; 17%) as assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A Single Step...

  20. Health care services to diabetics in the territory of the Lha Napoli 2: quality perceived

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Parlato; Daniela Ugliano; Aniello Visciano; Giorgio Liguori

    2007-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which now appears to be substantially increasing especially in industrialized countries. In recent years important improvements have been achieved in the treatment of the disease and the prevention of complications, but adherence of health care workers to these indicators varies considerably and often the results are inadequate. Our study relates to health care services supplied to diabetics wi...

  1. [Changes in perceived health in war-displaced population, Ayacucho, Peru: 1980-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Moya; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    The current study aims to show the individual and familiar changes in health patterns suffered by indigenous communities which were displaced from their Andean communities to Ayacucho city, Peru, for war-related political reasons, during the period of 1980 and 2004. Information about health self-perception was collected from displaced farmers living in Ayacucho city, and analyzed by using ethnographic research tools in: origin communities; during the displaced process to town, and during the integration process once the war was over in 1993. It was found out that these poor Andean communities had traditionally lived under severe social exclusion conditions, and were characterized by low access to health services and high childhood and maternal mortality rates. Vulnerability to disease, malnutrition and death reached a higher impact during the early years after the displacement, followed by a reconstructive process in order to set up a new social network. It gets consolidated once the war is over. At that time, life conditions start becoming more favorable, identification documents were regularized, and an improvement in access to health programs and services is detected. These changes also reflected the improvement on health self-perception. Nevertheless, mental health will remain causing distress in every age group of the population. PMID:21519661

  2. Health-care climate, perceived self-care competence, and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Koponen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study showed, in line with self-determination theory, that glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 2866 was strongly associated with perceived self-care competence, which in turn was associated with autonomous motivation and autonomy-supportive health-care climate. These associations remained after adjusting for the effect of important life-context factors. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the effect of health-care climate on perceived competence, which fully mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on glycemic control. The results of the study emphasize health-care personnel’s important role in supporting patients’ autonomous motivation and perceived self-care competence.

  3. Predicting automaticity in exercise behaviour: the role of perceived behavioural control, affect, intention, action planning, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; B. Gardner; L. van Osch; F.F. Sniehotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Habit formation has been proposed as a way to maintain behaviour over time. Purpose Recent evidence suggests that constructs additional to repeated performance may predict physical automaticity, but no research has yet explored possible direct impacts of intention, planning, affect, and p

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Leo S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  5. mHealth App for Cannabis Users: Satisfaction and Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gregoire eMonney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of cannabis users and their levels of satisfaction with Stop-cannabis, an app intended for cannabis users who want to stop or reduce their cannabis use or prevent relapse. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was administered to users of Stop-cannabis, a French-language app for iOS and Android devices. All app users were invited to participate in the survey via a message sent to the app. Results: For hundred and eighty-two users answered the survey. The app was used daily by 348 of the participants (around 70%. More than 80% of participants (397 considered the app to have helped them a little or a lot to stop or reduce cannabis consumption. Most of the users’ suggestions were related to the number or the quality of the messages sent by, or displayed in, the app.Conclusion: This pilot study supports the feasibility of such an app and its perceived usefulness. A self-selection bias however limits the conclusions of the study. The efficacy of the app should be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  6. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Giovana Pereira da Cunha; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year. PMID:23827911

  7. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Pereira da Cunha Scalco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year.

  8. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFESTYLE CORRELATES OF SELF-PERCEIVED HEALTH STATUS IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF ALBANIAN ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Cakerri, Luljeta; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Self-perceived health is considered a suitable health indicator, based on a single item asking individuals to rate their health. It has been recommended as a reliable factor to assess the population health. Several socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of self-perceived health status have been documented in different population. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of self-perceived health status in a population-based sample of Albanian adult men and women. Methods: Data from 12,554 individuals aged ≥35 years collected by the Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2012, which is a national population-based cross-sectional study, were analyzed. The study participants rated their health in five categories: very good, good, average, poor and very poor, which in the analyses were dichotomized into “not poor” and “poor health”. Other variables included demographic characteristics, economic level, employment status, smoking and alcohol intake. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived health with demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Upon multivariate adjustment for all covariates in a backward stepwise elimination procedure, strong and significant “predictors” of poor self-perceived health status were older age (OR=3.0, 95%CI=2.4-3.7), unemployment (OR=5.6, 95%CI=4.0-7.8), male gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.0-1.5), low education (OR=2.0, OR=1.3-3.0), current smoking (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.2-2.4) and alcohol abstinence (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.7). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the low socioeconomic groups in Albania have a significantly lower self-perceived health status. Furthermore, smoking was a significant “determinant” of poor self-perceived health in this study population, which is compatible with previous reports from other countries.

  9. The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Walsh, Marianne C; Gallagher, Caroline; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Kuznesof, Sharon; Frewer, Lynn J; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2015-04-28

    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the 'framework approach' described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.

  10. The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Walsh, Marianne C; Gallagher, Caroline; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Kuznesof, Sharon; Frewer, Lynn J; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2015-04-28

    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the 'framework approach' described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK. PMID:25812432

  11. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media. PMID:26146982

  12. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media.

  13. High perceived social standing is associated with better health in HIV-infected Ugandan adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeamama, A E; Guwatudde, D; Wang, M; Bagenda, D; Brown, K; Kyeyune, R; Smith, Emily; Wamani, H; Manabe, Y C; Fawzi, W W

    2016-06-01

    Perceived social standing (PSS) was evaluated as a determinant of differences in health outcomes among Ugandan HIV-infected adults from Kampala using cross-sectional study design. PSS was defined using the MacArthur scale of subjective social status translated and adapted for the study setting. Socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of PSS ranking at enrollment were determined using linear regression models. High versus low PSS was defined based on the median PSS score and evaluated as a determinant of body mass index, hemoglobin, quality of life (QOL) and frailty-related phenotype via linear regression. A log-binomial regression model estimated the relative-risk of good, very good or excellent versus fair or poor self-rated health (SRH) in relation to PSS. Older age, increasing social support and material wealth were correlated with high PSS ranking, whereas female sex, experience of multiple stigmas and multiple depressive symptoms were correlated with low PSS ranking. High PSS participants were on average 1.1 kg/m(2) heavier, had 4.7 % lower frailty scores and 3.6 % higher QOL scores compared to low PSS patients (all p management, combined with efforts to reduce stigma and improve social support, may identify and possibly reduce PSS-associated health inequality in Ugandan adults with HIV. PMID:26733010

  14. Current practice of glucocorticoid replacement therapy and patient-perceived health outcomes in adrenal insufficiency - a worldwide patient survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forss M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to survey current practice in glucocorticoid replacement therapy and self-perceived health outcomes in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Methods Participants were recruited via patient organizations to respond anonymously to a web-based survey developed by clinical experts. Unique entries were set up for each patient organization enabling geographical localization of the entries. Results 1245 participants responded (primary adrenal insufficiency: 84%; secondary adrenal insufficiency: 11%; unsure: 5%. Therapies included hydrocortisone (75%, prednisone/prednisolone (11%, cortisone acetate (6% and dexamethasone (4%. Dosing regimens were once daily (10%, twice daily (42%, thrice daily (32% or other (17%. Compromised subjective health necessitating changes to physical activity or social-, work- or family life was reported by 64% of the participants. 40% of the participants reported absence from work/school in the last 3 months. Irrespective of diagnosis, 76% were concerned about long-term side-effects of therapy, mainly osteoporosis (78%, obesity (64% and cardiovascular morbidity (46%. 38% of the participants had been hospitalized in the last year. Conclusions Glucocorticoid replacement therapy among the respondents consisted primarily of hydrocortisone administered twice or thrice daily. A majority reported impact of their disease or treatment on subjective health requiring alterations in e.g. physical activity or family life. Three quarters reported concerns about long-term side-effects of the treatment. These data demonstrate - from the patients' perspective - a need for improvement in the management of adrenal insufficiency.

  15. Research considerations: stress and perceived health status in the rural elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Waldo, M; Johnson, R G

    1993-10-01

    1. Stress is recognized as a significant factor in the development of acute and chronic illnesses in adults. The rural aged experience high stress levels and poor-to-fair health. 2. Commonly reported stressful events and chronic strains in the rural elderly involve loss, isolation, decreased abilities to manage self-care activities, and financial concerns. 3. The older, single subjects in this study reported more stress and poorer health than younger, married subjects. 4. Nurses must develop strategies specifically designed to mediate the stress experienced by the rural aged. PMID:8409248

  16. Personality and perceived need for mental health care among primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seekles, W. M.; Cuijpers, P.; van de Ven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Verhaak, P. F. M.; Beekman, A. T. F.; van Straten, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although there are many forms of effective, evidence-based treatments available to patients with mood and anxiety disorders, many do not seek any help. Certain personality characteristics are associated with increased use of mental health services. The objective of this study is to exami

  17. Becoming a Grandmother: Maternal Grandmothers' Mental Health, Perceived Costs, and Personal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomo, Shirley Ben; Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Findler, Liora; Sivan, Eyal; Dolizki, Mordechay

    2010-01-01

    Although becoming a grandmother represents an important transition in a woman's life, it has received scant research attention. This study used the model of growth developed by Schaefer and Moos in an attempt to identify personal and environmental resources that may contribute to a first-time maternal grandmother's mental health and her…

  18. Associations Between Violence Related Behaviors and Self Perceived Health Among Trakya University Students

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    Halil Evren

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to determine the association between violence related behaviors and self-reported health among university students. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, which included a representative sample of all students of Trakya University. The sample of 1620 students enrolled at Trakya University was stratified according to sex and actual student number of faculties and colleges and selected by systematic sampling. In addition to descriptive statistics, Chi Square analysis and Logistic Regression analysis were used for statistical evaluation.Results: 6.3% of the respondents reported that they were exposed to violence, 33.5% of them stated they were involved in a physical fight during the past 12 months, 4.9% of them stated they did not go to school at least one day during the past 30 days because they felt unsafe and 4.4% of the students reported they had attempted suicide during the past 12 months. The analyses have shown that violence related behaviors were significantly associated with poor health after controlling the potential confounders. Conclusion: There is a need for more prospective studies for exploring the effects of violence related behaviors to health. Interventions targeting youths who engage in violence should consider that violence related behaviors may be markers for poor health.

  19. Personality and perceived need for mental health care among primary care patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seekles, W.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Ven, P. van de; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Straten, A. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although there are many forms of effective, evidence-based treatments available to patients with mood and anxiety disorders, many do not seek any help. Certain personality characteristics are associated with increased use of mental health services. The objective of this study is to exami

  20. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Johner, N.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Müller, B.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a c

  1. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  2. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.

  3. Factors affecting adherence to the treatment regimen of tuberculosis patients: Assessing the efficiency of health belief model constructs

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    Mahmood Karimy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low adherence to the treatment regimen in tuberculosis patients has been recognized as a major threat for tuberculosis (TB control program. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the factors affecting adherence to the treatment regimen of TB patients via Health Belief Model (HBM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study,110 tuberculosis patients attending anti-TB center in Zabol were selected and included in the study using census method. Data were collected using Health Belief Model (HBM questionnaire and reviewing the patients' medical files. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis with 95 % confidence level. Results: The mean age of the participants was 55.7±18.6 years. 89% of the patients had pulmonary tuberculosis and 11% had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The multiple regression analysis showed knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and perceived threat were significant predictors of adherence to the treatment regimen. The HBM constructs accounted for 29% of the variance observed in adherence to the treatment regimen. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight the need to increase awareness and change the patients’ beliefs about the risks of low adherence to the treatment regimen in patients.

  4. Doctor-patient interaction in Finnish primary health care as perceived by first year medical students

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    Mäntyselkä Pekka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118 and 2004 (N = 130 were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the

  5. The Effect of Perceived Justice on Satisfaction, Value, Trust and Affect: Evidence from a Business-to-Business Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the effect of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice on satisfaction, value, trust and affect. Furthermore, this study argues whether this variables influences behavioral intentions in a B2B setting. To test these relationships, the present study uses data from 198 members of purchasing committee in medical laboratory. Structural equations modeling using PLS was performed to empirically test the relationship between the constructions this study. The results of the structural equation analysis reveal that all of these hypotheses are supported. Following a discussion of the results, research limitations and directions for future research are offered.

  6. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

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    Wiklund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027, boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71 and anxiety (r = 0.71. Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the

  7. Darlings and Disability - Perceived Health in Couples and Disability Pension Receipt

    OpenAIRE

    Vie, Gunnhild Åberge

    2016-01-01

    Background In Norway, almost 10% of the working age population receive a disability pension. Spouses tend to have similar health and lifestyle, and they also tend to coordinate their retirements. Spousal similarities can be explained by similarities existing before marriage, spousal influence and shared resources. Sickness is the social role related to disease and illness, sickness is therefore also a social construct. There are thus both medical and non-medical determinants...

  8. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: A Cross-sectional Questionnaire Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Haluza, Daniela; Cervinka, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. Methods A cross-sectional questionna...

  9. Religious coping strategies and perceived causes of sickness and health in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peet J. van Dyk; Alta C. van Dyk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to explore religious coping strategies and to what extent black South Africans directly attributed their health and/or diseases to supernatural forces such as the ancestors and magic. A total of 3000 structured questionnaires were distributed to South Africans of all ethnicities, of which 575 were received back, but only those received from black participants (411) were considered for this study. The SPSS 21 statistical program was used to analyse the data. The ...

  10. Stereotyping based on voice in the presence of individuating information: vocal femininity affects perceived competence but not warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei Jin Ko; Judd, Charles M; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-02-01

    In two experiments the authors examined the effect of vocal cues on warmth and competence judgments when other competing information was concurrently available. In Experiment 1, using male and female speakers posing as job applicants, the authors investigated how applicants' vocal cues and résumé information impacted judgments of competence and warmth. Results showed competence was solely affected by vocal femininity-applicants with masculine voices were rated as more competent than applicants with feminine voices, regardless of applicant gender or résumé information. Warmth was predominantly affected by résumés-applicants with feminine résumés were rated as warmer than applicants with masculine résumés. In Experiment 2, the potent effect of vocal femininity on competence was replicated even under conditions where the competing background information was directly diagnostic of warmth and competence. Furthermore, the authors found that the impact of vocal femininity on competence was largely due to the overlap between perceptions of vocal femininity and babyishness.

  11. Perceived organizational problems in health care: a pilot test of the structured problem and success inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Monica E; Terris, Darcey D; Sparring, Vibeke; Tolf, Sara; Brown, Claire R

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to test whether the Structured Problem and Success Inventory (SPI) instrument could capture mental representations of organizational and work-related problems as described by individuals working in health care organizations and to test whether these representations varied according to organizational position. A convenience sample (n = 56) of middle managers (n = 20), lower-level managers (n = 20), and staff (n = 16) from health care organizations in Stockholm (Sweden) attending organizational development courses during 2003-2004 was recruited. Participants used the SPI to describe the 3 most pressing organizational and work-related problems. Data were systematically reviewed to identify problem categories and themes. One hundred sixty-four problems were described, clustered into 13 problem categories. Generally, middle managers focused on organizational factors and managerial responsibilities, whereas lower-level managers and staff focused on operational issues and what others did or ought to do. Furthermore, we observed similarities and variation in perceptions and their association with respondents' position within an organization. Our results support the need for further evaluation of the SPI as a promising tool for health care organizations. Collecting structured inventories of organizational and work-related problems from multiple perspectives may assist in the development of shared understandings of organizational challenges and lead to more effective and efficient processes of solution planning and implementation.

  12. Relationships Among Disease, Social Support, and Perceived Health: A Lifespan Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E; Kruger, Daniel J; Reischl, Thomas M; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the cumulative presence of major disease (cancer, stroke, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension), social support, and self-reported general and emotional well-being in a community representative sample of predominantly White and African American respondents (N = 1349). Across all ages, greater presence of disease predicted poorer reported general health, and predicted lower emotional well-being for respondents 40 and above. In contrast, social support predicted better-reported general and emotional well-being.We predicted that different types of social support (blood relatives, children, friends, community members) would be relatively more important for health in different age groups based on a lifespan or life stage model. This hypothesis was supported; across all ages, social support was related to better reported general and emotional health, but sources of support differed by age. Broadly, those in younger age groups tended to list familial members as their strongest sources of support, whereas older group members listed their friends and community members. As a whole, social support mediated the effect of disease on reported wellbeing,however, moderated mediation by type of support was not significant. The results are consistent with a lifespan approach to changing social ties throughout the life course. PMID:26462808

  13. The perceived health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines: a comparative multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Cox, Patrick; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2008-02-01

    Radon and overhead powerlines are two radiation risk cases that have raised varying levels of concern among the general public and experts. Despite both involving radiation-a typically feared and unseen health hazard-individuals' perceptions of the two risk cases may invoke rather different factors. We examined individual and geographic-contextual factors influencing public perceptions of the health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines in a comparative research design, utilizing a postal questionnaire with 1,528 members of the general public (response rate 28%) and multilevel modeling techniques. This study found that beliefs about the two risk cases mainly differed according to the level of "exposure"-defined here in terms of spatial proximity. We argue that there are two alternative explanations for this pattern of findings: that risk perception itself varies directly with proximity, or that risk is more salient to concerned people in the exposed areas. We also found that while people living in high radon areas are more concerned about the risks of indoor radon gas, they find these risks more acceptable and have more trust in authorities. These results might reflect the positive effects of successive radon campaigns in high radon areas, which may have raised awareness and concern, and at the same time may have helped to increase trust by showing that the government takes the health risks of indoor radon gas seriously, suggesting that genuine risk communication initiatives may have positive impacts on trust in risk management institutions. PMID:18304120

  14. Globalisation: what is it and how does it affect health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley

    2004-02-16

    The term "globalisation" tends to be misused and overused. We need greater clarity in our understanding of the globalisation process, including the distinct changes involved and their relation to human health. The health impacts of globalisation are simultaneously positive and negative, varying according to factors such as geographical location, sex, age, ethnic origin, education level, and socioeconomic status. Globalisation is not an unstoppable force. Our key challenge is to create socially and environmentally sustainable forms of globalisation that provide the greatest benefits and least costs, shared more equitably than is currently the case. The health community must engage more directly in current research and policy debates on globalisation and encourage values that promote human health. At the same time, those at the helm of globalisation processes must recognise that attending to health impacts will strengthen the long-term sustainability of globalisation.

  15. Knowledge, health seeking behavior and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis among tuberculosis suspects in a rural community in southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemeda Abebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perceived stigma and lack of awareness could contribute to the late presentation and low detection rate of tuberculosis (TB. We conducted a study in rural southwest Ethiopia among TB suspects to assess knowledge about and stigma towards TB and their health seeking behavior. METHODS: A community based cross sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2009 in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. Any person 15 years and above with cough for at least 2 weeks was considered a TB suspect and included in the study. Data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS 15.0 statistical software. RESULTS: Of the 476 pulmonary TB suspects, 395 (83.0% had ever heard of TB; "evil eye" (50.4% was the commonly mentioned cause of TB. Individuals who could read and write were more likely to be aware about TB [(crude OR = 2.98, (95%CI: 1.25, 7.08] and more likely to know that TB is caused by a microorganism [(adjusted OR = 3.16, (95%CI: 1.77, 5.65] than non-educated individuals. Males were more likely to know the cause of TB [(adjusted OR = 1.92, (95%CI: 1.22, 3.03] than females. 51.3% of TB suspects perceived that other people would consider them inferior if they had TB. High stigma towards TB was reported by 199(51.2%. 220 (46.2% did not seek help for their illness. Individuals who had previous anti-TB treatment were more likely to have appropriate health seeking behavior [(adjusted OR = 3.65, (95%CI: 1.89, 7.06] than those who had not. CONCLUSION: There was little knowledge about TB in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. We observed inappropriate health seeking behavior and stigma towards TB. TB control programs in Ethiopia should educate rural communities, particularly females and non-educated individuals, about the cause and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of TB.

  16. The role of affect in consumer evaluation of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sandy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Health care services are typically consumed out of necessity, typically to recover from illness. While the consumption of health care services can be emotional given that consumers experience fear, hope, relief, and joy, surprisingly, there is little research on the role of consumer affect in health care consumption. We propose that consumer affect is a heuristic cue that drives evaluation of health care services. Drawing from cognitive appraisal theory and affect-as-information theory, this article tests a research model (N = 492) that investigates consumer affect resulting from service performance on subsequent service outcomes. PMID:25751317

  17. African Americans' perceived sociocultural determinants of suicide: afrocentric implications for public health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The cultural values of African Americans have not been adequately incorporated as a theoretical base to develop new public health models. The major objectives of this study were to explore, with a purposive sample, via seven focus groups, 40 African American college students, the following: How do (a) ethnic culture and (b) a "minoritized" status influence perceptions of sociocultural determinants in explaining increases in the incidence of suicide among African Americans? Thematic results of focus group discussions including the following: (a) racism, discrimination, and stereotyping; (b) U.S. individualism; (c) integration and cultural assimilation; and, (d) the prison industrial complex. PMID:25350896

  18. African Americans' perceived sociocultural determinants of suicide: afrocentric implications for public health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The cultural values of African Americans have not been adequately incorporated as a theoretical base to develop new public health models. The major objectives of this study were to explore, with a purposive sample, via seven focus groups, 40 African American college students, the following: How do (a) ethnic culture and (b) a "minoritized" status influence perceptions of sociocultural determinants in explaining increases in the incidence of suicide among African Americans? Thematic results of focus group discussions including the following: (a) racism, discrimination, and stereotyping; (b) U.S. individualism; (c) integration and cultural assimilation; and, (d) the prison industrial complex.

  19. Greek National Health System (NHS: A study of perceived stress in Nursing Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Kiloudis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The health sector, being one of the most stressful working environments, is considered to contribute to chronic stress. Factors contributing to stress can involve employees (work overload, interpersonal relations and role conflict, vagueness of professional role, extreme expectations, patients (course of the disease, chronicity, death and health system organization (organizational injustice, lack of participation in decision making, bad management.Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiety levels of nursing personnel (NP. Material and Methods: The sample was 102 members of NP in medical wards in four hospitals of the National Health System (NHS in Attica, Greece. The study took place from September 2009 to March 2010. Socio-demographic characteristics were recorded with a part of the Health Attitudes Evaluation Questionnaire which evaluates intensity, nervousness, remoteness and concern that are increasing the response to natural danger and stress. It was based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI I-II. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 15.0.Results: There was satisfactory representation of genders, age groups as well as educational levels in our sample. All participants, especially women and older nurses, stated that their job demands influence negatively the time and energy that they devote to themselves (42,2%, t(100=-3,076, p=0,003 & r=0,275, p=0,005 and their families (38,2%, t(100=-2,359, p=0,020. On the contrary, family matters did not seem to influence their work (93,1%. Increased levels of reported anxiety were registered in all participants and were associated mostly with the female gender and older age. Finally, gender and age, but not the level their education influenced the nurses’ attitudes.Conclusions: Nurses, nowadays, despite the lack of nursing staff and increased workload continue to demonstrate the appropriate zeal in patient care. Improvement of working conditions, salary and psycho

  20. Why don't health workers prescribe ACT? A qualitative study of factors affecting the prescription of artemether-lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurovac Dejan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya recently changed its antimalarial drug policy to a specific artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL. New national guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention were developed and disseminated to health workers together with in-service training. Methods Between January and March 2007, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted in five rural districts with health workers who attended in-service training and were non-adherent to the new guidelines. A further 20 interviews were undertaken with training facilitators and members of District Health Management Teams (DHMTs to explore reasons underlying health workers' non-adherence. Results Health workers generally perceived AL as being tolerable and efficacious as compared to amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyremethamine. However, a number of key reasons for non-adherence were identified. Insufficient supply of AL was a major issue and hence fears of stock outs and concern about AL costs was an impediment to AL prescription. Training messages that contradicted the recommended guidelines also led to health worker non-adherence, compounded by a lack of follow-up supervision. In addition, the availability of non-recommended antimalarials such as amodiaquine caused prescription confusion. Some health workers and DHMT members maintained that shortage of staff had resulted in increased patient caseload affecting the delivery of the desirable quality of care and adherence to guidelines. Conclusion The introduction of free efficacious ACTs in the public health sector in Kenya and other countries has major potential public health benefits for Africa. These may not be realized if provider prescription practices do not conform to the recommended treatment guidelines. It is essential that high quality training, drug supply and supervision work synergistically to ensure appropriate case management.

  1. Do Physicians' Financial Incentives Affect Medical Treatment and Patient Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jeffrey; Gottlieb, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate whether physicians' financial incentives influence health care supply, technology diffusion, and resulting patient outcomes. In 1997, Medicare consolidated the geographic regions across which it adjusts physician payments, generating area-specific price shocks. Areas with higher payment shocks experience significant increases in health care supply. On average, a 2 percent increase in payment rates leads to a 3 percent increase in care provision. Elective procedures such as cataract surgery respond much more strongly than less discretionary services. Non-radiologists expand their provision of MRIs, suggesting effects on technology adoption. We estimate economically small health impacts, albeit with limited precision. PMID:25170174

  2. The Impact of Perceived Interpersonal Functioning on Treatment for Adolescent Depression: IPT-A versus Treatment as Usual in School-Based Health Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Mufson, Laura; Jekal, Angela; Turner, J. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Aspects of depressed adolescents' perceived interpersonal functioning were examined as moderators of response to treatment among adolescents treated with interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A; Mufson, Dorta, Moreau, & Weissman, 2004) or treatment as usual (TAU) in school-based health clinics. Method: Sixty-three…

  3. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking medicine that your doctor prescribes. Abuse of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs may also be a sign of poor emotional health. Why does my doctor need to know about my emotions? You may not be used to talking to ...

  4. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in calories and offer none of the healthful benefits of fruits and other naturally sweet foods. Sugar-sweetened beverages like soda, energy drinks, and sports drinks are the leading source of added sugars ...

  5. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go untreated in women because symptoms are less obvious than in men or are more likely to ... National Institute of Mental Health. (2012). Women and Depression : Discovering Hope. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http:// ...

  6. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  7. Prevalence, Perceived Factors and Knowledge on Effects of Tobacco Use on Oral Health Among Secondary School Students in Dar es salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Kabulwa, Msafiri Nicodemus

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the conception of this study there was scant information on self reported prevalence, knowledge on detrimental effects on oral health and factors influencing tobacco use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam region. To determine the prevalence, perceived factors that may lead and /or deter secondary school students to use tobacco and knowledge on effects of tobacco use on oral health among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-secti...

  8. Perceived Barriers to Utilizing Maternal and Neonatal Health Services in Contracted-Out Versus Government-Managed Health Facilities in the Rural Districts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Riaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background A number of developing countries have contracted out public health facilities to the Non-Government Organizations (NGOs in order to improve service utilization. However, there is a paucity of in-depth qualitative information on barriers to access services as a result of contracting from service users’ perspective. The objective of this study was to explore perceived barriers to utilizing Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH services, in health facilities contracted out by government to NGO for service provision versus in those which are managed by government (non-contracted. Methods A community-based qualitative exploratory study was conducted between April to September 2012 at two contracted-out and four matched non-contracted primary healthcare facilities in Thatta and Chitral, rural districts of Pakistan. Using semi-structured guide, the data were collected through thirty-six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs conducted with mothers and their spouses in the catchment areas of selected facilities. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo version 10.0 in which themes and sub-themes emerged. Results Key barriers reported in contracted sites included physical distance, user charges and familial influences. Whereas, poor functionality of health centres was the main barrier for non-contracted sites with other issues being comparatively less salient. Decision-making patterns for participants of both catchments were largely similar. Spouses and mother-in-laws particularly influenced the decision to utilize health facilities. Conclusion Contracting out of health facility reduces supply side barriers to MNH services for the community served but distance, user charges and low awareness remain significant barriers. Contracting needs to be accompanied by measures for transportation in remote settings, oversight on user fee charges by contractor, and strong communitybased behavior change strategies.

  9. Perceived impact of the Medicare policy to adjust payment for health care-associated infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace M.; Hartmann, Christine W.; Graham, Denise; Kassler, William; Linn, Maya Dutta; Krein, Sarah; Saint, Sanjay; Goldmann, Donald A.; Fridkin, Scott; Horan, Teresa; Jernigan, John; Jha, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) ceased additional payment for hospitalizations resulting in complications deemed preventable, including several health care-associated infections. We sought to understand the impact of the CMS payment policy on infection prevention efforts. Methods A national survey of infection preventionists from a random sample of US hospitals was conducted in December 2010. Results Eighty-one percent reported increased attention to HAIs targeted by the CMS policy, whereas one-third reported spending less time on nontargeted HAIs. Only 15% reported increased funding for infection control as a result of the CMS policy, whereas most reported stable (77%) funding. Respondents reported faster removal of urinary (71%) and central venous (50%) catheters as a result of the CMS policy, whereas routine urine and blood cultures on admission occurred infrequently (27% and 13%, respectively). Resource shifting (ie, less time spent on nontargeted HAIs) occurred more commonly in large hospitals (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.0–5.1; P = .038) but less often in hospitals where front-line staff were receptive to changes in clinical processes (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.8; P = .005). Conclusion Infection preventionists reported greater hospital attention to preventing targeted HAIs as a result of the CMS nonpayment policy. Whether the increased focus and greater engagement in HAI prevention practices has led to better patient outcomes is unclear. PMID:22541855

  10. Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Bioeffluents on Perceived Air Quality, Self-assessed Acute Health Symptoms and Cognitive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei;

    2016-01-01

    quality, increased the intensity of reported headache, fatigue, sleepiness and difficulty in thinking clearly, and reduced speed of addition, the response time in a redirection task and the number of correct links made in the cue-utilisation test. This suggests that moderate concentrations of bioeffluents...... ratings, physiological responses and cognitive performance were measured. No statistically significant effects on perceived air quality, acute health symptoms or cognitive performance were seen during exposures when CO2 was added. Exposures to bioeffluents with CO2 at 3,000 ppm reduced perceived air...

  11. Prevalence of mental disorders in a population requesting health services at a primary health care center and its association with suicidal ideation and perceived disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérida R. Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study’s goal was to determine the most prevalent mental disorders and the impact on the perception of disability and suicidal ideation among the population from a primary health care center in the city of Cali. Methodology: a cross sectional study was conducted on 254 patients who were screened with the prime-md instrument. Descriptive statistics was used in the analysis to determine the most frequent disorders. Similarly, a multiple analysis with logistic and Poisson regressions using robust variance was conducted to determine the influence of mental disorders on disability and suicidal ideation. Results: most patients were female, young, and mature adults. Depression was present in 66.8% of all cases, followed by somatization disorder and anxiety. Half of the patients had had suicidal ideations at some point in their lives, and three out of four patients claimed to suffer from some kind of disability. Upon adjusting for the covariables, depression and anxiety disorders had a strong association with suicidal ideation and perceived disability that was overestimated by the logistic regression. Conclusion: depression and anxiety were the most common disorders and showed a strong association with suicidal ideation and disability. This is why it is necessary to screen for those disorders among adults using primary health care services. Likewise, we suggest considering Poisson regression with robust variance in cross-sectional studies in health services.

  12. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  13. Financial Health of Child Care Facilities Affects Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…

  14. Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wierdsma (André); C.L. Mulder (Niels)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. BACKGROUND: Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services. METHODS: In

  15. Noise and Health: How does noise affect us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Noise annoyance is a primary indication that noise is a problem, and by itself noise annoyance means that the quality of life is adversely affected. Results from noise annoyance research are presented that make possible a detailed evaluation of noise exposures with respect to the annoyance induced.

  16. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  17. The Effect of Perceived Parental Rearing Behaviors on Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents with Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Sunhee

    2015-01-01

    As the prognosis of childhood leukemia has dramatically improved, clinical interest has been growing in health-related quality of life in adolescents with leukemia. An important factor in adolescent quality of life is their perception of parental rearing behavior. The aim of this study was to explore how perceived parental rearing behaviors related to the quality of life of adolescents with leukemia. A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted among 106 adolescents with leukemia using the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior and the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life scales. Data were examined using descriptive, correlation, and path analyses. The coefficients of total effect of paternal and maternal emotional warmth on the quality of life of adolescents were 0.36 and 0.45, respectively. We found that paternal rejection/punishment behavior was significantly correlated with maternal rejection/punishment behavior (P warmth has a moderate effect on the quality of life of adolescents, that quality of life was related to both paternal and maternal rearing behaviors, and that the mother's and father's rearing behaviors were correlated with each other. To improve the quality of life of adolescents with leukemia, the patient's care plan should aim to enhance positive parental rearing behaviors in both parents.

  18. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  19. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome -- the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-2006). My...... results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically significant effect that increases the mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I show that these results are not driven by alternative explanations, including reverse causality, patient composition effects, sample selection...... of care to insured heart attack patients in response to reduced revenues, the evidence I have suggests a modest increase in the quantity of cardiac services without a corresponding increase in hospital staff....

  20. Does sustained participation in an online health community affect sentiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members' behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members.

  1. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients.

  2. Does Sanitation Affect Health Outcomes? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Amarendra; Das, Bibhunandini

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have attempted to unravel the disparity in sanitation facilities across rural and urban regions of Indian states and the impact of sanitation on health outcomes. Based on the 69th National Sample Survey data set which covers more than 95 000 households we find a wide disparity in the access to sanitation facilities across rural and urban areas of Indian states and across states. While the north-eastern and southern states perform better in sanitation indicators, the eastern a...

  3. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. PMID:26691581

  4. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  5. [Quality of life and perceived general health state related to seizure type and frequency, electroencephalographic findings, cognitive impairment, therapeutic response and secondary effects in persons with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinol, Antoni; Molina, Irene; Rossinol, Tomeu; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. The perceived quality of life (QoL) in persons with epilepsy has demonstrated to be a relevant factor for the continuity of treatment and for the patients' own general health perception. Currently, the positive concept of QoL is used to assess the psychosocial factors of the epilepsy, replacing the concept of stigma. AIM. To analyze the relationship between QoL and general health perception, with several relevant clinical parameters in a sample of persons with epilepsy, in order to draw conclusions that help to suggest a more global approach to the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We applied the Spanish versions of the QOLIE-10, the GHQ-12, and MMSE, and registered the clinical parameters (diagnostic, years of illness, electroencephalographic patterns, seizure type and frequency, response to medication, and side effects) in a sample of 29 persons with epilepsy. RESULTS. QoL and perceived general health are two unrelated factors respect to the clinical features. QoL is closely related to the frequency and type of crisis, whilst the years of illness and the level of neurocognitive impairment are not related with QoL. CONCLUSIONS. From the clinical point of view, it must be taken into account the relationship between the persons with epilepsy perceived QoL with factors such as the seizure frequency, side effects of the medication, and the general health perception, in order to obtain the best response and treatment adherence.

  6. A Survey of Knowledge, Individual Perceived Risk, General Perceived Risk, and Behavioral Intentions Regarding Hepatitis B among Students in the Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimiankakolaki, Zohreh; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Gerayllo, Sakineh; Sheikh Samani, Nadia; Hadipour, Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver disease, and medical students are a risk group for the disease given their future occupations. Objectives The aim of the study was to assess of predictors of hepatitis B in the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 students from the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University. The students answered questionnaires with items covering demographic characteristics, individual knowledge, public risk perception, perceived personal risk, and behavioral intentions regarding hepatitis B. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 18 software. Results The mean knowledge score of the students was 4.77 ± 1.71, the mean public risk perception score was 24.22 ± 3.44, the mean perceived personal risk score was 6.51 ± 1.97, and the mean behavioral intention score was 12.06 ± 2.97. There were significant differences in the mean knowledge scores in terms of gender, level of awareness, and level of education. There were also differences in the mean behavioral intention scores in terms of gender and field of study, the mean perceived personal risk scores in terms of level of education and field of study, and the mean public risk perception scores in terms of field of study. Conclusions According to the results of this study, it is necessary to implement educational intervention in order to allow students to identify risk factors and overcome barriers to understanding the implications of the disease in this context. PMID:27651804

  7. Factors affecting patients' ratings of health-care satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne K; Fuglsang, Marie; Miiller, Max Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surveys that include rating scales are commonly used to collect data about patients' experiences. We studied how patients associated their ratings with their experiences of care. METHODS: A survey and a qualitative study were conducted at a Danish hospital. Initially, 19 female...... patients completed a questionnaire using the response categories from very good to very bad; and subsequently they participated in a semi-structured interview held within two days after they completed the questionnaire. Additionally, 44 female patients participated in an interview within six weeks...... of completing a questionnaire. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used in the analysis and interpretation. RESULTS: Two major themes emerged: experienced versus expected clinical quality and health-care professional attitude. Patients responded to each question by combining their experiences of both...

  8. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  9. Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Munyua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The countrys system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The countrys ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts percentages and measures of central tendency. Inferential statistics on the other hand include t-test analysis and spearman correlation

  10. Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André I. Wierdsma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services. Methods: In a retrospective record linkage study, we compared two neighboring districts, varying in level of service integration. Two periods were combined: 1991–1993 and 2001–2003. We included patients aged 18–60, who had a first emergency compulsory admission (n=830. Their psychiatric history was assessed, and service-use after admission was monitored over a 12-month follow-up. Results: Over a 10-year period, compulsory admission rates increased by 47%. Difference in relative increase between the integrated and non-integrated services was 14%. Patient characteristics showed different profiles in the two districts. Length of stay was >10 days shorter in the integrated district, where the proportion of involuntary readmissions decreased more, and where aftercare was swift and provided to about 10% more patients than in the non-integrated district. Conclusions: Services outcomes showed better results where mental healthcare was more integrated. However, limited effects were found and other factors than integration of services may be more important in preventing compulsory admissions.

  11. Is engagement different from satisfaction and organizational commitment?: relations with intention to remain, psychological well-being and perceived physical health in volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Vecina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of volunteers, who work, but not for money, and whose managers expect them to remain with the organization over the long term and to feel well by doing good, this study examines the distinctiveness between three concepts, usually related in the work field: Engagement, organizational commitment, and satisfaction. Based on the existing literature, they are related among them and regarding three relevant outcomes for management: Intention to remain, psychological well-being, and perceived physical health. Three structural equations models make it clear that volunteer engagement does contribute to the explanation of organizational commitment, volunteer satisfaction, and psychological well-being. At the same time, it does not seem to account for levels of intention to remain neither perceived physical health. On the contrary, organizational commitment is the only predictor of intention to remain, and volunteer satisfaction is the only predictor of perceived physical health. This last result was not expected, according to the literature on work, but reinforces the distinctiveness between the concepts and may have a plausible explanation in the volunteering field.

  12. DIFERENCIAS EN ESTRÉS PERCIBIDO, SALUD MENTAL Y FÍSICA DE ACUERDO AL TIPO DE RELACIÓN HUMANO-PERRO / DIFFERENCES IN PERCEIVED STRESS, MENTAL HEALTH, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH ACCORDING TO TYPES OF HUMAN-PET DOG RELATIONSHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    MÓNICA TERESA GONZÁLEZ RAMÍREZ; RENÉ LANDERO HERNÁNDEZ

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to assess whether the levelsof perceived stress and health differed depending on typesof human-pet dog relationships, and to evaluate the correlationbetween perceived stress and health and the frequencywith which activities are carried out with the dogs. Self-reportquestionnaires were filled out by 247 volunteers owning atleast one dog. The results show lower levels of perceived stressand higher levels of mental health in those individuals whoconsider the d...

  13. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monastersky, R.

    1996-04-06

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives an overview of the scientific information available on each: temperature and mortality; tropical trouble, including vecorborne diseases and increase in susceptable populations; and waterborne problems such as cholera, harmful algal bloomes, food shortages.

  14. Highly resilient coping entails better perceived health, high social support and low morning cortisol levels in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; De Andrés-García, S; Pérez-Blasco, J; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    The negative consequences of caring for people with developmental disabilities have been widely described. However, the ability to bounce back from the stress derived from care situations has been less studied. Those caregivers who have shown this ability are considered as resilient. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between resilience and self-reported health and cortisol awakening response (CAR) in a sample of caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It also aims to evaluate the role of social support as a mediator in the association between resilience and health. Caregivers with higher resilience show better perceived health, lower morning cortisol levels, and less area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg). Social support was positively related to resilience and mediated the relationship between resilience and perceived health. This mediating effect was not found in the association between resilience and CAR. Resilience could be a protective factor that modulates the negative consequences of chronic stress in the care context. Social support could be an important variable mediating the effects of resilience on health outcomes in caregivers. All these results must be considered when implementing effective psychological programs for helping caregivers. PMID:24405793

  15. Factors Affecting Job Motivation among Health Workers: A Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers’ motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed ques...

  16. Lifestyle behaviors, obesity, and perceived health among men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer: A population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markwell Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of how prostate cancer survivors differ from men without prostate cancer and whether these potential differences vary across demographic subgroups will help to focus and prioritize future public health interventions for improving the health and well-being of prostate cancer survivors. Therefore, our study aims were to compare lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI, and perceived health in men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in a national, population-based sample and to explore whether these comparisons differ for demographic subgroups. Methods In a cross-sectional study, men aged ≥ 40 were identified from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS 2002 data (n = 63,662. Respondents reporting history of prostate cancer (n = 2,524 were compared with non prostate cancer controls (n = 61,138 with regard to daily fruit and vegetable servings (FVPD, smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, BMI, and perceived health. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the entire sample and for age, race, education, and urbanicity subgroups. Results Men with prostate cancer did not differ from men without prostate cancer with regard to smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, and obesity but were more likely to consume ≥ 5 FVPD (OR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.09–1.56 and report poor or fair health (OR, 95% CI: 1.62, 1.33–1.97. Subgroup analyses demonstrated attenuation of the higher likelihood of ≥ 5 FVPD among prostate cancer survivors in rural respondents (OR, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.72–1.33. Poorer perceived health was greatest if ≤ 65 years of age (OR, 95% CI: 2.54, 1.79–3.60 and nonsignificant if black (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 0.70–2.82. Smoking and alcohol which were not significant for the sample as a whole, demonstrated significant associations in certain subgroups. Conclusion Although efforts to enhance perceived health and healthy

  17. The impact of perceived ethnic discrimination on mental health depends on transcultural identity: evidence for a moderator effect

    OpenAIRE

    Knauss, Miriam A.; Günther, Kristina; Belardi, Sophie; Morley, Pauline; von Lersner, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background While ethnic discrimination emphasizes boundaries between different cultures, the concept of transculturality focuses on the fact that cultures can merge and that individuals integrate novel cultural elements into their identity. This is an exploratory study that investigates the interplay between perceived ethnic discrimination, psychological adjustment and transcultural identity. Methods Structured interviews were conducted using a sample of 46 adolescents with a Turkish migrator...

  18. Fragile and conflict affected states: report from the Consultation on Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim; MacPherson, Eleanor; Baba Dieu-Merci, Amuda; Ssali, Sarah; Torr, Steve; Theobald, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Fragile and Conflict Affected States present difficult contexts to achieve health system outcomes and are neglected in health systems research. This report presents key debates from the Consultation of the Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery, Liverpool, June, 2014.

  19. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Heiestad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n=143, mean BMI 31.3±5.2 kg/m2, mean age 39.9±10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training, B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer, C (nonsupervised exercise, or D (controls. The intervention included 12 weeks of 45–60 minutes’ full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1±10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A–C had better scores on exercise motivation (A=43.9±19.8, B=47.6±15.4, C=48.4±17.8 compared to the control group (D (26.5±18.2 (p<0.001. Groups B and C scored better on self-perceived health (B=1.9±0.8, C=2.3±0.8, compared to group D (3.0±0.6 (p<0.001. For quality of life measurement, there was no statistically significant difference between either intervention groups or the control. Conclusions. Resistance training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training.

  20. What is the perceived nature of parental care and support for young people with cystic fibrosis as they enter adult health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Nicola; Lowton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The majority of those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) now live to adulthood. In response to increased survival age, transition services have been developed to ensure smooth transfer from paediatric to adult specialist healthcare, although the majority of treatment and care continues to be delivered in the home. However, little is known about how young adults and staff conceptualise the nature of the parental role after young people have left paediatric care. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of parental support that is perceived to be available at this time. As part of a larger study of transitional care, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 young people with CF aged 13-24 years (32 with experience of transition and/or adult CF services) and 23 specialist healthcare professionals (14 working in adult care) across two CF centres in Southeast England. Interviews took place in young people's homes or within CF services, using a topic guide and were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four domains of perceived parental support were identified by the young people interviewed, with varying degrees of continuity into adult care: (1) Providing non-clinical practical and emotional support; (2) Acting as 'troubleshooters' in times of health-related crisis; (3) Working in partnership with offspring in ongoing disease management in the home and clinic; (4) Acting as 'protectors' of their children. Young people and service staff expressed tensions in managing parental involvement in post-paediatric consultations and the degree to which parents should be aware of their offspring's deteriorating health and social concerns. Parental anxiety and over-involvement was perceived by many young people and staff as unsupportive. We suggest that although health and social care providers are mindful of the tensions that arise for those leaving paediatric services, the place of parental support in adult care is currently contentious for these 'new

  1. Why Not Everyone Gets Their Fair Share of Stress : Adolescent's Perceived Relationship Affection Mediates Associations Between Temperament and Subsequent Stressful Social Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Temperamental differences are associated with subsequent stressful life events, a phenomenon that has in part been attributed to evocation. However, we remain ignorant about the mechanisms that mediate this process. In the current paper, we test whether differences in perceived relationship affectio

  2. Association between Perceived Value and Self-Medication with Antibiotics: An Observational Study Based on Health Belief Model Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Annisa N. Insany; Dika P. Destiani; Anwar Sani; Lilik Sabdaningtyas; Ivan S. Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of self medication with antibiotics can increase the probability of irrational use of antibiotics which may lead antibiotics resistance. Thus, shifting of behavior is required to minimize the irrational use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to determine the association between public perceived value and self-medication with antibiotics which can be used to develop an intervention model in order to reduce the practice of self-medication with antibiotics. An observational stu...

  3. How health professionals perceive and experience treating people on social assistance: a qualitative study among dentists in Montreal, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bedos, Christophe; Loignon, Christine; Landry, Anne; Allison, Paul J; Richard, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, the prevalence of oral diseases is very high among people on social assistance. Despite great need for dental treatment, many are reluctant to consult dental professionals, arguing that dentists do not welcome or value poor patients. The objective of this research was thus to better understand how dentists perceived and experienced treating people on social assistance. Methods This descriptive qualitative research was based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 33 ...

  4. The effects of acoustical refurbishment of classrooms on teachers’ perceived noise exposure and noise-related health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren Peter; Persson, Roger;

    2015-01-01

    of RT and activity sound levels were measured before and after refurbishment. Data on perceived noise exposure, disturbance attributed to different noise sources, voice symptoms, and fatigue after work were collected over a year in a total of six consecutive questionnaires. Results: Refurbished......, and reports of disturbance from equipment in the classroom decreased. There was no significant effect of the refurbishment on the teachers’ voice symptoms or fatigue after work....

  5. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  6. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  7. An exploratory study of the perceived impact of health problems of landmine/UXO victims versus another disability group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyper Russell B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this exploratory study is to pilot a biopsychosocial instrument called the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP on a cohort of landmine/Unexploded Ordnance (UXO victims with lower limb disability versus a cohort of persons with similar disability due to other trauma or medical causes. The aim is to provide greater understanding of the psychosocial impact of landmine/UXO injury to inform victim assistance a interventions within Lao PDR. Methods This study employs a mixed methods design, which involved piloting the PIPP instrument through an interviewer administered questionnaire and demographic questionnaire. Fifty one participants were interviewed in both urban and rural locations within Lao PDR. Results An analysis of the data reveals significant differences in perceived impact for pain, anxiety and how recently the injury/illness occurred. Both groups complained of high levels of anxiety and depression; landmine/UXO victims who complained of anxiety and depression reported a much greater impact on life satisfaction and mood. Conclusion The perceived impact of the disability is greatest on psychosocial factors for both cohorts, but especially in landmine/UXO victims emphasising the need to focus on improving psychosocial interventions for landmine/UXO victims within Victim assistance programmes in Lao PDR.

  8. 专业心理健康服务感知风险结构研究%Structure of Perceived Risk of Professional Mental Health Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 高文珺; 李凌; 秦萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of perceived risk of professional mental health services. Methods: 555 undergraduates from Tianjin and 557 community residents from 13 different regions of China were recruited to complete a battery of questionnaires. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that there were four dimensions of perceived risk of receiving mental health services: psychological risk, service quality risk, functional value risk, and social risk. Service quality risk and functional value risk were consumers' top concerns. The self-compiled questionnaire had good reliability and validity. Conclusion: The multi-dimensional structure of perceived risk of professional mental health services indicates the characteristics of these special service products. One way to reduce perceived risk is to standardize the systems of mental health services and reinforce the education of knowledge about the effects and values of these services.%目的:探讨专业心理健康服务感知风险的结构.方法:对天津地区555名在校大学生和全国13个省区的557名社区居民进行了问卷调查.结果:探索性和验证性因素分析证实,专业心理健康服务感知风险包括四个维度,分别为心理风险、服务质量风险、功能价值风险和社会风险,其中,人们对服务质量风险和功能价值风险的感知最强.自编感知风险问卷具有良好的信度和效度.结论:对于专业心理健康服务这一特殊的服务产品,人们感知风险的多维结构体现出服务自身的特点.专业心理健康服务现阶段的发展可着重于规范服务体系和宣传功能价值.

  9. A Study of the Impact of Perceived Organizational Justice on Employee\\\\\\'s Social Capital (Case Study: Health Network of Noshahr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasr Esfahani

    2013-07-01

    words, no person or organization could succeed without social capital. Because it is related to perceived sense of injustice, this study attempts to discuss the establishment of justice in organization and employees' opinion on this issue as an effective factor regarding the amount of employees' social capital in the organization. The results, if proven, could help managers employ people with more social capital and hence achieve more success by establishing organizational justice. Material and Method The present study is an applied and descriptive research attempting to offer a clear definition for the correlation of perceived organizational justice and the amount of personnel's social capital. This is a cross sectional field research. For testing empirical data, a conceptual model was designed by the authors. This model has two main parts, including organizational justice and social capital. In order to reach to research objectives, four hypotheses have been tested, investigating the relationship between perceived organizational justice and its dimensions (distributive, procedural and interactional justice with the amount of employees' social capital. Research population is composed of the personnel of the health network in Noshahr city, of whom 136 individuals were sampled randomly. For data collection, a questionnaire was made by the researchers containing 31 questions based on Likert's five-degree scale. 15 of the questions include aspects of organizational justice and the other 16 questions are relate to aspects of social capital. The questionnaire has a high reliability (0.91 which was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. Also, the content validity of the questionnaire has been assured by using advice from experts. SPSS software was used for data analysis. The statistical methods used in this research include descriptive statistical methods (such as mean and single sample tables and inferential statistics, including Pearson's correlation coefficient. Discussion of

  10. The ratio between positive and negative affect and flourishing mental health across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L; Berg, Kathleen M

    2011-09-01

    Using data from a 30-day diary study with 239 adults (81 young, 81 middle-aged, and 77 older adults), this study examined whether a specific ratio between positive and negative affect distinguished individuals with different mental health status and especially flourishing from non-flourishing individuals. In addition, the study addressed whether there were age differences in the positivity ratio when daily affect data were used, and whether the proposed critical positivity ratio of 2.9 discriminated equally well between individuals with different mental health status across the adult lifespan. Findings showed that the ratio of positive to negative affect differed across adulthood such that age was associated with an increasing preponderance of positive to negative affect. The positivity ratio was also associated with mental health status in the hypothesized direction; higher positivity ratios were associated with better mental health. Finally, although the data supported the notion of a positivity ratio of 2.9 as a 'critical value' in young adulthood, this value did not equally well discriminate the mental health status of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21562989

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproduc...

  12. Mental Health in Youth Infected with and Affected by HIV: The Role of Caregiver HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, José A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health. Method Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N = 545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Results HIV+ youth reported ...

  13. Confined Site Construction: A qualitative investigation of critical issues affecting management of Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, John P.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Von Meding, Jason; Konanahalli, Ashwini; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E; Tijani, Iyabo K

    2011-01-01

    The construction industry is inherently risky, with a significant number of accidents and disasters occurring, particularly on confined construction sites. This research investigates and identifies the various issues affecting successful management of health and safety in confined construction sites. The rationale is that identifying the issues would assist the management of health and safety particularly in inner city centres which are mostly confined sites. Using empiricism epistemology, th...

  14. Obstetric danger signs and factors affecting health seeking behaviour among the Kassena-Nankani of Northern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborigo, Raymond A; Moyer, Cheryl A; Gupta, Mira; Adongo, Philip B; Williams, John; Hodgson, Abraham; Allote, Pascale; Engmann, Cyril M

    2014-09-01

    Improving community members' knowledge of obstetric danger signs is one strategy for increasing the use of skilled care during pregnancy and the puerperium. This study explored knowledge of obstetric danger signs among a range of community members, examined the sources of their information, and the perceived factors that affect health seeking behaviour in rural northern Ghana. We conducted 72 in-depth interviews and 18 focus groups with community members. All interactions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo 9.0. Community members demonstrated knowledge of a wide range of obstetric danger signs, including excessive bleeding, stomach aches, waist pains, vomiting and fever. Pregnant women learn about danger signs from a range of providers, and regular contact with formal providers typically coincided with increased knowledge of danger signs. Traditional remedies for problems in obstetrics are plentiful and cultural beliefs often restrict the use of allopathic medicine. Increasing knowledge of obstetric danger signs is necessary but not sufficient to overcome cultural preferences for traditional treatments for pregnancy danger signs.

  15. Factors Affecting Health-Promoting Behaviors in Nursing Students at a University in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ülkü; Özen, Şükrü; Kahraman, Burcu Bayrak; Bostanoğlu, Hatice

    2016-07-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine factors affecting health-promoting behaviors in nursing students. The sample consisted of 245 students. A questionnaire about factors affecting lifestyle behavior and the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II were used to collect data from 245 nursing students during the spring semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. A significant difference was found between students with and without diagnosed health problems in terms of their mean scores on the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II subscales of health responsibility, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relations, as well as their total mean scores (p < .05). The exercise, nutrition, spiritual growth, and stress management subscale scores of those students regularly going for health checks were determined to be significantly higher than those of the students who did not obtain regular health checks. Students' healthy lifestyle behaviors were generally found to be at the medium level. This study provides evidence of the need for interventions to help nurses in Turkey. PMID:25632948

  16. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population. PMID:18392351

  17. What matters most?: evidence-based findings of health dimensions affecting the societal preferences for EQ-5D health states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viegas Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how different health dimensions defined by the EQ-5D-3L instrument affect average individual preferences for health states. This analysis is an important benchmark for the incorporation of health technologies as it takes into consideration Brazilian population preferences in health resource allocation decisions. The EQ-5D instrument defines health in terms of five dimensions (mobility, daily activities, self-care activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression each divided into three levels of severity. Data came from a valuation study with 3,362 literate individuals aged between 18 and 64 living in urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main results reveal that health utility decreases as the level of severity increases. With regard to health issues, mobility stands out as the most important EQ-5D dimension. Independently of severity levels of the other EQ-5D-3L dimensions, the highest decrements in utilities are associated with severe mobility problems.

  18. Maintaining life satisfaction in adolescence: Affective mediators of the influence of perceived emotional intelligence on overall life satisfaction judgments in a two-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás eSanchez-Alvarez; Natalio eExtremera; Pablo eFernández-Berrocal

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence and life s...

  19. Maintaining Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Affective Mediators of the Influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on Overall Life Satisfaction Judgments in a Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the psychological processes underlying the improvement in mood states and human well-being, particularly during adolescence. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that emotional skills may play a role in enhancing perceived well-being; however, the mechanisms involved in during adolescence are unclear. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding by investigating the potential mediators of the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and ...

  20. Stress and Burnout among Health-Care Staff Working with People Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    1995-01-01

    The nature, causes, consequences, and symptoms of stress and burnout among health-care staff working with people affected by HIV are identified. The extent to which these characteristics are specific to HIV/AIDS workers is discussed. Some options for prevention and management of burnout are presented. (Author)

  1. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], p<.001) and positively associated with negative affect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], p<.001). In comparison, we found no association between n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect. PMID:27188896

  2. The Binding Ring Illusion: assimilation affects the perceived size of a circular array [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/nv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Daniel McCarthy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our perception of an object’s size arises from the integration of multiple sources of visual information including retinal size, perceived distance and its size relative to other objects in the visual field. This constructive process is revealed through a number of classic size illusions such as the Delboeuf Illusion, the Ebbinghaus Illusion and others illustrating size constancy. Here we present a novel variant of the Delbouef and Ebbinghaus size illusions that we have named the Binding Ring Illusion. The illusion is such that the perceived size of a circular array of elements is underestimated when superimposed by a circular contour – a binding ring – and overestimated when the binding ring slightly exceeds the overall size of the array. Here we characterize the stimulus conditions that lead to the illusion, and the perceptual principles that underlie it. Our findings indicate that the perceived size of an array is susceptible to the assimilation of an explicitly defined superimposed contour. Our results also indicate that the assimilation process takes place at a relatively high level in the visual processing stream, after different spatial frequencies have been integrated and global shape has been constructed. We hypothesize that the Binding Ring Illusion arises due to the fact that the size of an array of elements is not explicitly defined and therefore can be influenced (through a process of assimilation by the presence of a superimposed object that does have an explicit size.

  3. The Binding Ring Illusion: assimilation affects the perceived size of a circular array [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/12q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Daniel McCarthy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our perception of an object’s size arises from the integration of multiple sources of visual information including retinal size, perceived distance and its size relative to other objects in the visual field. This constructive process is revealed through a number of classic size illusions such as the Delboeuf Illusion, the Ebbinghaus Illusion and others illustrating size constancy. Here we present a novel variant of the Delbouef and Ebbinghaus size illusions that we have named the Binding Ring Illusion. The illusion is such that the perceived size of a circular array of elements is underestimated when superimposed by a circular contour – a binding ring – and overestimated when the binding ring slightly exceeds the overall size of the array. Here we characterize the stimulus conditions that lead to the illusion, and the perceptual principles that underlie it. Our findings indicate that the perceived size of an array is susceptible to the assimilation of an explicitly defined superimposed contour. Our results also indicate that the assimilation process takes place at a relatively high level in the visual processing stream, after different spatial frequencies have been integrated and global shape has been constructed. We hypothesize that the Binding Ring Illusion arises due to the fact that the size of an array of elements is not explicitly defined and therefore can be influenced (through a process of assimilation by the presence of a superimposed object that does have an explicit size.

  4. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiestad, Hege; Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training. PMID:27462608

  5. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures – Population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobau Rosemarie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To promote the health and quality of life of United States residents, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC – with 54 state and territorial health agencies – has supported population surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL. HRQOL was defined as "perceived physical and mental health over time." Commonly-used measures of health status and activity limitation were identified and a set of "Healthy Days" HRQOL measures was developed and validated. A core set of these measures (the CDC HRQOL-4 asks about self-rated general health and the number of recent days when a person was physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or limited in usual activities. A summary measure combines physically and mentally unhealthy days. From 1993 to 2001, more than 1.2 million adults responded to the CDC HRQOL-4 in each state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS telephone interview. More than one fifth of all BRFSS respondents also responded to a set of related questions – including five items that assess the presence, main cause and duration of a current activity limitation, and the need for activity-related personal and routine care; as well as five items that ask about recent days of pain, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, and vitality. The Healthy Days surveillance data are particularly useful for finding unmet health needs, identifying disparities among demographic and socioeconomic subpopulations, characterizing the symptom burden of disabilities and chronic diseases, and tracking population patterns and trends. The full set of 14 Healthy Days Measures (the CDC HRQOL-14 has shown good measurement properties in several populations, languages, and settings. The brief standard CDC HRQOL-4 is now often used in surveys, surveillance systems, prevention research, and population health report cards.

  6. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  7. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  8. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

  9. Linked health data for pharmacovigilance in children: perceived legal and ethical issues for stakeholders and data guardians

    OpenAIRE

    Hopf, Y.M.; Bond, C. B.; Francis, J.; Haughney, J; Helms, P J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The inclusion of the Community Health Index in the recording of National Health Service (NHS) contacts in Scotland facilitates national linkage of data such as prescribing and healthcare utilisation. This linkage could be the basis for identification of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to report the views of healthcare professionals on data sharing, ownership and the legal and other applicable frameworks relevant to linkage of routinely collected paediatric health...

  10. Communication and mental health in general practice: physicians' self-perceived learning needs and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Tonje L; Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) often see patients presenting with mental health problems, but their training regarding mental health treatment varies. GPs' communication skills are of particular importance in these consultations, and communication skills training of GPs has been found to improve patients' mental health. To tailor a communication skills training by basing it on GPs' learning needs and self-efficacy, thereby maximising learning, we conducted a questionnaire study.

  11. Foreclosure and Health in Southern Europe: Results from the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2016-04-01

    Housing instability has been shown to be related to poorer health outcomes in various studies, mainly in the USA and UK. Affected individuals are more prone to psychiatric (e.g., major depression, anxiety) and physical disorders (e.g., hypertension). This situation has deteriorated with the onset of the economic crisis. One of the most affected countries is Spain, which has high rates of foreclosure and eviction that continue to rise. In response, a civil movement, The Platform for People Affected by Mortgages (PAH), works to provide solutions to its members affected by foreclosure and advocates for the right to decent housing. The aims of this study ware to describe and compare the health status of PAH members from Catalonia to a sample of the general population and to analyze the association between health status and mortgage status, foreclosure stage, and other socioeconomic variables, among members of the PAH. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire (2014) administered to 905 PAH members in Catalonia (>18 years; 559 women and 346 men). Results were compared with health indicators from The Health Survey of Catalonia 2013 (n = 4830). The dependent variables were poor mental health (GHQ 12 ≥ 3), and poor self-reported health (fair or poor). All analyses were stratified by sex. We computed age-standardized prevalence and prevalence ratios of poor mental and self-reported health in both samples. We also analyzed health outcomes among PAH members according to mortgage status (mortgage holders or guarantors), stage of foreclosure, and other socioeconomic variables by computing prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of poor mental health among PAH members was 90.6 % in women and 84.4 % in men, and 15.5 and 10.2 % in the general population, respectively. The prevalence of poor self-reported health was 55.6 % in women and 39.4 % in men from the PAH, and 19.2 and 16.1 % in the general

  12. Developing a Theoretical Framework Using a Nursing Perspective to Investigate Perceived Health in the "Sandwich Generation" Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulevey Bachmann, Annie; Danuser, Brigitta; Morin, Diane

    2015-10-01

    Coexisting workloads from professional, household and family, and caregiving activities for frail parents expose middle-aged individuals, the so-called "Sandwich Generation", to potential health risks. Current trends suggest that this situation will continue or increase. Thus SG health promotion has become a nursing concern. Most existing research considers coexisting workloads a priori pathogenic. Most studies have examined the association of one, versus two, of these three activities with health. Few studies have used a nursing perspective. This article presents the development of a framework based on a nursing model. We integrated Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance middle-range theory into "Neuman Systems Model". The latter was chosen for its salutogenic orientation, its attention to preventive nursing interventions and the opportunity it provides to simultaneously consider positive and negative perceptions of SG health and SG coexisting workloads. Finally, it facilitated a theoretical identification of health protective factors.

  13. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  14. Measuring the impact and distress of health problems from the individual's perspective: development of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and conduct preliminary validation of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP. Based on the biopsychosocial model of health and functioning, the PIPP was intended as a generic research and clinical measurement tool to assess the impact and distress of health conditions from the individuals' perspective. The ICF classification system was used to guide the structure of the PIPP with subscales included to assess impact on self-care, mobility, participation, relationships and psychological well-being. While the ICF focuses on the classification of objective health and health related status, the PIPP broadens this focus to address the individuals' subjective experience of their health condition. Methods An item pool of 23 items assessing both impact and distress on five key domains was generated. These were administered to 169 adults with mobility impairment. Rasch analysis using RUMM2020 was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of each set of items. Preliminary construct validation of the PIPP was performed using the EQ5D. Results For both the Impact and Distress scales of the PIPP, the five subscales (Self-care, Mobility, Participation, Relationships, and Psychological Well-being showed adequate psychometric properties, demonstrating fit to the Rasch model. All subscales showed adequate person separation reliability and no evidence of differential item functioning for sex, age, educational level or rural vs urban residence. Preliminary validity testing using the EQ5D items provided support for the subscales. Conclusion This preliminary study, using a sample of adults with mobility impairment, provides support for the psychometric properties of the PIPP as a potential clinical and research measurement tool. The PIPP provides a brief, but comprehensive means to assess the key ICF components, focusing on the individuals' perspective of the impact and distress caused by their

  15. Self-perceived Mental Health Status and Uptake of Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestin Hategekimana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43 and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71 than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention.

  16. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  17. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  18. Despite Barriers, Education Providers, Health Professionals, and Students Perceive E-Learning to Be an Effective Method of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie Andrea

    2006-01-01

    A review of: Childs, Sue, Elizabeth Blenkinsopp, Amanda Hall, and Graham Walton. “Effective E-Learning for Health Professionals and Students—Barriers and Their Solutions. A Systematic Review of the Literature—Findings from the HeXL Project.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 22.S2 (2005): 20-32. Objective – To determine barriers or problems and possible solutions related to e-learning, and to determine the effectiveness of e-learning among health professionals and students. Desi...

  19. Do Public Relations and Journalism’s Converging Roles Affect How They Perceive Each Other? An Italian Outlook / ¿Cómo perciben los Relaciones Públicas y los Periodistas sus profesiones? Una mirada desde Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valentini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Media relations is historically a core activity qualifying public relations from other communication-related professions and is widely practiced in many organizations. Despite the increasing use of digital media to directly communicate with publics, journalists are still key stakeholders for organizations. Also communications by organizations have become more and more mediatized and at the same time more and more journalists are switching to a public relations career. Yet, if more journalists are becoming public relations practitioners and more public relations practitioners are adopting journalistic working practices, does this change the way these communicators perceive themselves and the other profession? The aim of this study is to provide some insights from a southern, Latin country, Italy, on how Italian public relations practitioners and journalists perceive their and the other profession, roles, practices and relationships. A mixed method, including face-to-face interviews and an online survey, was used to collect and analyse the data. Results indicate that public relations and journalism’s converging roles is affecting how these communicators perceive each other in a favorable manner. Furthermore, the impact is more evident in public relations practitioners since their opinions of journalism and journalists correspond to journalists’ self-evaluations.

  20. On the Convergence of Affective and Persuasive Technologies in Computer-Mediated Health-Care Systems

    OpenAIRE

    García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Giuseppe Fico; Dario Salvi; Manuel Ottaviano; Arredondo, María T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a portrayal of how affective computing and persuasive technologies can converge into an effective tool for interfacing biomedical engineering with behavioral sciences and medicine. We describe the characteristics, features, applications, present state of the art, perspectives, and trends of both streams of research. In particular, these streams are analyzed in light of the potential contribution of their convergence for improving computer-mediated health-care systems, b...

  1. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental he...

  2. Examining the relationship between social support availability, urban center size, and self-perceived mental health of recent immigrants to Canada: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Kathryn A; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The experiences of settlement in a new country (e.g., securing housing and employment, language barriers) pose numerous challenges for recent immigrants that can impede their health and well-being. Lack of social support upon arrival and during settlement may help to explain why immigrant mental health status declines over time. While most urban centers in Canada offer some settlement services, little is known about how the availability of social supports, and the health statuses of recent immigrants, varies by city size. The objective of this mixed-methods study was to examine the relationship between self-perceived mental health (SPMH), social support availability, and urban center size, for recent immigrants to Canada. The quantitative component involved analysis of 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey data, selecting for only recent immigrants and for those living in either large or small urban centers. The qualitative component involved in-depth interviews with managers of settlement service organizations located in three large and three small urban centers in Canada. The quantitative analysis revealed that social support availability is positively associated with higher SPMH status, and is higher in small urban centers. In support of these findings, our interviews revealed that settlement service organizations operating in small urban centers offer more intensive social supports; interviewees attributed this difference to personal relationships in small cities, and the ease with which they can connect to other agencies to provide clients with necessary supports. Logistic regression analysis revealed, however, that recent immigrants in small urban centers are twice as likely to report low SPMH compared to those living in large urban centers. Thus, while the scope and nature of settlements services appears to vary by city size in Canada, more research is needed to understand what effect settlement services have on the health status of recent immigrants to

  3. DIFERENCIAS EN ESTRÉS PERCIBIDO, SALUD MENTAL Y FÍSICA DE ACUERDO AL TIPO DE RELACIÓN HUMANO-PERRO / DIFFERENCES IN PERCEIVED STRESS, MENTAL HEALTH, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH ACCORDING TO TYPES OF HUMAN-PET DOG RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA TERESA GONZÁLEZ RAMÍREZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to assess whether the levelsof perceived stress and health differed depending on typesof human-pet dog relationships, and to evaluate the correlationbetween perceived stress and health and the frequencywith which activities are carried out with the dogs. Self-reportquestionnaires were filled out by 247 volunteers owning atleast one dog. The results show lower levels of perceived stressand higher levels of mental health in those individuals whoconsider the dog a member of the family. Furthermore, significantcorrelations were found between dog-training activitiesand stress and mental health, between playing with the dogand vitality and mental health, and between walking the dogand vitality. The conclusion was that those individuals whoconsider their dogs as members of the family and carry outmore activities with them have better physical and mentalhealth, as well as lower levels of perceived stress.

  4. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  5. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  6. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  7. Impact of an undergraduate course on medical students’ self-perceived nutrition intake and self-efficacy to improve their health behaviours and counselling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Doctors are increasingly involved in the management of chronic disease and counsel patients about their lifestyle behaviours, including nutrition, to improve their health outcomes. AIM: This study aimed to assess the impact of a medical undergraduate course containing nutrition content on medical students’ self-perceived nutrition intake and self-efficacy to improve their health behaviours and counselling practices. METHODS: A total of 239 medical students enrolled in a 12-week nutrition-related course at The University of Auckland were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire before and after the course. The questionnaire was adapted from a previous evaluation of a preventive medicine and nutrition course at Harvard Medical School. RESULTS: Sixty-one medical students completed both pre- and post-course questionnaires (25.5%. At baseline, medical students described their eating habits to be more healthy than non-medical students (p=0.0261. Post-course, medical students reported a higher frequency of wholegrain food intake (p=0.0229. Medical students also reported being less comfortable making nutrition recommendations to family and friends post-course (p=0.008. Most medical students (63.9% perceived increased awareness of their own dietary choices, and some (15.3% reported an increased likelihood to counsel patients on lifestyle behaviour post-course. DISCUSSION: Students can increase awareness of their own nutrition behaviour after undertaking a course that includes nutrition in the initial phase of their medical degree. Further investigation of how medical students’ confidence to provide nutrition advice evolves throughout their training and in future practice is required.

  8. Measuring the impact of health problems among adults with limited mobility in Thailand: further validation of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manderson Lenore

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP was developed to provide a tool for measuring the impact of a health condition from the individual's perspective, using the ICF model as a framework. One of the aims of the ICF is to enable the comparison of data across countries, however, relatively little is known about the subjective experience of disability in middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP for use among adults with a disability in Thailand using Rasch analysis. Methods A total of 210 adults with mobility impairment from the urban, rural and remote areas of northeast Thailand completed the PIPP, which contains 23 items assessing both impact and distress across five key domains (Self-care, Mobility, Participation, Relationships, and Psychological Well-being. Rasch analysis, using RUMM2020, was conducted to assess the internal validity and psychometric properties of the PIPP Impact subscales. Validation of the PIPP Impact scales was conducted by comparing scores across the different response levels of the EQ5D items. Results Rasch analysis indicated that participants did not clearly differentiate between 'impact' and 'distress,' the two aspects assessed by the PIPP. Further analyses were therefore limited to the PIPP Impact subscales. These showed adequate psychometric properties, demonstrating fit to the Rasch model and good person separation reliability. Preliminary validity testing using the EQ5D items provided support for the PIPP Impact subscales. Conclusion The results provide further support for the psychometric properties of the PIPP Impact scales and indicate that it is a suitable tool for use among adults with a locomotor disability in Thailand. Further research is needed to validate the PIPP across different cultural contexts and health conditions and to assess the usefulness of separate Impact and Distress subscales.

  9. In absolute or relative terms? How framing prices affects the consumer price sensitivity of health plan choice

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Hendrik; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides field evidence on (a) how price framing affects consumers’ decision to switch health insurance plans and (b) how the price elasticity of demand for health insurance can be influenced by policymakers through simple regulatory efforts. In 2009, in order to foster competition among health insurance companies, German federal regulation required health insurance companies to express price differences between health plans in absolute Euro values rather than percentage point pa...

  10. Exploring the influence of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance on health systems in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P.; Cummings, R.; Roberts, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) respond to high-impact communicable diseases in resource-poor countries, including health systems support, and are major actors in global health. GHIs could play an important role in countries affected by armed conflict given these countries commonly have weak health systems and a high burden of communicable disease. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of two leading GHIs, the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance, on the health systems of...

  11. Building better research partnerships by understanding how Aboriginal health communities perceive and use data: a semistructured interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christian; Tong, Allison; Sherriff, Simone; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Muthayya, Sumithra; Craig, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals working in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) towards the access, usage and potential value of routinely obtained clinical and research data. Design, setting and participants Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 health professionals from 2 urban and 1 regional ACCHS in New South Wales. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results Six major themes were identified: occupational engagement (day-to-day relevance, contingent on professional capacity, emphasising clinical relevance), trust and assurance (protecting ownership, confidence in narratives, valuing local sources), motivation and empowerment (engaging the community, influencing morale, reassuring and encouraging clients), building research capacity (using cultural knowledge, promoting research aptitude, prioritising specific data), optimising service provision (necessity for sustainable services, guiding and improving services, supporting best practice), and enhancing usability (ensuring ease of comprehension, improving efficiency of data management, valuing accuracy and accessibility). Conclusions Participants were willing to learn data handling procedures that could further enhance health service delivery and enable more ACCHS-led research, but busy workloads restrict these opportunities. Staff held concerns regarding the translation of research data into beneficial services, and believed that the outcome and purpose of data collection could be communicated more clearly. Promoting research partnerships, ensuring greater awareness of positive health data and the purposes of data collection, and communicating data in a user-friendly format are likely to encourage greater data use, build research capacity and improve health services within the Aboriginal community. PMID:27113239

  12. Governance processes and change within organizational participants of multi-sectoral community health care alliances: the mediating role of vision, mission, strategy agreement and perceived alliance value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Multi-sectoral community health care alliances are organizations that bring together individuals and organizations from different industry sectors to work collaboratively on improving the health and health care in local communities. Long-term success and sustainability of alliances are dependent on their ability to galvanize participants to take action within their 'home' organizations and institutionalize the vision, goals, and programs within participating organizations and the broader community. The purpose of this study was to investigate two mechanisms by which alliance leadership and management processes may promote such changes within organizations participating in alliances. The findings of the study suggest that, despite modest levels of change undertaken by participating organizations, more positive perceptions of alliance leadership, decision making, and conflict management were associated with a greater likelihood of participating organizations making changes as a result of their participation in the alliance, in part by promoting greater vision, mission, and strategy agreement and higher levels of perceived value. Leadership processes had a stronger relationship with change within participating organizations than decision-making style and conflict management processes. Open-ended responses by participants indicated that participating organizations most often incorporated new measures or goals into their existing portfolio of strategic plans and activities in response to alliance participation.

  13. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M;

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  14. The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fallaize, R.; Macready, A.L.; Butler, L.T.; Ellis, J.A.; Berezowska, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Walsh, M.C.; Gallagher, C.; Stewart-Knox, B.J.; Kuznesof, S.; Frewer, L.J.; Gibney, M.J.; Lovegrove, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It

  15. When it is better to give than to receive : Long-term health effects of perceived reciprocity in support exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaananen, A; Buunk, BP; Kivimaki, M; Pentti, J; Vahtera, J; Väänänen, A.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Kivimäki, M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined esteem enhancement theory and equity theory in explaining the long-term health status of men (n = 178) and women (n = 575). Baseline characteristics were measured in 1990-1993, intimate reciprocity in 1993, and recorded sickness absences for a 9-year period during 1993-2001. Amo

  16. The role of personality variables and social support in distress and perceived health in patients following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, SS; Middel, B; Larsen, ML

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate whether patients with low versus high social support and satisfaction with support report less distress and health complaints following a first myocardial infarction (MI). (2) To examine whether personality traits mediate social support and its effect on distress and h

  17. Mental Health Practitioners' Perceived Levels of Preparedness, Levels of Confidence and Methods Used in the Assessment of Youth Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health practitioners working within school or community settings may at any time find themselves working with youth presenting with suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Although always well intended, practitioners are making significant clinical decisions that have high potential for influencing a range of outcomes, including very negative…

  18. Self-Control and Coping Skills as Factors in Pain Perception, Perceived Health and Psychological Adjustment in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    Self-control and self-efficacy have played a central role in recent behavioral medicine work on the control of chronic physical pain. Little work investigating the concepts of self-control and self-efficacy has been done with the elderly in spite of the fact that coping strategies in the elderly have been associated with a variety of health and…

  19. A Qualitative Study on How Health Professional Students and Their PBL Facilitators Perceive the Use of Mobile Devices during PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Bridges, Susan M.; Doherty, Iain; Ng, Manwa L.; Jin, Jun; Sharma, Neel; Chan, Nam Kiu; Lai, Henrietta Yan Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly being used by undergraduate students to access online information in the problem-based learning (PBL) process, initially in the self-directed phase, and more recently within face-to-face tutorials. This qualitative study across three undergraduate health professional programs used semi-structured interviews to…

  20. Negative attitudes and affect do not predict elective hysterectomy: A prospective analysis from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Weiss, Gerson E.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Sowers, MaryFran; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between hysterectomy and negative affect. Using prospective data, we examined the associations of negative affect, attitudes toward aging and menopause, premenstrual symptoms and vasomotor symptoms with elective hysterectomy in midlife. Methods Data were from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition (n=2,818). Annually reported hysterectomy at visits 2-9 was verified with medical records when available (71%). Anxiety, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, attitudes toward aging and menopause, vasomotor symptoms, and premenstrual symptoms were assessed at baseline using standardized questions. Cox proportional hazards models were used to relate these variables to subsequent elective hysterectomy. Covariates included demographic variables, menstrual bleeding problems, body mass index, hormone levels, and self-rated health, also assessed at baseline. Results Elective hysterectomy was reported by 6% of participants (n=168) over an 8-year period. Women with hysterectomy were not higher in negative affect or negative attitudes toward aging and menopause compared to women without hysterectomy. Vasomotor symptoms (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.01, p=.03) and positive attitudes toward aging and menopause (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04-2.93) at baseline predicted hysterectomy over the 8-year period, controlling for menstrual bleeding problems, site, race/ethnicity, follicle stimulating hormone, age, education, body mass index, and self-rated health. Menstrual bleeding problems at baseline were the strongest predictor of hysterectomy (HR 4.30, 95% CI 2.05-9.05). Conclusions In this prospective examination, negative affect and attitudes were not associated with subsequent hysterectomy. Menstrual bleeding problems were the major determinant of elective hysterectomy. PMID:21228728

  1. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  2. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  3. An Analysis of the Structural Factors Affecting the Public Participation in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaumi, Raheleh; Aminee, Tayebe; Aminaee, Akram; Dastoury, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on analyzing national and international Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) studies published from 2000 to 2012 in order to identify and categorize the possible factors that affect social participation for improving the public health. Clearly, improving the public health necessitates a combination of the participation and responsibility by the social members and the attempts by public health policy-makers and planners. CBPR studies are selected as the corpus since they seek to encourage active and informed participation of the social members in fulfilling the health related goals. The present study is conducted through meta-synthesis within a qualitative framework. The results revealed a set of factors within the structural capacities which were employed by the CBPR researchers for achieving the health promotion goals. The structural capacities employed in the interventions could be considered on the cultural and social grounds. The cultural grounds were divided into scientific and religious attempts. For the scientific attempts, the results highlighted the participation of higher education institutes including universities and research centers as well as educational institutes such as schools and the relevant institutions. And regarding the religious attempts, the results indicated that the cooptation of religious centers played the greatest role in enhancing the public participation. PMID:27045401

  4. An Analysis of the Structural Factors Affecting the Public Participation in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaumi, Raheleh; Aminee, Tayebe; Aminaee, Akram; Dastoury, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on analyzing national and international Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) studies published from 2000 to 2010 in order to identify and categorize the possible factors that affect social participation for improving the public health. Clearly, improving the public health necessitates a combination of the participation and responsibility by the social members and the attempts by public health policy-makers and planners. CBPR studies are selected as the corpus since they seek to encourage active and informed participation of the social members in fulfilling the health related goals. The present study is conducted through meta-synthesis within a qualitative framework. The results revealed a set of factors within the structural capacities which were employed by the CBPR researchers for achieving the health promotion goals. The structural capacities employed in the interventions could be considered on the cultural and social grounds. The cultural grounds were divided into scientific and religious attempts. For the scientific attempts, the results highlighted the participation of higher education institutes including universities and research centers as well as educational institutes such as schools and the relevant institutions. And regarding the religious attempts, the results indicated that the cooptation of religious centers played the greatest role in enhancing the public participation. PMID:27045401

  5. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief...

  6. How do patients with colorectal cancer perceive treatment and care compared with the treating health care professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Tanja Pagh; Willaing, Ingrid; Freil, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient evaluations are widely used in quality assessment of health services. It is widely recognized that patients and professionals provide a different perspective on quality. However, the extent to which they differ and the conceptual areas in which they differ is not well understo...... of care. Agreement was analyzed by kappa statistic, kappa, and McNemar's test. RESULTS: Comparing assessments of technical surgical care kappa statistic demonstrated moderate-to-almost perfect agreement (0.35....... OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine how well professional and patient assessments of hospital health care correspond. METHODS: We undertook a prospective study in which information from a national clinical register was combined with questionnaires to patients, surgeons, and nurses. The study included 527...

  7. How do patients with colorectal cancer perceive treatment and care compared with the treating health care professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Tanja Pagh; Willaing, Ingrid; Freil, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine how well professional and patient assessments of hospital health care correspond. METHODS: We undertook a prospective study in which information from a national clinical register was combined with questionnaires to patients, surgeons, and nurses. The study included 527...... of care. Agreement was analyzed by kappa statistic, kappa, and McNemar's test. RESULTS: Comparing assessments of technical surgical care kappa statistic demonstrated moderate-to-almost perfect agreement (0.35...

  8. Tinnitus referral pathways within the National Health Service in England: a survey of their perceived effectiveness among audiology staff

    OpenAIRE

    Collins Luke; Hoare Derek J; Gander Phillip E; Smith Sandra; Hall Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the UK, audiology services deliver the majority of tinnitus patient care, but not all patients experience the same level of service. In 2009, the Department of Health released a Good Practice Guide to inform commissioners about key aspects of a quality tinnitus service in order to promote equity of tinnitus patient care in UK primary care, audiology, and in specialist multi-disciplinary centres. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate utilisation and opinion...

  9. Health Care Preferences Among Nursing Home Residents: Perceived Barriers and Situational Dependencies to Person-Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Abbott, Katherine; Heid, Allison R; Klumpp, Rachel E; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    2016-02-01

    Although much research has examined end-of-life care preferences of nursing home (NH) residents, little work has examined resident preferences for everyday health care. The current study conducted interviews with 255 residents recruited from 35 NHs. Content analysis identified barriers (i.e., hindrances to the fulfillment of resident preferences) and situational dependencies (i.e., what would make residents change their mind about the importance of these preferences) associated with preferences for using mental health services, choosing a medical care provider, and choosing individuals involved in care discussions. Barriers and situational dependencies were embedded within the individual, facility environment, and social environment. Approximately one half of residents identified barriers to their preferences of choosing others involved in care and choosing a medical care provider. In contrast, the importance of mental health services was situationally dependent on needs of residents. Results highlight opportunities for improvement in practice and facility policies that promote person-centered care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 11-16.].

  10. How did international agencies perceive the avian influenza problem? The adoption and manufacture of the 'One World, One Health' framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ju

    2013-02-01

    Over the past few years, a 'One World, One Health' (OWOH) policy framework has become the guiding principle for international responses to avian influenza and other zoonotic infectious diseases. Several specialised inter-governmental agencies, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Agricultural Organization and World Organization for Animal Health, jointly endorsed and promoted this framework. This article attempts to explain why international agencies advocated OWOH despite its vagueness. By examining how these international agencies gradually reframed avian flu problems, this article illustrates the crucial roles of international agencies in constructing disease knowledge and relevant policy responses. It shows that the three agencies adopted an all-inclusive approach to reduce conflicts, defend their legitimacy, and facilitate commitment for collaboration. Not only has this new framework reduced tensions between agencies, it has also reshaped the interests and interactions of other global actors. The case thus illustrates how these organisational actors actively manufacture new cognitive frames and policy regimes that advance their own legitimacy and influence. PMID:23095003

  11. Do bonding and bridging social capital affect self-rated health, depressive mood and cognitive decline in older Japanese? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Matsuo, Eri; Nofuji, Yu; Shimizu, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding the longitudinal effects of bonding and bridging social capital on health. This study examined the longitudinal associations of bonding and bridging social capital with self-rated health, depressive mood, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese. Data analyzed in this study were from the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study. Bonding social capital was assessed by individual perception of homogeneity of the neighborhood (the level of homogeneity among neighbors) and of networks (the amount of homogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Bridging social capital was assessed by individual perception of heterogeneity of networks (the amount of heterogeneous personal networks) in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the effects of baseline social capital on poor health outcome at follow-up by logistic regression analysis. In total, 681 people completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The mean age of participants was 71.8 ± 5.1 years, and 57.9% were male. After adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidity, functional capacity, baseline score of each outcome, and other bonding/bridging social capital, stronger perceived neighborhood homogeneity was inversely associated with poor self-rated health (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.00) and depressive mood assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.99). When participants who reported a depressive mood at baseline were excluded, stronger perceived heterogeneous network was inversely associated with depressive mood (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.87). Neither bonding nor bridging social capital was significantly associated with cognitive decline assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, bonding and bridging social capital affect health in different ways, but they both have

  12. Critters in the cube farm: perceived psychological and organizational effects of pets in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M; Perrine, R

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study examining the perceived functions and psychological and organizational effects of pets in the workplace. Participants were 193 employees from 31 companies allowing pets in the workplace who completed anonymous questionnaires. Results indicated that participants perceived pets in the workplace to reduce stress and to positively affect employee health and the organization. Participants who brought their pets to work perceived greater benefits than participants who did not bring their pets to work and participants who did not own pets. PMID:11199259

  13. Possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the results of an investigation into the possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation. First the concept 'psychic health' is circumscribed. Subsequently the possible effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health are entered by outlining two cause-effect chains, in which various variables are distinguished. Thus the framework in which the remainder of the report has been written, is described (ch.2). Ch. 3 deals with the measurability of psychic health and of the various variables in two cause-effect chains. In ch. 4 the found empirical evidence of the effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health is described. This chapter is especially based upon study of literature. In ch. 5 interviews with users of various radiation sources are reported. In ch. 6 the question of standardization of ionizing radiation with regard to possible (psychic) damage is entered. It is looked if one can speak in terms of 'standards' in case of psychic damage. As far as standardization does not seem to be possible practical alternatives are presented with which eventual psychic damage from ionizing (radiation) sources may be limited. Finally in ch. 7 a comparison is made between the theoretical framework of the (possible) effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health and the measurability of the therein distinguishable variables on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the empirical materials obtained from the study of the literature and the interviews. (H.W.) 103 refs.; 8 figs

  14. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  15. Prevalence of perceived experiences of emotional, physical, sexual, and health care abuse in a Swedish male patient sample

    OpenAIRE

    Swahnberg, Katarina; Hearn, Jeffery; Wijma, Barbro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of and current suffering from emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), and sexual abuse (SA) and abuse in health care (AHC) among male Swedish patients and compare prevalences of abuse between female and male patients at a Swedish university hospital. For data collection we used the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire, which has been validated in a female sample and in the present study. The lifetime prevalences were EA = 12.8%, PA = 45.7%...

  16. On the Convergence of Affective and Persuasive Technologies in Computer- Mediated Health-Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca I. García-Betances

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a portrayal of how affective computing and persuasive technologies can converge into an effective tool for interfacing biomedical engineering with behavioral sciences and medicine. We describe the characteristics, features, applications, present state of the art, perspectives, and trends of both streams of research. In particular, these streams are analyzed in light of the potential contribution of their convergence for improving computer-mediated health-care systems, by facilitating the modification of patients’ attitudes and behaviors, such as engagement and compliance. We propose a framework for future research in this emerging area, highlighting how key constructs and intervening variables should be considered. Some specific implications and challenges posed by the convergence of these two technologies in health care, such as paradigm change, multimodality, patients’ attitude improvement, and cost reduction, are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  17. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population. PMID:27656936

  18. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  19. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  20. The mental health of male victims and their children affected by legal and administrative partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joshua L; Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-07-01

    The authors recently developed a psychometrically valid measure of legal and administrative (LA) intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization (Hines, Douglas, & Berger, 2014). The current article explores the impact of actual and threatened LA aggression on the mental health of male physical IPV victims and their children. In the current study, a sample of 611 men who sought help after experiencing physical IPV from their female partners completed a survey assessing the types and extent of IPV that occurred in their relationship, including LA aggression, their own mental health outcomes, and the mental health of their oldest child. A series of OLS regressions indicated that after controlling for covariates, actual LA aggression was associated with more symptoms of PTSD and depression in male victims, and that both threatened and actual LA aggression were associated with higher levels of affective and oppositional defiant symptoms in the men's school age children. The current findings suggest that it is important to screen couples for the presence of LA aggression and male partners and their children should be referred for mental health treatment if LA aggression is occurring in the relationship. Aggr. Behav. 42:346-361, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522849