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  1. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenti, AnnMarie E; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 microg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P<0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P<0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor beta was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P<0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P<0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  2. Female Gender and Reproductive Factors Affecting Risk, Relapses and Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; D'Hooghe, T.; De Keyser, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system, is a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Female predominance has increased over the last decades. Although female gender carries a higher risk of developing re

  3. Reproductive history and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon;

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....

  4. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm with white (12 groups or blue (13 groups cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 ± 0.45 cm and 3 females (10.78 ± 0.45 cm each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux, the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a latency to the first nest, b number of nests, c gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium, d nest area, and e mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction. The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13 in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions. Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 ± 343.50 g > white = 130.38 ± 102.70 g; P = 0.01 and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 ± 207.80 cm² > white = 97.68 ± 70.64 cm²; P = 0.03 than the control (white. The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  5. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi;

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  6. Reproduction and the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Pfleger, Claudia Christina;

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men.......The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men....

  7. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  8. Color Correction in Multiple Generation Reproduction Using Digital Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Fan; Shen-ge Wang; Hui Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In most existing color reproduction systems, color correction is performed in an open-looped fashion.For multiple generation color copying, color fidelity cannot be guaranteed as the errors introduced in color correction may accumulate. A method of solving the error accumulation problem by embedding color information as invisible digital watermark in hardcopies is proposed. When the hardcopy is scanned, the embedded information can be retrieved to provide real-time calibration. As the method is close-looped in nature, it may reduce error accumulation and improve color fidelity, particularly when copies go through multiple generation reproduction.

  9. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  10. Affect Intensity Estimation Using Multiple Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Amol; Knapp, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges in affect recognition is accurate estimation of the emotion intensity level. This research proposes development of an affect intensity estimation model based on a weighted sum of classification confidence levels, displacement of feature points and speed of feature point motion. The parameters of the model were calculated from data captured using multiple modalities such as face, body posture, hand movement and speech. A preliminary study was conducted to compare the accu...

  11. The influence of habitat fragmentation on multiple plant-animal interactions and plant reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Haddad, Nick M; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2015-10-01

    Despite broad recognition that habitat loss represents the greatest threat to the world's biodiyersity, a mechanistic understanding of how habitat loss and associated fragmentation affect ecological systems has proven remarkably challenging. The challenge stems from the multiple interdependent ways that landscapes change following fragmentation and the ensuing complex impacts on populations and communities of interacting species. We confronted these challenges by evaluating how fragmentation affects individual plants through interactions with animals, across five herbaceous species native to longleaf pine savannas. We created a replicated landscape experiment that provides controlled tests of three major fragmentation effects (patch isolation, patch shape [i.e., edge-to-area ratio], and distance to edge), established experimental founder populations of the five species to control for spatial distributions and densities of individual plants, and employed structural equation modeling to evaluate the effects of fragmentation on plant reproductive output and the degree to which these impacts are mediated through altered herbivory, pollination, or pre-dispersal seed predation. Across species, the most consistent response to fragmentation was a reduction in herbivory. Herbivory, however, had little impact.on plant reproductive output, and thus we found little evidence for any resulting benefit to plants in fragments. In contrast, fragmentation rarely impacted pollination or pre-dispersal seed predation, but both of these interactions had strong and consistent impacts on plant reproductive output. As a result, our models robustly predicted plant reproductive output (r2 = 0.52-0.70), yet due to the weak effects of fragmentation on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation, coupled with the weak effect of herbivory on plant reproduction, the effects of fragmentation on reproductive output were generally small in magnitude and inconsistent. This work provides mechanistic

  12. The influence of habitat fragmentation on multiple plant-animal interactions and plant reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Haddad, Nick M; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2015-10-01

    Despite broad recognition that habitat loss represents the greatest threat to the world's biodiyersity, a mechanistic understanding of how habitat loss and associated fragmentation affect ecological systems has proven remarkably challenging. The challenge stems from the multiple interdependent ways that landscapes change following fragmentation and the ensuing complex impacts on populations and communities of interacting species. We confronted these challenges by evaluating how fragmentation affects individual plants through interactions with animals, across five herbaceous species native to longleaf pine savannas. We created a replicated landscape experiment that provides controlled tests of three major fragmentation effects (patch isolation, patch shape [i.e., edge-to-area ratio], and distance to edge), established experimental founder populations of the five species to control for spatial distributions and densities of individual plants, and employed structural equation modeling to evaluate the effects of fragmentation on plant reproductive output and the degree to which these impacts are mediated through altered herbivory, pollination, or pre-dispersal seed predation. Across species, the most consistent response to fragmentation was a reduction in herbivory. Herbivory, however, had little impact.on plant reproductive output, and thus we found little evidence for any resulting benefit to plants in fragments. In contrast, fragmentation rarely impacted pollination or pre-dispersal seed predation, but both of these interactions had strong and consistent impacts on plant reproductive output. As a result, our models robustly predicted plant reproductive output (r2 = 0.52-0.70), yet due to the weak effects of fragmentation on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation, coupled with the weak effect of herbivory on plant reproduction, the effects of fragmentation on reproductive output were generally small in magnitude and inconsistent. This work provides mechanistic

  13. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  14. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  15. Pesticide soil contamination mainly affects earthworm male reproductive parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EduardoBustos-Obregon; RogerIzigaGoicochea

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To explore the effect of exposure to commercial Parathion(Pc)on the reproductive parameters(sperm and cocoon production and genotoxicity on male germ cells),the survival,the body weight and the gross anatomical changes in Eisenia foetida.Methods:Three doses of Pc(1478,739and 444mg/kg of soil)and three thme intervals of exposure(5,15and30days)were used.Results:Alltreated amimals were affected.An acute genotoxic effect,revealed by DNAfragmentation(comet assay),was seen by 5days,Alterations in reproductive parameters were conspicuous in regard to the number of sperm,cocoons and worms born,and the histological observation of the gonads and seminal receptacles.In addition,the body weight and survival rate were decreased,Neuromuscular function was also affected.Conclusion:Earthworms are suitable bioindicators of chemical contamination of the soil,their advantage being their easy and economical handling.

  16. Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; Thomson, James D; Conti, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating reproductive mechanisms. We quantify multiple reproductive barriers between the heterostylous Primula elatior (oxlip) and P. vulgaris (primrose), which readily hybridize when co-occurring, and test whether traits of heterostyly contribute to reproductive barriers in unique ways. We find that premating isolation is key for both species, while postmating isolation is considerable only for P. vulgaris; ecogeographic isolation is crucial for both species, while phenological, seed developmental, and hybrid sterility barriers are also important in P. vulgaris, implicating sympatrically higher gene flow into P. elatior. We document for the first time that, in addition to the aforementioned species-dependent asymmetries, morph-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species. Indeed, the interspecific decrease of reciprocity between high sexual organs of complementary floral morphs limits interspecific pollen transfer from anthers of short-styled flowers to stigmas of long-styled flowers, while higher reciprocity between low sexual organs favors introgression over isolation from anthers of long-styled flowers to stigmas of short-styled flowers. Finally, intramorph incompatibility persists across species boundaries, but is weakened in long-styled flowers of P. elatior, opening a possible backdoor to gene flow through intramorph pollen transfer between species. Therefore

  17. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  18. Endocannabinoids affect the reproductive functions in teleosts and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, E; Guastalla, A; Mackie, K; Franzoni, M F

    2008-04-16

    Following the discovery in the brain of the bonyfish Fugu rubripes of two genes encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1A and CB1B), investigations on the phylogeny of these receptors have indicated that the cannabinergic system is highly conserved. Among the multiple functions modulated by cannabinoids/endocannabinoids through the CB1 receptors one of the more investigated is the mammalian reproduction. Therefore, since studies performed in animal models other than mammals might provide further insight into the biology of these signalling molecules, the major aim of the present paper was to review the comparative data pointing toward the endocannabinoid involvement in the reproductive control of non-mammalian vertebrates, namely bonyfish and amphibians. The expression and distribution of CB1 receptors were investigated in the CNS and gonads of two teleosts, Pelvicachromis pulcher and Carassius auratus as well as in the anuran amphibians Xenopus laevis and Rana esculenta. In general the large diffusion of neurons targeted by cannabinoids in both fish and amphibian forebrain indicate endocannabinoids as pivotal local messengers in several neural circuits involved in either sensory integrative activities, like the olfactory processes (in amphibians) and food response (in bonyfish), or neuroendocrine machinery (in both). By using immunohistochemistry for CB1 and GnRH-I, the codistribution of the two signalling molecules was found in the fish basal telencephalon and preoptic area, which are key centers for gonadotropic regulation in all vertebrates. A similar topographical codistribution was observed also in the septum of the telencephalon in Rana esculenta and Xenopus laevis. Interestingly, the double standard immunofluorescence on the same brain section, aided with a laser confocal microscope, showed that in anurans a subset of GnRH-I neurons exhibited also the CB1 immunostaining. The fact that CB1-LI-IR was found indeed in the FSH gonadotrophs of the Xenopus

  19. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting territorial and reproductive behaviour of dragonflies (Odonata)

    OpenAIRE

    KYBICOVÁ, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Habitat selection, territorial behaviour and reproductive behaviour of dragonflies (Odonata) are discussed and biotic and abiotic factors affecting their territorial and reproductive behaviour are reviewed. The most important biotic factors are predation risk affecting larval survival and the presence of aquatic vegetation, which provides spatial structure. The review is complemented by a field study of territorial and reproductive behavior of dragonflies at an experimental site, at which the...

  20. Social Context and Reproductive Potential Affect Worker Reproductive Decisions in a Eusocial Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be in...

  1. Multiple reproductive strategies in a tropical hover wasp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2005-01-01

    occurs in some of the nests. Present reproductive skew theory appears to be at best partly sufficient to account for the observed complexity of social organisation. The observed patterns of colony composition and reproductive sharing are weakly consistent with the hypothesis of reproductive transactions......Reproductive skew theory has been an important component of efforts to design a unifying theory of social evolution, as it aims to explain patterns of reproductive partitioning in animal societies as a function of relatedness, group productivity, fighting ability and ecological constraints on...... sample of colonies of the Stenogastrine wasp Parischnogaster mellyi with a powerful set of DNA microsatellite markers. We show that various apparently stable forms of social organisation co-exist in a single population, and that sharing of reproduction between related and unrelated egg-laying females...

  2. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation. Versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the efficient steroid-separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM) and the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol in 1- to 2-ml samples of both blood serum and amniotic fluid as well as in 300- to 600-mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyser, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and has decreased the experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (author)

  3. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  4. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  5. [Affective and psychotic disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es la segunda causa mas importante de discapacidad de origen neurologico en los adultos jovenes. Tanto la sintomatologia fisica como la psiquiatrica (trastornos afectivos y psicoticos) impactan de manera negativa en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico la prevalencia y la patogenia de los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos presentes en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado la prevalencia y la patogenia de la sintomatologia afectiva y psicotica en los pacientes con EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos con la EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento. Conclusiones. La depresion es el trastorno psiquiatrico mas frecuente en la EM. Es necesaria mas investigacion para elucidar los mecanismos subyacentes que pueden provocar sintomas afectivos y psicoticos en la EM. El control de dichos sintomas en los pacientes de EM podria mejorar su calidad de vida relacionada con la salud.

  6. Implant Size Availability Affects Reproduction of Distal Femoral Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William Z; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Goldberg, Victor M; Wera, Glenn D

    2016-07-01

    A total knee arthroplasty system offers more distal femoral implant anterior-posterior (AP) sizes than its predecessor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of increased size availability on an implant system's ability to reproduce the AP dimension of the native distal femur. We measured 200 cadaveric femora with the AP-sizing guides of Zimmer (Warsaw, IN) NexGen (8 sizes) and Zimmer Persona (12 sizes) total knee arthroplasty systems. We defined "size deviation" as the difference in the AP dimension between the anatomic size of the native femur and the closest implant size. We defined satisfactory reproduction of distal femoral dimensions as Persona (p Persona. Only 1/200 specimens (0.5%) was a poor fit by Persona, but a satisfactory fit by NexGen (p < 0.001). The novel knee system with 12 versus 8 sizes reproduces the AP dimension of the native distal femur more closely than its predecessor. Further study is needed to determine the clinical impact of these differences.

  7. Congenital hypothyroidism after assisted reproductive technology in Japan: comparison between multiples and singletons, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki Syuichi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between congenital hypothyroidism (CH and multiple pregnancy has not been fully studied in Japan. Methods Complete nationwide data of assisted reproductive technology (ART in Japan from 2005 to 2009 presented by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which include information on CH and birth defects were used for analyses. Diseases were reclassified according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10, 2003 version. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the incidence rate for CH was calculated with singletons as the reference group. Additional birth defects with CH were examined. The probandwise concordance rate of multiples and recurrence risk ratio were calculated. Results There were 18 patients with CH, consisting of 12 singletons and 6 multiples. The incidence rates of CH per 1,000 live births in singletons and multiples are 0.14 (=12/87,145 and 0.31 (=6/19,533, respectively. The incidence rate was more than twofold higher in multiple births than in singleton births, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR=2.2, 95% CI 0.8–5.9. Additional birth defects were present in three patients with CH (17%=3/18. The multiples were affected by other birth defects more frequently (33%=2/6 than the singletons (8%=1/12. The six multiple-births patients were derived from one concordant twin pair, which consisted of two twin patients; three discordant twin pairs, which consisted of three twin patients; and one discordant triplets set, which consisted of one triplet patient. Thus, the probandwise concordance rate was 33.3% (=2/(2+4. The estimated recurrence risk ratio was 1976 (for the total ART population or 609 (for the Japanese general population. Conclusions CH was more frequent in multiples compared to singletons. A higher percentage of additional birth defects was also observed in multiples compared to singletons. The familial aggregation of CH

  8. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cafazzo

    Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.

  9. Oceanographic and climatic factors differentially affect reproduction performance of Antarctic skuas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Reinhardt, K.; Ritz, M.S.; Janicke, T.; Montalti, D.; Peter, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    We studied how environmental conditions affect reproduction in sympatric skua species that differ in their reliance on marine resources: the exclusively marine foraging south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki, the terrestrially foraging brown skua C. antarctica lonnbergi and mixed species pairs with

  10. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local

  11. Effect of Multiple Intelligence Theory Applied for Reproduction Systems on Student Academic Success

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Murat; Aysel TEMELLİ

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of biology teaching based on multiple intelligence theory, on academic success of students. Study group was selected from 10th grade science students of Erzurum Boydak Anadolu Lisesi in the 2008-2009 academic years. One group of students receiving classical teaching was chosen as control, while a second group receiving multiple intelligence theory based teaching was chosen as experiment group. Reproduction System Success Test was used to determine...

  12. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  13. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  14. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF FOGERA CATTLE AT METEKEL CATTLE BREEDING AND MULTIPLICATION RANCH, NORTH WEST RTHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MENALE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive performance and to asses non-genetic factors affecting the reproductive performance of Fogera cattle breed kept at Metekel ranch. For this purpose data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the ranch were used. The data were analyzed using the general linear model procedures of statistical analysis system. The effect of mating system, parity of dam, year of birth and calving, season of birth and calving, sex of calf, and sire breed were considered as fixed effects for evaluating different reproductive parameters. The overall least square means for number of services per conception (NSP, age at first calving (AFC, calving interval (CI, gestation length (GL and days open (DO were 1.28±0.06 and 50.8±0.36 months, 587±5.44, 282±0.26 and 285±4.3 days, respectively. The number of services per conception was significantly (P0.05. Days open was significantly (P<0.01 affected by year of birth. From the present study, it can be concluded that the non-genetic factors had exerted significant effects on the reproductive performance of Fogera Cattle breed kept at ranch. Thus, to improve reproductive performance of the Fogera cattle breed, great effort should be made towards mitigating negative impacts of those non-genetic factors.

  15. Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid spider population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M M; Paliulis, L V; Welch, K D; Harwood, J D; White, J A

    2015-08-01

    In many arthropods, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria can increase infection frequency by manipulating host reproduction. Multiple infections of different bacteria in a single host population are common, yet few studies have documented concurrent endosymbiont phenotypes or explored their potential interactions. We hypothesized that spiders might be a particularly useful taxon for investigating endosymbiont interactions, because they are host to a plethora of endosymbiotic bacteria and frequently exhibit multiple infections. We established two matrilines from the same population of the linyphiid spider Mermessus fradeorum and then used antibiotic curing and controlled mating assays to demonstrate that each matriline was subject to a distinct endosymbiotic reproductive manipulation. One matriline was co-infected with Rickettsia and Wolbachia and produced offspring with a radical female bias. Antibiotic treatment eliminated both endosymbionts and restored an even sex ratio to subsequent generations. Chromosomal and fecundity observations suggest a feminization mechanism. In the other matriline, a separate factorial mating assay of cured and infected spiders demonstrated strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by a different strain of Wolbachia. However, males with this Wolbachia induced only mild CI when mated with the Rickettsia-Wolbachia females. In a subsequent survey of a field population of M. fradeorum, we detected these same three endosymbionts infecting 55% of the spiders in almost all possible combinations, with nearly half of the infected spiders exhibiting multiple infection. Our results suggest that a dynamic network of endosymbionts may interact both within multiply infected hosts and within a population subject to multiple strong reproductive manipulations. PMID:25899011

  16. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  17. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  18. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Alexandre L., E-mail: aljordao@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA), Macapa, AP (Brazil); Nakano, Octavio, E-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Janeiro, Vanderly, E-mail: vjaneiro@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  19. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  20. Caterpillar biomass depends on temperature and precipitation, but does not affect bird reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Eva Maria; Ohm, Judith; Hoffmann, Konstantin Frank; Hille, Sabine Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes in phenological events appear as temperatures are increasing: In deciduous forests bud burst, hatching of herbivorous caterpillars, egg laying and nestling time of birds when feeding chicks on caterpillars, may differentially shift into early season and alter synchronization. If timing of bird reproduction has to match with short periods of food availability, phenological mismatch could negatively affect reproductive success. Using a unique empirical approach along an altitudinal temperature gradient, we firstly asked whether besides temperature, also precipitation and leaf phenology interplay and affect caterpillar biomass, since impacts of rainfall on caterpillars have been largely neglected so far. Secondly, we asked whether abundance of caterpillars and thereby body mass of great tit nestlings, which are mainly fed with caterpillars, vary along the altitudinal temperature gradient. We demonstrated that next to temperature also precipitation and leaf phenology affected caterpillar biomass. In our beech forest, even along altitudes, caterpillars were available throughout the great tit breeding season but in highly variable amounts. Our findings revealed that although timing of leaf phenology and great tit breeding season were delayed with decreasing temperature, caterpillars occurred synchronously and were not delayed according to altitude. However, altitude negatively affected caterpillar biomass, but body mass of fledglings at high altitude sites was not affected by lower amounts of caterpillar biomass. This might be partially outweighed by larger territory sizes in great tits.

  1. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  2. Catamenial pneumothorax associated with multiple diaphragmatic perforations and pneumoperitoneum in a reproductive woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoquan, Lin; Liangjian, Zou; Qiang, Wang; Hai, Jin; Hezhong, Chen; Zhiyun, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is considered to be an extremely rare entity, characterized by recurrent pneumothorax occurring between the day before and within 72 hours after the onset of menses, usually in the right-side thorax cavity in women of reproductive age.The etiology remains obscure. We report a rare case of CP complicated with multiple diaphragmatic perforations as the only thoracoscopy finding, and also with right-side isolated pneumoperitoneum confirmed by a chest X-ray. This case strongly supports the hypothesis that CP may be caused by the air through the perforations of the diaphragm.

  3. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  4. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates.

  5. Naloxone affects reproductive system in a rat model with polycystic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Karami

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Aspect of rat reproductive system may be linked with the cystic characteristic of ovary. This study involves opioid receptors in the naloxone efficacy on reproductive agents of rat with polycystic aspect.

  6. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  7. MAX2 Affects Multiple Hormones to Promote Photornorphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Shen; Ling Zhu; Qing-Yun Bu; Enamul Huq

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to play central roles in light and hormone-regulated plant growth and development.Previously,we have shown that MAX2,an F-box protein,positively regulates facets of photomorphogenic development in response to light.However,how MAX2 controls these responses is still unknown.Here,we show that MAX2 oppositely regulates GA and ABA biosynthesis to optimize seed germination in response to light.Dose-response curves showed that max2 seeds are hyposensitive to GA and hypersensitive to ABA in seed germination responses.RT-PCR assays demonstrated that the expression of GA biosynthetic genes is down-regulated,while the expression of GA catabolic genes is up-regulated in the max2 seeds compared to wild-type.Interestingly,expression of both ABA biosynthetic and catabolic genes is up-regulated in the max2 seeds compared to wild-type.Treatment with an auxin transport inhibitor,NPA,showed that increased auxin transport in max2 seedlings contributes to the long hypocotyl phenotype under light.Moreover,light-signaling phenotypes are restricted to max2,as the biosynthetic mutants in the strigolactone pathway,max1,max3,and max4,did not display any defects in seed germination and seedling de-etiolation compared to wild-type.Taken together,these data suggest that MAX2 modulates multiple hormone pathways to affect photomorphogenesis.

  8. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  9. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  10. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patel; Bayard Roberts; Samantha Guy; Louise Lee-Jones; Lesong Conteh

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Reproductive health concerns the bodily functions and systems that are involved in conceiving and bearing offspring. A reproductively healthy person is able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and to reproduce if and when they chose to do so. More specifically, to ensure their reproductive health, both men and women need access to safe and effective birth control methods, they need to know how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AI...

  11. Local anthropogenic contamination affects the fecundity and reproductive success of an Arctic amphipod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lis; Fischer, Astrid; Strand, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    to clean site individuals. These results indicated a cost of living in highly contaminated environments in terms of reduced reproductive success. This study confirms the potential of the benthic amphipod O. pinguis as a bioindicator for assessments of reproductive effects of contaminants in the Arctic...

  12. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  13. Trade-off between migration and reproduction : does a high workload affect body condition and reproductive state?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A.; Visser, G. Henk; Biebach, Brigitte; Delhey, Kaspar; Oltrogge, Martina; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Biebach, Herbert; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Migratory birds have to invest much energy into flight to reach their summer and winter quarters. Many studies have shown how migration affects body physiology, including the accumulation of energy stores and the reduction of nonessential organs. In spring, the costs of migration may trade-off with

  14. Serological profile of offspring on an intensive pig farm affected byPorcine reproductive andrespiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SilvaJ; RochaD; CunhaI; RuiSalesL; NetoF; FontesMC; Simes J

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate/predict the offspring serum profile of antibodies against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in an affected intensive herd, whereas sows are vaccinated, and determine the better sample time using pigs as sentinels. Methods:Serum samples were collected from a total of 66 offspring pigs from a PRRSV endemic herd, whereas only sows were vaccinated. Six animals per grouped age were randomly selected with 0 (at perinatal time), 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of age. Individual and three pooled samples were tested by ELISA and PCR, respectively.Results: The proportion of seropositive animals was 75.0% (18/24), 33.3% (6/18) and 95.8% (23/24) at farrowing (0 to 3 weeks), nursery (6 to 12 weeks) and growing/finishing (15 to 24 weeks) phases, respectively. It was 46 times more likely (P<0.01) to observe seropositive pigs on the growing/finishing than on nursery phase. European PRSSV strain was detected on serum of 6, 9 and 15-weeks old pigs. Polynomial fit degree 4 regression between sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios and age of pigs(r=0.78; R2= 0.60;P<0.001) estimated a quickly decrease of maternal antibodies, above 0.4 S/P value (cut off), until the 6th week following by a progressive increment of humoral immunity until 21st week of age, when it declines.Conclusions:The results indicate that the piglets can present viremia early at nursery, and the 18th – 21st weeks are the best time to sample offspring pigs, as sentinel, from PRRSV contaminated intensive herds.

  15. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  16. ANDROGENS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS AFFECT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: In mammals, exposure to androgens early in development is essential for masculinization of the male reproductive phenotype. Male fetuses exposed to antiandrogens during perinatal life are permanently demasculinized in their morphology and physiology, whereas exposure to...

  17. A piece of the puzzle: a method for comparing pollination quality and quantity across multiple species and reproductive events

    OpenAIRE

    ALONSO, CONCHITA; Herrera, Carlos M.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    • Understanding how pollination affects plant reproductive success and how changes in pollination service affect plant populations, communities and ecosystems is of increasing concern. Yet supplemental hand-pollination traditionally used to assess pollen limitation is prohibitive for large-scale comparative work. Moreover, it does not differentiate between quality and quantity aspects of pollen limitation, and it may suffer from confounds of post- pollination processes such as resource avai...

  18. Perceived risk of predation affects reproductive life-history traits in Gambusia holbrooki, but not in Heterandria formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomen Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less documented, and appreciated, is the potential for predator presence to directly suppress prey reproduction and affect life-history characteristics. For the first time, we tested the effects of visual predator cues on reproduction of two prey species with different reproductive modes, lecithotrophy (i.e. embryonic development primarily fueled by yolk and matrotrophy (i.e. energy for embryonic development directly supplied by the mother to the embryo through a vascular connection. Predation risk suppressed reproduction in the lecithotrophic prey (Gambusia holbrokii but not the matrotroph (Heterandria formosa. Predator stress caused G. holbrooki to reduce clutch size by 43%, and to produce larger and heavier offspring compared to control females. H. formosa, however, did not show any such difference. In G. holbrooki we also found a significantly high percentage (14% of stillbirths in predator-exposed treatments compared to controls (2%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct empirical evidence of predation stress affecting stillbirths in prey. Our results suggest that matrotrophy, superfetation (clutch overlap, or both decrease the sensitivity of mothers to environmental fluctuation in resource (food and stress (predation risk levels compared to lecithotrophy. These mechanisms should be considered both when modeling consequences of perceived risk of predation on prey-predator population dynamics and when seeking to understand the evolution of reproductive modes.

  19. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  20. All eggs are not equal: the maternal environment affects progeny reproduction and developmental fate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Harvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal effects on progeny traits are common and these can profoundly alter progeny life history. Maternal effects can be adaptive, representing attempts to appropriately match offspring phenotype to the expected environment and are often mediated via trade-offs between progeny number and quality. Here we have investigated the effect of maternal food availability on progeny life history in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The maternal environment affects both reproductive traits and progeny development. Comparisons of the progeny of worms from high and low maternal food environments indicates that low maternal food availability reduces progeny reproduction in good environments, increases progeny reproduction in poor environments and decreases the likelihood that progeny will develop as dauer larvae. These analyses also indicate that the effects on progeny are not a simple consequence of changes in maternal body size, but are associated with an increase in the size of eggs produced by worms at low maternal food availabilities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the maternal environment affects both progeny reproduction and development in C. elegans and therefore that all progeny are not equal. The observed effects are consistent with changes to egg provisioning, which are beneficial in harsh environments, and of changes to progeny development, which are beneficial in harsh environments and detrimental in benign environments. These changes in progeny life history suggest that mothers in poor quality environments may be producing larger eggs that are better suited to poor conditions.

  1. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male...... reproductive skew with decreasing size variation among males under natural conditions. (c) 2006 The Author Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  2. Study of factors affecting contraceptive use among married women of reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of contraception can prevent pregnancies related complication and helps in improving the women’s health and quality of their lives. Objective To explore reproductive characteristics among married women of reproductive age. To find out method of contraceptive use and side effects among married women of reproductive age. To uncover factors related to contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age. Methods This cross-sectional was carried out among (369 married couples of reproductive age group in ward number 5, 6 and 7 of Dhulikhel Municipality using purposive sampling. Those who fell in between the age group of (14-49 years and willing to participate were included and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain informations. Results Among 369(81.3% of the respondents of reproductive age were using a modern contraceptive method. Regarding education 331(89.5% of women’s and 352(95.1% of husbands were literate and 275(91.6% of women were found to be involved in decision making and had good inter-spousal communication that is 280(93.3%. Among the temporary method of family planning, Depo-Provera was the choice 150(54.5% of contraceptive method. Conclusion The present study put more emphasis on increase in women’s literacy, women’s involvement in decision making and inter-spousal communication which helps to promote the effective use of contraceptive methods. As women play an important role in the decision making, women should be included in all aspects of reproductive health and family planning programs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 24-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10233

  3. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam;

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance...... to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from...... the estimated effect: creating stop gain/loss, affecting splice site or RNA structure (RNAsnp), predicted disruptiveness (SIFT), occurring in miRNA or miRNA target site, or in UTR or ncSNP overlapping with a GERP element. Their effects on mastitis traits were estimated in new validation samples from Finnish...

  4. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  5. Virion packaging of multiple cleavage isoforms of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a complex disease often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic isolates have emerged which have proven to be devastatingly effective pathogens, resulting in rapid systemic deterioration...

  6. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  7. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Sonja V.; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J.; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues

  8. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  9. Multiple Breed Validation of Five QTL Affecting Mastitis Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam;

    Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance to...... mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from the...... functional studies of promising candidates. The information can also be used for prior weighting of genomic segments in genomic selection...

  10. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  11. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. PMID:23621367

  12. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  13. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P;

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol...... and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake...

  14. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health ( SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people living near the border, aged 15 to 49 years. To gather information, we utilised: (i) a standardised questionnaire (n = 86; 42 men and 44 women) previously used in national household surveys conducted by t...

  15. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp period that give a higher probability of cows achieving their reproductive targets and of having a first-AI pregnancy. PMID:24679929

  16. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas.

  17. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people livin......-sectorial efforts spanning the health, social, legal and private sectors addressing gender imbalances and poverty alleviation are imperative for reducing poverty-driven unsafe transactional sex....

  18. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of variation in hosts' responses to infection and the resulting impacts on parasite

  19. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  20. Factors Affecting Parent-Adolescent Discussion on Reproductive Health Issues in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.

  1. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  2. 76 FR 66006 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Affect Multiple Body Systems AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Regulations, Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer Building, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore..., Social Security Administration, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21235-6401, (410)...

  3. Food, reproductive success and multiple breeding in the Great Tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Verhulst, S.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the reproductive success of facultatively double brooded Great Tits Parus major in relation to (seasonal) variation in abundance of their main food supply: caterpillars in Oak Quercus robur. Data were collected in two mixed woods (Vlieland and Hoge Veluwe, from 1985-1996). The caterpillar

  4. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  5. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis. PMID:26909934

  6. Comparative analyses of reproductive structures in harvestmen (opiliones reveal multiple transitions from courtship to precopulatory antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes M Burns

    Full Text Available Explaining the rapid, species-specific diversification of reproductive structures and behaviors is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology, with recent research tending to attribute reproductive phenotypes to the evolutionary mechanisms of female mate choice or intersexual conflict. Progress in understanding these and other possible mechanisms depends, in part, on reconstructing the direction, frequency and relative timing of phenotypic evolution of male and female structures in species-rich clades. Here we examine evolution of reproductive structures in the leiobunine harvestmen or "daddy long-legs" of eastern North America, a monophyletic group that includes species in which males court females using nuptial gifts and other species that are equipped for apparent precopulatory antagonism (i.e., males with long, hardened penes and females with sclerotized pregenital barriers. We used parsimony- and Bayesian likelihood-based analyses to reconstruct character evolution in categorical reproductive traits and found that losses of ancestral gift-bearing penile sacs are strongly associated with gains of female pregenital barriers. In most cases, both events occur on the same internal branch of the phylogeny. These coevolutionary changes occurred at least four times, resulting in clade-specific designs in the penis and pregenital barrier. The discovery of convergent origins and/or enhancements of apparent precopulatory antagonism among closely related species offers an unusual opportunity to investigate how major changes in reproductive morphology have occurred. We propose new hypotheses that attribute these enhancements to changes in ecology or life history that reduce the duration of breeding seasons, an association that is consistent with female choice, sexual conflict, and/or an alternative evolutionary mechanism.

  7. Comparative analyses of reproductive structures in harvestmen (opiliones) reveal multiple transitions from courtship to precopulatory antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mercedes M; Hedin, Marshal; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the rapid, species-specific diversification of reproductive structures and behaviors is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology, with recent research tending to attribute reproductive phenotypes to the evolutionary mechanisms of female mate choice or intersexual conflict. Progress in understanding these and other possible mechanisms depends, in part, on reconstructing the direction, frequency and relative timing of phenotypic evolution of male and female structures in species-rich clades. Here we examine evolution of reproductive structures in the leiobunine harvestmen or "daddy long-legs" of eastern North America, a monophyletic group that includes species in which males court females using nuptial gifts and other species that are equipped for apparent precopulatory antagonism (i.e., males with long, hardened penes and females with sclerotized pregenital barriers). We used parsimony- and Bayesian likelihood-based analyses to reconstruct character evolution in categorical reproductive traits and found that losses of ancestral gift-bearing penile sacs are strongly associated with gains of female pregenital barriers. In most cases, both events occur on the same internal branch of the phylogeny. These coevolutionary changes occurred at least four times, resulting in clade-specific designs in the penis and pregenital barrier. The discovery of convergent origins and/or enhancements of apparent precopulatory antagonism among closely related species offers an unusual opportunity to investigate how major changes in reproductive morphology have occurred. We propose new hypotheses that attribute these enhancements to changes in ecology or life history that reduce the duration of breeding seasons, an association that is consistent with female choice, sexual conflict, and/or an alternative evolutionary mechanism. PMID:23762497

  8. Methuselah-like genes affect development, stress resistance, lifespan and reproduction in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Zhang, Yi; Yun, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanyun; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Methuselah (Mth) is associated with lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster, but Mth is not present in nondrosophiline insects. A number of methuselah-likes (mthls) have been identified in nondrosophiline insects, but it is unknown whether the functions of mth are shared by mthls or are divergent from them. Five mthls have been identified in Tribolium castaneum. Although they have different developmental expression patterns, they all enhance resistance to starvation. Only mthl1 and mthl2 enhance resistance to high temperature, whereas mthl4 and mthl5 negatively regulate oxidative stress in T. castaneum. Unlike in the fly with mth mutation, knockdown of mthls, except mthl3, shortens the lifespan of T. castaneum. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 are critical for Tribolium development. mthl1 plays important roles in larval and pupal development and adult eclosion, while mthl2 is required for eclosion. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 silencing reduces the fertility of T. castaneum, and mthl1 and mthl4 are also essential for embryo development. In conclusion, mthls have a significant effect on insect development, lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction. These results provide experimental evidence for functional divergence among mthls/mth and clues for the signal transduction of Mthls.

  9. Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Azawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3% of cases. Twenty two (5.4% were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405 were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%, ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4% and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%. Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

  10. Retrospective surveillance of metabolic parameters affecting reproductive performance of Japanese Black breeding cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Urara; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Okamoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to confirm the relationship between pre- and postpartum metabolic parameters and postpartum reproductive performance and to clarify seasonal characteristics of the metabolic parameters by using our metabolic profile test (MPT) database of Japanese Black breeding herds. In evaluation 1, MPT databases of blood samples from multiparous cows collected prepartum and postpartum were divided into two groups according to calving interval, and each MPT parameter was compared. In evaluation 2, the same MPT databases used in evaluation 1 were divided into two groups according to the sampling period. Significant differences were found in the prepartal total protein and postpartal γ-glutamyltransferase in evaluation 1. In evaluation 2, significant differences were found in the prepartal and postpartal total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and glucose. Clear seasonal differences in MPT results emphasized the usefulness of the MPT in breeding cattle herds fed home-pasture roughage and suggest that unsatisfactory reproductive performance during hot periods reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet and possible reduced feed intake due to heat stress. PMID:24675835

  11. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  12. Multiple insights into the reproductive function of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena: An ongoing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Desportes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoises kept at the Fjord & Bælt since April 1997 offer a unique opportunity to gain a better understanding of the reproductive function in harbour porpoises, especially in terms of physiological cycle and concomitant behavioural traits. A study was initiated in 1997 with the following aims: 1 characterising the annual reproductive cycle in terms of behaviour and endocrine activity; 2 finding the most suitable techniques for a longitudinal investigation of the reproductive function, in particular with respect of the small size of the species; 3 ensuring a precise monitoring of the reproductive state of the Fjord & Bælt porpoises; 4 evaluating the best techniques for a vertical assessment of the reproductive state in wild harbour porpoises; 5 providing comparative basis for toxicological studies.Three harbour porpoises have participated in the study: a male and a female estimated 1-2 years old at their arrival at the Centre in 1997, and a one-year old female. The different methods for investigating their reproductive function include techniques not previously used with harbour porpoises, such as behavioural observation, measurement of sexual hormones in blood and other matrices, vaginal cytology, body temperature, and ultrasound scanning of testes and ovaries. These methods are discussed in terms of practicality and invasiveness. Selected examples of the preliminary results obtained are reported.Projects have concentrated on the sexual behaviour of the adult male and female (frequency, initiative, courtship behaviours and their hormonal correlates, as well as on the interaction of the juvenile with the 2 adult animals. Behavioural sexual activity is very seasonal (peaking at the end of July and August, as is the testosterone cycle (levels increasing from less than 1 ng/ml to 30 ng/ml in May and the development of the testis (peaking in July-August. Progesterone and oestrogen levels vary between less than 1 to 17 ng/ml and less

  13. Assisted reproduction and the legal recognition of multiple parents: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) creates an opportunity for the creation of co-parenting arrangements involving donors and surrogates. Donor and surrogate involvement in the lives of children born using ART has received increased media attention recently and is a matter of considerable social significance. This dissertation attempts to test the law’s restriction to two parents in light of the potential for co-parenting arrangements. In order to do this, it adopts a socio-legal approach ...

  14. Naloxone affects reproductive system in a rat model with polycystic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manizheh Karami; Maryam Darban Fooladi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To make interaction between morphine and naloxone in the rat model of PCOS, we evidenced the opioid receptors involvement in this efficacy. Methods:A total of 48 female animals (Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g) were kept diestrous before experimental procedure began. They were grouped in single L-arginine (50 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 9 days), naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for 9 days), morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 9 days), and naloxone (0.4 mg/kg) pre-treated to L-arginine (50 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg) pre-treated to L-arginine, morphine pre-treated to the collective naloxone-L-arginine. Control group solely received saline (1 mL/kg, once daily for 9 days). At the end of the treatment period all animals were surgically studied. The rats’ ovaries and uteri were examined both biometrically and pathologically. Results:The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics and their uteri illustrated inflammation changes to the controls. The samples obtained from rats pre-treated with naloxone revealed a decrease in sign of inflammation compaired with L-arginine received speciments, the signs got worse in the presence of the morphine. Conclusion:Aspect of rat reproductive system may be linked with the cystic characteristic of ovary. This study involves opioid receptors in the naloxone efficacy on reproductive agents of rat with polycystic aspect.

  15. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  16. Reproduction in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi: estrus and the relationship between multiple partner matings and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, D K; Whitten, P L

    1996-05-01

    Female sifaka mate selectively with one or more resident and/or non-resident males during the breeding season. Various adaptive explanations have been advanced to explain why female primates mate with multiple males including that 1) females seek to confuse paternity and thereby forestall male infanticide and/or ensure male infant care or 2) females seek to ensure fertilization. Assessing the power of fertilization insurance to explain mating patterns in females requires information on the temporal relationship between mating and ovarian hormones. The hormonal correlates of reproduction and mating in free-ranging Propithecus verreauxi were investigated using excreted steroids as indices of reproductive state. Solid-phase extraction and radioimmunoassay techniques were used to measure unconjugated estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) in 485 desiccated fecal samples collected from five female sifaka before and during the breeding season at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar. Results suggest that behavioral estrus was characterized by 10 to 15-day elevations in E(2); hormonal activity was observed to be similar to pseudo-estrus reported for other lemur species; apparent conception was associated with sustained P4 elevations beginning 1 to 3 days post-estrus with gestational phase elevations of E2 beginning 42 to 45 days post-conception; and mating with multiple partners appeared not to be a prerequisite to fertilization, as conception resulted from both monoandrous and polyandrous matings. These preliminary data suggest that fertilization insurance is not adequate to explain polyandrous mating in sifaka at Beza Mahafaly.

  17. Quantity and quality of light affect growth and reproduction of the invasive annual plant Impatiens glandulifera

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Christian Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide and are among the primary causes of biodiversity loss. Some ecosystems are more prone to biological invasions due to interactions between traits of the invasive species and their new environment. For plants, light quantity and quality affect community invasibility, and previous studies show that the performance of the invasive summer-annual Impatiens glandulifera (Royle) is negatively affected by shade due to reduced light quantity, but effects of light qu...

  18. Can cyanobacterial biomass applied to soil affect survival and reproduction of springtail Folsomia candida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lána, Jan; Hofman, Jakub; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-05-01

    Biomass of cyanobacterial water blooms including cyanobacterial toxins may enter soils, for example, when harvested water bloom is directly applied as an organic fertilizer or when water with massive cyanobacterial biomass is used for irrigation. In spite of this, no information is available about the potential effects on soil arthropods. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of water bloom biomass sampled in five different fresh water lakes on the soil dwelling arthropod, springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola). These samples contained different dominant species of cyanobacteria and varied significantly in microcystin content (21-3662 μg/g dw biomass). No adverse effects on survival or reproduction were observed for any tested sample at concentration up to 4 g dw biomass/kg dw soil. Despite the known hazardous properties of water blooms in aquatic ecosystems, our pilot results suggest that cyanobacterial biomass might have no significant impact on arthropods in soil. It remains a question, if this is due to low bioavailability of cyanobacterial toxins in soil. PMID:21176962

  19. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  20. DESTAF: A database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility

    KAUST Repository

    Dawe, Adam Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10. 500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database.DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  2. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  3. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  4. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers affect the reproduction and development, and alter the sex ratio of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as flame retardants and now become ubiquitous in the global environment. Using zebrafish as a model, we tested the hypothesis that PBDEs may affect the reproduction and development of fish. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (a congener of PBDE commonly found in the environment) throughout their whole life cycle, and the effects of DE-71 on gonadal development, gamete quality, fertilization success, hatching success, embryonic development and sex ratio were investigated. Despite gonadal development was enhanced, reductions in spawning, fertilization success, hatching success and larval survival rate were evident, while significant increases in malformation and percentage of male were also observed in the F1 generation. Our laboratory results suggest that PBDEs may pose a risk to reproductive success and alter the sex ratio of fish in environments highly contaminated with PBDEs. -- Highlights: •Zebrafish were exposed to PBDE from eggs to adults. •An increase in Gonadal-Somatic Index and enhanced gonadal development was enhanced. •Fertilization and hatching successes were reduced, while malformation was increased. •PBDE alters sex differentiation, leading to a male biased F1 population. •Environmental relevant concentrations of PBDE threaten natural fish populations. -- PBDE reduces fertilization and hatching successes, causes malformation and leads to a male biased F1 generation in fish

  6. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  7. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  8. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  9. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-04-01

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO2 or enhanced temperature  +  enhanced CO2 . The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO2 increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth.

  10. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nybakken, L.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO{sub 2} or enhanced temperature? + enhanced CO{sub 2}. The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO{sub 2} increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth. (Author)

  11. Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

    2014-06-01

    According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female

  12. Role of socio-economic and reproductive factors in the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    included all multiple sclerosis cases (n = 1403) from the Danish MS Registry with clinical onset between 2000 and 2004 as well as 35,045 controls drawn by random from the Danish Civil Registration System and matched by sex year of birth and residential municipality at the reference year. Having newborn...

  13. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  14. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  15. Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including sam...

  16. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS: IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson,and L. Earl Gray Jr.,noriega.nigel@epa.gov<...

  17. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS. IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr., noriega.nigel@epa.go...

  18. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age.

  19. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  20. Using multiple risk factors to assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective effects of learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, K J

    1994-03-01

    Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. PMID:8189396

  1. Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-ping; Zhang, Ying-shuang; Dong, Rong-fang; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review ...

  2. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.

  3. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  4. Multiple factors contribute to anautogenous reproduction by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Elliot, Anne; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is an anautogenous mosquito that must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce and lay a clutch of eggs. The rockpool mosquito, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is related to A. aegypti but is a facultatively autogenous species that produces its first clutch of eggs shortly after emerging without blood feeding. Consumption of a blood meal by A. aegypti triggers the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3) from the brain, which stimulate egg formation. OEH and ILP3 also stimulate egg formation in G. atropalpus but are released at eclosion independently of blood feeding. These results collectively suggest that blood meal dependent release of OEH and ILP3 is one factor that prevents A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. Here, we examined two other factors that potentially inhibit autogeny in A. aegypti: teneral nutrient reserves and the ability of OEH and ILP3 to stimulate egg formation in the absence of blood feeding. Measures of nutrient reserves showed that newly emerged A. aegypti females had similar wet weights but significantly lower protein and glycogen reserves than G. atropalpus females when larvae were reared under identical conditions. OEH stimulated non-blood fed A. aegypti females to produce ecdysteroid hormone and package yolk into oocytes more strongly than ILP3. OEH also reduced host seeking and blood feeding behavior, yet females produced few mature eggs. Overall, our results indicate that multiple factors prevent A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. PMID:26255841

  5. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was

  6. Multiple myeloma is affected by multiple and heterogeneous somatic mutations in adhesion- and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a largely incurable plasma cell malignancy with a poorly understood and heterogeneous clinical course. To identify potential, functionally relevant somatic mutations in MM, we performed whole-exome sequencing of five primary MM, corresponding germline DNA and six MM cell lines, and developed a bioinformatics strategy that also integrated published mutational data of 38 MM patients. Our analysis confirms that identical, recurrent mutations of single genes are infrequent in MM, but highlights that mutations cluster in important cellular pathways. Specifically, we show enrichment of mutations in adhesion molecules of MM cells, emphasizing the important role for the interaction of the MM cells with their microenvironment. We describe an increased rate of mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and associated signaling effectors, for example, in EGFR, ERBB3, KRAS and MAP2K2, pointing to a role of aberrant RTK signaling in the development or progression of MM. The diversity of mutations affecting different nodes of a particular signaling network appears to be an intrinsic feature of individual MM samples, and the elucidation of intra- as well as interindividual redundancy in mutations that affect survival pathways will help to better tailor targeted therapeutic strategies to the specific needs of the MM patient

  7. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS.

  8. Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S

    2015-09-01

    Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. PMID:26174371

  9. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  10. Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Shuang; Dong, Rong-Fang; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder. PMID:25031759

  11. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Spade, Daniel J; Blum, Jason L; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2011-02-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver.

  12. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals.

  13. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  16. Hydrogeological factors affecting the multiple plumes of chlorinated contaminants in an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Kaown, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factors affecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has vertically heterogeneous properties from top alluvial layer to crystalline rocks while the weathered fractured layer above intact Jurassic biotite granite acts as the main layer for groundwater flow and aqueous phase multiple contaminants migration. Aerial heterogeneity in surface conditions plays an important role for groundwater recharge because the industrial complex is mostly paved by asphalt and concrete. Due to limited recharge area and concentrated precipitation in summer season, seasonal effects of contaminant plume distribution diminish as the distance increase from the area of recharge. This study analyzed how differently the solute and contaminant concentrations response to the seasonal recharge. For the analyses, the study site was divided into three zones and four transects were established. Groundwater and solute mass balances were estimated by computing groundwater and solute mass flux through transects. The effects of groundwater pumping, groundwater flow and contaminant degradation were examined to simulate the solutes and contaminant concentrations. General tendency of the water quality and contaminant concentration were reproducible with the effects of major components such as groundwater recharge, pumping and estimated degradation rate.

  17. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both......Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40...

  18. Reproductive allocation in plants as affected by elevated carbon dioxide and other environmental changes: a synthesis using meta-analysis and graphical vector analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhong; Taub, Daniel R; Jablonski, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is an important life history trait that strongly affects dynamics of plant populations. Although it has been well documented that elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere greatly enhances biomass production in plants, the overall effect of elevated CO2 on reproductive allocation (RA), i.e., the proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive structures, is little understood. We combined meta-analysis with graphical vector analysis to examine the overall effect of elevated CO2 on RA and how other environmental factors, such as low nutrients, drought and elevated atmospheric ozone (O3), interacted with elevated CO2 in affecting RA in herbaceous plants. Averaged across all species of different functional groups and environmental conditions, elevated CO2 had little effect on RA (-0.9%). RA in plants of different reproductive strategies and functional groups, however, differed in response to elevated CO2. For example, RA in iteroparous wild species decreased by 8%, while RA in iteroparous crops increased significantly (+14%) at elevated CO2. RA was unaffected by CO2 in plants grown with no stress or in low-nutrient soils. RA decreased at elevated CO2 and elevated O3, but increased in response to elevated CO2 in drought-stressed plants, suggesting that elevated CO2 could ameliorate the adverse effect of drought on crop production to some extent. Our results demonstrate that elevated CO2 and other global environmental changes have the potential to greatly alter plant community composition through differential effects on RA of different plant species and thus affect the dynamics of natural and agricultural ecosystems in the future.

  19. Factors affecting reproductive success and life history parameters of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from three host-associated populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augmentative releases of native natural enemies are viable strategies for suppression of crop pests. Appropriate mass rearing and release strategies rely on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of the natural enemy. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of parasitoid source ...

  20. Pain and affective memory biases interact to predict depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, J M; Polen, D; Arnett, P A

    2007-01-01

    A large literature supports a direct relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among various patient populations. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently experience both pain and depression. Despite this, no relationship between pain and depression has been found in MS. The present investigation explored the relationship between pain and depression in a sample of patients with MS. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, results supported the hypothesis that pain would only contribute to depression when MS patients exhibited a concomitant cognitive vulnerability. Cognitive vulnerability to depression was measured using a performance based affective memory bias (AMB) task. Patients with high levels of pain and negative AMB reported more depressive symptoms compared to patients with pain and positive AMB. Implications for the identification and treatment of depression in MS are discussed. PMID:17294612

  1. Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Porseryd, Tove; Hallgren, Stefan; Dinnétz, Patrik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior are less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny was affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects. PMID:26072466

  2. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Amo de Paz, L.; López, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception,

  3. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lucie Kučerová; Ulrich Theopold; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with thi...

  4. Is the reproduction of Donax trunculus affected by their sites of origin contrasted by their level of contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Sofiène; Métais, Isabelle; Ayache, Nadia; Boussetta, Hamadi; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The reproductive cycle of bivalves is regulated by several natural environmental factors but exposure to chemical pollutants can also interfere and may result in advanced or delayed spawning season. To our knowledge, the gametogenic cycle of the suspension-feeder bivalve Donax trunculus has not yet been used as biomonitoring tool in ecotoxicological surveys. The aim of this study was to examine over a year physiological reproductive endpoints (sex-ratio, gametogenic and energy reserve cycles) and biological indices (condition index, allometry) in D. trunculus originating from two sites differing by their level of contamination. Specimens were collected bimonthly from November 2008 to October 2009 from a polluted site (Radès Méliane) and a comparatively reference site (Sidi Jehmi) in the Gulf of Tunis (Tunisia). Five stages were depicted by histological examination of gonads: undifferentiated, developing, mature, spawn and spent. Differences in the gametogenic cycle according to the site of origin of bivalves were observed. The spawning period began in March and was maximum in May in bivalves from both sites, but the percentage of spawning animals was higher in the polluted site vs the reference site. The spawning period was shorter in animals from the polluted site comparatively to the reference site. Energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) were higher in March and May comparatively to the other studied periods in bivalves from both sites. Lower energy reserves levels were usually observed in animals from the polluted site compared to the reference site. Seasonal variations of the condition index were associated to the reproductive and nutritive status of bivalves. Differences in allometry were depicted between bivalves from both studied sites. If we try to link allometry, energy reserves and reproduction, it can be hypothesized that for bivalves from the reference site, energy reserves are allocated to gametogenesis and length growth. For bivalves from the polluted

  5. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  6. Do highly divergent loci reside in genomic regions affecting reproductive isolation? A test using next-generation sequence data in Timema stick insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosil Patrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic divergence during speciation with gene flow is heterogeneous across the genome, with some regions exhibiting stronger differentiation than others. Exceptionally differentiated regions are often assumed to experience reduced introgression, i.e., reduced flow of alleles from one population into another because such regions are affected by divergent selection or cause reproductive isolation. In contrast, the remainder of the genome can be homogenized by high introgression. Although many studies have documented variation across the genome in genetic differentiation, there are few tests of this hypothesis that explicitly quantify introgression. Here, we provide such a test using 38,304 SNPs in populations of Timema cristinae stick insects. We quantify whether loci that are highly divergent between geographically separated (‘allopatric’ populations exhibit unusual patterns of introgression in admixed populations. To the extent this is true, highly divergent loci between allopatric populations contribute to reproductive isolation in admixed populations. Results As predicted, we find a substantial association between locus-specific divergence between allopatric populations and locus-specific introgression in admixed populations. However, many loci depart from this relationship, sometimes strongly so. We also report evidence for selection against foreign alleles due to local adaptation. Conclusions Loci that are strongly differentiated between allopatric populations sometimes contribute to reproductive isolation in admixed populations. However, geographic variation in selection and local adaptation, in aspects of genetic architecture (such as organization of genes, recombination rate variation, number and effect size of variants contributing to adaptation, etc., and in stochastic evolutionary processes such as drift can cause strong differentiation of loci that do not always contribute to reproductive isolation. The

  7. Multiple Landscape Factors Affect the Resilience of a Mixed Land Cover Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Prues, A. G.; D'Amico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities can stimulate the physical and chemical properties of streams to move beyond their background conditions, thereby facilitating the transition of these factors to stressors that affect watershed resilience. This is particularly true in mixed land cover watersheds. We quantify and explore the statistical nonlinear relationships between watershed and buffer-scale factors and nutrient (nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations, in addition to a multi-metric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed. Our goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the potentially numerous landscape and near-stream hydrological and biogeochemical factors that affect watershed resiliency - as inferred from in-stream nutrient levels and biological condition. We used a boosted regression tree approach, which quantifies nonlinear relationships and variable interactions, to develop watershed and 200 m buffer scale models for each chemical constituent and the annual IBI score. We developed nutrient models for the spring and summer seasons. Two primary factors - location within the watershed and percentage of urban land cover in the watershed or buffer - emerged as important explanatory variables in most nutrient and IBI models. Geographic location (i.e., latitude and longitude) interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores and suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover) and runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors). Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrologic Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. Our overall approach confirms that it is important to consider multiple and often interacting factors when managing for watershed resilience.

  8. miR-221 affects multiple cancer pathways by modulating the level of hundreds messenger RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eLupini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available microRNA miR-221 is frequently over-expressed in a variety of human neoplasms. Aim of this study was to identify new miR-221 gene targets to improve our understanding on the molecular tumor-promoting mechanisms affected by miR-221. Gene expression profiling of miR-221-transfected-SNU-398 cells was analyzed by the Sylamer algorithm to verify the enrichment of miR-221 targets among down-modulated genes. This analysis revealed that enforced expression of miR-221 in SNU-398 cells caused the down-regulation of 602 mRNAs carrying sequences homologous to miR-221 seed sequence within their 3’UTRs. Pathways analysis performed on these genes revealed their prominent involvement in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of E2F, MYC, NFkB and β-catenin pathways was experimentally proven. Some of the new miR-221 target genes, including RB1, WEE1 (cell cycle inhibitors, APAF1 (pro-apoptotic, ANXA1, CTCF (transcriptional repressor, were individually validated as miR-221 targets in SNU-398, HepG2 and HEK293 cell lines. By identifying a large set of miR-221 gene targets, this study improves our knowledge about miR-221 molecular mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis. The modulation of mRNA level of 602 genes confirms the ability of miR-221 to promote cancer by affecting multiple oncogenic pathways.

  9. Pseudobulbar affect in multiple sclerosis: toward the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ariel

    2006-06-15

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), a condition involving involuntary and uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, occurs frequently in patients with a variety of neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia including Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Although PBA results in considerable distress for patients and caretakers, it is underrecognized and undertreated. Agents used to treat psychiatric disorders--particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--are useful in alleviating PBA, but act on diffuse neural networks rather than targeting those involved in emotional motor expression. As a result of their nonspecific activity, these agents are associated with a range of unwanted effects that preclude many patients from using them. Dextromethorphan, a common cough suppressant, specifically targets sigma(1) receptors concentrated in the brainstem and cerebellum, thus providing the possibility of targeting regions implicated in emotional expression. When administered in a fixed combination with quinidine, dextromethorphan is effective in treating PBA in patients with ALS, and preliminary results suggest that this therapy also is effective in treating MS-related PBA. PMID:16674978

  10. Mutations in the CRE pocket of bacterial RNA polymerase affect multiple steps of transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petushkov, Ivan; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2015-07-13

    During transcription, the catalytic core of RNA polymerase (RNAP) must interact with the DNA template with low-sequence specificity to ensure efficient enzyme translocation and RNA extension. Unexpectedly, recent structural studies of bacterial promoter complexes revealed specific interactions between the nontemplate DNA strand at the downstream edge of the transcription bubble (CRE, core recognition element) and a protein pocket formed by core RNAP (CRE pocket). We investigated the roles of these interactions in transcription by analyzing point amino acid substitutions and deletions in Escherichia coli RNAP. The mutations affected multiple steps of transcription, including promoter recognition, RNA elongation and termination. In particular, we showed that interactions of the CRE pocket with a nontemplate guanine immediately downstream of the active center stimulate RNA-hairpin-dependent transcription pausing but not other types of pausing. Thus, conformational changes of the elongation complex induced by nascent RNA can modulate CRE effects on transcription. The results highlight the roles of specific core RNAP-DNA interactions at different steps of RNA synthesis and suggest their importance for transcription regulation in various organisms.

  11. Reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory: effect of multiple couples and the size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Barros, N M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of keeping three couples in the same cage, and the size of adults emerged from small, medium-sized and large pupae (278.67 mg; 333.20 mg and 381.58 mg, respectively), on the reproductive potential of S. eridania (Stoll, 1782) adults, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70% RH and 14 hour photophase). We evaluated the survival, number of copulations, fecundity and fertility of the adult females. The survival of females from these different pupal sizes did not differ statistically, but the survival of males from large pupae was statistically shorter than from small pupae. Fecundity differed significantly and correlated positively with size. The number of effective copulations (espematophores) and fertility did not vary significantly with pupal size. Our results emphasize the importance of indicating the number of copulations and the size of the insects when reproductive parameters are compared. PMID:26959952

  12. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  13. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  14. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  15. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  16. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I Kubrak

    Full Text Available Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3 display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy.

  17. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning. PMID:25860433

  18. Midazolam sedates Passeriformes for field sampling but affects multiple venous blood analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heatley JJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Jennifer Cary,2,3 Lyndsey Kingsley,1 Hughes Beaufrere,4 Karen E Russell,5 Gary Voelker2,3 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 3Texas A&M Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 5Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Feasibility and effect of midazolam administration on blood analytes and for sedation of Passeriformes being collected in a larger study of genetic biodiversity was assessed. Midazolam (5.6±2.7 mg/kg was administered intranasally prior to sampling, euthanasia, and specimen preparation of 104 passerine birds. Each bird was assessed for sedation score and then multiple analytes were determined from jugular blood samples using the i-STAT® point of care analyzer at “bird side”. Most birds were acceptably sedated, sedation became more pronounced as midazolam dose increased, and only a single bird died. Electrolyte concentrations and venous blood gas analytes were affected by midazolam administration while blood pH, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and calculated hematocrit were not. Intranasal midazolam gives adequate sedation and is safe for short-term use in free-living Passeriformes. Based on venous blood analyte data, sedation of Passeriformes prior to handling appears to reduce stress but also produces venous blood gas differences consistent with hypoventilation relative to birds which were not given midazolam. Further study is recommended to investigate midazolam's continued use in free-living avian species. Studies should include safety, reversal and recovery, effect upon additional endogenous analytes, and compatibility with studies of ecology and toxicology

  19. Reproductive hacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  20. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  1. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  2. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  3. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  4. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  5. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (penvironmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  6. MYB-FL controls gain and loss of floral UV absorbance, a key trait affecting pollinator preference and reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Hester; Moser, Michel; Klahre, Ulrich; Esfeld, Korinna; Dell'Olivo, Alexandre; Mandel, Therese; Metzger, Sabine; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Freitas, Loreta; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2016-02-01

    Adaptations to new pollinators involve multiple floral traits, each requiring coordinated changes in multiple genes. Despite this genetic complexity, shifts in pollination syndromes have happened frequently during angiosperm evolution. Here we study the genetic basis of floral UV absorbance, a key trait for attracting nocturnal pollinators. In Petunia, mutations in a single gene, MYB-FL, explain two transitions in UV absorbance. A gain of UV absorbance in the transition from bee to moth pollination was determined by a cis-regulatory mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation caused subsequent loss of UV absorbance during the transition from moth to hummingbird pollination. The functional differences in MYB-FL provide insight into the process of speciation and clarify phylogenetic relationships between nascent species. PMID:26656847

  7. Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-04-01

    Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  8. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Goodbred, Steven L; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A; Echols, Kathy; Rosen, Michael R; Torres, Leticia

    2015-08-01

    reported by studies where exposure concentrations were relatively high. Lastly, this study highlighted advantages of multivariate/multiple regression approaches for exploring associations between complex contaminant mixtures and gradients and reproductive condition in wild fishes. PMID:25583583

  9. Growth performance and reproductive traits at first parity of New Zealand white female rabbits as affected by heat stress and its alleviation under Egyptian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, I F; Ayyat, M S; Abd el-Monem, U M

    2001-12-01

    Exposing growing and adult New Zealand White (NZW) female rabbits to severe heat stress (temperature-humidity index = 28.9) during summer adversely affected their growth and reproductive traits. The traits that declined significantly (p fibre (CF). The traits that increased significantly (p palm oil (as a source of energy) or natural clay (as a natural enhancer to growth and milk production). Supplying the animals with cool drinking water gave the highest body weight and weight gain, conception rate, litter size and weight and digestibility coefficients for DM and CP and the lowest rectal temperature, respiration rate and pre-weaning mortality. The loss in rabbit production pertaining to heat stress estimated from the percentages of decline in conception rate x pre-weaning mortality x litter weight at weaning was 73.0%. The provision of cool water restored 11/12 of heat loss. PMID:11770200

  10. NECK LEAF 1, a GATA type transcription factor, modulates organogenesis by regulating the expression of multiple regulatory genes during reproductive development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Wang; Hengfu Yin; Qian Qian; Jun Yang; Chaofeng Huang; Xiaohe Hu; Da Luo

    2009-01-01

    In the monocot rice species Oryza sativa L., one of the most striking morphological processes during reproductive development is the concurrence of panicle development with the sequential elongation of upper internodes (UPIs). To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we cloned the rice gene NECK LEAF 1 (NL1), which when mutated results in delays in flowering time, smaller panicles with overgrown bracts and abnormal UPI elongation patterns. The NL1 gene encodes a GATA-type transcription factor with a single zinc finger domain, and its transcripts are de-tected predominantly in the bract primordia, which normally degenerate in the wild-type plants. Overexpression of NL1 in transgenic plants often gives rise to severe growth retardation, less vegetative phytomers and smaller leaves, suggesting that NL1 plays an important role in organ differentiation. A novel mutant allele of PLASTOCHRON1 (PLA1), a gene known to play a key role in regulating leaf initiation, was identified in this study. Genetic analysis demonstrated an interaction between nll and plal, with NL1 acting upstream of PLA1. The expression level and spatial pattern of PLA1 were found to be altered in the nll mutant. Furthermore, the expression of two regulators of flowering, Hd3a and OsMADS1, was also affected in the nll mutant. On the basis of these findings, we propose that NL1 is an intrinsic factor that modulates and coordinates organogenesis through regulating the expression of PLA1 and other regulatory genes during reproductive development in rice.

  11. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol. PMID:25076484

  12. Does Pain in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis Affect Employment? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shahrbanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS.

  13. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  14. Stochastic analysis of multiple-passband spectral classifications systems affected by observation errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, C. P.

    1980-01-01

    The classification of targets viewed by a pushbroom type multiple band spectral scanner by algorithms suitable for implementation in high speed online digital circuits is considered. A class of algorithms suitable for use with a pipelined classifier is investigated through simulations based on observed data from agricultural targets. It is shown that time distribution of target types is an important determining factor in classification efficiency.

  15. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  16. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  17. Peer Rated Therapeutic Talent and Affective Sensitivity: A Multiple Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Used peer rated measures of Warmth, Understanding and Openness to predict scores on the Kagan Affective Sensitivity Scale-E80 among 66 undergraduates who had participated in interpersonal skills training groups. Results indicated that, as an additively composite index of Therapeutic Talent, they were positively correlated with affective…

  18. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  19. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  20. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  1. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size

  2. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF BLOOD FLOW IN ARTERIES AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. GIRIJA BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a numerical simulation of hemodynamics in blood vessels with multiple fusiform aneurysms. Dilation of 0.25 is considered. Using computational fluid dynamics, hemodynamic factors such as velocity and pressure are investigated. The problem is solved by finite volume method. Numerical simulation is prescribed using the CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. High pressure and low velocity is observed in the region of aneurysm. This is an indication to the interruption of blood flow. These techniques based on computer flow study are important for understanding the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and risk of rupture.

  3. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met poly...

  4. Short communication. Severe, diffuse fibrinonecrotic pleuropneumonia in a cat affected by multiple viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balboni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes the coinfection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, feline herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1, feline calicivirus (FCV and feline coronavirus (FCoV in a 1 year‑old domestic cat living in a feline shelter. The cat was referred to veterinary hospital with clinical signs related to diffuse gastro-intestinal inflammation, it had developed a severe pneumopathy with fibrinous exudation in all body cavities and died 8 days after initial presentation. Pathological findings and biomolecular diagnostic test results were compatible with an initial FPV infection that, in consequence of the lymphoid depletion, has fostered coinfection or reactivation of chronic-latent infections with FeHV-1, FCV, and FCoV. In the reported case, the simultaneous presence of different viruses exacerbated the clinical status of the host, resulting in multiple organ damage and leading it to its death.

  5. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  6. Novel ETHE1 mutation in a carrier couple having prior offspring affected with ethylmalonic encephalopathy: Genetic analysis, clinical management and reproductive outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2010-03-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is an autosomally recessive inherited disorder with a relentlessly progressive decline in neurological function, usually fatal by the age of ten. It is characterised by generalised hypotonia, psychomotor regression, spastic tetraparesis, dystonia, seizures and, eventually, global neurological failure. Approximately 50 reports have been published worldwide describing this devastating disease, most involving patients of Mediterranean or Arab origin. The fundamental defect in EE likely involves the impairment of a mitochondrial sulphur dioxygenase coded by the ETHE1 gene responsible for the catabolism of sulphide, which subsequently accumulates to toxic levels. A diagnosis of EE should initiate careful genetic evaluation and counselling, particularly if the parents intend to have additional offspring. The present report describes the diagnosis of EE in a reproductive endocrinology context, where both members of a non-consanguineous couple were confirmed to be carriers of an identical A↷G mutation. This previously unknown mutation at nucleotide position c.494 resulted in an amino acid substitution, p.Asp165Gly. Although consideration was given to in vitro fertilisation, embryo biopsy and single gene pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, the couple decided to first utilise a less aggressive therapeutic approach with donor sperm insemination. Pregnancy with a low risk of EE was indeed achieved; however, the infant was affected with a different anomaly (hypoplastic left heart). As this case demonstrates, prior to the initiation of fertility therapy, genetic analysis may be used to provide a confirmatory diagnosis when EE is suspected.

  7. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question, and in...... this article, we explore whether there is evidence that atopic dermatitis affects the risk of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example......, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses in...

  8. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ . Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  9. Natalizumab Affects T-Cell Phenotype in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for JCV Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Marco; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Bellizzi, Anna; Morreale, Manuela; Pontecorvo, Simona; D'Abramo, Alessandra; Oliva, Alessandra; Anzivino, Elena; Lo Menzo, Sara; D'Agostino, Claudia; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Millefiorini, Enrico; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Francia, Ada; Vullo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD49d monoclonal antibody natalizumab is currently an effective therapy against the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab therapeutic efficacy is limited by the reactivation of the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV) and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). To correlate natalizumab-induced phenotypic modifications of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes with JCV reactivation, JCV-specific antibodies (serum), JCV-DNA (blood and urine), CD49d expression and relative abundance of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets were longitudinally assessed in 26 natalizumab-treated RRMS patients. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism and R. Natalizumab treatment reduced CD49d expression on memory and effector subsets of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Moreover, accumulation of peripheral blood CD8+ memory and effector cells was observed after 12 and 24 months of treatment. CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte immune-activation was increased after 24 months of treatment. Higher percentages of CD8+ effectors were observed in subjects with detectable JCV-DNA. Natalizumab reduces CD49d expression on CD8+ T-lymphocyte memory and effector subsets, limiting their migration to the central nervous system and determining their accumulation in peripheral blood. Impairment of central nervous system immune surveillance and reactivation of latent JCV, can explain the increased risk of PML development in natalizumab-treated RRMS subjects. PMID:27486658

  10. Natalizumab Affects T-Cell Phenotype in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for JCV Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Anna; Morreale, Manuela; Pontecorvo, Simona; D’Abramo, Alessandra; Oliva, Alessandra; Anzivino, Elena; Lo Menzo, Sara; D’Agostino, Claudia; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Millefiorini, Enrico; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Francia, Ada; Vullo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD49d monoclonal antibody natalizumab is currently an effective therapy against the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab therapeutic efficacy is limited by the reactivation of the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV) and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). To correlate natalizumab-induced phenotypic modifications of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes with JCV reactivation, JCV-specific antibodies (serum), JCV-DNA (blood and urine), CD49d expression and relative abundance of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets were longitudinally assessed in 26 natalizumab-treated RRMS patients. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism and R. Natalizumab treatment reduced CD49d expression on memory and effector subsets of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Moreover, accumulation of peripheral blood CD8+ memory and effector cells was observed after 12 and 24 months of treatment. CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte immune-activation was increased after 24 months of treatment. Higher percentages of CD8+ effectors were observed in subjects with detectable JCV-DNA. Natalizumab reduces CD49d expression on CD8+ T-lymphocyte memory and effector subsets, limiting their migration to the central nervous system and determining their accumulation in peripheral blood. Impairment of central nervous system immune surveillance and reactivation of latent JCV, can explain the increased risk of PML development in natalizumab-treated RRMS subjects. PMID:27486658

  11. Does pain in individuals with multiple sclerosis affect employment? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Auais, Mohammad; Duquette, Pierre; Anderson, Katie; Mayo, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. METHODS: An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. RESULTS: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of these studies, five that exhibited clinical, methodological and statistical homogeneity were included in the meta-analysis. The between-groups (pain + versus pain −) pooled random OR of being employed was 0.7 (strong), and was significantly different from unity (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that individuals with MS who experience pain were significantly more likely to report a decreased employment rate than individuals with MS who were pain free. PMID:24093124

  12. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry Características da biologia reprodutiva que afetam a produtividade de cereja ácida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade de características da biologia reprodutiva e a correlação entre elas, em genótipos da cereja ácida (Prunus cerasus 'Oblačinska'. Verificou-se alta diversidade genética nos 41 genótipos avaliados, e foram observadas diferenças significativas entre eles, para todas as características estudadas: época de florescimento, germinação de pólen, número de ramos frutíferos, produção de flores e frutos, número de flores por botão, formação de frutos e eficiência de produção dos ramos. O número de ramos frutíferos influenciou significativamente o número de flores e frutos, a formação de frutos e a eficiência produtiva. Além do número de

  13. Fucoxanthin: A Marine Carotenoid Exerting Anti-Cancer Effects by Affecting Multiple Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Ravi Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid exhibiting several health benefits. The anti-cancer effect of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite, fucoxanthinol, is well documented. In view of its potent anti-carcinogenic activity, the need to understand the underlying mechanisms has gained prominence. Towards achieving this goal, several researchers have carried out studies in various cell lines and in vivo and have deciphered that fucoxanthin exerts its anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influence via different molecules and pathways including the Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, NFκB, Caspases, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis. Thus, in addition to decreasing the frequency of occurrence and growth of tumours, fucoxanthin has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Some studies show that this effect is selective, i.e., fucoxanthin has the capability to target cancer cells only, leaving normal physiological cells unaffected/less affected. Hence, fucoxanthin and its metabolites show great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer.

  14. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    demonstrated that glycerol treatment altered endogenous levels of G3P, phosphate and ROS, affected auxin distribution and cell division in the root meristem, and eventually resulted in modifications of root development.

  15. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    treatment altered endogenous levels of G3P, phosphate and ROS, affected auxin distribution and cell division in the root meristem, and eventually resulted in modifications of root development. PMID:24465999

  16. Deletion of exon 8 from the EXT1 gene causes multiple osteochondromas (MO) in a family with three affected members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Lei; Gerber, Simon D; Kuchen, Stefan; Villiger, Peter M; Trueb, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (also called hereditary multiple exostoses) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous tumors, which are caused by mutations in the genes for exostosin-1 (EXT1) and exostosin-2 (EXT2). The goal of this study was to elucidate the genetic alterations in a family with three affected members. Isolation of RNA from the patients' blood followed by reverse transcription and PCR amplification of selected fragments showed that the three patients lack a specific region of 90 bp from their EXT1 mRNA. This region corresponds to the sequence of exon 8 from the EXT1 gene. No splice site mutation was found around exon 8. However, long-range PCR amplification of the region from intron 7 to intron 8 indicated that the three patients contain a deletion of 4318 bp, which includes exon 8 and part of the flanking introns. There is evidence that the deletion was caused by non-homologous end joining because the breakpoints are not located within a repetitive element, but contain multiple copies of the deletion hotspot sequence TGRRKM. Exon 8 encodes part of the active site of the EXT1 enzyme, including the DXD signature of all UDP-sugar glycosyltransferases. It is conceivable that the mutant protein exerts a dominant negative effect on the activity of the EXT glycosyltransferase since it might interact with normal copies of the enzyme to form an inactive hetero-oligomeric complex. We suggest that sequencing of RNA might be superior to exome sequencing to detect short deletions of a single exon.

  17. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN...... affected the observed trends. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS It is assuring that data from four countries confirm an overall improvement over time in the perinatal outcomes of children conceived after ART. Furthermore, data show the beneficial effect of single embryo transfer, not only in regard...... to lowering the rate of multiples but also concerning the health of singletons. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation has supported the project. The Co...

  18. A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, Marisa D; Zhang, Haibo; Sheridan, Ryan M; Mitra, Somdeb; Chen, Yuanwei; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cooperman, Barry S; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop. We explored the role of this loop and found that both the length and sequence are essential for translation in different types of IGR IRESs and from diverse viruses. We found that loop 3 affects two discrete elongation factor-dependent steps in the IRES initiation mechanism. Our results show how the IRES directs multiple steps after 80S ribosome placement and highlights the often underappreciated significance of discrete conformationally dynamic elements within the context of structured RNAs. PMID:26523395

  19. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms. PMID:25650525

  20. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Joseph Jongen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18, cognition (CDR System, fatigue (MFIS-5, depressive symptoms (BDI, disease impact (MSIS-29, and disability (EDSS. Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001, Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001, and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01, and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01. Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy.

  1. Reproductive performance in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Rigét, Frank F.;

    2009-01-01

    quotient (RQ) evaluation to more quantitatively evaluate the effect risk on reproduction (embryotoxicity and teratogenicity) based on the critical body residue (CBR) concept and using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We applied modelling approaches to PCBs, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin......RQs above 1 suggested risk for OHC additive effects. Thus, previous suggestions of possible adverse health effects in polar bears correlated to OHC exposure are supported by the present study. This study also indicates that PBPK models may be a supportive tool in the evaluation of possible OHC-mediated...... effects, including reproductive, were conducted during 1990–2006. However, it has been difficult to determine the nature of the effects induced by OHC exposures on wild caught polar bears using body burden data and associated changes in reproductive organs and systems. We therefore conducted a risk...

  2. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  3. DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine inhibits intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi multiplication by affecting cell division but not trypomastigote-amastigote transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M A; Basso, B; Kierszenbaum, F

    1992-06-01

    DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific, irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), decreases the capacity of Trypanosoma cruzi to invade and multiply within different types of mammalian host cells in vitro. In this work we found that inhibition of intracellular growth results from selective impairment of amastigote division without appreciable alteration of the capacity of the invading trypomastigotes to transform into the replicative amastigote form. Addition of agmatine, the product of arginine decarboxylation, reversed the inhibitory effect of DFMA. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity by DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine present in the medium prior to and during infection did not affect trypomastigote transformation or amastigote replication and did not change the magnitude of the inhibitory effect of DFMA on parasite multiplication. Hence, neither polyamine synthesis via the ornithine decarboxylase pathway nor salvage of host cell polyamines by T. cruzi appeared to be a likely explanation for the normal rate of parasite transformation that was seen in the presence of DFMA. Two clones of T. cruzi, TMSU-1 and TMSU-2, were tested for their degrees of sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of DFMA. Both trypomastigote association with (i.e., binding to and penetration of) myoblasts, and intracellular amastigote multiplication by either clone were found to be significantly (P less than 0.05) but not completely inhibited by DFMA. Therefore, the partial inhibition of T. cruzi infectivity and replication caused by DFMA is unlikely to represent a composite of effects of the drug on DFMA-sensitive and insensitive clones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Skinner

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869) to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir), coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reprodu...

  5. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  6. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart; Carolin Mayer; Mathieu Jonard; Valérie Cawoy

    2012-01-01

    In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering peri...

  7. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  8. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1 and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1 and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2 were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52±0.18 ng/mL and 0.78±0.13, resp., <0.001. There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (=−0.645, <0.001. The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (=−0.683, <0.001. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

  9. Genetic aspects of female reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub

  10. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  11. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  12. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Daw

    Full Text Available Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and

  13. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  14. Reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  15. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  16. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P cats. Testicular tissue score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P cats. In experiment 2, testes from prepubertal (n = 6) and adult (n = 6) male cats were collected after castration and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. No differences were observed in the protein expression of LHR and FSHR between the two groups, whereas mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in prepubertal cats (P cats (P reproductive function without any adverse effects for at least 48 weeks in male cats. PMID:26620725

  17. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

  18. Evaluating the potential of effluents and wood feedstocks from pulp and paper mills in Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand to affect fish reproduction: chemical profiling and in vitro assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milestone, Craig B; Orrego, Rodrigo; Scott, Philip D; Waye, Andrew; Kohli, Jagmohan; O'Connor, Brian I; Smith, Brendan; Engelhardt, Heidi; Servos, Mark R; Maclatchy, Deborah L; Smith, D Scott; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T; Kovacs, Tibor; Heid Furley, Tatiana; Slade, Alison H; Holdway, Douglas A; Hewitt, L Mark

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates factors affecting reproduction in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents by comparing effluents from countries with varying levels of documented effects. To explore the hypothesis of wood as a common source of endocrine disrupting compounds, feedstocks from each country were analyzed. Analyses included in vitro assays for androgenic activity (binding to goldfish testis androgen receptors), estrogenic activity (yeast estrogen screen), and neurotransmitter enzyme inhibition (monoamine oxidase and glutamic acid decarboxylase). Chemical analyses included conventional extractives, known androgens, and gas chromatograph index (GCI) profiles. All effluents and wood contained androgenic activity, particularly in nonpolar fractions, although known androgens were undetected. Effluents with low suspended solids, having undergone conventional biotreatment had lower androgenic activities. Estrogenic activity was only associated with Brazilian effluents and undetected in wood. All effluents and wood inhibited neurotransmitter enzymes, predominantly in polar fractions. Kraft elemental chlorine free mills were associated with the greatest neurotransmitter inhibition. Effluent and wood GCI profiles were correlated with androgenic activity and neurotransmitter enzyme inhibition. Differences in feedstock bioactivities were not reflected in effluents, implying mill factors mitigate bioactive wood components. No differences in bioactivities could be discerned on the basis of country of origin, thus we predict effluents in regions lacking monitoring would affect fish reproduction and therefore recommend implementing such programs. PMID:22196476

  19. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Klop-Toker

    Full Text Available Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds. We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations

  20. We Made Your Bed, Why Won’t You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn’t breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  1. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop-Toker, Kaya; Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  2. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  3. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  4. Reproductive efficiency and metabolism of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation, and age at photostimulation. 1. Pullet growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F E; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A

    2007-10-01

    A 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design was carried out to determine the effect of 3 broiler breeder strains, 4 target BW profiles, and 2 photostimulation ages on pullet growth and development. A total of 560 pullets from each strain (Hubbard Hi-Y, Ross 508, and Ross 708) were reared on BW profiles that separated at 4 wk and converged at 32 wk of age as follows: standard (mean target BW profile of the 3 strains used), low (12-wk BW target = 25% lower than standard followed by rapid gain to 32 wk), moderate (12-wk BW target = 150% of standard followed by lower rate of gain to 32 wk), and high (12-wk BW target = 200% of standard followed by minimal growth to 32 wk). Birds were photostimulated at 18 (18WK) or 22 wk (22WK). During the prephotostimulation phase (2 to 18 wk of age), 4 birds were killed for each of the 12 interactions at 14-d intervals to characterize changes in carcass traits. After 18 wk (wk 20, 22, and 24), 4 birds from each of the 24 interactions were killed and dissected (n = 768). Growth rate restricted frame size (e.g., 18-wk shank length: low = 101.8; standard = 105.6; moderate = 109.5; and high = 112.3 mm). At 24 wk of age, the 22WK birds had similar amounts of breast muscle compared with 18WK birds, whereas the later photostimulated hens had heavier abdominal fat pads. Early photo-stimulation resulted in increased 24-wk liver weights in all strains, but the difference was greatest in Ross 708 birds. The 22-wk ovary weight was influenced by age at photostimulation in high (18WK = 17.3; 22WK = 1.6 g) and moderate (18WK = 14.1; 22WK = 1.1 g) birds. The more extensive feed restriction of LOW birds before 12 wk of age appeared to limit breast muscle and fat pad growth and slow reproductive tract development following photostimulation. Pullets on heavier BW profiles respond to early PS by developing the reproductive system at the expense of breast muscle and fat pad growth. Genetic strain modulates some of the effect of very different target BW profiles.

  5. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  6. Reproductive output traits of the simultaneous hermaphrodite Serranus scriba in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Alós, Josep; Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Catalán, Ignacio Alberto; Palmer, Miquel; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We studied multiple individual parameters that affect the reproductive output in the painted comber Serranus scriba, a simultaneous hermaphroditic fish that is widely exploited by recreational fishing in temperate marine coastal regions. Batch fecundity was significantly affected by maternal size, but was not related to maternal age or condition. However, egg quality as estimated by egg dry weight was significantly influenced by the interaction effect of maternal size and age. An empirical as...

  7. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  8. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  9. Conditional Deletion of the Relaxin Receptor Gene in Cells of Smooth Muscle Lineage Affects Lower Reproductive Tract in Pregnant Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1+/− females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  10. Analysis on Factors Affecting of Reproductive Performance in Crossbred Pigs%杂交猪繁殖性能的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张省林; 白俊艳; 庞有志; 李刚; 李帅祥

    2011-01-01

    In this study, analysis of variance models of SPSS software were used to analyze the effect of different factors such as year, season, parity, birth, and cross mode on crossbred pigs reproductive performance. The following results showed that year gave a significant effect on numbers of piglets born alive and numbers of piglets at weaning (P0. 05). Season gave a significant effect on numbers of piglets born alive and numbers of piglets at weaning(P0. 05).%本研究利用SPSS软件中的方差分析等模块分析了年份、季节、胎次、性别和杂交方式等因素对杂交猪繁殖性能的影响.结果表明,年份对产活仔数和断奶仔猪数有极显著影响(P<0.01),而对总产仔数无显著影响(P>0.05).季节对产活仔数和断奶仔猪数有极显著影响(P<0.01),对总产仔数有显著影响(P<0.05).胎次对断奶仔猪数和初生重有极显著影响(P<0.01),对产活仔数和出生窝重有显著影响(P<0.05).公猪的初生重显著大于母猪的初生重(P<0.05).杂交方式对总产仔数、产活仔数、断奶仔猪数、出生窝重和初生重均无显著影响(P>0.05).

  11. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  12. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of postpartum depression? Having multiples might increase your risk of postpartum ... Membership For Journalists For Junior Fellows For Medical Students For Patients Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement ...

  13. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation.

  14. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes.

  15. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes. PMID:27189178

  16. Diet micronutrient balance matters: How the ratio of dietary sterols/steroids affects development, growth and reproduction in two lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiangfeng; Grebenok, Robert J; Behmer, Spencer T

    2014-08-01

    Insects lack the ability to synthesize sterols de novo so they acquire this essential nutrient from their food. Cholesterol is the dominant sterol found in most insects, but in plant vegetative tissue it makes up only a small fraction of the total sterol profile. Instead, plants mostly contain phytosterols; plant-feeding insects generate the majority of their cholesterol by metabolizing phytosterols. However, not all phytosterols are readily converted to cholesterol, and some are even deleterious when ingested above a threshold level. In a recent study we showed that caterpillars reared on tobacco accumulating novel sterols/steroids exhibited reduced performance, even when suitable sterols were present. In the current study we examined how the dominant sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol) and steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone) typical of the modified tobacco plants affected two insect herbivores (Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea). The sterols/steroids were incorporated into synthetic diets singly, as well as in various combinations, ratios and amounts. For each insect species, a range of performance values was recorded for two generations, with the eggs from the 1st-generation adults as the source of neonates for the 2nd-generation. Performance on the novel steroids (cholestanol and cholestanone) was extremely poor compared to suitable sterols (cholesterol and stigmasterol). Additionally, performance tended to decrease as the ratio of the novel dietary steroids increased. We discuss how the balance of different dietary sterols/steroids affected our two caterpillar species, relate this back to recent studies on sterol/steroid metabolism in these two species, and consider the potential application of sterol/steroid modification in crops.

  17. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  18. Identification of multiple cellular uptake pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting the uptake: relevance for drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles may address challenges by human diseases through improving diagnosis, vaccination and treatment. The uptake mechanism regulates the type of threat a particle poses on the host cells and how a cell responds to it. Hence, understanding the uptake mechanisms and cellular interactions of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular level is a prerequisite for their effective biomedical applications. The present study shows the uptake mechanisms of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting their uptake in bone marrow-derived macrophages, 293T kidney epithelial cells and L929 fibroblasts. Labeling with the endocytic marker FM4-64 and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the nanoparticles were internalized rapidly via endocytosis and accumulated in intracellular vesicles. Soon after their internalizations, nanoparticles trafficked to organelles with acidic pH. Analysis of the ultrastructural morphology of the plasma membrane invaginations or extravasations provides clear evidence for the involvement of several uptake routes in parallel to internalize a given type of nanoparticles by mammalian cells, highlighting the complexity of the nanoparticle-cell interactions. Blocking the specific endocytic pathways by different pharmacological inhibitors shows similar outcomes. The potential to take up nanoparticles varies highly among different cell types in a particle sizes-, time- and energy-dependent manner. Furthermore, infection and the activation status of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly affect the uptake potential of the cells, indicating the need to understand the diseases' pathogenesis to establish effective and rational drug-delivery systems. This study enhances our understanding of the application of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences. PMID:25224362

  19. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  20. Evaluating the pre-, peri- and post-natal conditions of neonates affected by multiple congenital anomalies: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi-Nezhad A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths stand for almost two-thirds of all deaths occurring in infants under one year of age. Congenital anomalies are responsible for 24.5% of these cases forming a highly important issue for health policy-makers.Methods: We studied the pre-, peri- and post-natal conditions of 77 patients with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA through genetic counseling at Several university Hospitals, in Tehran, Iran. The collected data were subsequently analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The patients did not have a good prognosis, demonstrating the need for the diagnosis of such diseases early in pregnancy to be of utmost importance. We screened for trisomy and nuchal translucency, which the first showed a low risk and the second showed normal results in most cases.Conclusion: Establishment of standards for prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies and monitoring their implementation seem to be necessary for the reduction of deaths due to congenital anomalies and infant mortality rate (IMR.

  1. Vitamin D Status Does Not Affect Disability Progression of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis over Three Year Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Hilde Muris

    Full Text Available The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS as well as MS disease activity is associated with vitamin D (25(OHD status. The relationship between the main functional disability hallmark of MS, disability progression, and 25(OHD status is less well established though, especially not in MS patients with progressive disease.This retrospective follow-up study included 554 MS patients with a serum baseline 25(OHD level and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS with a minimum follow-up of three years. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the effect of baseline 25(OHD status on relapse rate. Repeated measures linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effect on disability and disability progression.Baseline deseasonalized 25(OHD status was associated with subsequent relapse risk (yes/no, but only in the younger MS patients (≤ 37.5 years; OR = 0.872, per 10 nmol/L 25(OHD, p = 0.041. Baseline 25(OHD status was not significantly associated with either disability or disability progression, irrespective of MS phenotype.Within the physiological range, 25(OHD status is just significantly associated with the occurrence of relapses in younger MS patients, but is not associated with disability or disability progression over three years follow-up. Whether high dose supplementation to supra physiological 25(OHD levels prevents disability progression in MS should become clear from long term follow-up of supplementation studies.

  2. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies.

  3. Genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R affect multiple sclerosis disease risk and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsee, Anthony L.; Bernales, Cecily Q.; Ross, Jay P.; Lee, Joshua D.; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have associated genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study we describe the association between IL2RA (rs2104286) and IL7R (rs6897932) in the Canadian population. Genotyping 1,978 MS patients and 830 controls failed to identify any significant association between these variants and disease risk. However, stratified analysis for family history of disease, and disease course identified a trend towards association for IL2RA in patients without a family history (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 0.77), and a significant association between IL7R and patients who developed progressive MS (PrMS) (p = 0.002; odds ratio = 0.73). Although not statistically significant, the effect of IL2RA (rs2104286) in patients without a family history of MS indicates that the genetic components for familial and sporadic disease are perhaps distinct. This data suggests the onset of sporadic disease is likely determined by a large number of variants of small effect, whereas MS in patients with a family history of disease is caused by a few deleterious variants. In addition, the significant association between PrMS and rs6897932 indicates that IL7R may not be disease-causing but a determinant of disease course. Further characterization of the effect of IL2RA and IL7R genetic variants in defined MS subtypes is warranted to evaluate the effect of these genes on specific clinical outcomes and to further elucidate the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. PMID:24770783

  4. Genomic selection strategies in dairy cattle breeding programmes: Sexed semen cannot replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer as superior reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer;

    2012-01-01

    semen. However, when all young bull candidates were born following MOET, the results showed that the use of Y-semen in the breeding nucleus tended to decrease the rate of inbreeding as it enabled GS to increase within-family selection. This implies that the benefit from using sexed semen in a modern......The aim of this study was to test whether the use of X-semen in a dairy cattle population using genomic selection (GS) and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) increases the selection intensity on cow dams and thereby the genetic gain in the entire population. Also, the dynamics of using...... different types of sexed semen (X, Y or conventional) in the nucleus were investigated. The stochastic simulation study partly supported the hypothesis as the genetic gain in the entire population was elevated when X-semen was used in the production population as GS exploited the higher selection intensity...

  5. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  6. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: patbaltzer@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: dietzelmatthias2@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    reader experience (P = 0.005) on diagnostic performance. Conclusions: Non-mass lesion type and low reader experience negatively affect the diagnostic performance of breast MRI in a non-screening setting.

  7. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  10. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  12. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  13. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  14. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

  15. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  16. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M;

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...... provides further indications that some organochlorines and phthalates adversely affect some parameters of male reproductive health....

  17. Reproduction of Przewalski's Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaříková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This work is about reproduction of Przewalski’s horses (Equus Przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881), which is similar to reproduction of domestic horses (Equus caballus, Linaeus, 1758). Przewalski’s horses are considered to only living ancestor of domestic horses, logically they have similar biology and reproduction. Despite different numbers of chromosome they could have fertile offspring. Reproductive differences are mainly in length of reproduction indicators. For example Przewalsky’s horses ar...

  18. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2016-01-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  19. Reproductive problems of the work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J

    2000-03-01

    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503

  20. Progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among those severely affected by multiple sclerosis: a mixed-methods cross-sectional study of Black Caribbean and White British people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Koffman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis is now more common among minority ethnic groups in the UK but little is known about their experiences, especially in advanced stages. We examine disease progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among Black Caribbean (BC and White British (WB people severely affected by MS. DESIGN: Mixed methods study of 43 BC and 43 WB people with MS (PwMS with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS ≥6 involving data from in clinical records, face-to-face structured interviews and a nested-qualitative component. Progression Index (PI and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS were calculated. To control for selection bias, propensity scores were derived for each patient and adjusted for in the comparative statistical analysis; qualitative data were analysed using the framework approach. RESULTS: Median EDSS for both groups was (6.5; range: 6.0-9.0. Progression Index (PI and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS based on neurological assessment of current EDSS scores identified BC PwMS were more likely to have aggressive disease (PI F = 4.04, p = 0.048, MSSS F = 10.30, p<0.001. Patients' reports of the time required to reach levels of functional decline equivalent to different EDSS levels varied by group; EDSS 4: BC 2.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years (U = 258.50, p = 0.013, EDSS 6∶6.1 years BC v/s WB 12.7 years (U = 535.500, p = 0.011, EDSS 8: BC 8.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years. Both groups reported high symptom burden. BC PwMS were more cognitively impaired than WB PwMS (F = 9.65, p = 0.003. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews provides correspondence with quantitative findings; more BC than WB PwMS referred to feelings of extreme frustration and unresolved loss/confusion associated with their rapidly advancing disease. The interviews also reveal the centrality, meanings and impact of common MS-related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in diagnosis should be avoided and more frequent

  1. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  2. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  3. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  4. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-09-04

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  5. Energy: reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ovulatory activity in the livestock depends on the readiness of nutritious energy with relationship to its use for the nursing. During the early nursing the cup of increment in the production of milk exceeds to the consumption of food, the difference in the energy consumption of the diet with relationship to the energy used for production is a negative energy balance. During the first weeks of nursing this reaches their maximum and it diminishes slowly with the increment in the consumption of dry matter. This first metabolic sign is in an increment in the pulses of hormone luteinizant that acts as and stimulate for the ovary and that with a great readiness of insulin, it takes to the ovarian follicles to respond to the stimulus. The sub-alimentation seems to affect the hypothalamic function and ovarian. The return to the positive energy balance in cows highly producers can be accelerated by the consumption of protected fat. The functions of the lipids are to provide energy for normal maintenance and production, to serve as source of essential fatty acids and eat payee of liposoluble vitamins. The importance of the addition of vegetable fat is that this is not degraded in the rumen but rather it is digested in its entirety in abomasa and absorbed in intestine. The addition of a source of Ca to diets with fats promotes the formation of insoluble soaps achieving that the fat doesn't inhibit the fiber fermentation; the chloride of Ca to be of high solubility in water it is completely ionized in rumen and it is more efficient in the formation of insoluble soaps of Ca. The addition of fat in the diet bears increase in the production of N microbial, inhibition of methane formation, increase and change in population of bacteria and mushrooms. The efficiency of the fat is superior when sources of fatty acids of long chain are used, the employment of these, in its protected form, in a diet, stimulates the number of follicles and it increases its size. The linolic acid is

  6. Factors affecting spontaneous reduction of corpora lutea and twin embryos during the late embryonic/early fetal period in multiple-ovulating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Hunter, R H F

    2010-02-01

    Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos has been described in high-producing, Holstein-Fresian (Bos taurus) dairy herds. The first objective of the current study was to determine whether management and cow factors could have an effect on such a reduction in twin pregnancies during the early fetal period. Because loss of a corpus luteum was noted in cows suffering twin reduction, we expanded our study to include multiple-ovulating cows carrying singletons. Pregnancy was diagnosed and confirmed from Days 28 to 34 and 56 to 62 postinsemination. Sixty-nine (23.5%) of 293 pregnant cows with two corpora lutea carrying singletons and 132 (28.4%) of 464 twin pregnancies recorded on first pregnancy diagnosis subsequently lost one of the corpora lutea or one of the embryos, respectively. Thirty-four (25.8%) of the 132 twin pregnancies suffering embryo reduction lost one corpus luteum along with the embryo. Corpus luteum reduction always occurred in the ovary ipsilateral to the gravid horn suffering embryo reduction. Binary logistic regressions were performed considering corpus luteum and embryo reduction as dependent variables in single and twin pregnancies, respectively, and several management- and cow-related factors as independent variables. In cows carrying singletons, the risk of corpus luteum reduction was 14.3 (1/0.07) times lower for a given herd, whereas the interaction season by laterality significantly affected corpus luteum reduction such that in cows with two corpora lutea ipsilateral to the horn of pregnancy, the risk of reduction decreased during the winter period. In cows carrying twins, ipsilateral twin pregnancies were 3.45 (1/0.29) times more likely to undergo the loss of one embryo than bilateral twin pregnancies. As an overall conclusion, both corpora lutea and embryos were vulnerable to the effects of stress factors during the early fetal period in cows maintaining their pregnancies. A strong unilateral relationship between the corpus luteum and

  7. Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D

    2002-05-14

    Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or "transactional," models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control.

  8. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  9. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  10. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  11. [Reproductive toxicity of lindane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Nicole; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Bouvet, Suzanne; Goudey-Perrière, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    The present paper bears on the main effects of lindane (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) on endocrine and reproductive functions in mammals. This pesticide, once widely used to kill lice and a variety of pests that attack agricultural products, livestock and trees, has been progressively eliminated from many applications since the mid-1970s in Europe or USA, but is still used in the rest of the world. Lindane is absorbed through respiratory, digestive or cutaneous routes and accumulates in fat tissues. It damages human liver, kidney, neural and immune systems and induces birth defects, cancer and death. Chronic administration results in endocrine disruption in birds as well as in mammals. Treatment with 1-40 mg of lindane/kg b.w. disrupts testicular morphology, decreases spermatogenesis, inhibits testicular steroidogenesis, reduces plasma androgen concentrations and may adversely affect reproductive performances in males. In females, lindane disrupts the estrous cycle, reduces serum estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases sexual receptivity whereas in pregnant dams it decreases whelping rate and litter size. These effects were also observed in some rats exposed to residual environmental doses. In addition, there is concern that irreversible effects may be induced when animals are exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critically susceptible phases of sexual differentiation or development. These effects would results from (i) alterations of gonade or gamete cell membranes (ii) cell metabolism changes including alterations of ionic exchanges (mainly calcium or potassium), direct or free radical-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis (iii) or neuroendocrine changes leading to a decrease in sexual performance of either parents or their offsprings exposed in utero or through lactation. PMID:12645304

  12. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  13. Multiple independent loci at chromosome 15q25.1 affect smoking quantity: a meta-analysis and comparison with lung cancer and COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Saccone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers, and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers. We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10(-35 and <10(-8 respectively. Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10(-6. In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10(-20 and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01; the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765

  14. Invited review: Recommendations for reporting intervention studies on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: Improving design, analysis, and interpretation of research on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Lucy, Matthew C; McNamara, John P; Bradford, Barry J; Block, Elliot; Thomson, Jennifer M; Morton, John M; Celi, Pietro; Rabiee, Ahmad R; Santos, José E P; Thatcher, William W; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence from the medical, veterinary, and animal science literature demonstrates that there is substantial room for improvement of the clarity, completeness, and accuracy of reporting of intervention studies. More rigorous reporting guidelines are needed to improve the quality of data available for use in comparisons of outcomes (or meta-analyses) of multiple studies. Because of the diversity of factors that affect reproduction and the complexity of interactions between these, a systematic approach is required to design, conduct, and analyze basic and applied studies of dairy cattle reproduction. Greater consistency, clarity, completeness, and correctness of design and reporting will improve the value of each report and allow for greater depth of evaluation in meta-analyses. Each of these benefits will improve understanding and application of current knowledge and better identify questions that require additional modeling or primary research. The proposed guidelines and checklist will aid in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of intervention studies. We propose an adaptation of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety) statement to provide guidelines and a checklist specific to reporting intervention studies in dairy cattle reproduction. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that will assist investigators to produce studies with greater internal and external validity that can more often be included in systematic reviews and global meta-analyses. Such studies will also assist the development of models to describe the physiology of reproduction. PMID:26387020

  15. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women’ have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status

  16. A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lowry

    Full Text Available The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and

  17. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  18. Reproductive effort reduces specific immune response and parasite resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nordling, D.; Andersson, M.; Zohari, S.; Gustafsson, L.

    1998-01-01

    If a trade-off exists between reproductive effort and immune function, life-history decisions may have important implications for parasite resistance. Here, we report effects of experimental manipulation of reproductive effort on subsequent specific immune function and parasite resistance in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis. Our results show that increased reproductive effort of females immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine negatively affected the ability to respond...

  19. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  20. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  1. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  2. [Reproductive aspects of celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2005-01-01

    In the past, celiac disease (CD), or intolerance to gluten, was considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are other clinic and subclinical forms which appear later in life. Target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and female and male reproductive systems. CD interference on reproduction is related to the multifactorial nature of the disease, whose pathological manifestations can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K, which are essential for organogenesis, and fat-soluble vitamins important for spermatogenesis. Regarding endocrine disorders, the deficiencies of specific trace elements on ovarian function could explain its involvement in the increased risk of female osteoporosis in CD patients. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens; the increases of follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, not associated with infertility, may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health. Since reproductive alterations are reversible, adoption of a gluten-free diet supported by early diagnosis is important. Therefore, the detection of early biomarkers, such as deficiencies of vitamins and/or iron and andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions, should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:16250182

  3. Novel TetR family transcriptional factor regulates expression of multiple transport-related genes and affects rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    OpenAIRE

    Huicong Liu; Min Yang; Zheng-Guo He

    2016-01-01

    Transport-related genes significantly affect bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the effects of these genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance in several mycobacterial species, including the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen M. tuberculosis and M. avium have not been clearly characterized. We identified Ms4022 (MSMEG_4022) as a novel TetR family regulator that activates the expression of seven transport-related genes and affects drug resistance in M. smeg...

  4. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  5. Differences in female reproductive success between female and hermaphrodite individuals in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Theaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Matsushita, M; Tomaru, N; Nakagawa, M

    2015-01-01

    Subdioecy is thought to occupy a transitional position in the gynodioecy-dioecy pathway, explaining one of the evolutionary routes from hermaphroditism to dioecy. Quantifying any female reproductive advantage of females versus hermaphrodites is fundamental to examining the spectrum between subdioecy and dioecy; however, this is challenging, as multiple interacting factors, such as pollen limitation and resource availability, affect plant reproduction. We compared the female reproductive success of females and hermaphrodites via a field experiment in which we hand-pollinated individuals of the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica of similar size growing under similar light conditions. Effects of pollen limitation and seed quality were also evaluated through comparing the results of hand- and natural-pollination treatments and performing additional laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Overall, females had higher fruit set and produced heavier fruit and more seeds than hermaphrodites, and these results were more pronounced for hand-pollinated than for natural-pollinated plants of both sexes. We also found that seeds naturally produced by females had a higher mean germination rate. These results indicate that females had a pronounced advantage in female reproductive success under conditions of no pollen limitation. The sexual difference in the degree of pollen limitation suggests a pollinator-mediated interaction, whereas the higher female reproductive success of females even under natural conditions implies that E. japonica is a good model species for elucidating the later stages of the gynodioecy-dioecy pathway. PMID:24841823

  6. 辅助生殖技术中影响出生婴儿性别比的相关因素分析%Factors affecting live birth sex ratio in assisted reproductive technology procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力佳; 全松

    2015-01-01

    中男方高龄与出生男婴比例增加相关,而ICSI授精方式较IVF女性婴儿比例更高。%Objectives To study the factors that affect the sex ratio of live births in procedures of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods The clinical data were collected from 4348 IVF-ET/freeze-thawed embryo transfer cycles that led to the birth of 5606 babies of known gender between 2008 and 2014. We assessed the impact of maternal age, paternal age, insemination method, the type of embryo transferred, stage of embryo transferred, single and twin births, previous abortion following ART, and cause of infertility on the sex ratio of the live births. Results The total cohort included 3019 male and 2588 female babies, with a general sex ratio of 116:100. The sex ratio was 117:100 among singleton deliveries and 116:100 among twin deliveries. The sex ratio was 117:100 among the first births with ART treatment and 117:100 among the second births. For singleton deliveries, an advanced maternal age or paternal age was significantly correlated with an elevated sex ratio of births (58.4%vs 52.8%, P=0.012;56.4%vs 52.3%, P=0.026), while ICSI was significantly correlated with a decreased sex ratio of births (45.7%vs 55.6%, P<0.001);for twin deliveries, none of the these factors was significantly correlated with the sex ratio of birth. For the first baby born after ART treatment, an advanced maternal age was significantly related to an increased sex ratio of births (57.4%vs 53.0%, P=0.009), while ICSI was significantly related to a decreased sex ratio of births (48.6%vs 55.4%, P=0.001);for the second baby born with ART treatment, none of these factors was significantly correlated with the sex ratio of birth. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the maternal age (OR:0.836, 95% CI 0.731-0.955, P<0.05) and insemination method (OR:1.151, 95% CI 1.027-1.289, P<0.05) were significantly related to the sex ratio of birth, but in multivariable logistic regression

  7. Food intake and fuel deposition in a migratory bird is affected by multiple as well as single-step changes in the magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Ian; Fransson, Thord; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Vallin, Adrian; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that migratory thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) experimentally treated with multiple changes of the magnetic field simulating a journey to their target stopover area in northern Egypt, increased fuel deposition as expected in preparation to cross the Sahara desert. To investigate the significance of food intake on the body mass changes observed, in the work described here we analysed food intake of the nightingales under study in those earlier experiments. Furthermore, to study whether a single change in the magnetic field directly to northern Egypt is sufficient to provide information for fuelling decisions, we performed a new experiment, exposing thrush nightingales trapped in Sweden, directly to a magnetic field of northern Egypt. Our results show that an experimentally induced magnetic field of northern Egypt, close to the barrier crossing, triggers the same response in fuel deposition as experiments with multiple changes of the magnetic field simulating a migratory journey from Sweden to Egypt, suggesting that migratory birds do not require successive changes in field parameters to incorporate magnetic information into their migratory program. Furthermore, irrespective of experimental set up (single or multiple changes of the magnetic field parameters) increase in food intake seems to be the major reason for the observed increase in fuelling rate compared with control birds, suggesting that geomagnetic information might trigger hormonal changes in migratory birds enabling appropriate fuelling behaviour during migration.

  8. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  9. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  10. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  11. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  12. Reproductive cycles and reproductive strategies among populations of the Rose-bellied Lizard Sceloporus variabilis (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Elizalde, Raciel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio

    2016-03-01

    Species with wide distribution, generally show variations in life history characteristics, which can be attributed to environmental causes. In this study, we analyzed the reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics from three populations (Atlapexco, San Pablo Tetlapayac, and Santa Catarina) of the lizard Sceloporus variabilis from central Mexico. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate life history characteristics such as reproductive period extent, SVL (snout-vent length) at sexual maturity, clutch size, egg mass and volume, and RCM (relative clutch mass). The San Pablo Tetlapayac population showed a larger clutch size, RCM, egg mass, and a smaller SVL, body mass and reproductive period (January-September), as well as egg volume than the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Reproductive cycle and reproductive characteristics were more similar between the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations. Differences found in the population of San Pablo Tetlapayac with respect to the Atlapexco and Santa Catarina populations could be attributed to environmental variations where lizard populations occur. Differences in the reproductive period and reproductive characteristics in each population could be the result of both historical (phylogenetic; e.g., reproductive mode) and nonhistorical (environmental; e.g., temperature, food availability) causes. This study showed that populations of the same species are under different selection pressures, and these affect the reproductive characteristics of populations. Our results also indicate that long-term and targeted studies on predation, use and selection of food, are needed to determine the causes of these variations in populations of S. variabilis. PMID:26929815

  13. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  14. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  15. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  16. Advances in human reproductive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, P T

    1994-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology pertains to reproduction biology and changes due to environmental influences. The research literature relies on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic analysis. The emphasis is on normal, nonpathological states and a broad range of ecological conditions. This review focused on the importance of age and energetic stress from ecological conditions rather than dieting or self-directed exercise in changing female fecundity. The literature on male reproductive ecology is still small but growing. J.W. Wood provided a comprehensive overview of the field. Natural fertility, as defined by Henry, is the lack of parity-specific fertility limitation. There is evidence that fertility can vary widely in natural fertility populations. There are consistent age patterns among different natural fertility populations. Doring found that there was higher frequency of anovulatory and luteal insufficiency in cycles during perimenarche and perimenopausal periods. Infertility studies have shown declines in pregnancy rates in women over the age of 30 years. Ovum donation evaluations have found both uterine age and ovarian and oocyte age to be related to the probability of a successful pregnancy. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and the endometrial thickness are important predictors of ovarian capacity and related to age and declining fecundity. Much of the literature on fecundity is derived from women with impaired reproductive physiology. In Lipson and Ellison's study of healthy women, average follicular and average luteal estradiol values declined with increasing subject age. Low follicular levels were correlated with smaller follicular size, low oocyte fertilizability, reduced endometrial thickness, and low pregnancy rates. Comparisons across populations have shown that populations experience declines in luteal function with age, but levels of luteal functions varied widely. Chronic conditions which slow growth and delay reproductive maturation may impact

  17. Novel TetR family transcriptional factor regulates expression of multiple transport-related genes and affects rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huicong; Yang, Min; He, Zheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Transport-related genes significantly affect bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the effects of these genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance in several mycobacterial species, including the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen M. tuberculosis and M. avium have not been clearly characterized. We identified Ms4022 (MSMEG_4022) as a novel TetR family regulator that activates the expression of seven transport-related genes and affects drug resistance in M. smegmatis. Overexpression of Ms4022 inhibited M. smegmatis growth and enhanced mycobacterial resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin (RIF). By contrast, the Ms4022-deleted mycobacterial strain has shown sensitive to RIF. Ms4022 recognized three 19 bp non-palindromic motifs containing a 9 bp conserved region at their 5' end and it directly regulated seven transport-related genes, which affects mycobacterial resistance to RIF. Overexpression of three of seven transport-related genes (Ms1448, Ms1613, and Ms5278) inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis. This study improves our understanding of the function of mycobacterial transport-related genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance. PMID:27271013

  18. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  19. Multiple Sklerose

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological disease affecting young adults and the number of chronically sick MS patients to be found in the world of employment is on the increase. Research activities in the field of MS are numerous and wide-ranging. However, precise bibliometric analyses of research on the subject of MS do not exist so far. Methods: The present dissertation employs classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing tec...

  20. Polyamines on the reproductive landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Palin, Marie-France; Murphy, Bruce D

    2011-10-01

    The polyamines are ubiquitous polycationic compounds. Over the past 40 yr, investigation has shown that some of these, namely spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, are essential to male and female reproductive processes and to embryo/fetal development. Indeed, their absence is characterized by infertility and arrest in embryogenesis. Mammals synthesize polyamines de novo from amino acids or import these compounds from the diet. Information collected recently has shown that polyamines are essential regulators of cell growth and gene expression, and they have been implicated in both mitosis and meiosis. In male reproduction, polyamine expression correlates with stages of spermatogenesis, and polyamines appear to function in promoting sperm motility. There is evidence for polyamine involvement in ovarian follicle development and ovulation in female mammals, and polyamine synthesis is required for steroidogenesis in the ovary. Studies of the embryo indicate a polyamine requirement that can be met from maternal sources before implantation, whereas elimination of polyamine synthesis abrogates embryo development at gastrulation. Polyamines play roles in embryo implantation, in decidualization, and in placental formation and function, and polyamine privation during gestation results in intrauterine growth retardation. Emerging information implicates dietary arginine and dietary polyamines as nutritional regulators of fertility. The mechanisms by which polyamines regulate these multiple and diverse processes are not yet well explored; thus, there is fertile ground for further productive investigation. PMID:21791568

  1. Pre-conception preparation at the antiphospholipid syndrome as way to improve reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyash Tanysheva; Saule Kabylova; Sholpan Kinayatova; Aizat Zhumazhanova

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reproductive health is characterized by the condition of the woman in association with the course of pregnancy and childbirth. In this case, the absence of disease plays a fundamental role. Unfortunately, conditions that can negatively impact reproductive health and cause deterioration of pregnancy and delivery outcomes are frequent in women of reproductive age. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the leading conditions that can negatively affect reproductive health and le...

  2. Cost of reproduction in a seed beetle : a quantitative genetic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paukku, Satu

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between traits that have an influence on fitness; an example of such trade-off is between reproduction and longevity. In order for the trade-off between reproduction and other life-history traits to evolve, there must be variation in how individuals tolerate the cost of reproduction. In this thesis, I examined whether female reproductive decisions affect offspring fitness in Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. It seemed that females tend to lay thei...

  3. Towards gloss control in fine art reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Teun; Brettel, Hans; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2015-03-01

    The studies regarding fine art reproduction mainly focus on the accuracy of colour and the recreation of surface texture properties. Since reflection properties other than colour are neglected, important details of the artwork are lost. For instance, gloss properties, often characteristic to painters and particular movements in the history of art, are not well reproduced. The inadequate reproduction of the different gloss levels of a piece of fine art leads to a specular reflection mismatch in printed copies with respect to the original works that affects the perceptual quality of the printout. We used different print parameters of a 3D high resolution printing setup to control the gloss level on a printout locally. Our method can be used to control gloss automatically and in crucial applications such as fine art reproduction.

  4. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  5. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  6. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-07-21

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist "mate finding," particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants.

  7. Speeding the reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B; Upadhyay, U

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, the international community set the goal of ensuring universal access to reproductive health care by 2015 and agreed to finance its costs. Few governments and donor countries, however, have made good on commitments made at the ICPD. Reproductive health is not improving and may actually be getting worse. Specific goals to be reached by 2015 include meeting all unmet need for family planning, reducing maternal mortality by 75% compared with 1990 levels, and reducing infant mortality to lower than 35 deaths/1000 births. Reaching these and the related reproductive health goals of the ICPD was calculated to cost about US$17 billion/year until 2000, then to increase to $22 billion/year by 2015 (in constant 1993 US dollars). Developing countries agreed to pay 66% of the cost, while donor countries paid the remainder. Immediately after the ICPD, reproductive health funding increased substantially, then declined again, with most donor countries failing to meet their funding commitments. Failure to deliver on the promised financial support for the ICPD goals will result in higher levels of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, cases of maternal mortality, and infant deaths. Governments need to be convinced that paying for reproductive health programs is an urgent priority and that developing countries, donor countries, and multilateral institutions all have much to gain from reaching the ICPD goals. PMID:12322000

  8. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  9. Factors affecting the implementation of complex and evolving technologies: multiple case study of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bak Kate

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research regarding the decision to adopt and implement technological innovations in radiation oncology is lacking. This is particularly problematic since these technologies are often complex and rapidly evolving, requiring ongoing revisiting of decisions regarding which technologies are the most appropriate to support. Variations in adoption and implementation decisions for new radiation technologies across cancer centres can impact patients' access to appropriate and innovative forms of radiation therapy. This study examines the key steps in the process of adopting and implementing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in publicly funded cancer centres and identifies facilitating or impeding factors. Methods A multiple case study design, utilizing document analysis and key informant interviews was employed. Four cancer centres in Ontario, Canada were selected and interviews were conducted with radiation oncologists, medical physicists, radiation therapists, and senior administrative leaders. Results Eighteen key informants were interviewed. Overall, three centres made fair to excellent progress in the implementation of IMRT, while one centre achieved only limited implementation as of 2009. Key factors that influenced the extent of IMRT implementation were categorized as: 1 leadership, 2 training, expertise and standardization, 3 collaboration, 4 resources, and 5 resistance to change. Conclusion A framework for the adoption and implementation of complex and evolving technologies is presented. It identifies the key factors that should be addressed by decision-makers at specific stages of the adoption/implementation process.

  10. Does genetic introgression improve female reproductive performance? A test on the endangered Florida panther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Bolker, Benjamin M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2012-01-01

    Genetic introgression has been suggested as a management tool for mitigating detrimental effects of inbreeding depression, but the role of introgression in species conservation has been controversial, partly because population-level impacts of genetic introgressions are not well understood. Concerns about potential inbreeding depression in the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) led to the release of eight female Texas pumas (P. c. stanleyana) into the Florida panther population in 1995. We used long-term reproductive data (1995-2008) collected from 61 female Florida panthers to estimate and model reproduction probability (probability of producing a litter) and litter size, and to investigate the influence of intentional genetic introgression on these parameters. Overall, 6-month probability of reproduction (±1SE) was 0.232 ± 0.021 and average litter size was 2.60 ± 0.09. Although F(1) admixed females had a lower reproduction probability than females with other ancestries, this was most likely because kittens born to F(1) females survive better; consequently, these females are unavailable for breeding until kittens are independent. There was no evidence for the effect of ancestry on litter size or of heterozygosity on probability of reproduction or litter size. In contrast, earlier studies have shown that genetic introgression positively affected Florida panther survival. Our results, along with those of earlier studies, clearly suggest that genetic introgression can have differential effects on components of fitness and highlight the importance of examining multiple demographic parameters when evaluating the effects of management actions. PMID:21805300

  11. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  12. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  13. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  14. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  15. Impact of multiple anthropogenic stressors on freshwater: how do glyphosate and the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei affect microbial communities and water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Haydée; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Sinistro, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Marina; Rodríguez, Patricia; Vinocur, Alicia; Cataldo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study of the joint effect of multiple anthropogenic stressors is important because the emerging consequences are often unpredictable on the basis of knowledge of single effects. We explored the joint impact of glyphosate and the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei on freshwater phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and periphyton, and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We manipulated both stressors simultaneously in a 25-day experiment using outdoor mesocosms; we assayed technical-grade glyphosate acid at four concentrations: 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg gly L(−1) under scenarios with and without mussels. The addition of the glyphosate significantly increased total phosphorus according to the concentration used; the high clearance rate of L. fortunei significantly decreased phytoplanktonic abundance leading to low values of turbidity. The mussel significantly stimulated the development of filamentous green algae (metaphyton). Interestingly, the combined effect revealed that L. fortunei accelerated the dissipation of glyphosate, which showed a 4-fold decrease in its half-life; this promoted the rapid bioavailability of glyphosate-derived phosphorus in the water. The interaction had a synergistic effect on soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations and was directly dependent on the concentration of glyphosate. A synergistic effect was also observed on bacterioplankton, water turbidity and metaphyton, thus inducing enhanced and rapid eutrophication. The ability of mussels to reduce glyphosate in water may be valued as positive, but our results allow us to predict that the invasion of Limnoperna fortunei in natural freshwater systems contaminated by glyphosate will accelerate the negative impact of the herbicide associated with eutrophication.

  16. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Jun Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE repeats gene (RERE is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala, which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the

  17. Reproductive rights under attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  18. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  19. Empirical evidence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and expectation of future reproduction in female three-spined sticklebacks

    OpenAIRE

    POIZAT G.; Rosecchi, E.; CRIVELLI A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Optimal life-history models generally predict that the reproductive effort of iteroparous organisms may increase with age, as their expectation of future reproduction decreases. The population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in the Camargue (Rhone River Delta, France) is annual, all adults dying after their first breeding season. As the three-spined stickleback is a multiple spawner, we tested the hypothesis that reproductive effort may increase during the breeding seaso...

  20. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  1. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer SusceptibilitySuzanne. E. FentonUS EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  3. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...

  4. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  5. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  6. Asexual and sexual reproductive strategies in clonal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yufen; ZHANG Dayong

    2007-01-01

    Most plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually (or vegetatively),and the balance between the two reproductive modes may vary widely between and within species.Extensive clonal growth may affect the evolution of life history traits in many ways.First,in some clonal species,sexual reproduction and sex ratio vary largely among populations.Variation in sexual reproduction may strongly affect plant's adaptation to local environments and the evolution of the geographic range.Second,clonal growth can increase floral display,and thus pollinator attraction,while it may impose serious constraints and evolutionary challenges on plants through geitonogamy that may strongly influence pollen dispersal.Geitonogamous pollination can bring a cost to plant fitness through both female and male functions.Some co-evolutionary interactions,therefore,may exist between the spatial structure and the mating behavior of clonal plants.Finally,a trade-off may exist between sexual reproduction and clonal growth.Resource allocation to the two reproductive modes may depend on environmental conditions,competitive dominance,life span,and genetic factors.If different reproductive modes represent adaptive strategies for plants in different environments,we expect that most of the resources should be allocated to sexual reproduction in habitats with fluctuating environmental conditions and strong competition,while clonal growth should be dominant in stable habitats.Yet we know little about the consequence of natural selection on the two reproductive modes and factors which control the balance of the two reproductive modes.Future studies should investigate the reproductive strategies of clonal plants simultaneously from both sexual and asexual perspectives.

  7. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  8. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  9. A possible route to prebiotic vesicle reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Pier Luigi; Rasi, Pasquale Stano Silvia; Mavelli, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    distribution ranging between 20 and 1000 nm is obtained. The data can then be seen as a kind of reproduction of the same size vesicles, and the argument is advanced that this may correspond to a simple prebiotic mechanism of vesicle multiplication in prebiotic times, when only physical forces might be responsible for the basic mechanisms of early protocell growth and division. Preliminary data also show that repeated addition of oleate maintains the same basic initial features, and that surfactants other than oleate also respect the reproductive mode of the matrix effect. PMID:15245629

  10. Aspects of the reproductive biology and characterization of Sciaenidae captured as bycatch in the prawn trawling in the northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Beserra da Silva Júnior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian prawn fishery, as other bottom trawling fisheries, is considered quite efficient in catching the target species but with low selectivity and high rates of bycatch. The family Sciaenidae prevails among fish species caught. The study was conducted in the Pernambuco State (Barra de Sirihaém, northeastern Brazil. From August 2011 to July 2012, 3,278 sciaenid specimens were caught, distributed into 16 species, 34.2% males and 41.5% females. Larimus breviceps, Isopisthus parvipinnis, Paralonchurus brasiliensis and Stellifer microps were the most abundant species. The area was considered a recruitment and reproduction area with the highest reproductive activity between December 2011 and July 2012. The constant frequency of mature I. parvipinnis and S. microps in catches throughout the year suggests that these species are multiple spawners and use the area during their reproductive period. Since most individuals caught as bycatch have not reached sexual maturity, evidencing the need for a better monitoring of the area and the Sciaenidae caught as bycatch, once this incidental caught can cause fluctuations in the recruitment, increasing the proportion of immature individuals in the population and negatively affecting the reproductive success of the species.

  11. Sense and Nonsense in Metabolic Control of Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eSchneider

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An exciting synergistic interaction occurs among researchers working at the interface of reproductive biology and energy homeostasis. Reproductive biologists benefit from the theories, experimental designs, and methodologies used by experts on energy homeostasis, and bring context and meaning to the study of energy homeostasis. There is a growing recognition that identification of candidate genes for obesity is little more than meaningless reductionism unless those genes and their expression are placed in a developmental, environmental, and evolutionary context. Reproductive biology provides this context because 1 metabolic energy is the most important factor that controls reproductive success, 2 gonadal hormones affect energy intake, storage and expenditure, 3 reproductive hormone secretion changes during development, and 4 reproductive success is key to evolutionary adaptation, the process that most likely molded the mechanisms that control energy balance. It is likely that by viewing energy intake, storage, and expenditure in the context of reproductive success, we will gain insight into human obesity, eating disorders, diabetes, and other pathologies related to fuel homeostasis.This review emphasizes the metabolic hypothesis: A sensory system monitors the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels and orchestrates behavioral motivation to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates or is unpredictable.

  12. Prolonged manganese exposure induces severe deficits in lifespan,development and reproduction possibly by altering oxidative stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jing; RUI Qi; GUO Yuling; CHANG Xingya; WANG Dayong

    2009-01-01

    We examined the possible multiple defects induced by acute and prolonged exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) solution by monitoring the endpoints of lifespan,development,reproduction,and stress response.Our data suggest that acute exposure (6 h) to Mn did not cause severe defects of life span,development,and reproduction.Similarly,no significant defects could be found for the life span,development,and reproduction in animals exposed to a low concentration of Mn (2.5 μmol/L) for 48 h.In contrast,prolonged exposure (48-h) to high concentrations of Mn (75 and 200 μmol/L) resulted in significant defects of life span,development,and reproduction,as well as the increase of the percentage of population with hsp-16.2::gfp expression indicating the obvious induction of stress responses in exposed animals.Moreover,prolonged exposure (48-h) to high concentrations (75 and 200 μmol/L) of Mn decreased the expression levels of antioxidant genes of sod-1,sod-2,sod-3,and sod-4 compared to control.Therefore,prolonged exposure to high concentrations of Mn will induce the severe defects of life span,development,and reproduction in nematodes possibly by affecting the stress response and expression of antioxidant genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

  13. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Shawn M.; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between rep...

  14. Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Miriti, Maria N; Goodell, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination. Nevertheless, the role of clonality in relation to variable sexual reproduction in population dynamics is often overlooked. We combined population matrix models and pollination experiments to compare the demographic contributions of clonal and sexual reproduction in three Dicentra canadensis populations, one in a well-forested landscape and two in isolated forest remnants. We constructed stage-based transition matrices from 3 years of census data to evaluate annual population growth rates, λ. We used loop analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different reproductive pathways to λ. Despite strong temporal and spatial variation in seed set, populations generally showed stable growth rates. Although we detected some pollen limitation of seed set, manipulative pollination treatments did not affect population growth rates. Clonal reproduction contributed significantly more than sexual reproduction to population growth in the forest remnants. Only at the well-forested site did sexual reproduction contribute as much as clonal reproduction to population growth. Flowering plants were more likely to transition to a smaller size class with reduced reproductive potential in the following year than similarly sized nonflowering plants, suggesting energy trade-offs between sexual and clonal reproduction at the individual level. Seed production had negligible effects on growth and tuber production of individual plants. Our results demonstrate that clonal reproduction is vital for population persistence in a system where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. The bias toward clonality may be driven by low fitness returns

  15. The More the Merrier?. Entropy and Statistics of Asexual Reproduction in Freshwater Planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Sofia; Thomas, Michael A.; Dunkel, Jörn; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-04-01

    The trade-off between traits in life-history strategies has been widely studied for sexual and parthenogenetic organisms, but relatively little is known about the reproduction strategies of asexual animals. Here, we investigate clonal reproduction in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. We find that these flatworms adopt a randomized reproduction strategy that comprises both asymmetric binary fission and fragmentation (generation of multiple offspring during a reproduction cycle). Fragmentation in planarians has primarily been regarded as an abnormal behavior in the past; using a large-scale experimental approach, we now show that about one third of the reproduction events in S. mediterranea are fragmentations, implying that fragmentation is part of their normal reproductive behavior. Our analysis further suggests that certain characteristic aspects of the reproduction statistics can be explained in terms of a maximum relative entropy principle.

  16. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management. PMID:27117374

  17. Assisted reproductive technology in the USA: Is more regulation needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of assisted reproductive technologies is a contested area. Some jurisdictions, such as the UK and a number of Australian states, have comprehensive regulation of most aspects of assisted reproductive technologies; others, such as the USA, have taken a more piecemeal approach and rely on professional guidelines and the general regulation of medical practice to govern this area. It will be argued that such a laissez-faire approach is inadequate for regulating the complex area of assisted reproductive technologies. Two key examples, reducing multiple births and registers of donors and offspring, will be considered to illustrate the effects of the regulatory structure of assisted reproductive technologies in the USA on practice. It will be concluded that the regulatory structure in the USA fails to provide an adequate mechanism for ensuring the ethical and safe conduct of ART services, and that more comprehensive regulation is required. PMID:25171854

  18. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  19. Feeding inhibition explains effects of imidacloprid on the growth, maturation, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatz, Annika; Cole, Tabatha A; Preuss, Thomas G; Zimmer, Elke; Brown, Colin D

    2013-03-19

    Effects of some xenobiotics on aquatic organisms might not be caused directly by the compound but rather arise from acclimation of the organism to stress invoked by feeding inhibition during exposure. Experiments were conducted to identify effects of imidacloprid on individual performance (feeding, growth, maturation, reproduction, and survival) of Daphnia magna under surplus and reduced food availability. Concentrations inhibiting feeding by 5, 50, and 95% after one day of exposure were 0.19, 1.83, and 8.70 mg/L, respectively. Exposure with imidacloprid at ≥ 3.7 mg/L reduced growth by up to 53 ± 11% within one week. Surplus food availability after inhibition allowed recovery from this growth inhibition, whereas limited food supply eliminated the potential for recovery in growth even for exposure at 0.15 mg/L. A shift in the distribution of individual energy reserves toward reproduction rather than growth resulted in increased reproduction after exposure to concentrations ≤ 0.4 mg/L. Exposure to imidacloprid at ≥ 4.0 mg/L overwhelmed this adaptive response and reduced reproduction by up to 57%. We used the individual based Daphnia magna population model IDamP as a virtual laboratory to demonstrate that only feeding was affected by imidacloprid, and that in turn this caused the other impacts on individual performance. Consideration of end points individually would have led to a different interpretation of the effects. Thus, we demonstrate how multiple lines of evidence linked by understanding the ecology of the organism are necessary to elucidate xenobiotic impacts along the effect cascade. PMID:23425205

  20. Using an innovative multiple regression procedure in a cancer population (Part II: fever, depressive affect, and mobility problems clarify an influential symptom pair (pain–fatigue/weakness and cluster (pain–fatigue/weakness–sleep problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2014-12-01

    contribute to the pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems interaction, but all depend on the presence of fever, a sign/biomarker/symptom of proinflammatory sickness behavior. In non-fever contexts, depressive affect is no longer an outcome representing malaise from the physical symptoms of sickness, but becomes a fourth symptom of the interaction. In outpatient subgroups at heightened risk, single interventions could potentially relieve multiple symptoms when fever accompanies sickness malaise and in non-fever contexts with mobility problems. SRC strengthens insights into symptom pairs/clusters. Keywords: depression, moderated regression, multicollinearity, sickness behavior, statistical interaction, symptom cluster

  1. Inflammatory bowel diseases and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszko-Bilska, Agnieszka; Sobkiewicz, Slawomir; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) constitute a group of chronic intestinal diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which typically involve patients of reproductive age and may influence several features of human reproduction. There are many concerns regarding the interactions between the course of IBD, applied treatment (pharmacological or surgical), and fertility, reproductive outcomes, and also neonatal outcomes. To review the literature describing fertility in IBD patients (separately for female and male), and possible infertility treatment in this group of patients, a PubMed search for English only publications (articles and/or abstracts) was conducted. Initially, the titles of publications and their abstracts were screened, and the most appropriate articles were selected and reviewed. Overall, in patients with quiescent IBD, fertility is almost identical to the general population, but particular subgroups of patients (with active disease, on pharmacological treatment, and after pelvic or abdominal surgery) may be affected by reduced fertility. Additionally, patients with IBD have fewer children than the general population, mainly as a result of voluntary childlessness. The main objectives for successful reproductive outcomes in IBD patients are proper guidance and also optimal treatment for achieving and maintaining disease remission. Recently, the European Evidence-Based Consensus on Reproduction and Pregnancy in IBD (the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization Guidelines) has been established to optimize preconceptional counseling and to promote an appropriate clinical management for patients planning to conceive. However, further studies are needed regarding the preservation of fertility in IBD patients and introduction of optimal infertility treatment in this group of patients. PMID:27117378

  2. Effect of age on reproductive attributes of an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OMKAR, SATYENDRA K. SINGH; KALPANA SINGH

    2006-01-01

    The effect of both male and female age was investigated on certain reproductive attributes, viz. mating incidence, mating duration, fecundity, percent egg viability, ratio of reproductive and non-reproductive periods and reproductive rate, of an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius). Females started mating at the age of 8 hours post-emergence (PE) and males at the age of 2 days PE. Mating in the laboratory was a maledominated phenomenon. The mating duration and reproductive rate of 10-day-old females when mated with males of varying ages increased up to the male age of 60 days, and thereafter decreased, whereas, fecundity, egg viability and ratio of reproductive and non-reproductive periods increased up to the male age of 50 days, and thereafter declined. However, when females of varying ages were mated with 10-day-old males, fecundity and reproductive rate increased up to 40 days of female age, respectively, then decreased. The ratio of reproductive and non-reproductive periods increased with increasing age of females. Mating age for optimal reproductive output was 10-50-day-old males and NE to 40-day-old females.Reproductive cessation in males was recorded after 50 days PE, whereas in females at the age of 40 days PE. Higher mating durations lead to elevated reproductive rates. Delay in the reproductive phase was positively correlated with longevity. The results of this study may aid mass multiplication of this ladybird by identifying and promoting usage of adults of optimal age. Our results also enhance our understanding of the effect of age on reproductive attributes in ladybirds.

  3. Perpetuating power: some reasons why reproductive health has stalled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austveg, Berit

    2011-11-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development represented a paradigm shift from vertical population control programmes to the broad-based promotion of sexual and reproductive health as human rights, through strengthening of health services and dealing with the underlying social determinants of health. In its Programme of Action, the global community set ambitious targets for reproductive health, based on strong political will among senior politicians and supported by many grassroots NGOs. Today, too little progress has been made, and the targets are not expected to be met. One of the reasons why may be that support for the reproductive health agenda has been de-politicised, with a focus on management and technical issues instead of unleashing the power necessary for change. Two other contributory trends, affecting more than reproductive health are discussed. Firstly, there has been a call for measurable goals and the use of indicators as a basis for planning, instead of valid and reliable measures for monitoring complex processes. This has led to a new form of vertical programme in reproductive health, in which the comprehensive nature of reproductive health has been left out, and a narrow definition of maternal health has been singled out for attention. Secondly, instead of nurturing the different roles of different actors in the struggle to achieve better reproductive health, the focus has been on coordination and harmonisation, which are not appropriate for dealing with controversial issues. PMID:22118139

  4. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.

  5. Epigenetics: A key paradigm in reproductive health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkar, Neha; Pathak, Neelam; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that there is a heritable element of susceptibility to chronic human ailments, yet there is compelling evidence that some components of such heritability are transmitted through non-genetic factors. Due to the complexity of reproductive processes, identifying the inheritance patterns of these factors is not easy. But little doubt exists that besides the genomic backbone, a range of epigenetic cues affect our genetic programme. The inter-generational transmission of epigenetic marks is believed to operate via four principal means that dramatically differ in their information content: DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs and nucleosome positioning. These epigenetic signatures influence the cellular machinery through positive and negative feedback mechanisms either alone or interactively. Understanding how these mechanisms work to activate or deactivate parts of our genetic programme not only on a day-to-day basis but also over generations is an important area of reproductive health research. PMID:27358824

  6. Unrelated secondary reproductives in the neotropical termite Silvestritermes euamignathus (Isoptera: Termitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifig, Ives; Vargo, Edward L.; Labadie, Paul; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria

    2016-02-01

    A termite colony is usually founded by a pair of alates, the primary reproductives, which produce all the nestmates. In some species, secondary reproductives appear to either replace the primaries or supplement colony reproduction. In termites, secondary reproductives are generally ergatoids derived from workers or nymphoids derived from nymphs. Silvestritermes euamignathus is a termite species that forms multiple nymphoid reproductives, and to date it was hypothesized that these secondary reproductives were the progeny of the primary founding reproductives. We developed markers for 12 microsatellite loci and used COI mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to genotype 59 nymphoid neotenics found in a colony of S. euamignathus to test this hypothesis. Our results showed that nymphoids of S. euamignathus are not all siblings. The microsatellite analysis suggests that the secondary reproductives derived from a minimum of four different pairs of reproductives belonging to at least two different matrilines. This is the first record of non-sibling secondary reproductives occupying the same nest in a higher termite. These unrelated reproductives might be the result of either pleometrotic colony foundation or colony fusion.

  7. Reproduction or opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard; Karen, David; Nielsen, Jens Christian;

    2016-01-01

    what key experiences and relationships lead students to abandon or sustain their interest in careers related to sports and how this differs for boys and girls. By applying Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and types of capital, we conclude that there are elements of both reproduction......) with a follow-up survey in 2015. In this paper, we explore the social backgrounds and experiences of students in order to examine their likelihood of retention during the first few years of the program. Focusing on socioeconomic status, the role of having parents in elite sports, and type of sport, we study...

  8. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Aygul Akyuz; Gonul Sahiner

    2010-01-01

    AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are r...

  9. Male reproductive health and yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  10. Incorporation of genetic technologies associated with applied reproductive technologies to enhance world food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science. Artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MO...

  11. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  12. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  13. 多胎妊娠自然减胎对辅助生殖技术临床结局影响的研究%Study of Effects of Spontaneous Reduction of Multiple Pregnancies on Clinical Outcomes in Assisted Reproductive Technologyn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴重聪; 蔡桂丰; 杨桂艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of spontaneous reduction of multiple pregnancies on clinical outcomes in assisted reproductive technology(ART).Method:A total of 193 cases of spontaneous reduction in twin pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection(IVF/ICSI) in our center from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were prospectively analyzed.Result:183 cases of 1104 twin pregnancies occurred spontaneous reduction(16.58%,183/1104).Among which 119 cases(65.03%,119/183) of spontaneous reduction in twin occurred before 9th week of gestation.The pregnancy duration and birth weight in remaining singleton fetus after spontaneous reduction in twin were similar to that of singleton pregnancy(P>0.05), while the duration was significantly longer than that of twin gestation, and the birth weight was heavier(P0.05),但显著高于同期双胎妊娠,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:多胎妊娠自然减胎后可延长妊娠时间,增加保留胎儿的出生体重;妊娠8周后实施选择性多胎妊娠减胎术可减少手术干预率及并发症。

  14. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  15. Herbivory strongly influences among-population variation in reproductive output of Lythrum salicaria in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehndal, Lina; Hambäck, Peter A; Ericson, Lars; Ågren, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Herbivory can negatively affect several components of plant reproduction. Yet, because of a lack of experimental studies involving multiple populations, the extent to which differences in herbivory contribute to among-population variation in plant reproductive success is poorly known. We experimentally determined the effects of insect herbivory on reproductive output in nine natural populations of the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria along a disturbance gradient in an archipelago in northern Sweden, and we quantified among-population differentiation in resistance to herbivory in a common-garden experiment in the same area. The intensity of leaf herbivory varied >500-fold and mean female reproductive success >400-fold among the study populations. The intensity of herbivory was lowest in populations subject to strong disturbance from ice and wave action. Experimental removal of insect herbivores showed that the effect of herbivory on female reproductive success was correlated with the intensity of herbivory and that differences in insect herbivory could explain much of the among-population variation in the proportion of plants flowering and seed production. Population differentiation in resistance to herbivory was limited. The results demonstrate that the intensity of herbivory is a major determinant of flowering and seed output in L. salicaria, but that differences in herbivory are not associated with differences in plant resistance at the spatial scale examined. They further suggest that the physical disturbance regime may strongly influence the performance and abundance of perennial herbs and patterns of selection not only because of its effect on interspecific competition, but also because of effects on interactions with specialized herbivores.

  16. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  17. Reproductive health issues in rural Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouma Peter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.

  18. Is Being a Health-care Worker a Risk Factor for Women's Reproductive System?

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to workplace hazards in health-care workers can affect on their health including the reproductive system. Some exposures cause reproductive system disorders. Objective of this study was to compare reproductive system disorders between hospital personnel who work in clinical and administrative setting. Methods: This is a historical cohort study on clinical and administrative workers of hospitals. The study tool was flexible interview and questionnaire. Pr...

  19. Gender roles and practice of decision making on reproductive behavior among couples of Syangja district, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan Subedi; Preety Mahato; Subina Acharya; Hari Prasad Kafle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reproductive behavior and its decision making practices are generally exercised in one of the three ways – mutual, dominancy of husband or dominancy of wife. Gender norms and roles prevalent in society affect the practice of reproductive decision making among couples. The aim of this study was to identify the practice of decision making on different reproductive behavior among couples and to examine the associated factors of decision making. Methods: Descriptive cross section...

  20. Effects of pollination limitation and seed predation on female reproductive success of a deceptive orchid

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ryan P.; Arnold, Paige M.; Michaels, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    For many species of conservation significance, multiple factors limit reproduction. This research examines the contributions of plant height, number of flowers, number of stems, pollen limitation and seed predation to female reproductive success in the deceit-pollinated orchid, Cypripedium candidum. The deceptive pollination strategy employed by many orchids often results in high levels of pollen limitation. While increased floral display size may attract pollinators, C. candidum's multiple, ...

  1. Intracerebroventricular leptin injection affects neuroendocrine reproductive axis in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Qiao; Huixian Cui

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin regulates neuroendocrine function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis in humans.OBJECTIVE: To verify effects of intracerebroventricular leptin injection on neuroendocrine function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis in nvariectomized rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled experiment was performed at the Basic Medical Institute, Chengde Medical College between June and October 2007.MATERIALS: Thirty healthy, female, Wistar rats were included in this study. The following compounds were used: leptin; gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups at 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection. Each group was subdivided into control and experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group and time point). All rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy and, beginning on day 7 after surgery, animals received daily subcutaneous injections of estradiol benzoate (2 μ g) for 7 consecutive days. The experimental groups were injected with 5 μ L leptin (1 g/L) into the lateral cerebral ventricle, and control groups received an equal volume of physiological saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GnRH and LH secretion were examined 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection using GnRH and LH ELISA kits, respectively.RESULTS: In the experimental groups, GnRH secretion significantly increased (P < 0.01), followed by LH secretion (P < 0.01), compared with the control groups. GnRH secretion significantly increased l hour after leptin injection (P < 0.01). The LH increase was less pronounced, but still significant (P < 0.01); however,the most prominent LH increase occurred between 1 and 2 hours. Both GnRH and LH secretion reached peak levels at 2 hours after leptin injection. Thereafter, both GnRH and LH secretion decreased, but still maintained very high levels, compared with the control group (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: lntracerebroventricular leptin injection produced similar effects on GnRH and LH secretion in ovaricctomized rats, indicating regulatory effects of leptin on GnRH and LH secretion.

  2. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive pattern that is generally characterized by a short seasonal reproductive period that lasts one to three months, between September and April. This is accompanied by total spawning, an extremely high fecundity, and, in many species, a reproductive migration. Many species with lower fecundity exhibit some form of parental care. Although reduction in body size may represent an adaptive advantage, it may also require evolutionary responses to new biological problems that arise. In terms of reproduction, smaller species have a tendency to reduce the number of oocytes that they produce. Many small characids have a reproductive pattern similar to that of larger characiforms. On the other hand they may also exhibit a range of modifications that possibly relate to the decrease in body size and the consequent reduction in fecundity. Examples of changes in the general reproductive pattern include the following: reduction in the size of mature oocytes; increase in fecundity; production of several batches of oocytes; an extended reproductive period or even continuous reproduction that allows individuals to reproduce more than once a year; high growth rates; rapid recruitment of juveniles; presence of more than one reproductive cohort that increases the sexually active population; and multiple independent development of insemination as a reproductive strategy. These changes are possibly associated with adaptive pressures that are related to the reduction in body size. In

  3. Work, environment and reproductive health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing labour force participation among women in Western countries, many women will work during their reproductive years. This will increase the likelihood that women during their reproductive years will be exposed to a variety of risk factors at work that may effect their r

  4. Reproduction Diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apeng Lin; Songdong Shen; Jianwei Wang; Binlun Yan

    2008-01-01

    Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the Inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many.reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was Indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.

  5. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  6. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2015-08-13

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  8. Reduction of serum IGF-I levels in patients affected with Monoclonal Gammopathies of undetermined significance or Multiple Myeloma. Comparison with bFGF, VEGF and K-ras gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum levels of IGF-I in patients affected with multiple myeloma (MM have been scarcely studied. The present study is aimed to explore this point comparing 55 healthy subjects, 71 monoclonal gammopaties of uncertain significance (MGUS and 77 overt MM patients. In the same subjects, basic FGF and VEGF, have been detected. All three mediators were analyzed in function of K-ras mutation and melphalan response. Concerning IGF-I, two representative monitoring examples have also been added. Methods Cytokine determinations were performed by commercially available ELISA kits, while K12-ras mutation was investigated on genomic DNA isolated from bone marrow cell specimens by RFLP-PCR assay. Results Significant reductions of IGF-I levels were observed in MGUS and MM as compared with healthy controls. In addition, MM subjects showed significantly decreased serum IGF-I levels than MGUS. Conversely, increasing levels were observed for bFGF and VEGF, molecules significantly correlated. A multivariate analysis corrected for age and gender confirmed the significant difference only for IGF-I values (P = 0.01. K12-ras mutation was significantly associated with malignancy, response to therapy and with significantly increased serum bFGF levels. Conclusion IGF-I reduction in the transition: Controls→MGUS→MM and changes observed over time suggest that IGF-I should be furtherly studied in future clinical trials as a possible monitoring marker for MM.

  9. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  10. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  11. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  12. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  13. 亚健康量表中过敏方面影响因素的多元逐步回归分析%Multiple Stepwise Regression Analysis on Affecting Factors of Allergy in Sub-Health Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔利宏; 何裕民; 倪红梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the affecting factors of allergy in sub-health people,and prevent the occurrence of allergy. Methods:Possible affecting factors of allergy in 6 975 cases of sub-health people were filtered by using multiple stepwise regression method. There were thirteen factors leading to the multiple stepwise regression model, namely: degree, age, fatigue, digestion, sleep, plant nerve, immunity, aging,constipation,depression,learning,memory,self-realization and sex. Results:Statistical results showed that allergy had correlation with 19 aspects of four areas of body performance,psychological,social adaptation,sex,and age and degree. Among these,a positive correlation was presented between allergy and 19 aspects of four areas of body performance,psychological ,social adaptation,sex,and degree and a negative correlation was existed between allergy and age,and both with statistical significance(P <0.01). Conclusion:The prevention of allergy should focus on the whole adjustment and strengthen people's physique. In clinical,affecting factors of allergy should be fully considered in order to avoid missed diagnosis, erroneous diagnosis and delay of the illness and reduce the quality of life.%目的:探讨亚健康人群中过敏的影响因素,预防过敏的发生.方法:对6 975例亚健康人群,采用多元逐步回归方法对过敏的可能影响因素进行筛选.进入多元逐步回归模型的因素有13个,分别是:学历、年龄、疲劳、消化、睡眠、植物神经、免疫力、衰老、便秘、抑郁、学习、记忆力、自我实现及性生活.结果:统计结果显示,过敏方面与躯体表现、心理表现、社会适应、性生活四个领域的19个方面及年龄、学历均存在相关性.其中,过敏方面与躯体表现、心理表现、社会适应、性生活四个领域的19个方面及学历均呈正相关;与年龄呈负相关.统计学均具有极显著性意义(P<0.01).结论:预防过敏应注重整体调整、增

  14. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.

  15. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. PMID:26204578

  16. Reproductive Health Education Model in Early Childhood through Education Film "Damar Wulan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrulianingdyah, Atiek

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health education for early childhood it has been the time to teach, because the demand of the changing times and will affect the child's life when he/she is a teenager. During this time, the reproductive health education, which is in it there is sex education, considered taboo among some communities. They argue that the reproductive…

  17. Leveraging Social Networks to Support Reproductive Health and Economic Wellbeing among Guatemalan Maya Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…

  18. Growth hormone and reproduction in the female rat: a central role for somatostatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes are closely related: Both underproduction and overproduction of growth hormone (GH) affect reproduction. During aging, the decline in GH release and reproductive function appear to occur concurrently. Data from the literature suggest that

  19. The second parity sow : causes and consequences of variation in reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Many sows show reduced litter sizes in their second parity compared with their first parity. The aim of the current thesis was to describe causes and consequences of variation on second parity reproductive performance and to evaluate if feeding strategies during early gestation affect reproductive p

  20. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and male reproductive function in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Vermeulen, Roel;

    2014-01-01

    Animal and a few human studies suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may affect male reproductive function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if male reproductive function was associated with serum level of PBDEs. We evaluated, in a cross-sectional study, the effects of e...

  1. Intervention measures, turning point, and reproduction number for dengue, Singapore, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Ma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore cumulated in > 14,000 cases and 27 reported dengue deaths. We fit the single-phase Richards model to weekly dengue notification numbers to detect the turning point for the outbreak, which enables us to study the impact of intervention measures relating to the turning point. The results indicate that turning point had most likely occurred in late August or early September, before large-scale intervention measures were implemented. The "initial" reproduction number for the outbreak is estimated to be ~1.89-2.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.15-3.00). One of the lessons learned from the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak is that multiple phases of outbreak were observed in some affected countries when efforts to intensify intervention or to sustain vigilance were compromised. Intensive and continuing efforts in the implementation of control measures are essential in reducing further dengue occurrences during any resurgence of dengue.

  2. New reproductive technologies: Equity and access to reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henifin, M S

    1993-01-01

    While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238

  3. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  4. Analyses of Sexual Reproductive Success in Transgenic and/or Mutant Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane P. G. Calixto; Gustavo H. Goldman; Maria Helena S. Goldman

    2009-01-01

    The pistil, the female reproductive organ of plants, is a key player in the success of sexual plant reproduction. Ultimately, the production of fruits and seeds depends on the proper pistil development and function. Therefore, the identification and characterization of pistil expressed genes is essential for a better understanding and manipulation of the plant reproduction process. For studying the function of pistil expressed genes, transgenic and/or mutant plants for the genes of interest are used. The present article provides a review of methods already exploited to analyze sexual reproductive success. We Intend to sup ply useful information and to guide future experiments in thestudy of genes affecting pistil development and function.

  5. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  6. NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMAS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Babkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are extremely rare among all tumors of female reproductive system. Diagnostic mistakes and inadequate therapeu- tic tactics in these diseases are results of usual absence of alertness of gynecologists. The aims are to analyze reasons of diagnostic mistakes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of female reproductive system and to discover definitive clinical and morphological characteristics of female reproductive system lymphoid tumors. During the period between 1989 and 2006, 305 cases of primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lym- phomas were detected; female reproductive system was affected in 7% of patients (totally 40 patients, which were included in investigated group. In the whole analyzed group of women (n=40, median age 43 yrs, range 17-84 yrs, patients with primary lesion of female reproductive system had median age of 40 yrs and with secondary involvement - 46 yrs. Most of patients were fertile (60%, n=24. Such tumors was localized in breast in 40% of cases (n=16, in ovaries - 20% (n=8, in uterine corpus - 12,5% (n=5, in uterine cervix - 15% (n=6, and in vagina - remaining 12,5% (n=5. Average time from diagnosis to beginning of the treatment was 7,5 months. As a result, the onset of specific therapy was delayed in 65% cases (n=26 and 50% (n=20 underwent unneeded surgery. Diagnostic mistakes lead to inadequate treatment. Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of female reproductive system, both primary and secondary, are rare pathology. Primary lesion is more typical for older women, sec- ondary is mainly affecting younger women (in reproductive period. Chemotherapy response and prognosis are better in primary cases.

  7. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on reproduction in reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Megan J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-06-01

    Differences in the sensitivity of marine species to ocean acidification will influence the structure of marine communities in the future. Reproduction is critical for individual and population success, yet is energetically expensive and could be adversely affected by rising CO2 levels in the ocean. We investigated the effects of projected future CO2 levels on reproductive output of two species of coral reef damselfish, Amphiprion percula and Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Adult breeding pairs were maintained at current-day control (446 μatm), moderate (652 μatm) or high CO2 (912 μatm) for a 9-month period that included the summer breeding season. The elevated CO2 treatments were consistent with CO2 levels projected by 2100 under moderate (RCP6) and high (RCP8) emission scenarios. Reproductive output increased in A. percula, with 45-75 % more egg clutches produced and a 47-56 % increase in the number of eggs per clutch in the two elevated CO2 treatments. In contrast, reproductive output decreased at high CO2 in Ac. polyacanthus, with approximately one-third as many clutches produced compared with controls. Egg survival was not affected by CO2 for A. percula, but was greater in elevated CO2 for Ac. polyacanthus. Hatching success was also greater for Ac. polyacanthus at elevated CO2, but there was no effect of CO2 treatments on offspring size. Despite the variation in reproductive output, body condition of adults did not differ between control and CO2 treatments in either species. Our results demonstrate different effects of high CO2 on fish reproduction, even among species within the same family. A greater understanding of the variation in effects of ocean acidification on reproductive performance is required to predict the consequences for future populations of marine organisms.

  8. [Celiac disease. Risk factors for women in reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2000-05-01

    In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475

  9. Effects of Light on the Growth and Clonal Reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-Tang Wang; Zhi-Gang Zhao; Guo-Zhen Du; Yan-Long He

    2008-01-01

    Ligularia virgaurea is a perennial herb that is widely distributed in the alpine meadow on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau.We investigated the patterns of growth and reproduction of L.virgaurea under two contrasting levels of light conditions for two continuous growing seasons.Our results showed that the light affects on the maximum relative growth rate,the shoot weight ratio and the root weight ratio differed between the two growing seasons.L.virgaurea reproduced initially through rhizome in the second growing season,rather than sexual reproduction.The proportion of genets with clonal reproduction decreased under shaded conditions.A minimum genet size should be attained for clonal reproduction to begin under the shaded conditions.There was a positive linear relationship between clonal reproduction and genet size.Light level affected the allocation of total biomass to clonal structures,with less allocation under the full natural irradiance than under the shaded conditions.There seemed to be a trade-off between vegetative growth and clonal reproduction under the full natural irradiance,in terms of smaller relative growth rates of genets with clonal reproduction than those without clonal reproduction.L.virgaurea emphasized clonal reproduction under the full natural irradiance,while the plant emphasized vegetative growth under the shaded conditions.

  10. Growing inequalities and reproductive health in transitional countries: Kazakhstan and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Natalia

    2010-04-01

    The present study examines how growing socio-economic inequalities in transitional countries that have followed different health policy paths affect women's access to reproductive health care. I conducted surveys in Kazakhstan and Belarus and used logistic regression analyses to determine accessibility to and satisfaction with reproductive health services, reproductive status, and reproductive history based on country of residence. By all measures, access to reproductive health services was most problematic for the low-income women in Kazakhstan but to a significantly lesser extent for economically disadvantaged respondents in Belarus. Differences in education had a significant effect on women's access to reproductive health services in Kazakhstan but were not present in Belarus. Household income was the most powerful predictor of self-perceived health in Kazakhstan, but not in Belarus. The unreformed health-care system in Belarus appears to be more accessible for all women than Kazakhstan's health-care system that underwent significant market-oriented reform.

  11. Reproductive mode evolution in nematodes: insights from molecular phylogenies and recently discovered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, D R; Clark, K A; Raboin, M J

    2011-11-01

    The Phylum Nematoda has long been known to contain a great diversity of species that vary in reproductive mode, though our understanding of the evolutionary origins, causes and consequences of nematode reproductive mode change have only recently started to mature. Here we bring together and analyze recent progress on reproductive mode evolution throughout the phylum, resulting from the application of molecular phylogenetic approaches and newly discovered nematode species. Reproductive mode variation is reviewed in multiple free-living, animal-parasitic and plant-parasitic nematode groups. Discussion ranges from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its close relatives, to the plant-parasitic nematodes of the Meloidogyne genus where there is extreme variation in reproductive mode between and even within species, to the vertebrate-parasitic genus Strongyloides and related genera where reproductive mode varies across generations (heterogony). Multiple evolutionary transitions from dioecous (obligately outcrossing) to hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis in the phylum are discussed, along with one case of an evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism to doioecy in the Oscheius genus. We consider the roles of underlying genetic mechanisms in promoting reproductive plasticity in this phylum, as well as the potential evolutionary forces promoting transitions in reproductive mode. PMID:21787872

  12. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    -economic concerns about fulfilling desired fertility rates, maintaining high levels of human capital, and supporting fiscal and pension systems. This article investigates professionals addressing declining fertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including doctors, demographers and economists...

  13. Reproductive ecology of predaceous Heteroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive ecology entails relating the physiology and behavior of an organism to its environment and the community in which it lives. Terrestrial predatory Heteroptera (including Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Miridae, Nabidae, Pentatomidae, Phymatidae, and Reduviidae) display a wide range of reproduc...

  14. The role of varicocele repair in the new era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 10-15% of couples who are trying to conceive, and half of the cases are due to male infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is increasingly being used to overcome multiple sperm deficiencies. Due to its effectiveness, some have proposed ICSI as a solution for all cases of male infertility, regardless of the cause. Hence, even men with potentially treatable causes of infertility have sought the aid of assisted reproductive technology, rather than undergo specific therapies to treat their infertility. Varicoceles are the most frequent physical finding in infertile men; indeed, they may be responsible for nearly one-third of cases of male infertility. Varicocele management, however, has always been a controversial issue because very few randomized, controlled studies have been performed to examine varicocelectomy as an infertility treatment. Significant evidence suggests that varicoceles have a harmful effect on the testis and that varicocelectomy can not only prevent progressive decline in testicular function but also reverse the damage. However, the degree to which varicocele repair improves pregnancy rates and the success of assisted reproductive technology remains controversial.

  15. Caribbean lobster reproduction: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ayra, L.; Cruz, R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of the reproduction of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus aims to provide information that will improve the management decisions, the study in population dynamics and on spiny lobsters aquaculture research. We update the reader on this topic with studies carried out by decades in Cuban archipelago, Florida, Bermuda, Mexico and Brazil. In particular, it was discussed the results of fieldwork studies on reproductive cycle, fecundity, brood size and population egg prod...

  16. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  17. Lifetime reproductive effort in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Oskar; Walker, Robert; Hamilton, Marcus J.

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime reproductive effort (LRE) measures the total amount of metabolized energy diverted to reproduction during the lifespan. LRE captures key components of the life history and is particularly useful for describing and comparing the life histories of different organisms. Given a simple energetic production constraint, LRE is predicted to be similar in value for very different life histories. However, humans have some unique ecological characteristics that may alter LRE, such as the long p...

  18. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bos-Mikich; Fabiana F. Bressan; Ruggeri, Rafael R.; Yeda Watanabe; Flávio V. Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with var...

  19. Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple myeloma is a cancer that begins in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. These cells ... bones. No one knows the exact causes of multiple myeloma, but it is more common in older people ...

  20. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  1. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  2. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  3. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  4. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    In recent decades, Baltic cod has experienced a period of low recruitment. In the same period the pelagic Baltic Sea ecosystem experienced a regime shift, due to hydrographic changes, affecting all trophic levels. The rationale for the thesis is built on the hypothesis that the regime shift has r...

  5. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  6. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  7. Energetics, Reproductive Ecology, and Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology is a relatively new subfield of human evolutionary biology focusing on the responsiveness of the human reproductive system to ecological variables. Many of the advances in human, and more recently primate, reproductive ecology concern the influence of energetics on the allocation of reproductive effort. This paper reviews eleven working hypotheses that have emerged from recent work in reproductive ecology that have potential bearing on the role of energetics in huma...

  8. Effects of Enrichment and Litter Parity on Reproductive Performance and Behavior in BALB/c and 129/Sv Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Julia W; Moy, Sheryl S; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Fletcher, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding species-appropriate environmental enrichment items to breeding cages of BALB/cAnNCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice. The 3 enrichment conditions were: 1) cotton nesting material; 2) nesting material plus a paper shelter and rolled paper bedding; and 3) an igloo dome with an exercise wheel in addition to the shelter-group enrichments. We measured litter size, litter survival to weaning age, average pup weight at 21 d, and the interlitter interval to evaluate reproductive performance. A random subset of the first- or second-litter offspring from each enrichment condition and strain was assessed in multiple behavioral tests. Enrichment significantly affected anxiety-like behavior and sociability, with the direction of change dependent on strain and sex. Litter parity had greater effects on some reproductive parameters than did the enrichment condition, and this effect was not solely due to a difference between the first compared with subsequent litters. The significant effects of litter parity on the number of pups born and weaned, female pup weight, and interlitter interval were dependent on the enrichment condition in BALB/c but not 129/Sv mice. Offspring from the first or second litter were included in a generational component to investigate whether enrichment effects on reproduction persist in adult offspring after transfer to a different facility for breeding. Natal cage enrichment had no effect on any reproductive parameter in the transferred mice. Overall, additional enrichment beyond nesting material had a beneficial effect on the interlitter interval in BALB/c mice and on the number of pups weaned in 129/Sv mice. PMID:27423144

  9. Effects of propoxur on the reproductive system of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Watcho, Pierre; Bouseko, Tepi Serges; Kenfack, Augustave; Tchoumboué, Joseph; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The reproductive toxicity of propoxur (2-isopropoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate), a carbamate pesticide, was investigated in adult male Wistar rats exposed to 0, 1.73, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 successive days. Results obtained from this study showed a significant (p propoxur (5.2 mg/kg) compared to the control. On the contrary, there was a significant (p propoxur at the dose of 5.2 mg/kg body weight. Propoxur had no significant effect on gestation, fertility and parturition indices, average birth weight, litter size and pups sex ratio of untreated female rats mated with treated males rats. These results suggested that propoxur increased food consumption, relative weight of reproductive and detoxication organs, decreased body weight gain and sperm density per gram of cauda epididymis without affecting the reproductive performances.

  10. Effects of Cow's Milk on Reproduction in ICR Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-XIA MA; NAOYUKI EBINE; KAZUO AOKI; MASAHIRO KUSUNOKI; JUNICHI MISUMI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Cow's milk on the reproduction in male mice. Methods Twenty-four male mice were divided randomly into two groups: milk group (M) and control group (C). Each mouse was given 10 mL milk per day from 4 to 16 weeks in the group M. At the age of 17 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed. Results Serum testosterone was decreased in the group M (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in weight of testes, seminal vesicle or adrenal gland of mice between the groups C and M. However, the weight of seminal vesicle decreased when expressed in g/100g body weight in the group M. Epididymal sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and sperm head number were not affected by milk. Conclusion Cow's milk has adverse effects on the reproductive system in ICR male mice. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific effects of milk on reproductive health.

  11. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  12. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-09-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  13. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  14. Reproduction and the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1995-01-01

    A unique aspect of the circulating renin-angiotensin system and the many independent tissue renin-angiotensin systems is their interactions at multiple levels with reproduction. These interactions, which have received relatively little attention, include effects of estrogens and possibly androgens on hepatic and renal angiotensinogen mRNA; effects of androgens on the Ren-2 gene and salivary renin in mice; the prorenin surge that occurs with but outlasts the LH surge during the menstrual cycle; the inhibitory effects of estrogens on thirst and water intake; the tissue renin-angiotensin systems in the brain, the anterior pituitary, and the ovaries and testes, that is, in all the components of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis; the presence of some components of the renin-angiotensin system in the uterus and the fetoplacental unit; and the possible relation of renin and angiotensin to ovulation and fetal well-being. These interactions are described and their significance considered in this short review.

  15. Reproduction and the renin-angiotensin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.

    1995-01-01

    A unique aspect of the circulating renin-angiotensin system and the many independent tissue renin-angiotensin systems is their interactions at multiple levels with reproduction. These interactions, which have received relatively little attention, include effects of estrogens and possibly androgens on hepatic and renal angiotensinogen mRNA; effects of androgens on the Ren-2 gene and salivary renin in mice; the prorenin surge that occurs with but outlasts the LH surge during the menstrual cycle; the inhibitory effects of estrogens on thirst and water intake; the tissue renin-angiotensin systems in the brain, the anterior pituitary, and the ovaries and testes, that is, in all the components of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis; the presence of some components of the renin-angiotensin system in the uterus and the fetoplacental unit; and the possible relation of renin and angiotensin to ovulation and fetal well-being. These interactions are described and their significance considered in this short review.

  16. Limitations to reproductive success in the dioecious tree Rhamnus davurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available The reproductive success of a female plant in a dioecious species may be affected by pollen limitation and resource limitation. This study presents evidence that the reproductive success of the dioecious understorey tree species, Rhamnus davurica, is affected by the distance to the nearest male. The sex ratios were female-biased, although showing fluctuations in the three years of conducting the study. The mortality rate of females was higher than that of males indicating a trade-off between reproduction and survival. Altogether 49 females, designated as "focal females", were randomly selected for monitoring their reproductive status between April and October in 2010. But successful reproduction (meaning that the flowering female trees had fruit in the fruiting season was observed only in 28 females in 2011 and 16 females in 2012. The method of path analysis was applied to determine the effect of topography, local competition and proximity to the nearest male on the fruit set of the females. In the three years of the study, elevation, competition and female size had no significant effect on the fruit set. The distance to the nearest male, however, had a significant effect on fruit set. Number of fruits and fruit set were decreased with increasing distance to the nearest male. It was possible to estimate maximum fruit set, based on the comparatively large dataset. The number of fruits and the fruit set are exponentially related to the distance to the nearest male and the relationships are described by an exponential model. The results of this study support the importance of pollen limitation on the reproductive success in Rhamnus davurica.

  17. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony.

  18. Pollinator limitation on reproductive success in Iris tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plant and floral size can have conflicting effects on pollination and fruit production in flowering plants. This research examines the contributions of plant height, flower size and pollinator visitation to reproductive success in four populations of Iris tuberosa. The plants were pollinated exclusively by hymenopteran species, primarily during sunny days. Pollination supplementation increased the proportion of flowers that matured into fruit, with 95 % fruit set for hand-pollinated compared with 74.15 % for naturally pollinated flowers. The pollinator visitation rate and the proportion of fruit produced were not significantly different between tall and short plants or between small and large flowers. Furthermore, the increase in plant size and floral display did not increase the frequency of pollinator visitations and so did not increase the fruit set. Thus, despite the widespread effects of flowering plant size on pollinator attraction and plant reproduction in other species, these effects are lacking in I. tuberosa. This study quantifies the role of pollinators in the reproductive success of I. tuberosa. Pollinators visited tall/short plants and large/small flowers in equal proportion, suggesting that plant and floral display size do not affect pollinator attraction and reproductive success in I. tuberosa. These results suggest that sexual reproduction of I. tuberosa is fairly limited by pollinators and not by resource limitation. PMID:25527476

  19. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony. PMID:26909189

  20. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function: a multipollutant assessment in Greenlandic, Polish and Ukrainian men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M; Jönsson, Bo A G; Giwercman, Aleksander; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Spanò, Marcello; Pedersen, Henning S; Ludwicki, Jan K; Chumak, Lyubov; Piersma, Aldert H; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Numerous environmental contaminants have been linked to adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, the complex correlation structure of exposures and multiple testing issues limit the interpretation of existing evidence. Our objective was to identify, from a large set of contaminant

  1. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  2. Multiple Gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multiple gliomas are well-recognized but uncommon tumors. The incidence of multiple gliomas according to some reports ranges from 0.5% to 20% of all gliomas diagnosed. Multiple gliomas can be divided into two categories. One is by location of the lesions (multifocal and multicentric). The second type is by the time of the lesions occur (synchronous and metachronous). The lesions generally show hypo, or isodensity on CT; a hypo- or isointense signal on T1-weighted images, and a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. Glioblastoma is the most frequent histotype. The prognosis of multiple gliomas remains unfavorable. The treatment of multiple gliomas includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Distinction between multicentric and multifocal gliomas is difficult. This report reviews in detail the aspects of multiple gliomas mentioned above.

  3. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  4. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Meese, Robert J; Graves, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent investigation. The method we

  5. Gluconeogenic supplements do not affect production, reproductive traits and blood metabolite of holstein cows during the transition period Produtos gliconeogênicos não afetam respostas produtivas, reprodutivas e sangüínea de vacas holandesas em transição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Garcez de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gluconeogenic supplements for dairy cows during the transition period has produced contradictory responses in the literature, making it difficult to recommend them. The objective of this trial was to evaluate supplementation with propylene glycol (PG, calcium propionate (CP, and "Dairy Power Drench®" (DR on the transitional period of Holstein cows. Parameters studied were variation of body condition score (BCS, body weight (BW, milk production (MP, reproductive efficiency and nonesterified fatty acid concentration (NEFA. One hundred and sixty five animals from two commercial herds were used. Treatments consisted of: C- Control; DR- administration of "Dairy Power Drench®" (3 applications during postpartum; CP- daily administration of calcium propionate (500 g; PG- daily administration of propylene glycol (500 mL. Variation sources studied were the effect of treatments and blocks as function of farm and parity. No interaction between time (weeks and treatments, or treatment effects, were found for BCS. However, there was a quadratic effect of time. Body weight and its variation were not affected by treatment nor by the time × treatment interaction. However, a quadratic effect of time was observed. An interaction time × treatment was observed on MP, but possible differences within each week were not detected. Treatments also did not affect reproductive efficiency parameters. On average, the number of days to first detected postpartum estrus was 69.5, with 2.23 services per conception and 172.6 days open. The mean concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was 376.6 mmol L-1 and no effect of the interaction time × treatment, or of treatment, was observed. However, a linear effect was observed with time, with a decrease of 48.2 mmol L-1 per week.O uso de produtos gliconeogênicos para vacas leiteiras no período de transição tem gerado respostas contraditórias na literatura, dificultando a sua recomendação. O objetivo deste

  6. Reproductive cycle of the swimming crab Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses some reproductive aspects of Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, a crab usually commercialized in Ubatuba region. Monthly otter-trawl collections were taken for two years along the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The reproductive period was studied based on the frequency of ovigerous females in the population along the year; the frequency of physiologically mature swimming crabs and the type of spawn. The condition of development of ovigerous females ovary was associated with the stage of eggs development. This species presents continuous reproduction in Ubatuba region and total spawn, but with successive broods, which suggests a multiple spawn during the reproduction period.

  7. Emblica officinalis Garten fruits extract ameliorates reproductive injury and oxidative testicular toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Abir Lal; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have destroying properties on male reproduction and chlorpyrifos adversely affects the male reproductive system. Emblica offcinalis Garten plays a vital role to challenge many diseases in human body. We investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the male reproductive system of adult rats (Wistar Strain) exposed to widely used organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos, and tried to establish the ameliorative properties of Emblica officinalis Garten with respect ...

  8. Reproductive biology and diet of Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus (Serpentes, Colubridae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta R. Pinto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the reproductive pattern and the diet of Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus based on examination of museum specimens.The snake has an aseasonal reproductive pattern, suggesting multiple clutches during a year. Females are larger than males when sexual maturity is reached. Clutch size ranges from six to 15 eggs. The diet of Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus is composed of anurans, and there are no a foraging decrease during the clutching season.

  9. Reproductive factors related to the risk of colorectal cancer by subsite: a case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, K-Y; Tajima, K.; M. Inoue; Takezaki, T.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, N; Park, S.K.; Kang, D. H.; Kato, T; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that reproductive factors of colorectal cancer, which are probably mediated by endogenous hormones, would differ according to colonic subsite. Information on reproductive factors was obtained from 372 female colorectal cancer cases (113 proximal colon, 126 distal colon, 133 rectum) and 31 061 cancer-free controls at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, between 1988 and 1995. Multiple logistic analysis showed that late age at interview, family history of colorectal...

  10. Multiple sclerosis in pregnancy- a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vedavathy Nayak; Sreelatha S; Sahana Punneshetty

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is primarily a disease of women in their reproductive years. Relapse rate decreases during pregnancy and rises after delivery. Pregnancy and puerperium have opposite effects on the course of the disease. The case presented is that of a second gravida who was a known case of multiple sclerosis. She was managed conservatively during pregnancy and puerperium. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000): 67-68

  11. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenkov Yu.V.; Nechaev V.N.; Stasova Yu.V.; Tereshenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART); to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies), from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced p...

  12. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercel, Barbara A.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cox, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  13. Coral reproduction in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, James; Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia's remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of the

  14. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  15. Genomic imprinting and assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaillet J Richard

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imprinted genes exhibit a parent-of-origin specific pattern of expression. Such genes have been shown to be targets of molecular defects in particular genetic syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Angelman syndromes. Recent reports have raised concern about the possibility that assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, might cause genomic imprinting disorders. The number of reported cases of those disorders is still too small to draw firm conclusions and the safety of these widely used assisted reproduction techniques needs to be further evaluated.

  16. Reproductive Technology in the Context of Reproductive Teleology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Neil J.; Hampton, Simon Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that in the ordinary course of events, most parents routinely practice "reproductive teleology" in that they attempt to manipulate the physical and psychological characteristics of children, and they do so as part of the process of good parenting. Furthermore, such attempts are socially approved of and encouraged. With these…

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.)

  18. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  19. Elite Education Abroad and Social Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu; Foged, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We study how social origin affects the likelihood of obtaining university education, with focus on foreign elite and non-elite education. Having highly educated parents increases the likelihood of obtaining university education both at home and abroad. Our survey data on Danes who have emigrated...... in Denmark. We suggest that the acquisition of distinctive educational capital abroad should be seen as a new investment and reproduction strategy, to be studied at the intersection of stratification and migration literature. Father’s education plays a bigger role for men while mother’s education plays...... for at least five years indicates that the parental background plays the biggest role in the choice to obtain elite education abroad. The distribution of parental education among those who obtain non-elite education abroad does not differ much from the distribution among those obtaining university education...

  20. Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uren-Webster, Tamsyn M.; Lewis, Ceri; Filby, Amy L.; Paull, Gregory C. [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Santos, Eduarda M., E-mail: e.santos@exeter.ac.uk [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and are known to adversely affect male reproductive health in mammals through interactions with multiple receptor systems. However, little is known about the risks they pose to fish. This project investigated the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most commonly used phthalate, on the reproductive health of male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Males were treated with 0.5, 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} (body weight) for a period of 10 days via intraperitoneal injection. The effects of the exposure were assessed by analysing fertilisation success, testis histology, sperm DNA integrity and transcript profiles of the liver and testis. A significant increase in the hepatosomatic index and levels of hepatic vitellogenin transcript were observed following exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1}. Exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} also resulted in a reduction in fertilisation success of oocytes spawned by untreated females. However, survival and development of the resulting embryos were unaffected by all treatments, and no evidence of DEHP-induced sperm DNA damage was observed. Exposure to 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} caused alterations in the proportion of germ cells at specific stages of spermatogenesis in the testis, including a reduction in the proportion of spermatozoa and an increase in the proportion of spermatocytes, suggesting that DEHP may inhibit the progression of meiosis. In parallel, exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} increased the levels of two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive genes (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and enoyl-coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ehhadh). These data demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DEHP disrupts spermatogenesis in adult zebrafish with a consequent decrease in their ability to fertilise oocytes spawned by untreated females. Furthermore, our data suggest that the adverse effects caused by

  1. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike. PMID:24602147

  2. Financing reproductive health in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, A.; Pradhan, J.; Rashid, H.A.; Beekink, E.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is the signatory of both, International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) programme of action and Millennium Development goals (MDGs). The Government of Bangladesh has set ambitious agendas for improving Reproductive Health (RH) services, to achieve the targets till 2015. In

  3. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  4. Hyperprolactinemia and male reproductive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis some effects of PRL on reproductive functions have been investigated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma. animal model has been used: For in men with a comparison an In. rats hyperprolactinemia has been induced by sub-cutaneous inoculation of a PRL- and ACTH-secreting transpla

  5. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco

  6. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  7. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  8. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  9. Impact of three phthalate esters on the sexual reproduction of the Monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, V; Iovine, C; Thomé, J-P; Joaquim-Justo, C

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widespread contaminants that can cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Studies showed that molecules with hormonal activities in vertebrates and invertebrates can affect asexual and sexual reproduction in rotifers. We investigated the impact of di-hexylethyl phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), on the asexual and sexual reproduction of the freshwater monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus in order to determine a potential environmental risk for sexual reproduction. We observed that DEHP has no significant impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction up to 2 mg/L. DBP has a positive effect on asexual reproduction at concentrations from 0.05 to 1 mg/L, but depresses it at 2 mg/L. Sexual reproduction is only affected at 2 mg/L and the impact observed is negative. BBP displayed a negative impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction at 1 and 2 mg/L. However we showed that the impacts of BBP on mixis and fertilization rates observed are due to the decrease in population growth rates at these concentrations and not to a direct impact of BBP on the mixis and the fertilization processes. Our results show that sexual reproduction in B. calyciflorus is not more sensitive than asexual reproduction to any of the substances tested which indicates the mode of action of these molecules is related to general toxicity and not to an interference with potential endocrine regulation of sexual reproduction. Comparison of effect concentrations and surface water contamination by phthalate esters suggests these compounds do not constitute a risk for primary consumers in these environments. PMID:26666431

  10. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H;

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this hypot......Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested...... allowing for gender and the potential confounders of age, income, and education. Finally, after allowing for these covariates, number of children in DeltaF508 heterozygotes decreased with increasing extent of smoking (trend test: P = 0.003), while the opposite was true for noncarriers (trend test: P

  11. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  12. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  13. Longevity and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia in receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield no toxicity outcomes even if pollutants are present. The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) determine whether tests with longer exposure periods to low concentrations of contaminants in ambient water might reveal evidence of toxicity that could not be discerned from 7-d tests and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia longevity and reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (a negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only. Before testing, though, water in the second set of tests was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. Ceriodaphnia dubia longevity and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but both longevity and reproduction were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water quality factors but sensitive to food-related factors. In five of the six full life-cycle tests, lifetime reproduction by C. dubia could not be reliably predicted from reproduction data from the first 7 d of testing. The increase in predictability of lifetime reproduction of C. dubia as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests and among treatments in the second set of tests. This, it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of 7-d tests with C. dubia to longer time scales

  14. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  15. Food availability at birth limited reproductive success in historical humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Ian J; Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Helle, Samuli; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life can profoundly affect individual development and have consequences for reproductive success. Limited food availability may be one of the reasons for this, but direct evidence linking variation in early-life nutrition to reproductive performance in adulthood in natural populations is sparse. We combined historical agricultural data with detailed demographic church records to investigate the effect of food availability around the time of birth on the reproductive success of 927 men and women born in 18th-century Finland. Our study population exhibits natural mortality and fertility rates typical of many preindustrial societies, and individuals experienced differing access to resources due to social stratification. We found that among both men and women born into landless families (i.e., with low access to resources), marital prospects, probability of reproduction, and offspring viability were all positively related to local crop yield during the birth year. Such effects were generally absent among those born into landowning families. Among landless individuals born when yields of the two main crops, rye and barley, were both below median, only 50% of adult males and 55% of adult females gained any reproductive success in their lifetime, whereas 97% and 95% of those born when both yields were above the median did so. Our results suggest that maternal investment in offspring in prenatal or early postnatal life may have profound implications for the evolutionary fitness of human offspring, particularly among those for which resources are more limiting. Our study adds support to the idea that early nutrition can limit reproductive success in natural animal populations, and provides the most direct evidence to date that this process applies to humans.

  16. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  17. 人工助孕子代的体格和神经心理发育研究进展%Growth of the children conceived by assisted reproduction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思锐

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the physiological and psychological state of the children conceived by different assisted reproduction techniques,studies confirm that the current assisted reproductive technology is safe,and there is no adverse effect on the physiological and psychological state of offspring.However,the high multiple pregnancy rate caused by assisted reproductive technology can affect the growth and psychological state of the children conceived by different assisted reproduction techniques,which is to be resolved.%该文分析不同人工助孕技术出生的子代体格和神经心理发育情况,证实目前人工助孕技术是安全的,对子代的生理以及心理无不良影响产生.但是人工助孕技术导致的多胎妊娠率增高是影响子代生长发育和神经心理发育状况的重要因素,需要相应的解决措施.

  18. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtchens MK, Lublin FD, Miller AE, Khoury SJ. Multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, ...

  20. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  1. Asexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…

  2. Approved Practices in Dairy Reproduction. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Roger D.; Barr, Harry L.

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with approved practices in dairy reproduction. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 200 slides dealing with the following topics: the importance of good reproduction, the male and female roles in reproduction, selection of…

  3. Cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Moolenaar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these

  4. Effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on reproductive outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, R E; Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1989-01-01

    Much public health research has been directed to studies of cancer risks due to chemical agents. Recently, increasing attention has been given to adverse reproductive outcomes as another, shorter-term biologic indicator of public health impact. Further, several low-level ubiquitous physical agents have been implicated recently as possibly affecting human health. These physical factors (noise and electromagnetic fields) represent difficult topics for research with epidemiologic study methods. ...

  5. Reproductive conflicts and egg discrimination in a socially polymorphic ant

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier J.; Delaplace L.; Chapuisat M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to discriminate against competitors shapes cooperation and conflicts in all forms of social life. In insect societies, workers may detect and destroy eggs laid by other workers or by foreign queens, which can contribute to regulate reproductive conflicts among workers and queens. Variation in colony kin structure affects the magnitude of these conflicts and the diversity of cues used for discrimination, but the impact of the number of queens per colony on the ability of workers to...

  6. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) in a model of fertility choice

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Helmut; Selvaretnam, Geethanjali; Ulph, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a simple theoretical framework to discuss the relationship between assisted reproductive technologies and the microeconomics of fertility choice. Individuals make choices of education and work along with decisions about whether and when to have children. Decisions regarding fertility are influenced by policy and labor market factors that affect the earnings opportunities of mothers and the costs of raising children. We show how observed differences in these economic factor...

  7. Effects of soybean isoflavones on reproductive parameters in Chinese mini-pig boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao-xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean isoflavones are structurally similar to mammalian estrogens and therefore may act as estrogen agonists or antagonists. However, it has not been determined if they have any negative effects on reproductive parameters in male livestock. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soybean isoflavones on male reproduction using Chinese mini-pig boars as a model. Fifty Xiang boars were randomly divided into five groups and fed diets containing 0, 125, 250, or 500 ppm soybean isoflavones or 0.5 ppm diethylstilbestrol for 60 days. Results Dietary supplementation with 250 ppm of soy isoflavones markedly increased the testis index (P P P P P P P P P P P Conclusions The results of this study indicate that consumption of soy isoflavones at dietary levels up to 250 ppm did not adversely affect reproductive parameters in Chinese mini-pig boars whereas higher levels of soy isoflavones may adversely affect male reproduction.

  8. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  9. Cost of reproduction and offspring quality in the evolution of reproductive effort

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Tuula

    2002-01-01

    Any organism has a limited amount of resources, which have to be partitioned among several activities such as maintenance, growth and reproduction. Reproductive effort is defined as the proportion of parental resources devoted to fecundity and offspring survival. The extent of reproductive effort is restricted by trade-offs that cancel out the advantages of increasing investment in reproduction. This thesis presents an investigation into the determinants of reproductive effort in the bank vol...

  10. Women Reproductive Rights in India: Prospective Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kosgi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive rights were established as a subset of the human rights. Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children. Issues regarding the reproductive rights are vigorously contested, regardless of the population’s socioeconomic level, religion or culture. Following review article discusses reproductive rights with respect to Indian context focusing on socio economic and cultural aspects. Also discusses sensitization of government and judicial agencies in protecting the reproductive rights with special focus on the protecting the reproductive rights of people with disability (mental illness and mental retardation.

  11. Impact of supplementary feeding on reproductive success of white storks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Hilgartner

    Full Text Available European white stork (Ciconia ciconia populations have been object to several conservation measures such as reintroduction programs, habitat improvement or supplementary feeding in the last decades. Although recent white stork censuses revealed an upward trend of most of the western populations, evaluations of the relative importance of certain conservation measures are still scarce or even lacking. In our study we analyzed the effect of supplementary feeding on the reproductive success of white storks in conjunction with other factors such as weather or nest site characteristics. We present data of 569 breeding events at 80 different nest sites located in variable distances to an artificial feeding site at Affenberg Salem (south-western Germany collected from 1990-2012. A multilevel Poisson regression revealed that in our study population (1 reproductive success was negatively affected by monthly precipitation in April, May and June, (2 pairs breeding on power poles had a lower reproductive success than pairs breeding on platforms or trees and (3 reproductive success was significantly higher in pairs breeding in close distance to the feeding site. The number of fledglings per nest decreased by 8% per kilometer distance to the feeding site. Our data suggest that supplementary feeding increases fledgling populations which may be a tool to attenuate population losses caused by factors such as habitat deterioration or unfavorable conditions in wintering habitats.

  12. 'Halfway people': refugee views of reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, A; Blogg, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that facilitate or hinder access to, use of, and satisfaction with reproductive health services in refugee settings, from the perspective of beneficiaries. Rapid appraisal methods included 46 focus group discussions and interviews with over 800 refugees, audits of 14 health facilities, referral hospital reviews, exit interviews with clients, and interviews with health workers. The study was conducted between February and April 2004 in 11 sites in Uganda, Republic of Congo, and Yemen. Reproductive health was clearly on the policy agenda in all countries with stable refugee sites, but problems with implementation and resources were identified. The quality of services was variable, with high staff turnover in some areas affecting relationships with refugee clients. Referral hospitals in host countries were not all equipped to deal with obstetric and other emergencies of either local or refugee populations, including deficiencies in safe blood supplies and antibiotics. Diagnosis and treatment of STIs and HIV/AIDS was frequently inadequate. Gender based violence was the least well addressed aspect of reproductive health. Interest and knowledge about family planning was high, but acceptance was low. It was concluded that progress has been made in reproductive health services for refugees since 1994, however, urgent advocacy and action is required to sustain and improve the situation. Local implementing partners need more support and supervision to develop appropriate service models and to maintain an acceptable standard of care. PMID:19283634

  13. Molecular basis for regulating seasonal reproduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Animals that inhabit mid- to high-latitude regions exhibit various adaptive behaviors, such as migration, reproduction, molting and hibernation in response to seasonal cues. These adaptive behaviors are tightly regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod, the relative day length vs night length. Recently, the regulatory pathway of seasonal reproduction has been elucidated using quail. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors receive and transmit light information to the pars tuberalis in the pituitary gland, which induces the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid-stimulating hormone locally activates thyroid hormone via induction of type 2 deiodinase in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Thyroid hormone then induces morphological changes in the terminals of neurons that express gonadotropin-releasing hormone and facilitates gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. In mammals, light information is received by photoreceptors in the retina and neurally transmitted to the pineal gland, where it inhibits the synthesis and secretion of melatonin, which is crucial for seasonal reproduction. Importantly, the signaling pathway downstream of light detection and signaling is fully conserved between mammals and birds. In fish, the regulatory components of seasonal reproduction are integrated, from light detection to neuroendocrine output, in a fish-specific organ called the saccus vasculosus. Various physiological processes in humans are also influenced by seasonal environmental changes. The findings discussed herein may provide clues to addressing human diseases, such as seasonal affective disorder. PMID:27068698

  14. Reproductive performance of gilts in a big farm in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagrčin Mladen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive performance of gilts significantly affects the number of annually produced piglets per sow. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the reproductive performance of gilts on a big pig farm in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia, with a capacity of around 5,500 sows. Out of the total of 19,000 female piglets selected for reproduction, insemination, aged 210 days, a total of 5,420 (28.5% gilts are prepared, and 70% of these are inseminated. A total of 29.3% gilts are culled for reproduction because of longterm pre insemination anestria (estrus was not established until the age of 9 months. It is believed that the basic reason for the occurrence of long-term anestrias is the inadequate technology for detecting estrus on the farm (once every 24 hours, without direct contact between the test boar and the gilts. As a consequence, there are significant economic losses in piglet production on the examined farm.

  15. A link between hypothyroidism, obesity and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system. PMID:26953711

  16. Interactions between parasitic infections and reproductive efficiency in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, G C; Mavrogianni, V S; Gallidis, E; Papadopoulos, E

    2015-02-28

    This review article summarises the many reports in the literature, confirming that, in sheep, parasitic infections can adversely affect reproductive efficiency; examples, which refer to all parts of the reproductive cycle of sheep, are as follows: trichostrongylosis in ewe-lambs (which can lead to delayed attainment of puberty), myiosis of the prepuce (which can cause impediment of mating), chorioptic mange or trypanosomosis in rams (which can lead to testicular degeneration or azoospermia, respectively), trypanosomosis or sarcoptic mange in pre-conceptual ewes (which can lead to poor conception rates or reduced number of ovulations, respectively), toxoplasmosis or neosporosis in pregnant ewes (which are causes of abortion), trichostrongylosis or trematode infections in lactating ewes (which can cause reduction of milk yield and can be a risk factor for mastitis, respectively), cryptosporidiosis in newborn lambs (which can be a cause of deaths), coccidiosis in growing pre-weaned lambs (which can cause suboptimal growth rate). In other cases, the reproductive status of the animal can influence the parasitic infection; examples are as follows: the increase in faecal parasitic output during the peri-parturient period (as a consequence of the peri-parturient relaxation of immunity), the heavier trichostrongylid infections of twin lambs compared to lambs from single parities (as a consequence of developmental origin issues in twin lambs). All the above examples support the idea of presence of interactions between parasitic infections and reproductive efficiency in sheep. PMID:25577675

  17. Different aspects of reproduction strategies in crayfish: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazicioglu B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the reproductive strategy of crayfish species is of great importance in the current astacological world. Crayfish are among the largest freshwater invertebrates, and as keystone species, they are able to regulate the structure of the benthic fauna in the freshwaters, demonstrating different ecological strategies and life spans ranging up to 20+ years. In order to bring together the various pieces of information related to this issue, this overview of published scientific reports was conducted. The majority of crayfish species studied show sexual dimorphism, with approximately equal numbers of males and females. However, over some decades numerous observations have been made for a few species that may have different modes of reproduction, such as hermaphroditism or intersex (e.g. Cherax quadricarinatus, Samastacus spinifrons, Parastacus virilastacus and Pacifastacus leniusculus and parthenogenesis (only Procambarus fallax f. virginalis. A recent study showed a new case of parthenogenesis as apomictic parthenogenesis (only Orconectes limosus. In addition, there are many investigations into the reproduction biology of crayfish, including using eyestalk ablation or androgenic gland ablation under various lab conditions and hybridization under natural conditions (e.g. Astacus astacus X Astacus leptodactylus, Orconectes rusticus X Orconectes propinquus. There are also some chemical factors which could possibly affect the reproduction system of crayfish in the wild.

  18. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments. PMID:24126551

  19. [A reproductive function in metallurgists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the results of a complex investigation of a reproductive function including examination of semen and blood hormones in 100 metallurgists and 80 workers not engaged in metallurgy of ferrous metals (a control group) has shown that 44% metallurgists and 18.5% controls have pathology (p semen viscosity, oligospermia, teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, male sterility than the control group (p < 0.001). Metallurgists have a moderate and high relative risk of reproduction function pathology (RR = 1.6-2.9). Urological pathology in metallurgists can be reduced after prophylactic programs. This proves the necessity of including urological examination and ultrasonic scanning in programs of regular check-up of metallurgists. PMID:19526877

  20. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.

  1. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    by type of alcohol. However, we found a linear association between total alcohol consumption and total or free testosterone in both groups of men. Young and fertile men who consumed >20 units of alcohol per week had, respectively, 24.6 pmol/l (95% confidence interval 16.3-32.9) and 19.7 pmol/l (7......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  2. Effects of Two Endocrine-active Pharmaceuticals, Tamoxifen and Anastrozole, on Reproduction in a Marine Fish, Tautogolabrus adspersus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment through sewage effluent may have unintended, adverse impacts on the reproduction of aquatic organisms, which in turn may affect the sustainability of exposed populations. Laboratory experiments were conducted with ...

  3. Developing Predictive Approaches to Characterize Adaptive Responses of the Reproductive Endocrine Axis to Aromatase Inhibition II: Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We developed a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic­ pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predic...

  4. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  5. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficien...

  6. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional radiography is the means generally used in the assessment of skeletal involvement in multiple myeloma. Many findings such as osteolytic lesions, fractures, and osteoporosis are characteristic of myeloma. However, it seems likely that the extent of bone destruction is sometimes underestimated by radiography. Bone scintigraphy is considered a sensitive technique for the detection of skeletal metastatic lesions, but contradictory results have been reported in multiple myeloma, and many reports indicate that bone scintigraphy is less effective than conventional radiography. This phenomenon could depend on the fact that myeloma is a bone-marrow disease; bone structure is only indirectly involved; furthermore, studies have demonstrated that myelomatous lesions induce, by osteclast activation, larger bone resorption than new bone formation. On this basis the authors proposed the evaluation of bone marrow scanning plus bone scanning in comparison to conventional diagnostic radiology for the detection of skeletal involvement in multiple myeloma

  7. Complicações maternas e ocorrências neonatais associadas às gestações múltiplas resultantes de técnicas de reprodução assistida Complicaciones maternas e eventos neonatales asociados con gestaciones múltiples resultantes de técnicas de reproducción asistida Maternal complications and neonatal events associated to multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Graner

    2009-03-01

    maternas predominantes fueron: el trabajo de parto prematuro (65,5% y la ruptura prematura del saco amniótico (42%. Los eventos neonatales más frecuentes fueron las enfermedades respiratorias (65,1%, la ictericia (38,4%, los disturbios metabólicos (13% y las enfermedades neurológicas (9%.Multiple pregnancy is the most frequent and serious iatrogenic complication of the assisted reproduction techniques. The purpose of this study was to know the maternal complications and neonatal events associated to multiple pregnancies, resulting from assisted reproduction in a reference center in the field of assisted reproduction. This was an observational, cross-section, descriptive and retrospective study performed at Hospital e Maternidade Santa Joana, a reference center in the area of human reproduction in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The studied population consisted of 131 medical records of pregnant women admitted with clinical pathologies and in labor, resulting from multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction techniques. The predominant maternal complications were: premature labor (65.5% and premature amniorrhexis (42%, The most frequent neonatal occurrences were respiratory diseases (65.1%, jaundice (38.4%, metabolic disorders (13% and neurological diseases (9%.

  8. Unisexual reproduction of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal S Phadke

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a basidiomycetous human fungal pathogen that typically causes infection in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak in immunocompetent individuals on Vancouver Island and in the Pacific Northwest of the US. Pathogenesis of this species may be linked to its sexual cycle that generates infectious propagules called basidiospores. A marked predominance of only one mating type (α in clinical and environmental isolates suggests that a-α opposite-sex reproduction may be infrequent or geographically restricted, raising the possibility of an alternative unisexual cycle involving cells of only α mating type, as discovered previously in the related pathogenic species Cryptococcus neoformans. Here we report observation of hallmark features of unisexual reproduction in a clinical isolate of C. gattii (isolate 97/433 and describe genetic and environmental factors conducive to this sexual cycle. Our results are consistent with population genetic evidence of recombination in the largely unisexual populations of C. gattii and provide a useful genetic model for understanding how novel modes of sexual reproduction may contribute to evolution and virulence in this species.

  9. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  10. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  11. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  12. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone;

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  13. Diverse modes of reproduction in the marine free-living ciliate Glauconema trihymene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufall Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most free-living ciliates reproduce by equal fission or budding during vegetative growth. In certain ciliates, reproduction occurs inside the cyst wall, viz. reproductive cysts, but more complex reproductive strategies have generally been thought to be confined to parasitic or symbiotic species, e.g. Radiophrya spp. Results In addition to equal fission, asymmetric binary division and reproductive cysts were discovered in the free-living bacterivorous scuticociliate Glauconema trihymene Thompson, 1966. Asymmetric division is an innate physiological state that can be induced by sufficient food, and the higher the food concentration, the longer the asymmetric division persists. During asymmetric division, nuclear and somatic structures divide with transiently arrested cytokinesis and variable positioning of macronuclei. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA sequences, showed that the G. trihymene isolate studied here nests with typical scuticociliates and is paraphyletic to both the symbiotic apostome and astome ciliates, some of which also produce progeny by asymmetric division. Conclusions The asymmetric division in G. trihymene has no precedent among undisturbed free-living ciliates. The coexistence of multiple modes of reproduction may represent a previously undescribed reproductive strategy for ciliates living on food patches in coastal waters. This may also be indicative of similar reproductive strategies among other polyphenic ciliates, which have not been intensively studied. Asymmetric division provides a special opportunity for studying ciliates' phenotypic plasticity and may also illuminate the origins of multicellularity.

  14. Health costs of reproduction are minimal despite high fertility, mortality and subsistence lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Costa, Megan; Ben Trumble; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret; Eid Rodriguez, Daniel; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2016-01-01

    Women exhibit greater morbidity than men despite higher life expectancy. An evolutionary life history framework predicts that energy invested in reproduction trades-off against investments in maintenance and survival. Direct costs of reproduction may therefore contribute to higher morbidity, especially for women given their greater direct energetic contributions to reproduction. We explore multiple indicators of somatic condition among Tsimane forager-horticulturalist women (Total Fertility Rate = 9.1; n =  592 aged 15-44 years, n = 277 aged 45+). We test whether cumulative live births and the pace of reproduction are associated with nutritional status and immune function using longitudinal data spanning 10 years. Higher parity and faster reproductive pace are associated with lower nutritional status (indicated by weight, body mass index, body fat) in a cross-section, but longitudinal analyses show improvements in women's nutritional status with age. Biomarkers of immune function and anemia vary little with parity or pace of reproduction. Our findings demonstrate that even under energy-limited and infectious conditions, women are buffered from the potential depleting effects of rapid reproduction and compound offspring dependency characteristic of human life histories. PMID:27436412

  15. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  16. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hermes

    Full Text Available In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare.

  17. Affective responses to dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  18. 影响多发性骨髓瘤疗效和预后的实验室指标分析%Analysis on laboratory indexes affecting therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of multiple myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝润英; 张书霞; 栗瑞敏; 王菊美

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the impaction of myeloma cell morphology and proportion,β2-microglobulin(β2-MG), lactate (LDH),C. reaction protein(CRP) on therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of multiple myeloma. Methods Observe bone marrow smear and count the proportion of myeloma cell in 78 patients with multiple myeloma,detect the content of β2-MG,LDH and CRP. Results The patients with poorly differentiated and more proportion of myeloma cell, increase of the content of β2-MG,LDH and CRP were all with worse efficacy and prognosis. Conclusion Myeloma cell morphology and proportion, β2-MG, LDH and CRP are important evaluated fact for therapeutic. efficacy and prognosis of multiple myeloma.%目的 探讨骨髓瘤形态和数量以及血清学指标β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)、C反应蛋白(CRP)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)含量变化对多发性骨髓瘤疗效和预后的影响.方法 对78例确诊的MM患者的骨髓涂片和血清学指标进行检测和分析.结果 瘤细胞分化差,数量多,β2-MG、CRP、LDH高,MM患者的疗效和预后差.结论 瘤细胞形态和数量,β2-MG、CRP、LDH是判断MM患者疗效和预后的重要因素.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenging to your emotional well-being. MS can affect your work, your relationships, your sleep, your diet and your ability to exercise. All of these factors contribute to your mood and mental health. Talking with a trained therapist ...

  20. Metamemory in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Claffey, Austin M

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The concept of metamemory proposes that supplementary to typically measured memory abilities, memory monitoring and control processes are used to optimise learning. Accurate memory monitoring appears to be underpinned by a range of cognitive, and possibly affective, contributions. In populations with these deficits, metamemory has been shown to be impaired. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), only...