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Sample records for affects motor coordination

  1. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls 52, 138 or 180 affects differentially learning or motor coordination in adult rats. Mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, J; Cauli, O; Felipo, V

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment and motor disorders in children by mechanisms which remain unknown. It also remains unclear whether different non-dioxin-like PCBs have similar or different mechanisms of neurotoxicity. The main aims of this work were: (1) to assess whether developmental exposure to non-dioxin-like-PCBs 52, 138 or 180 affect cognitive function or motor coordination in 3-4 months-old rats; (2) to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. Female rats were treated with PCBs (1 mg/kg day) in food from gestational-day 7 to postnatal-day 21. The ability to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task was reduced in rats exposed to PCBs 138 or 180, but not in rats exposed to PCB52. The function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway (NMDA-induced increase in extracellular cGMP) in cerebellum in vivo was reduced by 33-59% in rats exposed to PCBs 138 or 180, but not by PCB52. The amount of NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors was reduced by 41-49% in rats exposed to PCBs 138 or 180, but not by PCB 52. PCB52 but not 138 or 180 increases extracellular GABA in cerebellum and impairs motor coordination. The effects were similar in males and females. Developmental exposure to different non-dioxin-like PCBs induces different behavioural alterations by different mechanisms. PCB52 impairs motor coordination but not learning while PCB138 or 180 impair learning but not motor coordination. These data are consistent with the following possible mechanisms: (1) developmental exposure to PCBs 138 or 180 reduces the amount of NMDA receptors in cerebellum, which would contribute to reduced function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway, which, in turn, would be a main contributor to the impairment of the ability to learn the Y maze task. (2) Developmental exposure to PCB52 increases extracellular GABA in cerebellum, which would contribute to motor coordination impairment. PMID:20223283

  2. Measuring Motor Coordination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deacon, Robert M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. Performance on a maze task requiring strength and coordination, such as the Morris water maze, might well be impaired in a mouse by motor, rather than cognitive, impairme...

  3. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  4. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  5. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  6. Lack of connexin43-mediated Bergmann glial gap junctional coupling does not affect cerebellar long-term depression, motor coordination, or eyeblink conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Tanaka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bergmann glial cells are specialized astrocytes in the cerebellum. In the mature cerebellar molecular layer, Bergmann glial processes are closely associated with Purkinje cells, enclosing Purkinje cell dendritic synapses with a glial sheath. There is intensive gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial processes, but their significance in cerebellar functions is not known. Connexin43 (Cx43, a major component of astrocytic gap junction channels, is abundantly expressed in Bergmann glial cells. To examine the role of Cx43-mediated gap junctions between Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar functions, we generated Cx43 conditional knockout mice with the S100b-Cre transgenic line (Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre, which exhibited a significant loss of Cx43 in the Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum with a postnatal onset. The Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal cerebellar architecture. Although gap junctional coupling between the Bergmann glial cells measured by spreading of microinjected Lucifer yellow was virtually abolished in Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice, electrophysiologic analysis revealed that cerebellar long-term depression could be induced and maintained normally in thier cerebellar slices. In addition, at the behavioral level, Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal motor coordination in the rotarod task and normal conditioned eyelid response. Our findings suggest that Cx43-mediated gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial cells is not necessary for the neuron-glia interactions required for cerebellum-dependent motor coordination and motor learning.

  7. Coordinated switching of bacterial flagellar motors: evidence for direct motor-motor coupling?

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-01-01

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW), under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mecha...

  8. Functional coordination of intraflagellar transport motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Guangshuo; Blacque, Oliver E; Snow, Joshua J; Leroux, Michel R; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2005-07-28

    Cilia have diverse roles in motility and sensory reception, and defects in cilia function contribute to ciliary diseases such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). Intraflagellar transport (IFT) motors assemble and maintain cilia by transporting ciliary precursors, bound to protein complexes called IFT particles, from the base of the cilium to their site of incorporation at the distal tip. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this is accomplished by two IFT motors, kinesin-II and osmotic avoidance defective (OSM)-3 kinesin, which cooperate to form two sequential anterograde IFT pathways that build distinct parts of cilia. By observing the movement of fluorescent IFT motors and IFT particles along the cilia of numerous ciliary mutants, we identified three genes whose protein products mediate the functional coordination of these motors. The BBS proteins BBS-7 and BBS-8 are required to stabilize complexes of IFT particles containing both of the IFT motors, because IFT particles in bbs-7 and bbs-8 mutants break down into two subcomplexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, which are moved separately by kinesin-II and OSM-3 kinesin, respectively. A conserved ciliary protein, DYF-1, is specifically required for OSM-3 kinesin to dock onto and move IFT particles, because OSM-3 kinesin is inactive and intact IFT particles are moved by kinesin-II alone in dyf-1 mutants. These findings implicate BBS ciliary disease proteins and an OSM-3 kinesin activator in the formation of two IFT pathways that build functional cilia. PMID:16049494

  9. Motor learning as a criterion for evaluating coordination motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczynski Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of motor learning based on objective, metric criteria, in terms of pedagogical process aimed at improving the accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. A group of 77 students of physical education participated in the study. Within 8 months there were performed 11 measurement sessions. In each session, subjects performed 10 hits a golf ball to the target from a distance of 9 m. Accuracy of hits was recorded. Effect of motor learning has been demonstrated in the progress of 10 consecutive hits a golf ball to the target in each session (operational control; in the dynamics of performance improvement between sessions (current control; as well as in the total result of eight-month experiment (stage control. There were developed norms for quantitative and qualitative assessment of accuracy of hits a golf ball to the target. Developed quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the speed of motor learning in various conditions of the educational process creates the possibility of organization the operational, current and stage control of the level of human coordination motor abilities, as required by leading process.

  10. Coordinated Switching of Bacterial Flagellar Motors: Evidence for Direct Motor-Motor Coupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-04-01

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors’ response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed.

  11. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children

    OpenAIRE

    Vítor P. Lopes; Stodden, David F.; Bianchi, Mafalda M.; Maia, José A. R.; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. Design: This study is cross-sectional. Methods: Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n = 3616, girls n = 3559), ages 6–14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m2)]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling’s body coordination test (KTK). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study ...

  12. Effects of Prenatal Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Exposure on Processing Speed, Visual-Motor Coordination, and Interhemispheric Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Willford, Jennifer A.; Chandler, Lynette S.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-y...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    MEMISEVIC Haris; HADZIC Selmir

    2015-01-01

    Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegbo...

  14. Reliability of a New Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Motor coordination is a basic motor ability necessary for daily life, which also allows athletes to win a sports rivalry and patients to assess their recovery progress after therapy and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new lower-extremity rate of movements test and testing apparatus.

  15. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J. PMID:27199852

  16. Discrete Motor Coordinates for Vowel Production

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    Assaneo, María Florencia; Trevisan, Marcos A.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    Current models of human vocal production that capture peripheral dynamics in speech require large dimensional measurements of the neural activity, which are mapped into equally complex motor gestures. In this work we present a motor description for vowels as points in a discrete low-dimensional space. We monitor the dynamics of 3 points at the oral cavity using Hall-effect transducers and magnets, describing the resulting signals during normal utterances in terms of active/inactive patterns that allow a robust vowel classification in an abstract binary space. We use simple matrix algebra to link this representation to the anatomy of the vocal tract and to recent reports of highly tuned neuronal activations for vowel production, suggesting a plausible global strategy for vowel codification and motor production. PMID:24244681

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE MOTOR COORDINATION AND VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills are prerequisite for many everyday activities and they are a good predictor of a child's later academic outcome. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of age on the development of fine motor coordination and visual-motor integration in preschool children. The sample for this study consisted of 276 preschool children from Canton Sara­jevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. We assessed children's motor skills with Beery Visual Motor Integration Test and Lafayette Pegboard Test. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by planned com­parisons between the age groups. We also performed a regression analysis to assess the influence of age and motor coordination on visual-motor integration. The results showed that age has a great effect on the development of fine motor skills. Furthermore, the results indicated that there are possible sensitive periods at preschool age in which the development of fine motor skills is accelerated. Early intervention specialists should make a thorough evaluations of fine motor skills in preschool children and make motor (rehabilitation programs for children at risk of fine motor delays.

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  19. Cerebellar Development and Plasticity: Perspectives for Motor Coordination Strategies, for Motor Skills, and for Therapy

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    J. D. Swinny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because tile cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  20. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  1. ADOLESCENCE, MOTOR COORDINATION PROBLEMS AND COMPETENCE

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    Irene Ramón Otero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una revisión de las investigaciones centradas en el estudio de la coordinación y competencia motriz en la etapa adolescente. El objetivo del artículo fue proporcionar una visión sobre las distintas dimensiones del desarrollo motor adolescente en su influencia con la evolución de la coordinación motriz en esta etapa de la vida. La revisión incluyó los estudios más relevantes entre 2000 y 2012. Los criterios de inclusión se centraron en la selección de estudios que han analizado adolescentes de edades comprendidas entre los 13 y 17 años, correspondiendo a la etapa de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y primer curso de Educación No Obligatoria. Asimismo, las muestras de los estudios incluidos engloban participantes que no presentan discapacidad física e intelectual. Los resultados revelan un aumento del interés por el estudio de la coordinación motriz y muestran datos alarmantes sobre el aumento de los problemas de coordinación motriz en esta etapa tan crítica de la vida. Los autores sugieren la necesidad de mantener los niveles de competencia motriz adecuados en estas edades, reflexionando cómo la baja competencia puede afectar a otras dimensiones del desarrollo de los adolescentes.

  2. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

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    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  3. Childhood motor coordination and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Maeda, Justin;

    2009-01-01

    -13 years old. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample. Participants fell into three groups: children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=94); children who had at least one parent with a psychiatric record of hospitalization for......OBJECTIVE: The authors examined whether motor coordination difficulties assessed in childhood predict later adult schizophrenia spectrum outcomes. METHOD: A standardized childhood neurological examination was administered to a sample of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10...... registers completed in May 2007. RESULTS: Children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (N=32) displayed significantly higher scores on a scale of coordination deficits compared with those who did not develop a mental illness in this category (N=133). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study...

  4. NEURAL PATHWAYS OF TRIGEMINAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE AFFERENTS COORDINATE ORAL MOTOR BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pifu; Zhang Jingdong; Li Jishuo

    2003-01-01

    neuroanatomical network to elucidate trigeminal proprioceptive afferents coordinate oral motor behaviors.

  5. A novel role for the immunophilin FKBP52 in motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Matthew J; Geiszler, Philippine C; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-10-15

    FKBP52 is a ubiquitously distributed immunophilin that has been associated with wide-ranging functions in cell signalling as well as hormonal and stress responses. Amongst other pathways, it acts via complex-formation with corticosteroid receptors and has consequently been associated with stress- and age- related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Reduced levels of FKBP52 have been linked to tau dysfunction and amyloid beta toxicity in AD. However, FKBP52's role in cognition and neurodegenerative disorder-like phenotypes remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed therefore at investigating the cognitive and behavioural effects of reduced FKBP52 levels of genetically modified mice during ageing. Female and male FKBP52(+/+), FKBP52(+/-) and FKBP52(-/-) mice were compared at two-, ten-, twelve-, fifteen- and eighteen-months-of-age in a series of behavioural tests covering specie-specific behaviour, motor activity and coordination, fear-, spatial and recognition memory as well as curiosity and emotionality. Whilst cognitively unimpaired, FKBP52(+/-) mice performed worse on an accelerating rotating rod than FKBP52(+/+) littermates across all age-groups suggesting that FKBP52 is involved in processes controlling motor coordination. This deficit did not exacerbate with age but did worsen with repeated testing; pointing towards a role for FKBP52 in learning of tasks requiring motor coordination abilities. This study contributes to the knowledge base of FKBP52's implication in neurodegenerative diseases by demonstrating that FKBP52 by itself does not directly affect cognition and may therefore rather play an indirect, modulatory role in the functional pathology of AD, whereas it directly affects motor coordination, an early sign of neurodegenerative damages to the brain. PMID:27418439

  6. Visuomotor coordination and motor representation by human temporal lobe neurons.

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    Tankus, Ariel; Fried, Itzhak

    2012-03-01

    The division of cortical visual processing into distinct dorsal and ventral streams is a key concept in primate neuroscience [Goodale, M. A., & Milner, A. D. Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 20-25, 1992; Steele, G., Weller, R., & Cusick, C. Cortical connections of the caudal subdivision of the dorsolateral area (V4) in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 306, 495-520, 1991]. The ventral stream is usually characterized as a "What" pathway, whereas the dorsal stream is implied in mediating spatial perception ("Where") and visually guided actions ("How"). A subpathway emerging from the dorsal stream and projecting to the medial-temporal lobe has been identified [Kravitz, D. J., Saleem, K. S., Baker, C. I., & Mishkin, M. A new neural framework for visuospatial processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 217-230, 2011; Cavada, C., & Goldman-Raiuc, P. S. Posterior parietal cortex in rhesus monkey: I. Parcellation of areas based on distinctive limbic and sensory cortico-cortical connections. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 287, 393-421, 1989]. The current article studies the coordination of visual information typically associated with the dorsal stream ("Where"), with planned movements, focusing on the temporal lobe. We recorded extracellular activity from 565 cells in the human medial-temporal and frontal lobes while 13 patients performed cued hand movements with visual feedback (visuomotor task), without feedback (motor task), or observed visual feedback without motor movement (visual-only task). We discovered two different neural populations in the human medial-temporal lobe. One consists of motor-like neurons representing hand position, speed or acceleration during the motor task but not during the visuomotor or visual tasks. The other is specific to the parahippocampal gyrus (an area known to process visual motion [Gur, M., & Snodderly, D. M. Direction selectivity in V1 of alert monkeys: Evidence for parallel

  7. The potential roles of T-type Ca2+ channels in motor coordination

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    Young-Gyun ePark

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific behavioral patterns are expressed by complex combinations of muscle coordination. Tremors are simple behavioral patterns and are the focus of studies investigating motor coordination mechanisms in the brain. T-type Ca2+ channels mediate intrinsic neuronal oscillations and rhythmic burst spiking, and facilitate the generation of tremor rhythms in motor circuits. Despite substantial evidence that T-type Ca2+ channels mediate pathological tremors, their roles in physiological motor coordination and behavior remain unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the roles that T-type Ca2+ channels play under pathological conditions, and discuss the potential relevance of these channels in mediating physiological motor coordination.

  8. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  9. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status. PMID:26871464

  10. Occupational therapy intervention effect for children with deficits in visual perception, motor coordination and visual-motor integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Tibério Araújo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To students with special educational needs participate actively at school are required effective and systematic investment, involving the school community as a whole. The occupational therapist is one of the professionals who can facilitate this student inclusion process. This study aimed to discuss the occupational therapy intervention effects with two disability children with deficits in visual perceptual skills, motor coordination and visual motor integration, that was included in regular education. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration was use to evaluate visual perceptual skills, motor coordination and visual-motor integration. Because the deficits presented in the functions investigates was identified the need of an occupational therapy intervention program designed to improve the performance in theses functions. After the program, the test was reapplied. The results pointed to an improvement of all functions considered deficient. These results highlight to the training importance to improve the performance in abilities evaluated.

  11. Coordinated Switching of Bacterial Flagellar Motors in a Single E. Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-03-01

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is propelled by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. A long standing question is whether these motors work independently or not. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common biochemical signal (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggest that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single E. coli. Possible origins of this coupling are discussed. This research is supported by the NIH Grant GM081747

  12. Occupational therapy intervention effect for children with deficits in visual perception, motor coordination and visual-motor integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Tibério Araújo; Mariana Dutra Zafani; Débora Morais Pereira

    2012-01-01

    To students with special educational needs participate actively at school are required effective and systematic investment, involving the school community as a whole. The occupational therapist is one of the professionals who can facilitate this student inclusion process. This study aimed to discuss the occupational therapy intervention effects with two disability children with deficits in visual perceptual skills, motor coordination and visual motor integration, that was included in regular ...

  13. Brief report: Response inhibition and processing speed in children with motor difficulties and developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, M.; Leonard, H.C.; Hill, E.L.; Henry, L.

    2016-01-01

    A previous study reported that children with poor motor skills, classified as having motor difficulties (MD) or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), produced more errors in a motor response inhibition task compared to typically-developing (TD) children, but did not differ in verbal inhibition errors. The present study investigated whether these groups differed in the length of time they took to respond in order to achieve these levels of accuracy, and whether any differences in response...

  14. Coordinated regulation of cholinergic motor neuron traits through a conserved terminal selector gene

    OpenAIRE

    Kratsios, Paschalis; Stolfi, Alberto; Levine, Michael; Hobert, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Cholinergic motor neurons are defined by the co-expression of a battery of genes which encode proteins that act sequentially to synthesize, package and degrade acetylcholine and reuptake its breakdown product, choline. How expression of these critical motor neuron identity determinants is controlled and coordinated is not understood. We show here that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans all members of the cholinergic gene battery, as well as many other markers of terminal motor neuron fate...

  15. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  16. Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Fliers, E.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Vermeulen, S. H.; Altink, M.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Faraone, S. V.; Sergeant, J.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objective. ADHD is frequently accompanied by motor coordination problems. However, the co-occurrence of poor motor performance has received less attention in research than other coexisting problems in ADHD. The underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of motor coordination problems in a large sample of children with ADHD, and the relationship between motor coordination problems and inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive sympto...

  17. A Stochastic Markov Model for Coordinated Molecular Motors

    CERN Document Server

    Materassi, Donatello; Salapaka, Murti V

    2010-01-01

    Many cell functions are accomplished thanks to intracellular transport mechanisms of macromolecules along filaments. Molecular motors such as dynein or kinesin are proteins playing a primary role in these processes. The behavior of such proteins is quite well understood when there is only one of them moving a cargo particle. Indeed, numerous in vitro experiments have been performed to derive accurate models for a single molecular motor. However, in vivo macromolecules are often carried by multiple motors. The main focus of this paper is to provide an analysis of the behavior of more molecular motors interacting together in order to improve the understanding of their actual physiological behavior. Previous studies provide analyses based on results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Different from these studies, we derive an equipollent probabilistic model to describe the dynamics of multiple proteins coupled together and provide an exact theoretical analysis. We are capable of obtaining the probability den...

  18. The Engine Mechanical Coordinates Measuring in the Asynchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementyev Yuriy N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers indirect control devices for the mechanical coordinate’s measurement of a three-phase asynchronous electric motor, which detects the temperature of the stator winding conductors and the basic frequency of stator voltage. Characteristics of mechanical coordinate’s simulation of the asynchronous motor are provided to assess the accuracy of the mechanical coordinate’s measurement in the dynamic modes.

  19. The Engine Mechanical Coordinates Measuring in the Asynchronous Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Dementyev Yuriy N.; Umurzakova Anara D.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers indirect control devices for the mechanical coordinate’s measurement of a three-phase asynchronous electric motor, which detects the temperature of the stator winding conductors and the basic frequency of stator voltage. Characteristics of mechanical coordinate’s simulation of the asynchronous motor are provided to assess the accuracy of the mechanical coordinate’s measurement in the dynamic modes.

  20. Assessment of Motor Coordination and Balance in Mice Using the Rotarod, Elevated Bridge, and Footprint Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Simon P; Trueman, Rebecca C; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2012-01-01

    In order fully to utilize animal models of disease states, to test experimental therapeutics, and to understand the underlying pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disease, behavioral characterization of the model is essential. Deterioration of normal motor function within a disease state signals the progression of an underlying pathological process, and identifies disease-sensitive time points according to which the onset of therapeutic trials may be scheduled. Deterioration in the performance of motor tasks may also indicate the point when motor deficits begin to compromise our ability to measure other deficits within cognitive and behavioral domains. In acute therapeutic trials, the separation of motor from cognitive or behavioral function may be crucial in determining the functional specificity of the drug effect. If we are to accurately measure motor performance in disease progression or during drug trials, tests of motor function that have been highly optimized with respect to sensitivity must be applied. Since motor coordination and balance are essential to normal motor function, tests that probe these facets are ideal for the purpose. In this chapter, we describe in detail three test protocols that principally measure motor coordination (the rotarod and footprint tests) and balance (the elevated bridge test) in mice. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 2:37-53 © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26069004

  1. HSF1-deficiency affects gait coordination and cerebellar calbindin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Estrada, Veronica; Stahr, Anna; Müller, Hans Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in cell homeostasis and protect against cell damage. They were previously identified as key players in different ataxia models. HSF1 is the main transcription factor for HSP activation. HSF1-deficient mice (HSF1-/-) are known to have deficiencies in motor control test. However, little is known about effects of HSF1-deficiency on locomotor, especially gait, coordination. Therefore, we compared HSF-deficient (HSF1-/-) mice and wildtype littermates using an automated gait analysis system for objective assessment of gait coordination. We found significant changes in gait parameters of HSF1-/- mice reminiscent of cerebellar ataxia. Immunohistochemical analyses of a cerebellum revealed co-localization of HSF1 and calbindin in Purkinje cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of a potential interconnection between HSF1 and calbindin in Purkinje cells. Calbindin levels were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively. While quantitative PCR revealed no differences in calbindin mRNA levels between HSF1+/+ and HSF1-/- mice, calbindin protein levels, however, were significantly decreased in a cerebellum of HSF1-/- mice. A pathway analysis supports the hypothesis of an interconnection between HSF1 and calbindin. In summary, the targeted deletion of HSF1 results in changes of locomotor function associated with changes in cerebellar calbindin protein levels. These findings suggest a role of HSF1 in regular Purkinje cell calcium homeostasis. PMID:27173427

  2. Conserved role of Drosophila melanogaster FoxP in motor coordination and courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Kristy J; Wassmer, Taryn L; Deitcher, David L

    2014-07-15

    FoxP2 is a highly conserved vertebrate transcription factor known for its importance in human speech and language production. Disruption of FoxP2 in several vertebrate models indicates a conserved functional role for this gene in both sound production and motor coordination. Although FoxP2 is known to be strongly expressed in brain regions important for motor coordination, little is known about FoxP2's role in the nervous system. The recent discovery of the well-conserved Drosophila melanogaster homolog, FoxP, provides an opportunity to study the role of this crucial gene in an invertebrate model. We hypothesized that, like FoxP2, Drosophila FoxP is important for behaviors requiring fine motor coordination. We used targeted RNA interference to reduce expression of FoxP and assayed the effects on a variety of adult behaviors. Male flies with reduced FoxP expression exhibit decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight. Acute disruption of synaptic activity in FoxP expressing neurons using a temperature-sensitive shibire allele dramatically impaired motor coordination. Utilizing a GFP reporter to visualize FoxP in the fly brain reveals expression in relatively few neurons in distributed clusters within the larval and adult CNS, including distinct labeling of the adult protocerebral bridge - a section of the insect central complex known to be important for motor coordination and thought to be homologous to areas of the vertebrate basal ganglia. Our results establish the necessity of this gene in motor coordination in an invertebrate model and suggest a functional homology with vertebrate FoxP2. PMID:24747661

  3. Developmental differences in childhood motor coordination predict adult alcohol dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim;

    2005-01-01

    hypothesized that developmental deficits in the cerebellar vermis may also play a role in the initiation of adult alcohol dependence. The present study evaluated whether measures of motor development in the first year of life predict alcohol dependence three decades later. METHODS: A total of 241 subjects of...... the original 330 infants who were entered into this study completed the 30-year follow-up (12 had died). The subjects were men who were drawn from a large birth cohort born in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 1959 to 1961. A comprehensive series of measures were obtained on each subject before, during, and...... alcoholism and early delays in motor development offer support for the theory that cerebellar deficits may play a causal role in the addiction process....

  4. PAIR MOTOR COORDINATION ACTION IN SPORTSMEN (ON THE EXAMPLE OF BALLROOM DANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kapilevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Learn a special coordinating pair of motor actions in athletes engaged sport ballroom dancing, depending on gender and sportsmanship. The results suggest that beginners dominated coordination, performed individually, while the highly skilled dancers better developed coordination, carried out in pairs. Athletes average individual coordination disturbed by the emergence of sex differences build movements and coordination pair is not formed. The asymmetry of the coordination abilities manifested in the predominance of the deviation from equilibrium (to the right of men and to the left – in women. In this case, the athletes of low and medium level of skill to maintain the leading element of balance and coordination is the visual analyzer, while the skilled dancers defining role goes to the vestibular apparatus.

  5. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different...

  6. Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Andréa C Deslandes

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the W...

  7. Motor coordination and visual information processing in high school students at risk of developmental coordination disorder: Two year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Psotta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children is characterised by the execution being substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age. This deficit can negatively affect the psychological and social development of the children and their academic achievements. A few studies provided the evidences on the persistence of impaired motor coordination up to the middle and older adolescence. Although DCD is the heterogeneous syndrome, it seems to be associated with problems in visual information processing. AIMS: The first aim of the study was to examine how a below-average motor coordination in the adolescents can be associated with visual information processing ability. Second aim was to reveal the short-term pathway of impaired motor coordination during adolescence and whether their persistence and reduction, respectively, could be associated with a level of visual information processing. METHODS: In the first phase of the study the below average motor coordination identified by the MABC-2 test (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007 in the students of the high and vocational schools (n = 52 was analysed on its relation to the ability of visual information processing. This ability was assessed by the simple and choice reaction tests (FiTRO Reaction Check device. In the 2nd phase of the study the students with moderate and significant motor difficulties (n = 34 were reassessed two years after the initial testing to examine the changes in motor coordination and its potential association with a level of visual information processing. RESULTS: The below-average motor coordination correlated with the several measures of choice reaction with a determination of R2 9-15%, while a level of selective attention and physical growth of the adolescents were not the significant factors of motor skills. Of 34 adolescents 18 students demonstrated the reduction of motor difficulties in two years, and the persistence of the

  8. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children's Basic Motor Skills Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effect of the movement education program through a 12-week-coordination on the development of basic motor movements of pre-school children. A total of 78 students of pre-school period, 38 of whom were in the experimental group and 40 of whom were in the control group, were incorporated…

  9. Peer Victimization and Depression in Children with and without Motor Coordination Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Missiuna, Cheryl; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a chronic disability that impacts children's performance of everyday motor-based activities and is associated with the development of secondary social and mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate peer victimization and depression in children who were and were not at risk for…

  10. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  11. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  12. CNS effects of indomethacin: should patients be cautioned about decreased mental alertness and motor coordination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Limbeek, J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: In many European countries as well as in the USA, the leaflet, or even the packaging of indomethacin, contains a specific warning to refrain from activities requiring mental alertness and motor coordination, such as driving a car. In this placebo-controlled randomized study with a crossover de

  13. A network for audio-motor coordination in skilled pianists and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Simon; Koeneke, Susan; Schmidt, Conny F; Meyer, Martin; Lutz, Kai; Jancke, Lutz

    2007-08-01

    Playing a musical instrument requires efficient auditory and motor processing. Fast feed forward and feedback connections that link the acoustic target to the corresponding motor programs need to be established during years of practice. The aim of our study is to provide a detailed description of cortical structures that participate in this audio-motor coordination network in professional pianists and non-musicians. In order to map these interacting areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we considered cortical areas that are concurrently activated during silent piano performance and motionless listening to piano sound. Furthermore we investigated to what extent interactions between the auditory and the motor modality happen involuntarily. We observed a network of predominantly secondary and higher order areas belonging to the auditory and motor modality. The extent of activity was clearly increased by imagination of the absent modality. However, this network did neither comprise primary auditory nor primary motor areas in any condition. Activity in the lateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the pre-supplementary motor cortex (preSMA) was significantly increased for pianists. Our data imply an intermodal transformation network of auditory and motor areas which is subject to a certain degree of plasticity by means of intensive training. PMID:17603027

  14. Effects ofMatricaria chamomilla extract on motor coordination impairment induced by scopolamine in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samira Asgharzade; Zahra Rabiei; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of chamomile on balance and motor learning in rats receiving scopolamine and intact rats. Methods: Fourty-two rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 7). Control group received distilled water. Rats in Group 2 were given 1 mg/kg scopolamine. Groups 3 and 4 received chamomile extract 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and scopolamine simultaneously for 20 days. Intact groups (Groups 5 and 6) only received chamomile extract 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Motor coordination of rats was assessed with rotarod apparatus. Results:According to the obtained results, compared with the control group, scopolamine significantly decreased time spent on rotarod performance (P Conclusions: The results of this study indicated the high antioxidant property and protective effect of chamomile extract on motor coordination in the groups that received scopolamine.

  15. Lithium and valproate may affect motor and sensory speed in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    murat ilhan atagun

    2013-01-01

    Results: The Li group was significantly slower than the HC and MF groups in the right hand trial of the Pegboard Test. The Li group scored significantly lower in the right and left hand trials of the finger-tapping test in comparison to the HC and MF groups. All patient groups (MF, Li and VP had slower visual reaction time scores than the HC group. The Li and VP groups had significantly slower auditory reaction time scores than the HC group. Conclusion: Lithium may impair sensory and motor speed more than VP. Medication-free patients differed from healthy controls only in the visual reaction time test. Lithium may disturb movement systems by affecting the complex integration of the brain structures serving motor coordination. These results may also suggest that in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder, disturbance of psychomotor functions may be related to medications.

  16. Genome-wide association study of motor coordination problems in ADHD identifies genes for brain and muscle function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Poelmans, G.J.V.; Rommelse, N.N.; Altink, M.E.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Asherson, P.; Banaschewski, T.; Ebstein, R.; Gill, M.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.S.J.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Motor coordination problems are frequent in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genes contributing to motor coordination problems, hypothesizing that the presence of such problems in children with ADHD ma

  17. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  18. Low brain histamine content affects ethanol-induced motor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Raatesalmi, Kristiina; Sallmen, Tina; Anichtchik, Oleg; Karlstedt, Kaj; Kaslin, Jan; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R; Panula, Pertti

    2002-02-01

    The effect of ethanol on motor performance in humans is well established but how neural mechanisms are affected by ethanol action remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the brain histaminergic system is important in it, we used a genetic model consisting of rat lines selectively outbred for differential ethanol sensitivity. Ethanol-sensitive rats had lower levels of brain histamine and lower densities of histamine-immunoreactive fibers than ethanol-insensitive rats, although both rat lines showed no changes in histamine synthesizing neurons. Lowering the high brain histamine content of the ethanol-insensitive rats with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine before ethanol administration increased their ethanol sensitivity in a behavioral motor function test. Higher H3 receptor ligand binding and histamine-induced G-protein activation was detected in several brain regions of ethanol-naive ethanol-sensitive rats. Brain histamine levels and possibly signaling via H3 receptors may thus correlate with genetic differences in ethanol-induced motor impairment. PMID:11848689

  19. Motor coordination correlates with academic achievement and cognitive function in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Rocha Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc, agility (Shuttle Run Speed - running back and forth, school performance (Academic Achievement Test, the Stroop test and 6 sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV. We found that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R²=0.20. Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (Spearman’s rho=0.536; p<=0.001, as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R= -0.438;p=0.003 and cancellation (rho= -0.471; p=0.001. All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition.

  20. Motor coordination deficits in Alpk1 mutant mice with the inserted piggyBac transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Rener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ALPK1 (α-kinase 1 is a member of an unconventional alpha-kinase family, and its biological function remains largely unknown. Here we report the phenotypic characterization of one mutant line, in which the piggyBac (PB transposon is inserted into the Alpk1 gene. Results The piggyBac(PB insertion site in mutants was mapped to the first intron of the Alpk1 gene, resulting in the effective disruption of the intact Alpk1 transcript expression. The transposon-inserted Alpk1 homozygous mutants (Alpk1PB/PB displayed severe defects in motor coordination in a series of behavioral analysis, including dowel test, hanging wire test, rotarod analysis and footprint analysis. However, the cerebellar architecture, Purkinje cell morphology and electrophysiology of the Purkinje cells appeared normal in mutants. The motor coordination deficits in the Alpk1PB/PB mice were rescued by transgenic mice expressing the full-length Alpk1-coding sequence under the control of the ubiquitous expression promoter. Conclusions Our results indicate that ALPK1 plays an important role in the regulation of motor coordination. Alpk1PB/PB mice would be a useful model to provide a clue to the better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ALPK1 in the control of fine motor activities.

  1. Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Valter R; Ribeiro, Michelle L Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T; Araújo, Narahyana B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed-running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R (2) = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = -0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = -0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130

  2. The influence of gymnastics in motor coordination and reaction time in urban public bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Paula Mezzomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of labour gymnastics (LG on bus drivers' basic skills such as reaction time and gross motor coordination. Sixty male bus drivers (37.06 ± 7.66 years old from two bus lines in the city of Santa Maria (RS took part of this study. The participants were split into two groups, experimental group (EG and control group (CG. Subjects that were part of the EG took part in a LG intervention program, 2-3 times a week, over a year. Gross motor coordination was assessed by BURPEE Protocol (Johnson & Nelson, 1979, whereas reaction time by software providing a visual stimulus. Data normality was checked through Shapiro-Wilk test, which pointed to normal distribution only for the variables simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT in the EG. Therefore the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was selected to compare differences between groups. A statistically significant difference for gross motor coordination was found (z= −2.525, p= 0.012, suggesting the effectiveness of LG to improve motor skills. As regards SRT and CRT, no significant difference was found, in spite of better outcomes having been recorded after the LG program.

  3. Motor Coordination Correlates with Academic Achievement and Cognitive Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R2 = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = −0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = −0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130

  4. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzhang Mao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Almira Mujkić; Zlata Paprić

    2013-01-01

    Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXERCISES OF GROSS AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON VISUO-MOTOR COORDINATION OF THE CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Mujkić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Visuomotor coordination is reffered to eye coordination and to various parts of the body in different activities and games. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of the exercises of gross and fine motor skills on visuomotor coordination of the cerebral palsy children. The sample was the case study where a male person of 3 and a half years old was an examinee. Measuring instrument used was the Test of visuomotor coordination of the gross motor skills of the dominant hand. Data were analyzed by t-test.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation on Coordinated Movement of Kinesin and Dynein Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; DOU Shuo-Xing; WANG Peng-Ye

    2008-01-01

    Kinesin and dynein are two important classes of molecular motors which are responsible for active organelle trafficking and cell division.They call work together to carry a cargo,moving along the microtubule in a coordinated way.We use Monte Carlo method to simulate the dynamics of this coordinated movement.Based on four essential assumptions,our simulations reproduce some features of the recent in vivo experiments.The fast moving speed of the cargo js simulated and the speed distribution is presented.

  8. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  9. DETERMINED MODEL FOR COORDINATED REGULATION OF MOTOR TRANSPORT MOVEMENT ON HIGHWAY WITH T-SHAPE CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines variants of higher control efficiency in respect of road traffic by creating coordinated regulation  with the help of a determined module. Model application conditions have been determined for specific traffic situations with due account of transport-pedestrian load. The paper contains proposals for the model optimization directed on reduction of  motor vehicle delay in front of the in-traffic light  stop-line along the main highway direction.

  10. Interrelationships Among Motor Coordination, Body Fat Percentage, and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas Daniel das Virgens; Batista Luiz Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the interrelationships among motor coordination, body fat percentage, and physical activity levels in adolescent girls. Methods. Sixty-eight girls aged 12-14 years participated in the study. Skinfold thickness was measured and the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder test was administered. Participants completed a self-reporting questionnaire on physical activity. Bivariate and partial correlations were used to analyze the interrelationships among t...

  11. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  12. Motor coordination during gait after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of art about motor coordination during gait in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. Searches were carried out, limited from 1980 to 2010, in various databases with keywords related to motor coordination, gait and ACL injury. From the analysis of titles and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria 24 studies were initially selected and, after reading the abstract, eight studies remained in the final analysis. ACL deficient patients tend to have a more rigid and less variable gait, while injured patients with ACL reconstruction have less rigid and more variable gait with respect to healthy individuals. The overall results suggest the existence of differences in motor coordination between the segments with intact and those with injured knee, regardless of ligament reconstruction. ACL injured patients present aspects related to the impairment of the capability to adapt the gait pattern to different environmental conditions, possibly leading to premature knee degeneration. However, the techniques used for biomechanical gait data processing are limited with respect to obtaining information that leads to the development of intervention strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of that injury, since it is not possible to identify the location within the gait cycle where the differences could be explained.

  13. Comparison of motor praxis and performance in children with varying levels of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2016-08-01

    The praxis test is a less well-documented method to determine functional manifestations of childhood dyspraxia. For this study, children aged 6-8years were recruited as follows: 17 children with DCD, 18 at risk of DCD and 35 without obvious problems in motor coordination. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used to measure motor performance and identify the motor incoordination. This study developed a battery of tests to assess limb praxis using a praxis imagery questionnaire, gesture representation, and questions about knowledge of object use. In the comparison of subtests within the praxis test, significant differences were observed across groups on the praxis imagery questionnaire and gesture representation tests but not on knowledge of object use. Similar results were observed in the correlation analyses, in which a weak relationship between MABC-2 and praxis tests was observed. The DCD group had lower scores on the praxis imagery questionnaire, whereas the group at risk of DCD had lower scores on most gesture production tests. Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of the childhood dyspraxia and sheds light on its effect on motor coordination to identify praxis tests with specific clinical meanings in children with movement disorders. PMID:27101560

  14. Analysis of an intervention directed to the development of balance and gross and fine motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Carrillo Maronesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s motor skills evolve according to age and the continuing influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause variations from one child to another; this makes the course of development unique in each child. Objective: To develop an intervention for a child with delays in fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination and balance and analyze its impact on the child’s development. Methods: Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was the Motor Development Scale applied to a 4 year old child. An intervention plan was developed based on the results obtained throught the tests. The plan consists of activities designed to stimulate the aforementioned acquisitions. The implementation of the intervention plan lasted two months. The child was tested at the beginning and at the end of the intervention to determine whether there was gain in the stimulated acquisitions. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of occurrence of reliable and clinically relevant positive changes. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that reliable positive changes occurred with respect to the psychomotor items that underwent stimulation. Conclusion: It is possible to infer that this intervention had a positive effect on the child’s development . Hence, this study contributes to improve the care provided to children with delayed psychomotor development, illustrating possibilities of strategies and activities. It also allows the recognition of the action of occupational therapists as one of the professionals who compose the multidisciplinary team focused on early intervention.

  15. Assessment of motor coordination and dexterity of six years old children: A psychometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Souza Agostini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor coordination of six-year-old children was examined using the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity, AMCD (Avaliação da Coordenação e Destreza Motora - ACOORDEM, in order to verify test-retest reliability and investigate whether motor performance is influenced by gender, type of school and residence location. Eighty-five children were evaluated, and their parents and teachers completed questionnaires. For test-retest reliability, the AMCD was repeated with 10 children. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests identified significant influence of sex, type of school and residence location in just a few of the test items. The test-retest reliability was moderate in the items performance, and good to excellent in the majority of the questionnaires' items. We conclude that some items should be revised and normative tables for the identification of motor delay could be created considering only the age variable. Future studies should continue the process of validating the AMCD instrument with the assessment of younger children.

  16. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages. PMID:24303571

  17. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. PMID:24681309

  18. [The role of the motor cortex in rearrangement of the innate movement coordination in the dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N; Ponomarev, V N

    2007-01-01

    In chronical experiments in dogs the pattern of shoulder muscle recruitment was examined during the forelimb flexion by which the animal lifted and held a cup of food during eating. At the early stage of the instrumental reaction learning the forelimb lifting was performed with the anticipatory deviation of the head in up direction, when the head bent down to the foodwell the lifted forelimb lowered. Simultaneous holding of the flexed forelimb and lowered head providing food reinforcement was achieved only by learning. It was found that the forelimb lifting in the innate coordination in untrained dogs was performed with activation of m. deltoideus and m. teres major, whereas m. teres minor was active whilst the dog was standing but the muscle activity was abolished before the limb lifting. In the course of learning m. teres minor activity was changed into opposite one. In the learned coordination the limb lifting was accompanied by the activation of all three shoulder flexors. The lesion of the motor cortex in the area of the "working" forelimb, but not in other areas led to disturbance of the learned coordination and the novel pattern of the shoulder muscle activity. The data obtained led to the following conclusion: the rearrangement of the innate coordination is connected with the formation of the novel way of the forelimb lifting which pattern of muscle recruitment is provided by the motor cortex. PMID:17944105

  19. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR) exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG), children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG), executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT) and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ) were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles ) and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2) from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14). Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills. Key points Performing jumping rope exercises within a regular soccer program can be an additional method to improve balance and motor coordination. The performance improvement in

  20. Motor simulation and the coordination of self and other in real-time joint action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novembre, Giacomo; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Keller, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    Joint actions require the integration of simultaneous self- and other-related behaviour. Here, we investigated whether this function is underpinned by motor simulation, that is the capacity to represent a perceived action in terms of the neural resources required to execute it. This was tested in a music performance experiment wherein on-line brain stimulation (double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, dTMS) was employed to interfere with motor simulation. Pianists played the right-hand part of piano pieces in synchrony with a recording of the left-hand part, which had (Trained) or had not (Untrained) been practiced beforehand. Training was assumed to enhance motor simulation. The task required adaptation to tempo changes in the left-hand part that, in critical conditions, were preceded by dTMS delivered over the right primary motor cortex. Accuracy of tempo adaptation following dTMS or sham stimulations was compared across Trained and Untrained conditions. Results indicate that dTMS impaired tempo adaptation accuracy only during the perception of trained actions. The magnitude of this interference was greater in empathic individuals possessing a strong tendency to adopt others' perspectives. These findings suggest that motor simulation provides a functional resource for the temporal coordination of one's own behaviour with others in dynamic social contexts. PMID:23709353

  1. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Trecroci, Luca Cavaggioni, Riccardo Caccia, Giampietro Alberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG, children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG, executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2 from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14. Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills.

  2. Fine motor deficiencies in children with developmental coordination disorder and learning disabilities: An underlying open-loop control deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Westenberg, Y.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and learning disabilities (LD) and their age-matched controls attending normal primary schools were investigated using kinematic movement analysis of fine-motor performance. Three hypotheses about the nature of the motor deficits obs

  3. Fine motor deficiencies in children with developmental coordination disorder and learning disabilities: an underlying open-loop control deficit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Westenberg, Y.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and learning disabilities (LD) and their age-matched controls attending normal primary schools were investigated using kinematic movement analysis of fine-motor performance. Three hypotheses about the nature of the motor deficits obs

  4. Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Rommelse, N.; Vermeulen, S.H.H.M.; Altink, M.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Faraone, S.V.; Sergeant, J.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objective. ADHD is frequently accompanied by motor coordination problems. However, the co-occurrence of poor motor performance has received less attention in research than other coexisting problems in ADHD. The underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Therefore, we inv

  5. Enhancement of motor coordination by applying high frequency repetitive TMS on the sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Hi; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung; Ohn, Suk Hoon; Ahn, SeungHo; Kim, Han Jun; Jung, Kwang-Ik

    2016-06-01

    The sensory function plays an important role for successful motor performance. We investigated the modulating effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on sensory discrimination and motor coordination. Twenty healthy participants were assigned into two random groups; the real- and sham-rTMS group. Total of 900 rTMS pulses at a frequency of 10Hz (stimulus intensity of 90% RMT) were given over deltoid representational areas of the somatosensory cortex. Sensory discrimination ability was evaluated using two-point discrimination test. Motor coordination was measured by the latency difference between the synchronized contraction of deltoid and abductor pollicis brevis muscles before and after rTMS. The sensory discrimination was significantly increased only in the deltoid area and the difference in the latency of synchronized contraction of two muscles was significantly shortened after real-rTMS compared sham condition, which had tendency of negative correlation following real-rTMS condition. The results of this study demonstrated rTMS-induced enhancement of sensorimotor integration, which may contribute to develop effective therapeutic strategies for rehabilitation of various sensorimotor disorders in the clinical setting. PMID:26978587

  6. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21). We used an ad-hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move toward the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique. PMID:27303357

  7. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M. Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21). We used an ad-hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move toward the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique. PMID:27303357

  8. Goal scoring in soccer: A polar coordinate analysis of motor skills used by Lionel Messi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eCastañer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74, Copa del Rey (n = 8, and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21. We used an ad hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move towards the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.

  9. Primary motor and sensory cortical areas communicate via spatiotemporally coordinated networks at multiple frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-McShane, Fritzie I; Ross, Callum F; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Sessle, Barry J; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2016-05-01

    Skilled movements rely on sensory information to shape optimal motor responses, for which the sensory and motor cortical areas are critical. How these areas interact to mediate sensorimotor integration is largely unknown. Here, we measure intercortical coherence between the orofacial motor (MIo) and somatosensory (SIo) areas of cortex as monkeys learn to generate tongue-protrusive force. We report that coherence between MIo and SIo is reciprocal and that neuroplastic changes in coherence gradually emerge over a few days. These functional networks of coherent spiking and local field potentials exhibit frequency-specific spatiotemporal properties. During force generation, theta coherence (2-6 Hz) is prominent and exhibited by numerous paired signals; before or after force generation, coherence is evident in alpha (6-13 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), and gamma (30-50 Hz) bands, but the functional networks are smaller and weaker. Unlike coherence in the higher frequency bands, the distribution of the phase at peak theta coherence is bimodal with peaks near 0° and ±180°, suggesting that communication between somatosensory and motor areas is coordinated temporally by the phase of theta coherence. Time-sensitive sensorimotor integration and plasticity may rely on coherence of local and large-scale functional networks for cortical processes to operate at multiple temporal and spatial scales. PMID:27091982

  10. Double Motor Coordinated Control Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and CMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaozhong; Tu, Ji

    A novel hybrid cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) and online adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) controller is introduced to control two Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) which applied in a biped robot. Genetic Algorithm simulates the random learning among the individuals of a group, and CMAC simulates the self-learning of an individual. To validate the ability and superiority of the novel algorithm, experiments have been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Analysis among GA, hybrid GA-CMAC and CMAC feed-forward control is also given. The results prove that the torque ripple of the coordinated control system is eliminated by using the hybrid GA-CMAC algorithm.

  11. Parkinsonism reduces coordination of fingers, wrist, and arm in fine motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulings, H L; Contreras-Vidal, J L; Stelmach, G E; Adler, C H

    1997-07-01

    This experiment investigates movement coordination in Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Seventeen PD patients and 12 elderly control subjects performed several handwriting-like tasks on a digitizing writing tablet resting on top of a table in front of the subject. The writing patterns, in increasing order of coordination complexity, were repetitive back-and-forth movements in various orientations, circles and loops in clockwise and counterclockwise directions, and a complex writing pattern. The patterns were analyzed in terms of jerk normalized for duration and size per stroke. In the PD subjects, back-and-forth strokes, involving coordination of fingers and wrist, showed larger normalized jerk than strokes performed using either the wrist or the fingers alone. In the PD patients, wrist flexion (plus radial deviation) showed greater normalized jerk in comparison to wrist extension (plus ulnar deviation). The elderly control subjects showed no such effects as a function of coordination complexity. For both PD and elderly control subjects, looping patterns consisting of circles with a left-to-right forearm movement, did not show a systematic increase of normalized jerk. The same handwriting patterns were then simulated using a biologically inspired neural network model of the basal ganglia thalamocortical relations for a control and a mild PD subject. The network simulation was consistent with the observed experimental results, providing additional support that a reduced capability to coordinate wrist and finger movements may be caused by suboptimal functioning of the basal ganglia in PD. The results suggest that in PD patients fine motor control problems may be caused by a reduced capability to coordinate the fingers and wrist and by reduced control of wrist flexion. PMID:9225749

  12. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups

    OpenAIRE

    GregoryA.Bryant

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allo...

  13. Emergent Transport Properties of Molecular Motor Ensemble Affected by Single Motor Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaban, Shreyas; Materassi, Donatello; Li, Mingang; Hays, Thomas; Salapaka, Murti

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is an essential function in eucaryotic cells, facilitated by motor proteins - proteins converting chemical energy into kinetic energy. It is known that motor proteins work in teams enabling unidirectional and bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo over long distances. Disruptions of the underlying transport mechanisms, often caused by mutations that alter single motor characteristics, are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases. For example, phosphorylation o...

  14. Animal signals and emotion in music: Coordinating affect across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Bryant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Here I describe recent work that reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including 1 examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise in nonhuman animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and 2 an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to nonhuman animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary byproducts of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be due to the operation of an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases—many shared across species—and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  15. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:24427146

  16. Overlapping Phenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Motor and Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2016-08-01

    Motor and social difficulties are often found in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), to varying degrees. This study investigated the extent of overlap of these problems in children aged 7-10 years who had a diagnosis of either ASD or DCD, compared to typically-developing controls. Children completed motor and face processing assessments. Parents completed questionnaires concerning their child's early motor and current motor and social skills. There was considerable overlap between the ASD and DCD groups on the motor and social assessments, with both groups more impaired than controls. Furthermore, motor skill predicted social functioning for both groups. Future research should consider the relationships between core symptoms and their consequences in other domains. PMID:27126816

  17. Remapping residual coordination for controlling assistive devices and recovering motor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierella, Camilla; Abdollahi, Farnaz; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Pedersen, Jessica; Thorp, Elias B; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Casadio, Maura

    2015-12-01

    The concept of human motor redundancy attracted much attention since the early studies of motor control, as it highlights the ability of the motor system to generate a great variety of movements to achieve any well-defined goal. The abundance of degrees of freedom in the human body may be a fundamental resource in the learning and remapping problems that are encountered in human-machine interfaces (HMIs) developments. The HMI can act at different levels decoding brain signals or body signals to control an external device. The transformation from neural signals to device commands is the core of research on brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). However, while BMIs bypass completely the final path of the motor system, body-machine interfaces (BoMIs) take advantage of motor skills that are still available to the user and have the potential to enhance these skills through their consistent use. BoMIs empower people with severe motor disabilities with the possibility to control external devices, and they concurrently offer the opportunity to focus on achieving rehabilitative goals. In this study we describe a theoretical paradigm for the use of a BoMI in rehabilitation. The proposed BoMI remaps the user's residual upper body mobility to the two coordinates of a cursor on a computer screen. This mapping is obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). We hypothesize that the BoMI can be specifically programmed to engage the users in functional exercises aimed at partial recovery of motor skills, while simultaneously controlling the cursor and carrying out functional tasks, e.g. playing games. Specifically, PCA allows us to select not only the subspace that is most comfortable for the user to act upon, but also the degrees of freedom and coordination patterns that the user has more difficulty engaging. In this article, we describe a family of map modifications that can be made to change the motor behavior of the user. Depending on the characteristics of the impairment of each

  18. Effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on motor coordination, strength, and speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunovic, Slavoljub; Kostic, Radmila; Zivkovic, Dobrica

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on coordination, strength, and speed in 60 beginner-level female dancers, aged 13 and 14 yrs. The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2), each numbering 30 subjects, drawn from local dance clubs. In order to determine motor coordination, strength, and speed, we used 15 measurements. The groups were tested before and after the experimental programs. Both experimental programs lasted for 18 wks, with training sessions twice a week for 60 minutes. The subjects from the E1 group trained according to a new experimental program of disco dance (DD) modern sports dance, and the E2 group trained according to the classic DD program of the same kind for beginner selections. The obtained results were assessed by statistical analysis: a paired-samples t-test and MANCOVA/ANCOVA. The results indicated that following the experimental programs, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the evaluated skills, but the changes among the E1 group subjects were more pronounced. The basic assumption of this research was confirmed, that the new experimental DD program has a significant influence on coordination, strength, and speed. In relation to these changes, the application of the new DD program was recommended for beginner dancers. PMID:21120267

  19. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  20. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. AD was induced by a bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. In the present results, ICV injection of Aβ25-35 deteriorated motor coordination and balance. The number of calbindin-positive cells in the cerebellar vermis was decreased and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the cerebellar vermis was increased in the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor coordination and balance. Treadmill exercise increased the number of Purkinje neurons and suppressed GFAP expression in the cerebellar vermis. The present study demonstrated that treadmill exercises alleviated dysfunction of motor coordination and balance by reduction of Purkinje cell loss through suppressing reactive astrocytes in the cerebellum of AD rats. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise might be an important therapeutic strategy for the symptom improvement of AD patients. PMID:25426461

  1. The spinning task: a new protocol to easily assess motor coordination and resistance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, Ana R; Vianna, Mônica R; Lara, Diogo R

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of adult zebrafish in behavioral studies has created the need for new and improved protocols. Our investigation sought to evaluate the swimming behavior of zebrafish against a water current using the newly developed Spinning Task. Zebrafish were individually placed in a beaker containing a spinning magnetic stirrer and their latency to be swept into the whirlpool was recorded. We characterized that larger fish (>4 cm) and lower rpm decreased the swimming time in the Spinning Task. There was also a dose-related reduction in swimming after acute treatment with haloperidol, valproic acid, clonazepam, and ethanol, which alter coordination. Importantly, at doses that reduced swimming time in the Spinning Task, these drugs influenced absolute turn angle (ethanol increased and the other drugs decreased), but had no effect of distance travelled in a regular water tank. These results suggest that the Spinning Task is a useful protocol to add information to the assessment of zebrafish motor behavior. PMID:24044654

  2. A new neural net approach to robot 3D perception and visuo-motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1992-01-01

    A novel neural network approach to robot hand-eye coordination is presented. The approach provides a true sense of visual error servoing, redundant arm configuration control for collision avoidance, and invariant visuo-motor learning under gazing control. A 3-D perception network is introduced to represent the robot internal 3-D metric space in which visual error servoing and arm configuration control are performed. The arm kinematic network performs the bidirectional association between 3-D space arm configurations and joint angles, and enforces the legitimate arm configurations. The arm kinematic net is structured by a radial-based competitive and cooperative network with hierarchical self-organizing learning. The main goal of the present work is to demonstrate that the neural net representation of the robot 3-D perception net serves as an important intermediate functional block connecting robot eyes and arms.

  3. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  4. Higher coordination with less control - A result of information maximisation in the sensori-motor loop

    CERN Document Server

    Zahedi, Keyan; Der, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a novel learning method in the context of embodied artificial intelligence and guided self-organisation, which is free of assumptions about the world and restrictions on the underlying model. The learning rule is derived from the principle of maximising the predictive information in the sensori-motor loop. It is evaluated in six experiments in which individually controlled robots with different control paradigms are physically connected to chains of varying length. The robots have no form of direct communication. The comparison of the results shows that locally maximising the predictive information leads to a coordinated behaviour of the physically connected robots. Another result of this paper is the analysis of the effect of the morphology on the overall behaviour of the robots. It will be shown that longer chains with less capable controllers outperform those of shorter length and more complex controllers.

  5. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.

  6. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  7. The relationship between joint mobility and motor performance in children with and without the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint; Klerks, M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether joint mobility is associated with motor performance in children referred for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD-group) in contrast to a randomly selected group of children between 3-16 years of age (Random-Group). Methods: 36 child

  8. Gender differential effects of developmental exposure to methyl-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls 126 or 153, or its combinations on motor activity and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; Piedrafita, Blanca; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) are persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the food chain. Pre- and neonatal exposure to these neurotoxicants may affect brain development and lead to long-lasting alterations in cerebral function, which can result in motor alterations in youth and/or adulthood. Some neurotoxicants induce gender specific effects. The aims of the present work were to: (1) assess the effects of developmental exposure to MeHg, PCB 153 or PCB 126 on spontaneous locomotor and vertical activity and motor coordination when the rats are 2-month old; (2) assess whether perinatal exposure to combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 alter the effects of the individual neurotoxicants; (3) follow the progression of motor alterations when the rats are 3-, 5- and 7-month old; (4) assess if the effects are similar or different in males and females. Pregnant rats were treated with MeHg (0.5mg/kgday); PCB126 (100ng/kgday) or PCB153 (1mg/kgday) or with combinations of MeHg with each PCB, administered in food from gestational day 7 until weaning at post-natal day 21. PCB 126 impaired motor coordination at 2 months in males but not in females. PCB 153 impaired coordination both in males and females. Combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 did not affect motor coordination, indicating that MeHg counteracts the effects of the PBCs. The combination of MeHg and PCB153 induces hypolocomotion at 2 months but hyperactivity at 7 months while the individual compounds did not induce any effect. PCB126 induced gender selective effects, reducing locomotor activity at 2 months in females but not in males. The combination of MeHg and PCB126 behaves as PCB126 alone. All compounds and combinations tested induce gender-selective alterations in vertical activity. The effects on locomotor and vertical activity change with age in the same rats. At 2 months all compounds and combinations reduce vertical activity in females but not in males. At 7 months

  9. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  10. Structure of Coordination Motor Abilities in Male Basketball Players at Different Levels of Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sadowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the structure of coordination motor abilities (CMA in male basketball players at different levels of competition. Material and methods. The study included 183 male basketball players from 10 Polish sports clubs. The examined groups consisted of seniors (n=42 aged 24.5 (± 3.3, juniors (n=37 aged 16.8 (± 0.6, cadets (n=54 aged 14.5 (± 0.1 and children (n=50 aged 13.4 (± 0.2. A battery of motor tests was administered to assess the following CMA: kinesthetic differentiation of movements, spatio-temporal orientation, reaction time, movement coupling, sense of balance, sense of rhythm and adjustment of movements. The structure of CMA under investigation was determined based on the results of Hotelling's principal component analysis in Tucker's modification, completed with Kaiser's Varimax rotation [1, 2]. Results. The CMA structure of basketball players was composed of three or four factors. Most often these included rhythm, movement differentiation, movement coupling and adjustment of movements. Less frequently the structure consisted of spatio-temporal orientation, balance and reaction time. An in-depth analysis of the CMA structure revealed that factors ranged from heterogeneous (children and cadets to homogeneous ones (juniors and seniors. The distribution of identified factors in the common variance was the smallest in children and cadets (58.9% and 62.9%, respectively and the biggest in juniors and seniors (69.3% and 68.48%, respectively.

  11. [Role of different projection areas of the motor cortex in reorganization of the innate head-forelimb coordination in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2005-01-01

    Dogs were trained to perform the forelimb tonic flexion in order to lift a cup with meat from a bottom of the foodwell and hold it during eating with the head bent down to the cup. It is known that conditioning of the instrumental reaction is based on reorganization of the innate head-forelimb coordination into the opposite one. In untrained dogs, the forelimb flexion is accompanied by the anticipatory lifting of the head bent down to the foodwell. The following lowering of the head leads to an extension of the flexed forelimb. Tonic forelimb flexion is possible if the head is in the up position. Simultaneous holding of the flexed forelimb and lowered head providing food reinforcement is achieved only by learning. It was shown earlier that the lesion of the motor cortex contralateral to the "working" forelimb led to a prolonged disturbance of the elaborated coordination and reappearance of the innate coordination. In the present work we studied the influence of local lesions of the projection areas in the motor cortex, such as a "working" forelimb area, bilateral representation of the neck, and the medial part of the motor cortex, on the learned instrumental feeding reaction. It was found that only the lesion of the forelimb but not neck projection led to a disturbance of the learned head-forelimb movement coordination. PMID:16396488

  12. Role of Gaze Cues in Interpersonal Motor Coordination: Towards Higher Affiliation in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Shukla, Ashwini; Raffard, Stéphane; Bardy, Benoît G.; Billard, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to follow one another’s gaze plays an important role in our social cognition; especially when we synchronously perform tasks together. We investigate how gaze cues can improve performance in a simple coordination task (i.e., the mirror game), whereby two players mirror each other’s hand motions. In this game, each player is either a leader or follower. To study the effect of gaze in a systematic manner, the leader’s role is played by a robotic avatar. We contrast two conditions, in which the avatar provides or not explicit gaze cues that indicate the next location of its hand. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether participants are able to exploit these gaze cues to improve their coordination, (b) how gaze cues affect action prediction and temporal coordination, and (c) whether introducing active gaze behavior for avatars makes them more realistic and human-like (from the user point of view). Methodology/Principal Findings 43 subjects participated in 8 trials of the mirror game. Each subject performed the game in the two conditions (with and without gaze cues). In this within-subject study, the order of the conditions was randomized across participants, and subjective assessment of the avatar’s realism was assessed by administering a post-hoc questionnaire. When gaze cues were provided, a quantitative assessment of synchrony between participants and the avatar revealed a significant improvement in subject reaction-time (RT). This confirms our hypothesis that gaze cues improve the follower’s ability to predict the avatar’s action. An analysis of the pattern of frequency across the two players’ hand movements reveals that the gaze cues improve the overall temporal coordination across the two players. Finally, analysis of the subjective evaluations from the questionnaires reveals that, in the presence of gaze cues, participants found it not only more human-like/realistic, but also easier to interact with the avatar. Conclusion

  13. Role of across‐muscle motor unit synchrony for the coordination of forces

    OpenAIRE

    Santello, Marco; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Evidence from five‐digit grasping studies indicates that grip forces exerted by pairs of digits tend to be synchronized. It has been suggested that motor unit synchronization might be a mechanism responsible for constraining the temporal relationships between grip forces. To evaluate this possibility and quantify the effect of motor unit synchrony on force relationships, we used a motor unit model to simulate force produced by two muscles using three physiological levels of motor unit synchro...

  14. The Effects of Motor Coordination Error Duration on Reaction Time and Motivational Achievement Tasks among Young Romanian Psychology Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Aniţei; Mihaela Chraif

    2013-01-01

    Present study is focused on highlighting the effects of motor coordination error duration on reaction time to multiple stimuli, on motivation from competition and on motivation from personal goals among young psychology students. Method: the participants were 65 undergraduate students, aged between 19 and 24 years old (m= 21.65; S.D. = 1.49), 32 male and 33 female, all from the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Bucharest, Romania. Instruments were the Determination...

  15. Effects of treadmill exercise training on cerebellar estrogen and estrogen receptors, serum estrogen, and motor coordination performance of ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saidah Rauf; Sri Kadarsih Soejono; Ginus Partadiredja

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The present study aims at examining the motor coordination performance, serum and cerebellar estrogen, as well as ERβ levels, of ovariectomized rats (as menopausal model) following regular exercise. Materials and Methods: Ten female Sprague Dawley rats aged 12 weeks old were randomly divided into two groups; all of which underwent ovariectomy. The first group was treated with regular exercise of moderate intensity, in which the rats were trained to run on a treadmill for 60 min ...

  16. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Raquel; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gomes, Thayse; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC). Participants (n = 390), recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF), physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF) and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels). It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF) significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05), individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05), and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05). School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface) explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities. PMID:26264007

  17. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, An Umbrella Term for Motor Impairments in Children: Nature and Co-Morbid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; Lalanne, Christophe; Golse, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) defines a heterogeneous class of children exhibiting marked impairment in motor coordination as a general group of deficits in fine and gross motricity (subtype mixed group) common to all research studies, and with a variety of other motor disorders that have been little investigated. No consensus about symptoms and etiology has been established. Methods: Data from 58 children aged 6 to 13 years with DCD were collected on DSM-IV criteria, similar to DSM-5 criteria. They had no other medical condition and inclusion criteria were strict (born full-term, no medication, no occupational/physical therapy). Multivariate statistical methods were used to evidence relevant interactions between discriminant features in a general DCD subtype group and to highlight specific co-morbidities. The study examined age-calibrated standardized scores from completed assessments of psychological, neuropsychological, and neuropsychomotor functions, and more specifically the presence of minor neurological dysfunctions (MND) including neurological soft signs (NSS), without evidence of focal neurological brain involvement. These were not considered in most previous studies. Results: Findings show the salient DCD markers for the mixed subtype (imitation of gestures, digital perception, digital praxia, manual dexterity, upper, and lower limb coordination), vs. surprising co-morbidities, with 33% of MND with mild spasticity from phasic stretch reflex (PSR), not associated with the above impairments but rather with sitting tone (p = 0.004) and dysdiadochokinesia (p = 0.011). PSR was not specific to a DCD subtype but was related to increased impairment of coordination between upper and lower limbs and manual dexterity. Our results highlight the major contribution of an extensive neuro-developmental assessment (mental and physical). Discussion: The present study provides important new evidence in favor of a complete physical neuropsychomotor

  19. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  20. Don't rock the boat: how antiphase crew coordination affects rowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk J de Brouwer

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that crew rowing requires perfect synchronization between the movements of the rowers. However, a long-standing and somewhat counterintuitive idea is that out-of-phase crew rowing might have benefits over in-phase (i.e., synchronous rowing. In synchronous rowing, 5 to 6% of the power produced by the rower(s is lost to velocity fluctuations of the shell within each rowing cycle. Theoretically, a possible way for crews to increase average boat velocity is to reduce these fluctuations by rowing in antiphase coordination, a strategy in which rowers perfectly alternate their movements. On the other hand, the framework of coordination dynamics explicates that antiphase coordination is less stable than in-phase coordination, which may impede performance gains. Therefore, we compared antiphase to in-phase crew rowing performance in an ergometer experiment. Nine pairs of rowers performed a two-minute maximum effort in-phase and antiphase trial at 36 strokes min(-1 on two coupled free-floating ergometers that allowed for power losses to velocity fluctuations. Rower and ergometer kinetics and kinematics were measured during the trials. All nine pairs easily acquired antiphase rowing during the warm-up, while one pair's coordination briefly switched to in-phase during the maximum effort trial. Although antiphase interpersonal coordination was indeed less accurate and more variable, power production was not negatively affected. Importantly, in antiphase rowing the decreased power loss to velocity fluctuations resulted in more useful power being transferred to the ergometer flywheels. These results imply that antiphase rowing may indeed improve performance, even without any experience with antiphase technique. Furthermore, it demonstrates that although perfectly synchronous coordination may be the most stable, it is not necessarily equated with the most efficient or optimal performance.

  1. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia eKomulainen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  2. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi

    OpenAIRE

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), an...

  3. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L

    2016-08-30

    Modern medicine has generally viewed the concept of "psychosomatic" disease with suspicion. This view arose partly because no neural networks were known for the mind, conceptually associated with the cerebral cortex, to influence autonomic and endocrine systems that control internal organs. Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate through multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The larger network includes all of the cortical motor areas in the frontal lobe and portions of somatosensory cortex. A major component of this network originates from the supplementary motor area and the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The second, smaller network originates in regions of medial prefrontal cortex, including a major contribution from pregenual and subgenual regions of anterior cingulate cortex. These cortical areas are involved in higher-order aspects of cognition and affect. These results indicate that specific multisynaptic circuits exist to link movement, cognition, and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla. This circuitry may mediate the effects of internal states like chronic stress and depression on organ function and, thus, provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illness. PMID:27528671

  4. Cysteine 295 indirectly affects Ni coordination of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase-II C-cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CODH-II harbors a unique [Ni-Fe-S] cluster. •We substituted the ligand residues of Cys295 and His261. •Dramatic decreases in Ni content upon substitutions were observed. •All substitutions did not affect Fe-S clusters assembly. •CO oxidation activity was decreased by the substitutions. -- Abstract: A unique [Ni–Fe–S] cluster (C-cluster) constitutes the active center of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs). His261, which coordinates one of the Fe atoms with Cys295, is suggested to be the only residue required for Ni coordination in the C-cluster. To evaluate the role of Cys295, we constructed CODH-II variants. Ala substitution for the Cys295 substitution resulted in the decrease of Ni content and didn’t result in major change of Fe content. In addition, the substitution had no effect on the ability to assemble a full complement of [Fe–S] clusters. This strongly suggests Cys295 indirectly and His261 together affect Ni-coordination in the C-cluster

  5. The Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure Affects the Detection of Facial Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fantoni, Carlo; Cavallero, Corrado; Gerbino, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Fantoni and Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect the actor's global experience. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they adapted participants to comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and obtained consistent mood-congruency effects in the identification of facial emotions: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after ...

  6. Goal scoring in soccer: A polar coordinate analysis of motor skills used by Lionel Messi

    OpenAIRE

    Marta eCastañer; Daniel eBarreira; Oleguer eCamerino; M.Teresa eAnguera; Albert eCanton; Raúl eHileno

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), an...

  7. Effects of treadmill exercise training on cerebellar estrogen and estrogen receptors, serum estrogen, and motor coordination performance of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidah Rauf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The present study aims at examining the motor coordination performance, serum and cerebellar estrogen, as well as ERβ levels, of ovariectomized rats (as menopausal model following regular exercise. Materials and Methods:Ten female Sprague Dawley ratsaged 12 weeks old were randomly divided into two groups; all of which underwent ovariectomy. The first group was treated with regular exercise of moderate intensity, in which the rats were trained to run on a treadmill for 60 min per day for 12 weeks. The second group served as control. Rotarod test was carried out before and after exercise treatment. All rats were euthanized thereafter, and blood and cerebellums of the rats were collected. The serum and cerebellar estrogen as well as cerebellar ERβ levels were measured using ELISA assays. Results: The number of falls in the rotarod task of the exercise group was significantly lower than that of control group. The cerebellar estrogen level of the exercise group was significantly higher than that of control group. Accordingly, there was a significantly negative correlation between the number of falls and cerebellar estrogen level in the exercise group. Conclusion:The present study shows that a lengthy period of regular exercise improves the cerebellar estrogen level and motor coordination performance in ovariectomized rats.

  8. Are Cortical Motor Maps Based on Body Parts or Coordinated Actions? Implications for Embodied Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The embodied cognition approach to the study of the mind proposes that higher order mental processes such as concept formation and language are essentially based on perceptual and motor processes. Contrary to the classical approach in cognitive science, in which concepts are viewed as amodal, arbitrary symbols, embodied semantics argues that…

  9. Short Term Auditory Pacing Changes Dual Motor Task Coordination in Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Mackenzie, Samuel J.; Marmon, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of short-term auditory pacing practice on dual motor task performance in children with and without dyslexia. Groups included dyslexic with Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) scores greater than 15th percentile (D_HIGH, n = 18; mean age 9.89 [plus or minus] 2.0 years), dyslexic with MABC [less than or…

  10. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence: Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-06-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings. PMID:25864486

  11. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  12. Calbindin in cerebellar Purkinje cells is a critical determinant of the precision of motor coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Barski, J. J.; Hartmann, J.; Rose, C. R.; Hoebeek, F.; Morl, K.; Noll-Hussong, M; De Zeeuw, C.I.; Konnerth, A; Meyer, M.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of Purkinje cell-parallel fiber synaptic transmission is a critical determinant of normal cerebellar function. Impairment of LTD through, for example, disruption of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-IP3-calcium signaling cascade in mutant mice results in severe deficits of both synaptic transmission and cerebellar motor control. Here, we demonstrate that selective genetic deletion of the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28k (calbindin) from cerebellar Purkinje ...

  13. DETERMINED MODEL FOR COORDINATED REGULATION OF MOTOR TRANSPORT MOVEMENT ON HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ivanov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines certain parameters of a determined model and its response to changes in these parameters. The determined model for bidirectional movement has been developed in the paper. The paper contains proposals for an optimization of the developed model which are intended for reduction of motor vehicle delays in front of an in-traffic light stop line along the main highway direction.

  14. Attentional Mechanism for Sensory-motor Coordination in Behavior-based Robotic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Staffa, Mariacarla

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the problem of efficiently allocating resources for enhancing the performance of an autonomous robotic agent. Such an agent is expected to operate in complex dynamic environments by continuously monitoring its internal states and the external events. These requirements give raise to countless problems that have populated research in the autonomous robotics community in the last two decades. Among these issues, one of the most relevant is to coordinate different low ...

  15. Does cycling effect motor coordination of the leg during running in elite triathletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill; Blanch, Peter; Dowlan, Steve; Hodges, Paul W

    2008-07-01

    Triathletes report incoordination when running after cycling. We investigated the influence of the transition from cycling to running on leg movement and muscle recruitment during running in elite international level triathletes. Leg movement (three-dimensional kinematics) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity (surface electromyography) were compared between a control-run (no prior exercise) and a 30-min transition-run (preceded by 20 min of cycling; i.e., run versus cycle-run). The role of fatigue in motor changes was also investigated. Leg kinematics were not different between control- and transition-runs in any triathlete. Recruitment of TA was different in 5 of 14 triathletes, in whom altered TA recruitment patterns during the transition-run were more similar to recruitment patterns of TA during cycling. Changes in TA recruitment during the transition-run were not associated with altered force production of TA or other leg muscles during isometric fatigue testing, or myoelectric indicators of fatigue (median frequency, average rectified value). These findings suggest that short periods of cycling do not influence running kinematics or TA muscle activity in most elite triathletes. However, our findings are evidence that leg muscle activity during running is influenced by cycling in at least some elite triathletes despite their years of training. This influence is not related to kinematic variations and is unlikely related to fatigue but may be a direct effect of cycling on motor commands for running. PMID:17466592

  16. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2012-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (nine men and nine women) attended four test sessions where they received one of four doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increased various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves as better able to function than is actually the case. PMID:22023670

  17. Visuo-motor coordination ability predicts performance with brain-computer interfaces controlled by modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Hammer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of sensorimotor rhythms (SMR was suggested as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. Yet, there is a population of users estimated between 10 to 50% not able to achieve reliable control and only about 20% of users achieve high (80-100% performance. Predicting performance prior to BCI use would facilitate selection of the most feasible system for an individual, thus constitute a practical benefit for the user, and increase our knowledge about the correlates of BCI control. In a recent study, we predicted SMR-BCI performance from psychological variables that were assessed prior to the BCI sessions and BCI control was supported with machine-learning techniques. We described two significant psychological predictors, namely the visuo-motor coordination ability and the ability to concentrate on the task. The purpose of the current study was to replicate these results thereby validating these predictors within a neurofeedback based SMR-BCI that involved no machine learning. Thirty-three healthy BCI novices participated in a calibration session and three further neurofeedback training sessions. Two variables were related with mean SMR-BCI performance: (1 A measure for the accuracy of fine motor skills, i.e. a trade for a person’s visuo-motor control ability and (2 subject’s attentional impulsivity. In a linear regression they accounted for almost 20% in variance of SMR-BCI performance, but predictor (1 failed significance. Nevertheless, on the basis of our prior regression model for sensorimotor control ability we could predict current SMR-BCI performance with an average prediction error of M = 12.07%. In more than 50% of the participants, the prediction error was smaller than 10%. Hence, psychological variables played a moderate role in predicting SMR-BCI performance in a neurofeedback approach that involved no machine learning. Future studies are needed to further consolidate (or reject the present predictors.

  18. Promotion and co-ordination in Switzerland within the framework of the EU Motor Challenge Program - Final report; Promotion und Koordination in der Schweiz zum Motor Challenge Programm der EU - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J. [Arena, Zuerich (Switzerland); Tanner, R. [Semafor, Basel (Switzerland); Gloor, R. [Gloor Engineering, Sufers (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of the Motor Challenge Promotion project was to establish information on the European Motor Challenge Programme to users of electric motor driven systems, and to encourage them to start activities on energy efficient drives in their plants and sites. The promotion project served also as National Contact Point of the European Motor Challenge Programme in Switzerland and coordinated information transfer of national activities on drives efficiency. Dissemination of Motor Challenge information and know-how was achieved mainly by these means: Internet (www.motorchallenge.ch), electronic newsletter twice a year, articles in technical publications, presentations at events on energy efficiency and in training courses at technical universities. Communication with the EU-Motor Challenge Programme was provided by e-mail exchange and by attending conferences and workshops, e.g. EEMODS 2005 (Heidelberg), Motor Challenge Workshop 2007 (Paris). Queries and the attendance at information events showed a growing interest in efficiency of electric drives. The Swiss Motor Challenge team was involved in the preparation of the SwissEnergy implementation programme on drives efficiency. The Swiss agency for efficient energy use S.A.F.E. launched the programme named 'Topmotors' in autumn 2007. The Motor Challenge activities will pass over to Topmotors; the web site will be linked to www.topmotors.ch and a Topmotors newsletter will be launched. (author)

  19. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  20. Insect motor control: methodological advances, descending control and inter-leg coordination on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Anke; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    Modern approaches, including high performance video, neurophysiology, and neurogenetics, allow to analyze invertebrate behavior on all levels of generation and performance in an unprecedented way. They allow observation and classification of behavior in controlled conditions, dissection of behavioral sequencing, identification of levels of processing and locations of associated sub-networks and, finally, identification of neuronal components and topologies contributing to specific aspects of behaviors. Recently conceptual and methodological progress has contributed to unraveling the neural structures underlying descending control of insect behavior as well as the mechanisms in charge of generating coordinated locomotor movements of the invertebrate extremities during walking. This brief review summarizes some of the most exciting new findings in these areas of research from the past years. PMID:25579064

  1. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstoel, Katrijn; Pion, Johan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles

  2. Menstrual Cycle-Related Changes of Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Fine Motor Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuating sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect functional cerebral asymmetries in cognitive domains. These effects seem to result from the neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones and their metabolites on interhemispheric processing. The present study was carried out to investigate whether functional cerebral…

  3. Physiological Indices of Bilingualism: Oral–Motor Coordination and Speech Rate in Bengali–English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa; Smith, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine how age of immersion and proficiency in a 2nd language influence speech movement variability and speaking rate in both a 1st language and a 2nd language. Method A group of 21 Bengali–English bilingual speakers participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded. For all 21 speakers, lip movement variability was assessed based on productions of Bengali (L1; 1st language) and English (L2; 2nd language) sentences. For analyses related to the influence of L2 proficiency on speech production processes, participants were sorted into low- (n = 7) and high-proficiency (n = 7) groups. Lip movement variability and speech rate were evaluated for both of these groups across L1 and L2 sentences. Results Surprisingly, adult bilingual speakers produced equally consistent speech movement patterns in their production of L1 and L2. When groups were sorted according to proficiency, highly proficient speakers were marginally more variable in their L1. In addition, there were some phoneme-specific effects, most markedly that segments not shared by both languages were treated differently in production. Consistent with previous studies, movement durations were longer for less proficient speakers in both L1 and L2. Interpretation In contrast to those of child learners, the speech motor systems of adult L2 speakers show a high degree of consistency. Such lack of variability presumably contributes to protracted difficulties with acquiring nativelike pronunciation in L2. The proficiency results suggest bidirectional interactions across L1 and L2, which is consistent with hypotheses regarding interference and the sharing of phonological space. A slower speech rate in less proficient speakers implies that there are increased task demands on speech production processes. PMID:18367680

  4. Revealing hot executive function in children with motor coordination problems: What's the go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S; Steenbergen, B; Piek, J P; Caeyenberghs, K; Wilson, P H

    2016-07-01

    Recent research suggests that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) often show deficits in executive functioning (EF) and, more specifically, the ability to use inhibitory control in 'hot', emotionally rewarding contexts. This study optimized the assessment of sensitivity of children with DCD to emotionally significant stimuli by using easily discriminable emotional expressions in a go/no-go task. Thirty-six children (12 with DCD), aged 7-12years, completed an emotional go/no-go task in which neutral facial expressions were paired with either happy or sad ones. Each expression was used as both, a go and no-go target in different runs of the task. There were no group differences in omission errors; however, the DCD group made significantly more commission errors to happy no-go faces. The particular pattern of performance in DCD confirms earlier reports of (hot) EF deficits. Specifically, a problem of inhibitory control appears to underlie the atypical pattern of performance seen in DCD on both cold and hot EF tasks. Disrupted coupling between cognitive control and emotion processing networks, such as fronto-parietal and fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to reduced inhibitory control in DCD. The implications for a broader theoretical account of DCD are discussed, as are implications for intervention. PMID:27254817

  5. Pomegranate Supplementation Improves Affective and Motor Behavior in Mice after Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Dulcich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy, and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects.

  6. Pomegranate supplementation improves affective and motor behavior in mice after radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcich, Melissa S; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects. PMID:23662154

  7. Motor competence in Czech children aged 11-15: What is the incidence of a risk of developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current findings suggest that the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD ranges widely between countries. A major reason for this wide range of prevalence is how cases of DCD are identified. Gender differences in level of motor competence in children with movement difficulties may play a key role in the choice of type of intervention. Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD in Czech children aged 11 to 15. At the same time we wanted to assess possible gender differences in different types of the movement difficulties. Methods: A total sample of 507 children (age 11-15 years, 262 boys, 245 girls from all Czech regions was included. The MABC-2 test was used for the identification of movement difficulties with different severity. Children whose total test score (TTS was ≤ 15th percentile were considered at risk for having DCD (children with rDCD. Children whose TTS was ≤ 5th percentile were considered as having significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. An analysis of gender differences of children with rDCD in MABC-2 motor components and tests were carried out. Results: From the entire sample, 33 participants (22 boys, 11 girls were identified as at risk of having DCD (rDCD. 1.4% of the total sample met the criterion for significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. 5.1% of the total sample met the criterion for identification of the risk for having movement difficulties. Almost twice as high predisposition for the occurrence of movement difficulties was revealed in boys as compared to girls in a population of children with rDCD (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-2.74. Girls with rDCD performed better in manual dexterity with a medium effect of the gender (Cohen's d = 0.58, whereas boys with rDCD achieved better results in aiming and catching also with a

  8. Intra-limb coordination while walking is affected by cognitive load and walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavati, Tabassom; Salavati, Mahyar; Karimi, Noureddin; Negahban, Hossein; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Mehravar, Mohammad; Hessam, Masumeh

    2014-07-18

    Knowledge about intra-limb coordination (ILC) during challenging walking conditions provides insight into the adaptability of central nervous system (CNS) for controlling human gait. We assessed the effects of cognitive load and speed on the pattern and variability of the ILC in young people during walking. Thirty healthy young people (19 female and 11 male) participated in this study. They were asked to perform 9 walking trials on a treadmill, including walking at three paces (preferred, slower and faster) either without a cognitive task (single-task walking) or while subtracting 1׳s or 3׳s from a random three-digit number (simple and complex dual-task walking, respectively). Deviation phase (DP) and mean absolute relative phase (MARP) values-indicators of variability and phase dynamic of ILC, respectively-were calculated using the data collected by a motion capture system. We used a two-way repeated measure analysis of variance for statistical analysis. The results showed that cognitive load had a significant main effect on DP of right shank-foot and thigh-shank, left shank-foot and pelvis-thigh (peffect of walking speed was significant on DP of all segments in each side and MARP of both thigh-shank and pelvis-thigh segments (pcognitive load and walking speed was only significant for MARP values of left shank-foot and right pelvis-thigh (pcognitive load and speed could significantly affect the ILC and variability and phase dynamic during walking. PMID:24861632

  9. Pregnenolone sulfate restores the glutamate-nitric-oxide-cGMP pathway and extracellular GABA in cerebellum and learning and motor coordination in hyperammonemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Usano, Alba; Cauli, Omar; Agusti, Ana; Felipo, Vicente

    2014-02-19

    Around 40% of cirrhotic patients show minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), with mild cognitive impairment which reduces their quality of life and life span. Treatment of MHE is unsatisfactory, and there are no specific treatments for the neurological alterations in MHE. Hyperammonemia is the main contributor to neurological alterations in MHE. New agents acting on molecular targets involved in brain mechanisms leading to neurological alterations are needed to treat MHE. Chronic hyperammonemia impairs learning of a Y-maze task by impairing the glutamate-nitric-oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in cerebellum, in part by enhancing GABA(A) receptor activation, which also induces motor in-coordination. Acute pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) restores the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in hyperammonemic rats. This work aimed to assess whether chronic treatment of hyperammonemic rats with PregS restores (1) motor coordination; (2) extracellular GABA in cerebellum; (3) learning of the Y-maze task; (4) the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellum. Chronic intracerebral administration of PregS normalizes motor coordination likely due to extracellular GABA reduction. PregS restores learning ability by restoring the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway, likely due to both enhanced NMDA receptor activation and reduced GABA(A) receptor activation. Similar treatments would improve cognitive and motor alterations in patients with MHE. PMID:24256194

  10. Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Hydroalcoholic and Hexanic Extract of Heated Female Cannabis Sativa Flowertops on Anxiety Behavior, Motor Coordination and Locomotor Activity in the Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Farhadi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decarboxylated phytocannabinoids activates CB1 receptors of endocannabinoid system in the central nervous system. Endocannabinoid system interacts with dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, which seems to be effective on the behavior processes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic and hexanic extract of heated female Cannabis sativa flowertops containing decarboxylated cannabinoids on anxiety, motor coordination and locomotor activity. Methods: In this experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly (200 to 250 g used in two groups(n=7 of control and sham (administration of the solution vehicle (Tween 80, ethanol and saline with 1:1:8 proportions. IP administration of hydroalcoholic extract (50mg/kg dosage, and hexanic extract (50mg/kg dosage were applied. The elevated plus maze, open field and rotarod apparatus were used in order to measure the anxiety, locomotor activity and motor coordination in each group, respectively. Moreover, the data analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA and Neumann-keuls post-hoc test. Results: The study results indicated that IP administration of hexanic extract (50mg/kg dosage significantly reduced the numbers of entries into the open arms (P<0.05 as well as time of stay in the open arms (P<0.01 in evaluated plus maze. Furthermore, motor activity (P <0.01 and time coordination (P <0.001 were reported to significantly reduce. Conclusion: The study findings revealed thst administration of hexanic extract has probably more decarboxylated cannabinoids than hydroalcoholic extract resulting in a decrease in the motor activity and time of motor coordination, yet an increase in anxiety via activation of CB1 receptors.

  11. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  12. When visuo-motor incongruence aids motor performance : the effect of perceiving motion structures during transformed visual feedback on bimanual coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, H; Buekers, MJ; Zaal, FT; Swinnen, SP

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which bimanual coordination tasks were performed under correct and transformed visual feedback conditions. Participants were to generate cyclical line-drawing patterns, with varying degrees of coordinative stability, while perceiving correct or transformed visual info

  13. 家庭运动环境对学龄前儿童运动协调能力的影响%Effect of family motor environment on motor coordination ability of preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华; 朱舒扬; 王菲; 马亚萍; 古桂雄

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of family indoor and outdoor motor environment on motor coordination ability of preschool children,direct the parents to create family environment suitable for children's motor development and improve the quality of child rearing.Methods From June to December in 2012,3 125 children were randomly selected from 10 kindergartens in Suzhou area,Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used to test children's motor coordination ability,and their parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire named Family Environment Scale on Motor Development for Preschool Urban Children to evaluate family motor environment.Results All the 2 976 children finally finished all the tests and questionnaires.The scores of outdoor motor environment,indoor motor environment,gross motor toys,and fine motor toys of children with low motor coordination ability were statistically significantly lower than those of children with normal motor coordination ability (P<0.05).Multivariate regression analysis showed that outdoor motor environment and gross motor toys were significantly correlated with motor coordination ability of children after excluding other factors (P<0.05).Outdoor motor environment was significantly correlated with manual dexterity,aiming and grasping,and static and dynamic balance subscales (P<0.01);gross motor toys was significantly correlated with manual dexterity and aiming and grasping subscales (P<0.01).Conclusion Family motor environment,especially outdoor motor environment and gross motor toys,has significant impact on motor development of children,the parents should pay attention to creating good outdoor motor environment and gross motor toys to promote motor development of children.%目的 探讨家庭室内外运动环境对学龄前儿童运动协调能力的影响,以指导家长创造有利于儿童运动发育的家庭环境,提高育儿质量.方法 2012年6-12月,随机抽取苏州地区10所幼儿园3 125名儿童,采用

  14. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients and the low functioning group (20 patients using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  15. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  16. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Jude David; Baranek, Grace T.; Chris eWiesen; Adrienne eMiao; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other de...

  17. Coordination and Crystallization Molecules: Their Interactions Affecting the Dimensionality of Metalloporphyrinic SCFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkaitz Fidalgo-Marijuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic metalloporphyrin complexes are often used as analogues of natural systems, and they can be used for the preparation of new Solid Coordination Frameworks (SCFs. In this work, a series of six metalloporphyrinic compounds constructed from different meso substituted metalloporphyrins (phenyl, carboxyphenyl and sulfonatophenyl have been structurally characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The compounds were classified considering the dimensionality of the crystal array, referred just to coordination bonds, into 0D, 1D and 2D compounds. This way, the structural features and relationships of those crystal structures were analyzed, in order to extract conclusions not only about the dimensionality of the networks but also about possible applications of the as-obtained compounds, focusing the interest on the interactions of coordination and crystallization molecules. These interactions provide the coordination bonds and the cohesion forces which produce SCFs with different dimensionalities.

  18. Treadmill exercise improves motor coordination through ameliorating Purkinje cell loss in amyloid beta23-35-induced Alzheimer’s disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25–35–induced AD rats. AD was induced by a...

  19. Goal conceptualization and symmetry of arm movements affect bimanual coordination in individuals after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh; McGrath, Robert; Zahedi, Nazaneen

    2016-07-28

    Coordination during goal-directed movements emerges from an interaction of task and individual constraints. It is not known how individuals with unilateral stroke and age-matched controls coordinate their arms when performing symmetric and asymmetric movements to accomplish common task goals compared to independent task goals. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke and ten age-matched controls executed a bimanual task under virtual conditions that allowed systematic manipulation of symmetry and goal conditions. Spatial and temporal bimanual coordination was characterized using the cross-correlation coefficients and time lag between the tangential velocities between the two hands. While task conditions had little effect on coordination of control participants, individuals with stroke were less coordinated in space and time during common-goal bimanual actions employing asymmetric arm movements. Further, patients demonstrated lesser contribution of their paretic arm compared to their non-paretic arm during common-goal conditions. These findings indicate that conceptualization of task goals (common vs. independent) and symmetry of arm movements influence coordination and contribution of the two hands during bimanual tasks in patients with stroke. PMID:27180035

  20. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  1. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  2. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.

  3. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N; Austin, Mark W; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101

  4. A new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Goggin, Michelle; Antonius, Daniel; Czobor, Pàl; Hill, Vera; Citrome, Leslie

    2008-09-30

    The commonly used rating scales for negative symptoms in schizophrenia have shown good reliability, but disagreement persists regarding both the content definition and the validity of several items. Instead, authors have recommended rating the specific behaviors that are defined as negative symptoms. To surmount these shortcomings, we developed a new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale (MASS). During a 5-minute structured interview, hand coverbal gestures, spontaneous smiles, voluntary smiling, and questions asked by the interviewer were counted and rated on 101 inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Information on social behavior was obtained from nursing staff. The scale consisted of a total of eight items. The MASS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.81), inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.81). Convergent validity analyses showed high correlations between MASS scores and scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS), and the negative symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The MASS showed excellent psychometric properties, practicality, and subject tolerability. Future research that includes the use of the MASS with other patient populations and that investigates the scale's sensitivity during clinical trials should be performed. PMID:18722021

  5. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  6. Motor Prediction at the Edge of Instability: Alteration of Grip Force Control during Changes in Bimanual Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Frederic; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the consequences of actions is fundamental for skilled motor behavior. We investigated whether motor prediction is influenced by the fact that some movements are easier to perform and stabilize than others. Twelve subjects performed a bimanual rhythmical task either symmetrically or asymmetrically (the latter being more difficult and…

  7. Management strategies to utilize salt affected soils. Isotopic and conventional research methods. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of a co-ordinated research programme on ''The Use of Nuclear Techniques for Improvement of Crop Production in Salt-affected Soils''. It aims at providing scientists experimental evidence of demonstrating technical feasibility of biological amelioration of salt affected soils as an alternative option of using expensive chemical amendments in soil reclamation complementing engineering structures of farm drainage systems or option of leaving the saline areas as barren lands in spite of the fact that arable agricultural lands have exhausted. 68 refs, 26 figs, 32 tabs

  8. Long-term dietary extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols reverses age-related dysfunctions in motor coordination and contextual memory in mice: role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitozzi, Vanessa; Jacomelli, Michela; Catelan, Dolores; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Biggeri, Annibale; Dolara, Piero; Giovannelli, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of olive oil phenols on brain aging in mice and to verify whether the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of these polyphenols were involved. C57Bl/6J mice were fed from middle age to senescence with extra-virgin olive oil (10% wt/wt dry diet) rich in phenols (total polyphenol dose/day, 6 mg/kg). Behavioral tests were employed to assess cognitive, motor, and emotional behavior after 6 or 12 months of treatment. Parameters of oxidative status and inflammation were measured in different brain areas at the same times and evaluated for correlation with behavioral changes. The treatment with olive oil phenols improved contextual memory in the step-down test to levels similar to young animals and prevented the age-related impairment in motor coordination in the rotarod test. This motor effect was correlated with reduced lipid peroxidation in the cerebellum (peffect did not correlate with oxidation or inflammation parameters. In conclusion, this work points out that natural polyphenols contained in extra-virgin olive oil can improve some age-related dysfunctions by differentially affecting different brain areas. Such a modulation can be obtained with an olive oil intake that is normal in the Mediterranean area, provided that the oil has a sufficiently high content of polyphenols. PMID:22950431

  9. Social Requests and Social Affordances: How They Affect the Kinematics of Motor Sequences during Interactions between Conspecifics

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Ferri; Giovanna Cristina Campione; Riccardo Dalla Volta; Claudia Gianelli; Maurizio Gentilucci

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether and what factors affect the control of motor sequences related to interactions between conspecifics. Experiment 1 demonstrated that during interactions between conspecifics guided by the social intention of feeding, a social affordance was activated, which modified the kinematics of sequences constituted by reaching-grasping and placing. This was relative to the same sequence directed to an inanimate target. Experiments 2 and 4 suggested that the...

  10. Circadian motor activity affected by stimulant medication in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Sarah; Davidson, Fiona; Corkum, Penny

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder occurring in approximately 3-5% of school-aged children. The core symptoms of ADHD are effectively treated with stimulant medications such as methylphenidate; however, there are also negative side effects, including insomnia. It has been suggested that administration of stimulant medication may alter the timing or regularity of circadian motor activity levels. This study aimed to investigate the impact of stimulant medication on the strength and timing of circadian rhythms in 16 stimulant medication-naïve children with ADHD. Participants were monitored for changes in motor activity during a 3-week blinded placebo-controlled medication trial to examine the impact of immediate-release methylphenidate hydrochloride. Motor activity was measured by actigraphy, and 24-h activity profiles were analysed using cosinor analyses to identify measurable changes in circadian rhythms. The children in this sample demonstrated significant increases in motor activity during the sleep-onset latency period. They also showed a significant reduction in relative circadian amplitude and a phase-delay in the timing of the daily rhythm. Clinicians and parents of children being treated with stimulant medication for ADHD should be aware that stimulant medication may cause disruption of sleep/circadian rhythms. Behavioural strategies to improve sleep may be useful for children experiencing these negative effects from medication. PMID:20629940

  11. Non-motorized voluntary running does not affect experimental and spontaneous metastasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of non-motorized voluntary running on experimental metastasis of B16BL/6 melanoma and spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice. After 9 weeks of running, mice (n = 30 per group) received an intravenous injection of B16BL/6 c...

  12. A Methanol Extract of Brugmansia arborea Affects the Reinforcing and Motor Effects of Morphine and Cocaine in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have shown that several of the effects of morphine, including the development of tolerance and physical withdrawal symptoms, are reduced by extracts of Brugmansia arborea (L. Lagerheim (Solanaceae (B. arborea. In the present study we evaluate the action of the methanol extract of B. arborea (7.5–60 mg/kg on the motor and reinforcing effects of morphine (20 and 40 mg/kg and cocaine (25 mg/kg using the conditioned place preference (CPP procedure. At the doses employed, B. arborea did not affect motor activity or induce any effect on CPP. The extract partially counteracted morphine-induced motor activity and completely blocked the CPP induced by 20 mg/kg morphine. On the other hand, B. arborea blocked cocaine-induced hyperactivity but did not block cocaine-induced CPP. Reinstatement of extinguished preference with a priming dose of morphine or cocaine was also inhibited by B. arborea. The complex mechanism of action of B. arborea, which affects the dopaminergic and the cholinergic systems, seems to provide a neurobiological substrate for the effects observed. Considered as a whole, these results point to B. arborea as a useful tool for the treatment of morphine or cocaine abuse.

  13. De novo dominant variants affecting the motor domain of KIF1A are a cause of PEHO syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Sylvie; Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Sayson, Bryan; Drögemöller, Britt; Swenerton, Anne; Ross, Colin Jd; Wasserman, Wyeth W; van Karnebeek, Clara Dm

    2016-06-01

    PEHO syndrome (OMIM no. 260565) is characterized by myoclonic jerking and infantile spasms, profound psychomotor retardation with the absence of motor milestones and speech, absence or early loss of visual fixation with atrophy of optic discs by 2 years of age and progressive brain atrophy on neuroimaging. We describe the results of a genomic study of a girl with PEHO syndrome and review the literature on cases with a disease-causing variant in the same gene. Exome sequencing of the index and unaffected parents followed by Sanger confirmation identified nine candidate genes harboring nonsynonymous rare variants identified by trio whole-exome sequencing. The de novo variant, a missense variant (c.296C>T, p.(T99M)), affecting the motor domain of KIF1A was considered the pathogenic mutation. The literature review revealed 24 cases with disease-causing variants in the motor domain of KIF1A, of which three met all the criteria for PEHO syndrome and an additional patient with incomplete clinical data met four of the five criteria. If the criteria were modified to include cases with any convulsive disorder and less profound intellectual disability, a total of six patients met all five of the criteria, three patients met four of the criteria and six met three of the criteria. Our results indicate that the molecular basis for PEHO syndrome, in at least a subset of patients, is a dominant KIF1A variant affecting the motor domain of the protein. Variable expressivity is seen with recurrent variants causing the full phenotype of PEHO syndrome in some patients and in other patients, a partial or milder PEHO phenotype. PMID:26486474

  14. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. PMID:26707515

  15. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  16. Motor nerve conduction velocity is affected in segmental vitiligo lesional limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhong, Zhenyu; Li, Jian; Fu, Wenwen

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of segmental vitiligo (SV) on nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in different nerves, we compared the patient's lesional side of their body to the contralateral normal side. The 106 participants were selected from outpatients visiting the dermatological clinics of Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from November 2011 to March 2014. NCVs were measured on the limbs and the face, including both motor and sensory nerves. The parameters for NCVs included motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and its distal conduction latency, sensory nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve action potentials amplitude, and compound muscle action potential amplitude. MCV on the limbs was compromised by SV state, which was significantly slower on the lesional side of the body compared with the normal contralateral side (P = 0.006). Furthermore, SV at the stable stage significantly impaired MCV compared with the SV at progressive stage. There was no significant difference in the other parameters of NCV between lesional and normal sides of the body. Compound muscle action potentials in the face did not differ between lesional and healthy sides. Motor nerves in the limbs were compromised by SV, particularly when the disease was at the stable stage. PMID:26916936

  17. Different aliphatic dicarboxylates affected assemble of new coordination polymers constructed from flexible-rigid mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, seven coordination polymers: [Cd(C5H6O4)(C10H8N2)]n (1), [Zn(C5H6O4)(C10H8N2)]n (2), [Cd(C6H8O4)(C10H8N2)]n (3), {[Mn(C10H8N2)(H2O)4] (C4H4O4).4H2O}n (4), [Mn5(C4H4O4)4(O)]n (5), [Cd(C4H4O4)(C10H8N2)(H2O)]n (6) and [Zn(C6H6O4)(C12H8N2)(H2O)]n (7) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystallographic X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are two-dimensional layers connected by glutarate anions and 4,4'-bpy. Unlike compounds 1 and 2, compound 3 is a two-fold interpenetration network. Compound 4 is a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further extended to two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure with hydrogen bond. During the synthesis of compound 4, to our surprise, we got compound 5; compound 5 is an interesting three-dimensional network composed of pentanuclear Mn(II) building units and succinate anions. Compound 6 is also a two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure composed of one-dimensional chain-like structure with hydrogen bonds and Π-Π interactions. Compound 7 is also a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further connected with the same kind of interaction to generate two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibit fluorescent property at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Seven complexes composed by 3D metal ions, aliphatic acid ligand and rigid bidentate nitrogen ligands: 4,4'-bpy, 2,2'-bpy and 1,10'-phen. With the change of the carbon number of the backbone of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligand, we can synthesize different complexes with various structures

  18. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AdrianMeule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body-mass-index (BMI, binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.. Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task. In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted.

  19. A mouse model of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: focus on pharmacological interventions targeting affective dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eBonito Oliva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, are increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These ailments, which often appear in the early stage of the disease, affect a large number of patients and are only partly resolved by conventional antiparkinsonian medications, such as L-DOPA. Here, we investigated non-motor symptoms of PD in a mouse model based on bilateral injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in the dorsal striatum. This model presented only subtle gait modifications, which did not affect horizontal motor activity in the open-field test. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion also impaired olfactory discrimination, in line with the anosmia typically observed in early stage parkinsonism. The effect of 6-OHDA was then examined for mood-related dysfunctions. Lesioned mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, two behavioral paradigms of depression. Moreover, the lesion exerted anxiogenic effects, as shown by reduced time spent in the open arms, in the elevated plus maze test, and by increased thigmotaxis in the open-field test. L-DOPA did not modify depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, which were instead counteracted by the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole. Reboxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was also able to prevent the depressive and anxiogenic effects produced by the lesion with 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pre-treatment with desipramine prior to injection of 6-OHDA, which is commonly used to preserve noradrenaline neurons, did not modify the effect of the lesion on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, in the present model, mood-related conditions are independent of the reduction of noradrenaline caused by 6-OHDA. Based on these findings we propose that the anti-depressive and anxiolytic action of reboxetine is mediated by promoting dopamine transmission through blockade of dopamine uptake from residual

  20. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghi Ngoc Tran

    Full Text Available Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2. Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II. In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor

  1. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pangelinan, Melissa M.; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Clark, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from “atypical brain development,” very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the perfo...

  2. Induction of Neuron-Specific Degradation of Coenzyme A Models Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration by Reducing Motor Coordination in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Shumar

    Full Text Available Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, PKAN, is an inherited disorder characterized by progressive impairment in motor coordination and caused by mutations in PANK2, a human gene that encodes one of four pantothenate kinase (PanK isoforms. PanK initiates the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA, an essential cofactor that plays a key role in energy metabolism and lipid synthesis. Most of the mutations in PANK2 reduce or abolish the activity of the enzyme. This evidence has led to the hypothesis that lower CoA might be the underlying cause of the neurodegeneration in PKAN patients; however, no mouse model of the disease is currently available to investigate the connection between neuronal CoA levels and neurodegeneration. Indeed, genetic and/or dietary manipulations aimed at reducing whole-body CoA synthesis have not produced a desirable PKAN model, and this has greatly hindered the discovery of a treatment for the disease.Cellular CoA levels are tightly regulated by a balance between synthesis and degradation. CoA degradation is catalyzed by two peroxisomal nudix hydrolases, Nudt7 and Nudt19. In this study we sought to reduce neuronal CoA in mice through the alternative approach of increasing Nudt7-mediated CoA degradation. This was achieved by combining the use of an adeno-associated virus-based expression system with the synapsin (Syn promoter. We show that mice with neuronal overexpression of a cytosolic version of Nudt7 (scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt exhibit a significant decrease in brain CoA levels in conjunction with a reduction in motor coordination. These results strongly support the existence of a link between CoA levels and neuronal function and show that scAAV9-Syn-Nudt7cyt mice can be used to model PKAN.

  3. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  4. Successful Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain by 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Affected Supplementary Motor Complex: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hoo; Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Choe, Yu-Ri; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Ka-Young; Choi, In-Sung

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with a right transfemoral amputation suffered from severe phantom limb pain (PLP). After targeting the affected supplementary motor complex (SMC) or primary motor cortex (PMC) using a neuro-navigation system with 800 stimuli of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 85% of resting motor threshold, the 1 Hz rTMS over SMC dramatically reduced his visual analog scale (VAS) of PLP from 7 to 0. However, the 1 Hz rTMS over PMC failed to reduce pain. To our kno...

  5. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure....

  6. Relationship of mercury to cognitive, affective and perceptual motor functioning in a normal sample in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Although the effects of toxic levels of mercury have been well documented, the effects of subclinical levels of mercury on normal populations have generally not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of mercury risk factors on cognition, affect, psychopathology, and known mercury-related symptoms in a normal sample in Hawaii exposed to subclinical although elevated levels of elemental mercury through inhalation associated with volcanic activity and of methylmercury mostly through ingestion of large ocean species fish. The following summarizes the findings and conclusions of the study: 1) a four week test-retest reliability using 41 of the subjects showed that the 41 measures used in the study exhibited an average correlation of .78. Using all 413 subjects, the average internal consistency measured by Cronbach's ..cap alpha.. was .82 for the 17 affect, psychopathology, and symptom measures; 2) nine mercury source variables were used to predict the amount of total mercury in hair. Interestingly, none of the source variables predicted hair total mercury; 3) the source variables in addition to hair total mercury and statistical control variables were used to predict the twenty-two functioning variables in the four domains cited above with a relative absence of relationships noted. This finding indicates that the normal population in Hawaii appears not to be at risk; and 4) one historical mercury source variable, reported fish intake when young, related to six functioning variables - the psychopathology measures of Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive and Anxiety as well as the Sensory, Affect and Mental symptoms - with Beta weights in the .15 to .20 range. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions offered for future research especially with respect to specific high risk subgroups.

  7. Manned space flight activities and sensory-motor coordinations; Yujin uchu katsudo tono hito no kankaku undokei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1996-03-05

    With an objective to elucidate relationship between human functions related to gravity in space and the gravity, simultaneous measurement was carried out on impulsive eyeball motions and antigravity muscles. The measurement used a non-polarized electrode mounted on a prescribed position on skin. The subject is a spacecraft crew who was subjected to an experiment in space in 1992. Data obtained during the flight were analyzed, and the following findings were obtained: the eyeball motions are performed accurately in terms of space and time; potential time relative to the target appearance time showed greater variation than in control conditions on the ground; activities of trapezius muscle as an antigravity muscle were suppressed, and electric discharge from the muscle was small even if the head is moved; the eyeballs move in coordination with the head when viewing an object; microgravity environment showed a head motion with very little muscle discharge possible as in the case where the head is held unmoved; and difference in motion patterns between the antigravity muscles and non-antigravity muscles may exist as a possible cause of spacesickness in addition to the conventional sensory disagreement theory. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  9. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation. PMID:26858621

  10. Successful Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain by 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Affected Supplementary Motor Complex: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoo; Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Choe, Yu-Ri; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Ka-Young

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with a right transfemoral amputation suffered from severe phantom limb pain (PLP). After targeting the affected supplementary motor complex (SMC) or primary motor cortex (PMC) using a neuro-navigation system with 800 stimuli of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 85% of resting motor threshold, the 1 Hz rTMS over SMC dramatically reduced his visual analog scale (VAS) of PLP from 7 to 0. However, the 1 Hz rTMS over PMC failed to reduce pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a successfully treated severe PLP with a low frequency rTMS over SMC in affected hemisphere. PMID:26361601

  11. Successful Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain by 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Affected Supplementary Motor Complex: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoo; Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Choe, Yu-Ri; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Ka-Young; Choi, In-Sung

    2015-08-01

    A 37-year-old man with a right transfemoral amputation suffered from severe phantom limb pain (PLP). After targeting the affected supplementary motor complex (SMC) or primary motor cortex (PMC) using a neuro-navigation system with 800 stimuli of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 85% of resting motor threshold, the 1 Hz rTMS over SMC dramatically reduced his visual analog scale (VAS) of PLP from 7 to 0. However, the 1 Hz rTMS over PMC failed to reduce pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a successfully treated severe PLP with a low frequency rTMS over SMC in affected hemisphere. PMID:26361601

  12. Moving attractive virtual agent improves interpersonal coordination stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong; Salesse, Robin N; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Schmidt, Richard C; Marin, Ludovic; Bardy, Benoît G

    2015-06-01

    Interpersonal motor coordination is influenced not only by biomechanical factors such as coordination pattern, oscillating frequency, and individual differences, but also by psychosocial factor such as likability and social competences. Based on the social stereotype of "what is beautiful is good", the present study aimed at investigating whether people coordinate differently with physically attractive people compared to less attractive people. 34 participants were engaged in an interpersonal coordination task with different looking (virtual) agents while performing at the same time a reaction time task. Results showed that participants had more stable motor coordination with the moving attractive than with the less attractive agent, and that the difference in motor coordination could not be interpreted by a specific attention allocation strategy. Our findings provide the evidence that physical attractiveness genuinely affects how people interact with another person, and that the temporal-spatial coordinated movement varies with the partner's psychosocial characteristics. The study broadens the perspective of exploring the effect of additional psychosocial factors on social motor coordination. PMID:25854798

  13. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  14. The Development and Standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-Ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Edwards, Lisa; Sugden, David; Rosenblum, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the United Kingdom (U.K.), is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. In the past this was regarded as a childhood disorder, however there is increasing evidence that a significant number of children will continue to have persistent difficulties into adulthood.…

  15. Coordenação motora fina de escolares com dislexia e transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade Fine motor coordination of students with dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with hiperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Martins Okuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever e comparar o desempenho da coordenação motora fina em escolares com dislexia e com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade utilizando parâmetros de desempenho motor e idade cronológica da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor. MÉTODO: participaram 22 escolaresdo ensino fundamental, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 6 a 11 anos de idade distribuídos em: GI: 11 escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e GII: 11 com dislexia. Como procedimento, provas de motricidade fina da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor foram aplicadas. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram diferença estatisticamente significante entre a idade motora fina e a idade cronológica de GI e GII. Conforme a classificação da Escala do Desenvolvimento Motor, 90% dos escolares de GI e GII apresentaram desenvolvimento motor fino muito inferior ao esperado para a idade e 10% dos escolares com dislexia apresentam desenvolvimento normal baixo ao esperado para a idade e 10% dos escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade apresentaram desenvolvimento inferior ao esperado para a idade. CONCLUSÃO: concluímos que tanto os escolares com dislexia como os com TDAH deste estudo apresentam atrasos na coordenação motora fina, demonstrando que os participantes desta pesquisa apresentam dificuldades em atividades que exijam destreza, quadro característico do transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação. Estudos complementares estão sendo conduzidos pelos autores deste estudo para poder verificar e comprovar se o perfil motor fino dos escolares encontrados neste estudo se assemelham ou se diferem de acordo com o quadro apresentado pelos mesmos.PURPOSE: to describe and compare the fine motor coordination performance of students with dyslexia and with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder. METHOD: the study included 22 elementary school students of both genders, aged from 6 to 11-year old, divided into

  16. Difficulty leading interpersonal coordination: Towards an embodied signature of social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eVarlet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defined by a persistent fear of embarrassment or negative evaluation while engaged in social interaction or public performance, social anxiety disorder (SAD is one of the most common psychiatric syndromes. Previous research has made a considerable effort to better understand and assess this mental disorder. However, little attention has been paid to social motor behavior of patients with SAD despite its crucial importance in daily social interactions. Previous research has shown that the coordination of arm, head or postural movements of interacting people can reflect their mental states or feelings such as social connectedness and social motives, suggesting that interpersonal movement coordination may be impaired in patients suffering from SAD. The current study was specifically aimed at determining whether SAD affects the dynamics of social motor coordination. We compared the unintentional and intentional rhythmic coordination of a SAD group (19 patients paired with control participants with the rhythmic coordination of a control group (19 control pairs in an interpersonal pendulum coordination task. The results demonstrated that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved with SAD while intentional coordination was impaired. More specifically, intentional coordination became impaired when patients with SAD had to lead the coordination as indicated by poorer (i.e., more variable coordination. These differences between intentional and unintentional coordination as well as between follower and leader roles reveal an impaired coordination dynamics that is specific to SAD, and thus, opens promising research directions to better understand, assess and treat this mental disorder.

  17. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out, contract status and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players, aged 8 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this manuscript was twofold and a two-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance and motor coordination characteristics that influence drop out from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a 'club group' or a 'drop out group'. In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age=16.2 y).Generally, club players outperformed their drop out peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and drop out players. Contract players jumped further (p=0.011) and had faster times for a 5m sprint (p=0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2869.3 + 14.6 * standing broad jump.Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future drop out players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:25474335

  18. A retrospective study on anthropometrical, physical fitness, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout, contract status, and first-team playing time in high-level soccer players aged eight to eighteen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Dieter N; Fransen, Job; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Vaeyens, Roel

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this article was twofold, and a 2-study approach was conducted. The first study aimed to expose the anthropometrical, physical performance, and motor coordination characteristics that influence dropout from a high-level soccer training program in players aged 8-16 years. The mixed-longitudinal sample included 388 Belgian youth soccer players who were assigned to either a "club group" or a "dropout group." In the second study, cross-sectional data of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination were retrospectively explored to investigate which characteristics influence future contract status (contract vs. no contract group) and first-team playing time for 72 high-level youth soccer players (mean age = 16.2 years). Generally, club players outperformed their dropout peers for motor coordination, soccer-specific aerobic endurance, and speed. Anthropometry and estimated maturity status did not discriminate between club and dropout players. Contract players jumped further (p = 0.011) and had faster times for a 5-m sprint (p = 0.041) than no contract players. The following prediction equation explains 16.7% of the variance in future playing minutes in adolescent youth male soccer players: -2,869.3 + 14.6 × standing broad jump. Practitioners should include the evaluation of motor coordination, aerobic endurance, and speed performances to distinguish high-level soccer players further succeeding a talent development program and future dropout players, between 8 and 16 years. From the age of 16 years, measures of explosivity are supportive when selecting players into a future professional soccer career. PMID:26010800

  19. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children's development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale. PMID:26209447

  20. Motile properties of the bi-directional kinesin-5 Cin8 are affected by phosphorylation in its motor domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Ofer; Gheber, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-5 Cin8 performs essential mitotic functions in spindle assembly and anaphase B spindle elongation. Recent work has shown that Cin8 is a bi-directional motor which moves towards the minus-end of microtubules (MTs) under high ionic strength (IS) conditions and changes directionality in low IS conditions and when bound between anti-parallel microtubules. Previous work from our laboratory has also indicated that Cin8 is differentially phosphorylated during late anaphase at cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)-specific sites located in its motor domain. In vivo, such phosphorylation causes Cin8 detachment from spindles and reduces the spindle elongation rate, while maintaining proper spindle morphology. To study the effect of phosphorylation on Cin8 motor function, we examined in vitro motile properties of wild type Cin8, as well as its phosphorylation using phospho-deficient and phospho-mimic variants, in a single molecule fluorescence motility assay. Analysis was performed on whole cell extracts and on purified Cin8 samples. We found that addition of negative charges in the phospho-mimic mutant weakened the MT-motor interaction, increased motor velocity and promoted minus-end-directed motility. These results indicate that phosphorylation in the catalytic domain of Cin8 regulates its motor function. PMID:27216310

  1. THE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OUR COUNTRY NOT AFFECTED BY THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer MARCONI ROBERTO GABRIEL, Phd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period of global crisis the motor activity at the level of the secondary school from our country did not stagnate, on the contrary it achieved a special development due to an increase in the number of stu- dents (pupils eager to practice the motor activity, as a result of the improvement of the material equipment with more than 40 simple and complex stadiums of various gymnastics, judo and karate courts, equipped with minifootball, handball, basketball and volleyabll courts. But the most important thing is to provide professionals belonging to the field of physical education within the Universities of Arad up to the present and also in the future.

  2. The effects of black garlic (Allium sativum L.) ethanol extract on the estimated total number of Purkinje cells and motor coordination of male adolescent Wistar rats treated with monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, M; Partadiredja, G; Sari, D C R

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) might cause negative effects on the nervous system, including in the cerebellum. Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known as a flavouring agent and a traditional remedy for various illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of garlic on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells present in rats treated with MSG. A total of 25 male Wistar rats aged 4 to 5 weeks old were used in this study and were divided into five groups, namely a negative control (C-) group, which received 0.9 % NaCl solution, a positive control (C+) group, which received MSG, and three treated groups, which received 2 mg/g bw of MSG and 2.5 mg (T2.5), 5 mg (T5), or 10 mg (T10) of black garlic solution per oral administration (per 200 g bw), respectively. All treatments were carried out for 10 days. Upon the end of the treatment, the motor performance of all rats were tested using the rotarod apparatus. The rats were subsequently sacrificed, and the cerebella of the rats were processed for stereological analyses. It has been found that the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebella of all treated groups were significantly higher than that of the group treated with MSG only. No changes in motor coordination function were observed as a result of MSG treatment. PMID:24737450

  3. Anxiety affecting parkinsonian outcome and motor efficiency in adults of an Ohio community with environmental airborne manganese exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient and neurotoxicant sometimes associated with mood, motor and neurological effects. Reports of health effects from occupational exposure to Mn are well known, but the reported links to environmental airborne Mn (Mn-Air) are less conclusive. Marietta, OH...

  4. Mice deficient for the close homologue of the neural adhesion cell L1 (CHL1) display alterations in emotional reactivity and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, M; Rougon, G; Schachner, M; Jamon, M

    2003-12-17

    Motor and cognitive phenotypes were assessed in mice deficient for the close homologue of the L1 adhesion molecule (CHL1). The CHL1-deficient mice displayed signs of decreased stress and a modification of exploratory behaviour. The mice also showed motor impairments on the Rotarod, but they were able to move as fast as controls in the alleys of a T-maze. The observed changes were assumed to be related to a deficit in attention. In addition, gender differences in CHL1 deficits were found and are discussed in view of a possible interaction with other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during development. The results are discussed in relation with motor and cognitive deficits in the human, caused by mutations of the distal part of the chromosome 3 which contains the CHL1 orthologue. PMID:14659567

  5. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  6. Design and evaluation of a computerized test for hand motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chiu, Ching-Tsun

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to design and develop a computerized test to measure junior high school students' motor skills, specifically their abilities in hand-eye motor coordination and hand motor skills, using the Wii Remote. The hand motor skills computerized test, which is based on the operational examinations in the General Aptitude Test Battery, examines hand and finger dexterity (i.e., motion, rotation, fabrication, and disassembly tests). 55 students participated in the experiment to assess the reliability and validity of the computerized test, which were supported. Information literacy and experience in the use of Wii devices did not affect the reliability. PMID:25068744

  7. The site-directed mutation I(L177)H in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center affects coordination of P(A) and B(B) bacteriochlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, L G; Fufina, T Y; Gabdulkhakov, A G; Leonova, M M; Khatypov, R A; Shuvalov, V A

    2012-08-01

    To explore the influence of the I(L177)H single mutation on the properties of the nearest bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), three reaction centers (RCs) bearing double mutations were constructed in the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and their properties and pigment content were compared with those of the correspondent single mutant RCs. Each pair of the mutations comprised the amino acid substitution I(L177)H and another mutation altering histidine ligand of BChl P(A) or BChl B(B). Contrary to expectations, the double mutation I(L177)H+H(L173)L does not bring about a heterodimer RC but causes a 46nm blue shift of the long-wavelength P absorbance band. The histidine L177 or a water molecule were suggested as putative ligands for P(A) in the RC I(L177)H+H(L173)L although this would imply a reorientation of the His backbone and additional rearrangements in the primary donor environment or even a repositioning of the BChl dimer. The crystal structure of the mutant I(L177)H reaction center determined to a resolution of 2.9Å shows changes at the interface region between the BChl P(A) and the monomeric BChl B(B). Spectral and pigment analysis provided evidence for β-coordination of the BChl B(B) in the double mutant RC I(L177)H+H(M182)L and for its hexacoordination in the mutant reaction center I(L177)H. Computer modeling suggests involvement of two water molecules in the β-coordination of the BChl B(B). Possible structural consequences of the L177 mutation affecting the coordination of the two BChls P(A) and B(B) are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22365928

  8. Cardiac Arrest-Induced Global Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia during Development Affects Spontaneous Activity Organization in Rat Sensory and Motor Thalamocortical Circuits during Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoykhet, Michael; Middleton, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window. We examined the effect of cardiac arrest (CA)-associated global brain hypoxia-ischemia in developing rats on spontaneous and evoked firing of somatosensory thalamocortical neurons and on large-scale correlations in the motor thalamocortical circuit. The mean spontaneous and sensory-evoked firing rate activity and variability were higher in CA injured rats. Furthermore, spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity and variability were correlated in uninjured rats, but not correlated in neurons from CA rats. Abnormal activity patterns of ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPm) neurons persisted into adulthood. Additionally, we found that neurons in the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) in the basal ganglia had lower firing rates yet had higher variability and higher levels of burst firing after injury. Correlated levels of power in local field potentials (LFPs) between the EPN and the motor cortex (MCx) were also disrupted by injury. Our findings indicate that hypoxic-ischemic injury during development leads to abnormal spontaneous and sensory stimulus-evoked input patterns from thalamus to cortex. Abnormal thalamic inputs likely permanently and detrimentally affect the organization of cortical circuitry and processing of sensory information. Hypoxic-ischemic injury also leads to abnormal single neuron and

  9. GR3027 antagonizes GABA(A) receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABA(A) receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have devel...

  10. The effect of a motor skills training program in the improvement of practiced and non-practiced tasks performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baati, Hamza; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a group-based task oriented skills training program on motor and physical ability for children with DCD. It was also investigated if there was an effect on fine motor and handwriting tasks that were not specifically practiced during the training program. Forty-one children aged 6-10years took part in this study. Children were assigned to three groups: an experimental training group consisting of 14 children with DCD, a control non-training group consisted of 13 children with DCD and a control non-training group consisting of 14 typically developed children. The measurements included were, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Modified Agility Test (MAT), the Triple Hop Distance (THD), the 5 Jump-test (5JT) and the Handwriting Performance Test. All measures were administered pre and post an 8-week training program. The results showed that 10 children of the DCD training-group improved their performance in MABC test, attaining a score above the 15th percentile after their participation in the training program. DCD training-group showed a significant improvement on all cluster scores (manual dexterity (t (13)=5.3, pskills (t (13)=2.73, pskills, in the training program, may reflect improvement in motor skill but also transfer to other skills. PMID:26703915

  11. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alan Kannape

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants. We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations. Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI; Seyyed Hossein FAKHRAEE; Sina MIRAFKHAMI; Mojtaba YOUSEFI; Mona VARZANDEH FAR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD), that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA). DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantl...

  13. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. We found that glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10 or limbic encephalitis (n = 4. We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibody representing this epitope specificity (1 disrupted in vitro the association of glutamate decarboxylase with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles, (2 depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect, (3 significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task, (4 markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm, and (5 induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of glutamate decarboxylase by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such glutamate decarboxylase antibodies could be envisioned.

  14. Cerebelo: más allá de la coordinación motora Anatomía y conexiones del cerebelo Cerebellum: beyond motor coordination

    OpenAIRE

    José William Cornejo Ochoa; Jaime Carrizosa Moog

    2003-01-01

    Siempre se ha reconocido la función que ejerce el cerebelo sobre la motricidad. Sin embargo, en las últimas dos décadas son cada vez más frecuentes los reportes del papel que puede tener esta estructura sobre varias funciones cognitivas como la atención, el aprendizaje y la memoria o sobre algunos síndromes como el autismo. Se revisa la literatura sobre este tópico. The motor function of the cerebellum has ever been recognized. During the last two decades the cerebellum has been implicated in...

  15. Is Sleep Essential for Neural Plasticity in Humans, and How Does It Affect Motor and Cognitive Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Gorgoni; Aurora D'Atri; Giulia Lauri; Paolo Maria Rossini; Fabio Ferlazzo; Luigi De Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that sleep is strictly linked to memory, learning, and, in general, to the mechanisms of neural plasticity, and that this link may directly affect recovery processes. In fact, a coherent pattern of empirical findings points to beneficial effect of sleep on learning and plastic processes, and changes in synaptic plasticity during wakefulness induce coherent modifications in EEG slow wave cortical topography during subsequent sleep. However, the specific nature of t...

  16. Cerebelo: más allá de la coordinación motora Anatomía y conexiones del cerebelo Cerebellum: beyond motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Cornejo Ochoa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Siempre se ha reconocido la función que ejerce el cerebelo sobre la motricidad. Sin embargo, en las últimas dos décadas son cada vez más frecuentes los reportes del papel que puede tener esta estructura sobre varias funciones cognitivas como la atención, el aprendizaje y la memoria o sobre algunos síndromes como el autismo. Se revisa la literatura sobre este tópico. The motor function of the cerebellum has ever been recognized. During the last two decades the cerebellum has been implicated in cognitive functions like memory, attention and learning or in syndromes such as the autistic spectrum. These topics are reviewed in this article.

  17. The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K. Do

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle length and is haplo-insufficient – KLP10A, reduced by RNAi or a loss-of-function P element insertion mutant, results in elongated and mispositioned oocyte spindles, and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates. KLP10A knockdown by RNAi does not significantly affect microtubule growth rates in oocyte spindles, but, unexpectedly, EB1 binding and unbinding are slowed, suggesting a previously unobserved role for kinesin-13 in mediating EB1 binding interactions with microtubules. Kinesin-13 may regulate spindle length both by disassembling subunits from microtubule ends and facilitating EB1 binding to plus ends. We also observe an increased number of paused microtubules in klp10A RNAi knockdown spindles, consistent with a reduced frequency of microtubule catastrophes. Overall, our findings indicate that reduced kinesin-13 decreases microtubule disassembly rates and affects EB1 interactions with microtubules, rather than altering microtubule growth rates, causing spindles to elongate and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates to form.

  18. Knockdown of Ephrin-A5 Expression by 40% Does not Affect Motor Axon Growth or Migration into the Chick Hindlimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Winning

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional signaling between Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell-surface protein signals, the ephrins, comprises one mechanism for guiding motor axons to their proper targets. During projection of motor axons from the lateral motor column (LMC motor neurons of the spinal cord to the hindlimb muscles in chick embryos, ephrin-A5 has been shown to be expressed in the LMC motor axons until they reach the base of the limb bud and initiate sorting into their presumptive dorsal and ventral nerve trunks, at which point expression is extinguished. We tested the hypothesis that this dynamic pattern of ephrin-A5 expression in LMC motor axons is important for the growth and guidance of the axons to, and into, the hindlimb by knocking down endogenous ephrin-A5 expression in the motor neurons and their axons. No perturbation of LMC motor axon projections was observed in response to this treatment, suggesting that ephrin-A5 is not needed for LMC motor axon growth or guidance.

  19. Effect of muscular fatigue on fractal upper limb coordination dynamics and muscle synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Diana R; Lizano, J M; Montano, L

    2015-08-01

    Rehabilitation exercises cause fatigue because tasks are repetitive. Therefore, inevitable human motion performance changes occur during the therapy. Although traditionally fatigue is considered an event that occurs in the musculoskeletal level, this paper studies whether fatigue can be regarded as context that influences lower-dimensional motor control organization and coordination at neural level. Non Negative Factorization Matrix (NNFM) and Detrended Fluctuations Analysis (DFA) are the tools used to analyze the changes in the coordination of motor function when someone is affected by fatigue. The study establishes that synergies remain fairly stable with the onset of fatigue, but the fatigue affects the dynamical coordination understood as a cognitive process. These results have been validated with 9 healthy subjects for three representative exercises for upper limb: biceps, triceps and deltoid. PMID:26737679

  20. Factors affecting athletes’ motor behavior after the observation of scenes of cooperation and competition in competitive sport: the effect of sport attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eDe Stefani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: This study delineated how observing sports scenes of cooperation or competition modulated an action of interaction, in expert athletes, depending on their specific sport attitude. Method: In a kinematic study, athletes were divided into two groups depending on their attitude towards teammates (cooperative or competitive. Participants observed sport scenes of cooperation and competition (basketball, soccer, water polo, volleyball, and rugby and then they reached for, picked up, and placed an object on the hand of a conspecific (giving action. Mixed-design ANOVAs were carried out on the mean values of grasping-reaching parameters. Results: Data showed that the type of scene observed as well as the athletes’ attitude affected reach-to-grasp actions to give. In particular, the cooperative athletes were speeded during reach-to-grasp movements when they observed scenes of cooperation compared to when they observed scenes of competition. Discussion: Participants were speeded when executing a giving action after observing actions of cooperation. This occurred only when they had a cooperative attitude. A match between attitude and intended action seems to be a necessary prerequisite for observing an effect of the observed type of scene on the performed action. It is possible that the observation of scenes of competition activated motor strategies which interfered with the strategies adopted by the cooperative participants to execute a cooperative (giving sequence.

  1. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were ≤ 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Document Server

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  3. Cross-sensory transfer of sensory-motor information: visuomotor learning affects performance on an audiomotor task, using sensory-substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly Levy-Tzedek; Itai Novick; Roni Arbel; Sami Abboud; Shachar Maidenbaum; Eilon Vaadia; Amir Amedi

    2012-01-01

    Visual-to-auditory sensory-substitution devices allow users to perceive a visual image using sound. Using a motor-learning task, we found that new sensory-motor information was generalized across sensory modalities. We imposed a rotation when participants reached to visual targets, and found that not only seeing, but also hearing the location of targets via a sensory-substitution device resulted in biased movements. When the rotation was removed, aftereffects occurred whether the location of ...

  4. Cognition and behavior in motor neuron disease

    OpenAIRE

    Raaphorst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron loss, leading to weakness of the muscles of arms and legs, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Depending on the involvement of the lower and the upper motor neuron, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; both lower and upper motor neuron affected) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA; only lower motor neuron affected) are recognized. There is no cure, despite numerous pharmaceutical tria...

  5. Variabilidade na coordenação motora: uma abordagem centrada no delineamento gemelar Variabilidad en la coordinación motora: un enfoque centrado en el delineamiento gemelar Variability in motor coordination: an approach based on the twin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nichele de Chaves

    2012-06-01

    41% (SM, mientras para c² se sitúan entre 46% (SL y 58% (TL, y para e² entre 11% (SM y 28% (TL. Se concluye que factores ambientales son responsables por la mayor porción de influencia de la variabilidad del desempeño en la coordinación motora.The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of environmental and genetic factors on the variability of interindividual performance in motor coordination. Sample comprised 64 twin pairs, aged 5 to 14 years old, from Portugal. Motor coordination was evaluated by KTK battery: backward balance (ER; hopping on one leg (SM; shifting platforms (TL; jumping sideways (SL. Intraclass correlation coefficient (t was calculated. Contributions of genetic (a², shared (c² and unique environmental (e² factors were estimated. Our results showed t values higher in monozygotic twins, suggesting the presence of genetic factors. Nevertheless, a² estimates were low, ranging from 15% (TL to 41% (SM, while to common environment (c² ranged from 46% (SL to 58% (TL, and unique effects ranged from 11% (SM to 28% (TL. These results suggest that environmental factors are responsible for the greatest part of influence on variability of interindividual performance in motor coordination tests.

  6. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  7. Dyspraxia, motor function and visual-motor integration in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Chukoskie, L; Zinni, M; Townsend, J; Trauner, D

    2014-08-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

  8. Biomolecular motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hess

    2005-12-01

    Here, we give a brief introduction to molecular motors, with an emphasis on motor proteins, describe the challenges in interfacing these bionanomachines with an artificial environment, and provide examples of emerging applications.

  9. Congenital ocular motor apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasquinho, S; Teixeira, S.; Cadete, A; Bernardo, M.; Pêgo, P; Prieto, I.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Congenital ocular motor apraxia is a rare disease characterized by defective or absent voluntary and optically induced horizontal saccadic movements. Jerky head movements or thrusts on attempted lateral gaze are a compensatory sign. Most affected children have delayed motor and speech development. Cases associated with systemic diseases, neurologic maldevelopment, metabolic deficits, and chromosomal abnormalities have been described. METHODS: Case report and review of the scienti...

  10. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  11. Individualistic Aptitude and Biofeedback on Improvement of Coordination in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Srilekha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports cognition encompasses the primary affective-motivational aspect related to primordial fight-or flight responses, which are essentially the precursors for both the BAS (behavioural activation system - the reward system and BIS (behavioural inhibition system- the punishment or fear-eliciting system. In Asian and especially South-Asian perspective, impulsivity and aggressive out-bursts are by and large considered as conduct disorders, thus more acceptable docile tendency in children and pre-adolescent lead them to a cognitive-motivational make-up of BIS orientation. With such a background the present study was carried out to identify the extent of cognitive-affective competence of the skilled competitive players in enhancing bilateral motor coordination required for high sport performance. Eighty-one high performing female ball game players matched with their performance-specific motor coordination ability, were categorised into three differential groups based on their psychobiological competence, viz; Group A- consisted of twenty-seven players diagnosed with moderate level of sympathovagal balance; Group B (N = 27 – consisted of twenty-seven players diagnosed with discordant sympathovagal balance, while Group C (n = 27 were identified as having high sympathovagal balance. Thereafter, players of Group B & C were introduced to training of skin-conductance biofeedback tailored for musculoskeletal enhancement (20 min.s/ day; three days/ week for twelve weeks. Mid-term analyses of motor coordination as well as the post-intervention analyses (carried out after the twelfth week revealed that players having higher sympathovagal balance had higher efficiency in modulation of muscle tension as well as in perceptual –motor adaptation, which have prompted them to have enhanced bilateral and visual-motor coordination compared to their counterparts.

  12. Auditory plasticity and speech motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Is plasticity in sensory and motor systems linked? Here, in the context of speech motor learning and perception, we test the idea sensory function is modified by motor learning and, in particular, that speech motor learning affects a speaker's auditory map. We assessed speech motor learning by using a robotic device that displaced the jaw and selectively altered somatosensory feedback during speech. We found that with practice speakers progressively corrected for the mechanical perturbation a...

  13. Practically Coordinating

    OpenAIRE

    Durfee, Edmund H.

    1999-01-01

    To coordinate, intelligent agents might need to know something about themselves, about each other, about how others view themselves and others, about how others think others view themselves and others, and so on. Taken to an extreme, the amount of knowledge an agent might possess to coordinate its interactions with others might outstrip the agent's limited reasoning capacity (its available time, memory, and so on). Much of the work in studying and building multiagent systems has thus been dev...

  14. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  15. Mutation of the MAP kinase DYF-5 affects docking and undocking of kinesin-2 motors and reduces their speed in the cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Burghoorn, Jan; Dekkers, Martijn P. J.; Rademakers, Suzanne; De Jong, Ton; Willemsen, Rob; Jansen, Gert

    2007-01-01

    In the cilia of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is mediated by two kinesin-2 complexes, kinesin II and OSM-3 kinesin. These complexes function together in the cilia middle segments, whereas OSM-3 alone mediates transport in the distal segments. Not much is known about the mechanisms that compartmentalize the kinesin-2 complexes or how transport by both kinesins is coordinated. Here, we identify DYF-5, a conserved MAP kinase that plays a role in ...

  16. Motor neglect.

    OpenAIRE

    Laplane, D.; Degos, J D

    1983-01-01

    Motor neglect is characterised by an underutilisation of one side, without defects of strength, reflexes or sensibility. Twenty cases of frontal, parietal and thalamic lesions causing motor neglect, but all without sensory neglect, are reported. It is proposed that the cerebral structures involved in motor neglect are the same as those for sensory neglect and for the preparation of movement. As in sensory neglect, the multiplicity of the structures concerned suggests that this interconnection...

  17. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances. PMID:22377850

  18. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  19. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  20. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  1. 基于坐标变换的无轴承异步电机转子振动前馈补偿控制%Rotor vibration feedforward compensation control in bearingless induction motor based on coordinate transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽斌; 董大伟; 孙晓东; 金仁; 余佩玉

    2016-01-01

    为解决无轴承异步电机在高速运行时由机械不平衡引起的转子质量偏心问题,设计一种基于坐标变换的转子振动前馈补偿控制系统。该系统利用旋转坐标变换从位移信号中提取出振动信号,加在原有的径向悬浮力控制系统中,构成1个前馈补偿器,使得控制器给定径向悬浮力信号中同期成分控制力增大,并加大径向悬浮力控制系统对振动信号的刚度,从而强迫转子围绕其几何中心轴旋转,实现转子的振动抑制。研究结果表明:当转速为6000 r/min时,仿真补偿后转子振动峰−峰值约为11µm,表明该补偿控制策略能很好地抑制悬浮转子的振动,提高转子旋转精度。该前馈补偿控制方法能够将转子径向位移峰−峰值范围控制在40μm以内,验证了所提方法的正确性与有效性。%To solve the rotor mass eccentric problem caused by mechanical imbalance for the bearingless induction motor at high speed, a rotor vibration feedforward compensation control system was designed based on coordinate transformation. The vibration signal was extracted from the displacement signal by rotating coordinatetransformation and was added to the original radial suspension force control system. Then, a feedforward compensator was formed, which increased the given period radial suspension force component control signal and amplified the stiffness of the vibration signal of the radial suspension force control system.Therotor vibration was suppressed by forcing the rotor rotating aroundits geometric centeraxis. Theresults show that the compensated rotor vibration peak to peak valuein simulationis about 11µm at the speed of 6000r/min. The vibration of suspension rotor can be effectively restrained and the precision of rotor is improved in this controlstrategy.The presentedfeedforwardcompensation control method can make the peak to peak value of rotor radial displacement range within 40μm. The

  2. Mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (Gars ameliorates SOD1(G93A motor neuron degeneration phenotype but has little affect on Loa dynein heavy chain mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth T Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, mutations in the enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS cause motor and sensory axon loss in the peripheral nervous system, and clinical phenotypes ranging from Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy to a severe infantile form of spinal muscular atrophy. GARS is ubiquitously expressed and may have functions in addition to its canonical role in protein synthesis through catalyzing the addition of glycine to cognate tRNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have recently described a new mouse model with a point mutation in the Gars gene resulting in a cysteine to arginine change at residue 201. Heterozygous Gars(C201R/+ mice have locomotor and sensory deficits. In an investigation of genetic mutations that lead to death of motor and sensory neurons, we have crossed the Gars(C201R/+ mice to two other mutants: the TgSOD1(G93A model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the Legs at odd angles mouse (Dync1h1(Loa which has a defect in the heavy chain of the dynein complex. We found the Dync1h1(Loa/+;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mice are more impaired than either parent, and this is may be an additive effect of both mutations. Surprisingly, the Gars(C201R mutation significantly delayed disease onset in the SOD1(G93A;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mutant mice and increased lifespan by 29% on the genetic background investigated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings raise intriguing possibilities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms in all three mouse mutant strains.

  3. Affection of the rotor-flux error on the induction motor full-order observer stability%转子磁链误差对感应电机观测器稳定性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许思猛; 陈冲

    2012-01-01

    The rotor flux error affection on the stability of the induction motor full-order speed adaptive rotor flux observer was studied using the voltage model. The positive-real property of the forward path transfer function of the observer equivalent error system was analyzed. Stability domain border equations in ω1 -ωs plane were derived. A modified rotor flux error model excluding a pure integrator was suggested. Affection of the modified model on open-loop zeros plots of the linearized equivalent speed control system was investigated, and the stability region distribution in all motor operation modes was studied. Research results indicate the stability region is enlarged by amplifying the rotor flux error. The observer with the modified model is stable in the low-speed region with regenerative loads but unstable in low-speed motoring mode. Simulation results illustrate the adaptive observer with combined speed adaptive laws is stable in all motor operation modes.%利用转子磁链电压模型研究转子磁链误差对感应电动机全阶转速自适应转子磁链观测器稳定性影响.通过研究观测器等效误差系统前向通道传递函数正实性,得到观测器在ω1-ωs平面中稳定区域边界方程.提出不舍纯积分器的新型转子磁链误差模型,通过分析该模型对线性化等效转速控制系统开环零点分布影响,研究不同工况下观测器稳定区域分布.研究结果表明增大转子磁链误差能够扩大稳定区域,所提出的模型解决了低速再生发电工况时观测器稳定问题,但在低速电动工况时观测器不稳定.仿真结果表明组合应用不同转速自适应律观测器在所有工况下均能稳定.

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder, Motor skills disorder, Childhood disorder, Intervention methods

  5. Coordenação motora fina de escolares com dislexia e transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade Fine motor coordination of students with dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with hiperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Matiko Martins Okuda; Maria Dalva Lourencetti; Lara Cristina Antunes dos Santos; Niura Aparecida de Moura Ribeiro Padula; Simone Aparecida Capellini

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: descrever e comparar o desempenho da coordenação motora fina em escolares com dislexia e com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade utilizando parâmetros de desempenho motor e idade cronológica da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor. MÉTODO: participaram 22 escolaresdo ensino fundamental, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 6 a 11 anos de idade distribuídos em: GI: 11 escolares com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e GII: 11 com dislexia. Como procediment...

  6. Alcohol hangover: type and time-extension of motor function impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayian, Analía G; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol hangover is defined as the unpleasant next-day state following an evening of excessive alcohol consumption. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. During hangover cognitive functions and subjective capacities are affected along with inefficiency, reduced productivity, absenteeism, driving impairments, poor academic achievement and reductions in motor coordination. The aim of this work was to study the type and length of motor and exploratory functions from the beginning to the end of the alcohol hangover. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Motor performance, walking deficiency, motor strength, locomotion and exploratory activity were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2 h up to 20 h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Motor performance was 80% decreased at the onset of hangover (pHangover mice exhibited a reduced motor performance during the next 16 h (phangover onset. Hangover mice displayed walking deficiencies from the beginning to 16 h after hangover onset (phangover, exhibited a significant decrease in neuromuscular strength during 16 h (phangover onset (phangover motor and exploratory impairments. As a whole, this study shows the long lasting effects of alcohol hangover. PMID:23557691

  7. Cerebellar control of gait and interlimb coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinueza Veloz, María Fernanda; Zhou, Kuikui; Bosman, Laurens W J; Potters, Jan-Willem; Negrello, Mario; Seepers, Robert M; Strydis, Christos; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K E; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2015-11-01

    Synaptic and intrinsic processing in Purkinje cells, interneurons and granule cells of the cerebellar cortex have been shown to underlie various relatively simple, single-joint, reflex types of motor learning, including eyeblink conditioning and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. However, to what extent these processes contribute to more complex, multi-joint motor behaviors, such as locomotion performance and adaptation during obstacle crossing, is not well understood. Here, we investigated these functions using the Erasmus Ladder in cell-specific mouse mutant lines that suffer from impaired Purkinje cell output (Pcd), Purkinje cell potentiation (L7-Pp2b), molecular layer interneuron output (L7-Δγ2), and granule cell output (α6-Cacna1a). We found that locomotion performance was severely impaired with small steps and long step times in Pcd and L7-Pp2b mice, whereas it was mildly altered in L7-Δγ2 and not significantly affected in α6-Cacna1a mice. Locomotion adaptation triggered by pairing obstacle appearances with preceding tones at fixed time intervals was impaired in all four mouse lines, in that they all showed inaccurate and inconsistent adaptive walking patterns. Furthermore, all mutants exhibited altered front-hind and left-right interlimb coordination during both performance and adaptation, and inconsistent walking stepping patterns while crossing obstacles. Instead, motivation and avoidance behavior were not compromised in any of the mutants during the Erasmus Ladder task. Our findings indicate that cell type-specific abnormalities in cerebellar microcircuitry can translate into pronounced impairments in locomotion performance and adaptation as well as interlimb coordination, highlighting the general role of the cerebellar cortex in spatiotemporal control of complex multi-joint movements. PMID:25139623

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.

  10. The bipolar assembly domain of the mitotic motor kinesin-5

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Seyda; Carlson, David B.; Budamagunta, Madhu S.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Correia, John J.; Niñonuevo, Milady R.; Jia, Weitao; Tao, Li; Leary, Julie A.; Voss, John C.; Evans, James E.; Scholey, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    An outstanding unresolved question is how does the mitotic spindle utilize microtubules and mitotic motors to coordinate accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis? This process depends upon the mitotic motor, kinesin-5, whose unique bipolar architecture, with pairs of motor domains lying at opposite ends of a central rod, allows it to crosslink microtubules within the mitotic spindle and to coordinate their relative sliding during spindle assembly, maintenance and elongation. The structu...

  11. Motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Gribble, Paul L

    2005-04-01

    Learning complex motor behaviors like riding a bicycle or swinging a golf club is based on acquiring neural representations of the mechanical requirements of movement (e.g., coordinating muscle forces to control the club). Here we provide evidence that mechanisms matching observation and action facilitate motor learning. Subjects who observed a video depicting another person learning to reach in a novel mechanical environment (imposed by a robot arm) performed better when later tested in the same environment than subjects who observed similar movements but no learning; moreover, subjects who observed learning of a different environment performed worse. We show that this effect is not based on conscious strategies but instead depends on the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control. PMID:15820701

  12. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  13. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the medial prefrontal cortex and left primary motor cortex (mPFC-lPMC affects subjective beauty but not ugliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to examine whether noninvasive brain stimulation modulates two types of aesthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions.

  15. Technology-aided recreation and communication opportunities for post-coma persons affected by lack of speech and extensive motor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; D'Amico, Fiora; Sasanelli, Giovanni; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed technology-aided intervention programs for two post-coma men who had re-acquired consciousness, but were unable to engage in personally or socially relevant occupations, given their lack of functional speech and their extensive motor disabilities. The microswitches used for accessing the program contents consisted of (a) a pressure sensor fixed in the palm of the first man's hand that could be activated with a small hand closure movement, and (b) an optic sensor fixed under the chin of the second man that could be activated by mouth opening movements. The programs' content consisted of recreation and communication options, which involved activating music, videos, and basic requests, sending and receiving (listening to) text messages, and placing phone calls. The results showed that the men (a) used the technology-aided programs successfully to manage the recreation and communication options available and (b) showed consistent preference for the sessions with the technology-aided program over other daily events. Family and staff members interviewed about the participants' programs (seven members for each participant) thought that the participants enjoyed the intervention sessions with the programs and that the programs had beneficial effects for them. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23816631

  16. Segregation of Axial Motor and Sensory Pathways via Heterotypic Trans-Axonal Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Gallarda, Benjamin W.; Bonanomi, Dario; Müller, Daniel; Brown, Arthur; Alaynick, William A; Andrews, Shane E.; Lemke, Greg; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Marquardt, Till

    2008-01-01

    Execution of motor behaviors relies on circuitries effectively integrating immediate sensory feedback to efferent pathways controlling muscle activity. It remains unclear how, during neuromuscular circuit assembly, sensory and motor projections become incorporated into tightly coordinated, yet functionally separate pathways. We report that, within axial nerves, establishment of discrete afferent and efferent pathways depends on coordinate signaling between coextending sensory and motor projec...

  17. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  18. Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter E.; Novembre, Giacomo; Hove, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social–psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action. PMID:25385772

  19. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  20. Coordinated unbundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel

    2013-01-01

    not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework on how......Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms; however, the existing literature has...

  1. Mutation of the MAP kinase DYF-5 affects docking and undocking of kinesin-2 motors and reduces their speed in the cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghoorn, Jan; Dekkers, Martijn P J; Rademakers, Suzanne; de Jong, Ton; Willemsen, Rob; Jansen, Gert

    2007-04-24

    In the cilia of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is mediated by two kinesin-2 complexes, kinesin II and OSM-3 kinesin. These complexes function together in the cilia middle segments, whereas OSM-3 alone mediates transport in the distal segments. Not much is known about the mechanisms that compartmentalize the kinesin-2 complexes or how transport by both kinesins is coordinated. Here, we identify DYF-5, a conserved MAP kinase that plays a role in these processes. Fluorescence microscopy and EM revealed that the cilia of dyf-5 loss-of-function (lf) animals are elongated and are not properly aligned into the amphid channel. Some cilia do enter the amphid channel, but the distal ends of these cilia show accumulation of proteins. Consistent with these observations, we found that six IFT proteins accumulate in the cilia of dyf-5(lf) mutants. In addition, using genetic analyses and live imaging to measure the motility of IFT proteins, we show that dyf-5 is required to restrict kinesin II to the cilia middle segments. Finally, we show that, in dyf-5(lf) mutants, OSM-3 moves at a reduced speed and is not attached to IFT particles. We propose that DYF-5 plays a role in the undocking of kinesin II from IFT particles and in the docking of OSM-3 onto IFT particles. PMID:17420466

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  3. Speech changes after coordinative training in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykalova, Tereza; Pospisilova, Mariana; Cmejla, Roman; Jerabek, Jaroslav; Mares, Pavel; Rusz, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Although rehabilitative training is a necessary adjunct in the management of gait ataxia, it remains unknown whether the possible beneficial effect of intensive coordinative training may translate to activities of daily living, which are closely connected with postural alignment. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a 2-week intensive coordinative motor training on speech production. Speech and motor performances in a cohort of ten individuals with cerebellar degeneration were examined three times; before the introduction of training, directly and 4 weeks after the last training session. Each patient was instructed to perform a speaking task of fast syllable repetition and monologue. Objective acoustic analyses were used to investigate six key aspects of speech production disturbed in ataxic dysarthria including accuracy of consonant articulation, accuracy of vowel articulation, irregular alternating motion rates, prolonged phonemes, slow alternating motion rates and inappropriate segmentation. We found that coordinative training had a mild beneficial effect on speech in cerebellar patients. Immediately after the last training session, slight speech improvements were evident in all ten patients. Furthermore, follow-up assessment performed 4 weeks later revealed that 90 % of the patients showed better speech performance than before initiation of the therapy. The present study supports evidence that the intensive rehabilitative training may positively affect fine-motor movements such as speech in patients with cerebellar ataxia. PMID:26377098

  4. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  5. Modulation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids. A new concept to improve cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting patients with liver diseases, mainly those with liver cirrhosis. The mildest form of HE is minimal HE (MHE), with mild cognitive impairment, attention deficit, psychomotor slowing and impaired visuo-motor and bimanual coordination. MHE may progress to clinical HE with worsening of the neurological alterations which may lead to reduced consciousness and, in the worse cases, may progress to coma and death. HE affects several million people in the world and is a serious health, social and economic problem. There are no specific treatments for the neurological alterations in HE. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive and motor alterations in HE are beginning to be clarified in animal models. These studies have allowed to design and test in animal models of HE new therapeutic approaches which have successfully restored cognitive and motor function in rats with HE. In this article we review the evidences showing that. PMID:26307490

  6. Coordination: Theoretical, Methodological, and Experimental Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal coordination broadly captures the ways in which interacting individuals become more similar over time in their behavior, cognition, and affect over time. The research area around interpersonal coordination is poised to yield unique insights into questions of human communication, interaction, and social behavior. As a field, interpersonal coordination still has immense room to grow---providing an exciting challenge to interdisciplinary researchers. Interpersonal coordination has ...

  7. Motor cortical plasticity induced by motor learning through mental practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gueugneau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations suggest that actual and mental actions trigger similar neural substrates. Motor learning via physical practice results in long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, whether this neuroplasticity process contributes to improve motor performance through mental practice remains to be determined. Here, we tested skill learning-dependent changes in primary motor cortex (M1 excitability and plasticity by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation in subjects trained to physically execute or mentally perform a sequence of finger opposition movements. Before and after physical practice and motor-imagery practice, M1 excitability was evaluated by measuring the input-output (IO curve of motor evoked potentials. M1 long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD-like plasticity was assessed with paired-associative stimulation (PAS of the median nerve and motor cortex using an interstimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25 or 10 ms (PAS10, respectively. We found that even if after both practice sessions subjects significantly improved their movement speed, M1 excitability and plasticity were differentially influenced by the two practice sessions. First, we observed an increase in the slope of IO curve after physical but not after motor-imagery practice. Second, there was a reversal of the PAS25 effect from LTP-like plasticity to LTD-like plasticity following physical and motor-imagery practice. Third, LTD-like plasticity (PAS10 protocol increased after physical practice, whilst it was occluded after motor-imagery practice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that motor-imagery practice lead to the development of neuroplasticity, as it affected the PAS25- and PAS10- induced plasticity in M1. These results, expanding the current knowledge on how motor-imagery training shapes M1 plasticity, might have a potential impact in

  8. Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  10. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  11. Deliberate play and preparation jointly benefit motor and cognitive development: mediated and moderated effects

    OpenAIRE

    Caterina ePesce; Ilaria eMasci; Rosalba eMarchetti; Spyridoula eVazou; Arja eSääkslahti; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination...

  12. Evaluation of freshmen coordination abilities on practical training in gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereschenko I.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measured coordination abilities (baseline to the static and dynamic equilibrium of the body, the space-time orientation on the support and in unsupported position, proprioception sense, vestibular stability, vestibular sensitivity, coordination limbs symmetrical and asymmetrical. Coordination abilities were also measured under difficult conditions. The study involved 238 students aged 17 - 18 years. Registered a positive trend of improving performance motor tests, development of educational material. Students who specialize in difficult to coordinate sports had significantly better performance. Found that the content of the material work programs of sports and educational disciplines helps improve sensorimotor coordination tasks students. It is noted that the content of the training material is the basis for efficient formation of motor skills and motor skills development of gymnastic exercises. Recommended ways to increase sports and technical and professional skills of students.

  13. Assessment of Body Composition Using Whole Body Air-Displacement Plethysmography in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by poor fine and/or gross motor coordination. Children with DCD are hypothesized to be at increased risk for overweight and obesity from inactivity due to their motor coordination problems. Although previous studies have found evidence to support this…

  14. Motor Magnates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABEL DING

    2008-01-01

    @@ The automotive industry is often seen as a man's world. Wang Fengying (王风英) begs to differ. The 38-year-old has presided over Great Wall Motors (长城汽车), the leading pick-up truck and Sport Utility Vehicle(SUV) manufacturer in China for the past five years.

  15. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  16. Motor radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Afsha; Camilleri, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old immunosuppressed woman presented to a rheumatology follow-up clinic after suffering from herpes zoster infection. She had manifestations of foot drop 3 months after the initial infection. She was diagnosed with motor radiculopathy following herpes zoster infection that was effectively managed by physiotherapy and amitriptyline.

  17. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors, as...

  18. Motor deficits correlate with resting state motor network connectivity in patients with brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marc L.; Mikell, Charles B; Youngerman, Brett E.; Liston, Conor; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Small, Scott A.; McKhann, Guy M.

    2012-01-01

    While a tumour in or abutting primary motor cortex leads to motor weakness, how tumours elsewhere in the frontal or parietal lobes affect functional connectivity in a weak patient is less clear. We hypothesized that diminished functional connectivity in a distributed network of motor centres would correlate with motor weakness in subjects with brain masses. Furthermore, we hypothesized that interhemispheric connections would be most vulnerable to subtle disruptions in functional connectivity....

  19. Adaptation to visual feedback delay in a redundant motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Casadio, Maura; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2015-01-15

    The goal of this study was to examine the reorganization of hand movements during adaptation to delayed visual feedback in a novel and redundant environment. In most natural behaviors, the brain must learn to invert a many-to-one map from high-dimensional joint movements and muscle forces to a low-dimensional goal. This spatial "inverse map" is learned by associating motor commands to their low-dimensional consequences. How is this map affected by the presence of temporal delays? A delay presents the brain with a new set of kinematic data, and, because of redundancy, the brain may use these data to form a new inverse map. We consider two possible responses to a novel visuomotor delay. In one case, the brain updates the previously learned spatial map, building a new association between motor commands and visual feedback of their effects. In the alternative case, the brain preserves the original map and learns to compensate the delay by a temporal shift of the motor commands. To test these alternative possibilities, we developed a virtual reality game in which subjects controlled the two-dimensional coordinates of a cursor by continuous hand gestures. Two groups of subjects tracked a target along predictable paths by wearing an instrumented data glove that recorded finger motions. The 19-dimensional glove signals controlled a cursor on a 2-dimensional computer display. The experiment was performed on 2 consecutive days. On the 1st day, subjects practiced tracking movements without delay. On the 2nd day, the test group performed the same task with a delay of 300 ms between the glove signals and the cursor display, whereas the control group continued practicing the nondelayed trials. We found evidence that to compensate for the delay, the test group relied on the coordination patterns established during the baseline, e.g., their hand-to-cursor inverse map was robust to the delay perturbation, which was counteracted by an anticipation of the motor command. PMID:25339704

  20. Bimanual coupling paradigm as an effective tool to investigate productive behaviors in motor and body awareness impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eGarbarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When humans move simultaneously both hands strong coupling effects arise and neither of the two hands is able to perform independent actions. It has been suggested that such motor constraints are tightly linked to action representation rather than to movement execution. Hence, bimanual tasks can represent an ideal experimental tool to investigate internal motor representations in those neurological conditions in which the movement of one hand is impaired. Indeed, any effect on the ‘moving’ (healthy hand would be caused by the constraints imposed by the ongoing motor program of the ‘impaired’ hand. Here, we review recent studies that successfully utilized the above-mentioned paradigms to investigate some types of productive motor behaviors in stroke patients. Specifically, bimanual tasks have been employed in left hemiplegic patients who report illusory movements of their contralesional limbs (anosognosia for hemiplegia. They have also been administered to patients affected by a specific monothematic delusion of body ownership, namely the belief that another person’s arm and his/her voluntary action belong to them. In summary, the reviewed studies show that bimanual tasks are a simple and valuable experimental method apt to reveal information about the motor programs of a paralyzed limb. Therefore, it can be used to objectively examine the cognitive processes underpinning motor programming in patients with different delusions of motor behavior. Additionally, it also sheds light on the mechanisms subserving bimanual coordination in the intact brain suggesting that action representation might be sufficient to produce these effects.

  1. Advanced Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, “Motors and Generators for the 21st Century”. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to

  2. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neuropathy, type V distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V is a progressive disorder that affects nerve cells ...

  3. Symmetric Structure of Induction Motor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, symmetric structure of induction motor system in stationary αβ0 coordinates is studied bythe geometric approach. The results show that the system possesses symmetry (G, θ, Ф) and infinitesimal symme-try. Under certain conditions, the system can be transformed into a form possessing state-space symmetry (G, Ф)and infinitesimal state-space symmetry by means of state feedback and input coordinate base transform. The resultscan be extended to the fifth order induction motor system fed by hysteresis-band current-controlled PWM inverter.

  4. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  5. Inter-Organizational Coordination, IT Support, and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Gang; JI Shaobo; MIN Qingfei

    2008-01-01

    Manufacturing organizations must know how to deal with uncertainty, manage environmental impact, effectively coordinate with suppliers, and use information technology (IT) to support coordination. Applying cybernetics and information processing theories, this study explores the relationship between organizational environment, inter-organizational coordination, IT support, and the effectiveness of inter-organizational coordination. Using the case study method, data was collected from six manufacturing firms in China. The results show that inter-organizational system adoption is affected by organizational environment and is related to the management of inter-organizational coordination. Coordination and IT application affect the performance of inter-organizational coordination.

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  7. Stabilization of multi-machine power system by coordinated excitation control of multiple adjustable-speed generator/motors; Fukusu kahensoku hatsuden dendoki no reiji den`atsu kyocho seigyo ni yoru taki keito anteika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatematsu, M.; Yokoyama, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Since an adjustable-speed generator/motor (ASGM) is excited by AC voltage fed by a quick-response cycloconverter, a rotating speed of the rotor can be changed continuously. The ASGMs installed at some pumping-up power stations are now operated effectively for automatic frequency control under the lightly loaded condition at night by changing the pumping-up power due to the rotating speed change. It is expected, on the other hand, that under the generating condition in the daytime the ASGM will be used for enhancement of transient stability because it can generate or absorb active and reactive power independently of each other by AC excitation voltage control. This paper proposes a novel control method of excitation system of ASGM for improving the transient stability of a multi-machine power system including multiple ASGMs. The controller which is designed based on an energy function works well for the stability enhancement. In comparison with the conventional excitation control of synchronous generator and constant output control of ASGM, the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by digital simulations. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  9. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eRinghof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60 m, 160 m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60 m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were, also, not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however

  10. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J.; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted. PMID

  11. Análise da validade de critério da Avaliação da Coordenação e Destreza Motora: ACOORDEM para crianças de 7 e 8 anos de idade Criterion validity of the Motor Coordination and Dexterity Assessment: MCDA for 7- and 8-years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A. Cardoso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O Transtorno do Desenvolvimento da Coordenação (TDC se caracteriza por prejuízo no desenvolvimento da coordenação motora, com impacto nas atividades de vida diária e desempenho acadêmico. A Avaliação da Coordenação e Destreza Motora (ACOORDEM vem sendo criada para oferecer aos profissionais de reabilitação brasileiros instrumentação confiável e válida para detecção do TDC. OBJETIVO: Examinar a validade de critério da ACOORDEM. MÉTODOS: Cento e oitenta e uma crianças de 7 e 8 anos da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, pré-selecionadas pelo Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-Brasil, foram avaliadas com a ACOORDEM e com o Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II. A validade concorrente foi avaliada pelo índice de Correlação de Spearman e a validade preditiva, pelos valores de sensibilidade (S, especificidade (E, valor de predição positivo (VPP e valor de predição negativo (VPN. Curvas ROC foram realizadas para determinar o ponto de corte ótimo da ACOORDEM. RESULTADOS: A Correlação de Spearman entre os escores totais da ACOORDEM e do MABC-II foi de 0,596 (p=0,000 aos 7 e 0,730 (p=0,000 aos 8 anos. O ponto de corte da ACOORDEM definido pelas curvas ROC se aproximou do percentil 40, o que corresponde a S de 0,91 e 0,74 e E de 0,74 e 0,90 aos 7 e 8 anos, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Resultados apontam valores moderados de validade concorrente e preditiva da ACOORDEM. Estudos futuros devem reexaminar os pontos de corte da ACOORDEM em amostra aleatória, representativa de crianças brasileiras de 4 a 8 anos de idade. A validade preditiva para TDC do instrumento completo deve ser reexaminada em amostras clínicas bem definidas.BACKGROUND: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is characterized by impaired development of motor coordination, with impact on daily life activities and academic performance. The Motor Coordination and Dexterity Assessment (MCDA

  12. Fine Motor Activities Program to Promote Fine Motor Skills in a Case Study of Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersilp, Suchitporn; Putthinoi, Supawadee; Panyo, Kewalin

    2016-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome have developmental delays, particularly regarding cognitive and motor development. Fine motor skill problems are related to motor development. They have impact on occupational performances in school-age children with Down's syndrome because they relate to participation in school activities, such as grasping, writing, and carrying out self-care duties. This study aimed to develop a fine motor activities program and to examine the efficiency of the program that promoted fine motor skills in a case study of Down's syndrome. The case study subject was an 8 -year-old male called Kai, who had Down's syndrome. He was a first grader in a regular school that provided classrooms for students with special needs. This study used the fine motor activities program with assessment tools, which included 3 subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) that applied to Upper-limb coordination, Fine motor precision and Manual dexterity; as well as the In-hand Manipulation Checklist, and Jamar Hand Dynamometer Grip Test. The fine motor activities program was implemented separately and consisted of 3 sessions of 45 activities per week for 5 weeks, with each session taking 45 minutes. The results showed obvious improvement of fine motor skills, including bilateral hand coordination, hand prehension, manual dexterity, in-hand manipulation, and hand muscle strength. This positive result was an example of a fine motor intervention program designed and developed for therapists and related service providers in choosing activities that enhance fine motor skills in children with Down's syndrome. PMID:27357876

  13. The effects of various visual conditions on the gait cycle in children with different level of motor coordination-a pilot study. [Cómo afectan diferentes condiciones visuales a la marcha en niños con diferente nivel de coordinación motriz- un studio piloto].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Palomo-Nieto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vision and the visual control of movement have been addressed in the literature related to motor control. Many studies have demonstrated that children with low motor competence in comparison to their typically developing peers may rely more heavily on vision to perform movements. The aim of the study was to highlight the effects of different visual conditions on motor performance during walking in children with different levels of motor coordination. Participants (n=8, Mean age = 8.5±.5 years were divided into typical development (TD and low motor coordination (LMC group. They were asked to walk along a 10-meter walkway provided by Optojump-Next instrument that was placed in a portable construction (15 x 3 x 2.5m. This construction was surrounded by dark blue fibers in which all participants perceived the same visual information. They walked in a self-selected speed under four visual conditions: full vision (FV, limited vision 150 ms (LV-150, limited vision 100 ms (LV-100 and non-vision (NV. For visual occlusion during walking in LV-150 and LV-100, participants were equipped with Plato Goggles that opened for 150 and 100 ms, respectively, within each 2 sec. Data were analyzed in a two-way mixed between-within ANOVA including 2 (groups: TD vs. LMC x 4 (visual condition: FV, LV-150, LV-100 & NV with repeated-measures on the last factor (p≤.05. Results indicated that TD children walked faster and with longer strides than LMC children in which these parameters can influence on different periods of gait cycle including stance and swing phases. Also, perceiving visual information for 150 ms in comparison to 100 ms while walking was enough for similar performance in FV condition. The present findings highlight underlying parameters of gait cycle for walking in TD compared to LMC children are different. Resumen La importancia de la visión y del control visual en el movimiento es un asunto ampliamente abordado y tratado en la

  14. Voz do cantor lírico e coordenação motora: uma intervenção baseada em Piret e Béziers Lyric singer voice and motor coordination: an intervention based on Piret and Béziers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Lopes Mello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da aplicação de um Programa de Desenvolvimento da Coordenação Motora, baseado em Piret e Béziers, na voz do cantor lírico. MÉTODOS: Cinco cantores líricos profissionais executaram uma ária de ópera, de livre escolha, que foi filmada. Em seguida responderam a uma questão sobre a propriocepção ao cantar. Durante um mês submeteram-se ao Programa de Desenvolvimento da Coordenação Motora e ao final gravaram novamente a mesma ária e responderam a mesma questão. As filmagens foram enviadas para nove juizes profissionais (três fonoaudiólogos, três fisioterapeutas e três professores de canto que avaliaram a integração corpo e voz dos cantores por meio de análise perceptivo-auditiva e visual. Os cantores, após assistirem às duas filmagens, fizeram outra auto-avaliação. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação dos juízes: as duas sopranos, a mezzo-soprano e o baixo melhoraram a projeção da voz; o tenor melhorou a ressonância e o baixo melhorou também a respiração; com exceção do baixo todos ficaram com os gestos mais livres. Segundo relato dos cantores, os exercícios garantiram maior percepção da tensão muscular durante o canto e isso possibilitou melhor controle dos gestos. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com a avaliação subjetiva os ajustes posturais, oriundos da execução dos exercícios da coordenação motora, provavelmente garantiram abertura da caixa torácica e melhoraram as condições da respiração dos cantores, durante o canto; este fato pode ter favorecido a verticalização da ressonância e a projeção da voz.PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the application of a Motor Coordination Development Program, based on Piret and Béziers, on the voice of lyric singers. METHODS: Five professional lyric singers performed an opera aria of their choice, which was filmed. Next, they answered a question regarding their proprioception when singing. They were submitted to the Motor Coordination

  15. Common Synaptic Input to the Human Hypoglossal Motor Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Christopher M.; Bailey, E. Fiona

    2010-01-01

    The tongue plays a key role in various volitional and automatic functions such as swallowing, maintenance of airway patency, and speech. Precisely how hypoglossal motor neurons, which control the tongue, receive and process their often concurrent input drives is a subject of ongoing research. We investigated common synaptic input to the hypoglossal motor nucleus by measuring the coordination of spike timing, firing rate, and oscillatory activity across motor units recorded from unilateral (i....

  16. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two...

  17. Infranuclear ocular motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers the very large number of possible disorders that can affect the three ocular motor nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles. Conditions affecting the nerves are discussed under two major headings: those in which the site of damage can be anatomically localized (e.g., fascicular lesions and lesions occurring in the subarachnoid space, the cavernous sinus, the superior orbital fissure, or the orbit) and those in which the site of the lesion is either nonspecific or variable (e.g., vascular lesions, tumors, "ophthalmoplegic migraine," and congenital disorders). Specific comments on the diagnosis and management of disorders of each of the three nerves follow. Ocular motor synkineses (including Duane's retraction syndrome and aberrant regeneration) and disorders resulting in paroxysms of excess activity (e.g., neuromyotonia) are then covered, followed by myasthenia gravis and other disorders that affect the neuromuscular junction. A final section discusses disorders of the extraocular muscles themselves, including thyroid disease, orbital myositis, mitochondrial disease, and the muscular dystrophies. PMID:21601071

  18. Emotion and reward are dissociable from error during motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Preston, Stephanie D; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Seidler, Rachael D

    2016-06-01

    Although emotion is known to reciprocally interact with cognitive and motor performance, contemporary theories of motor learning do not specifically consider how dynamic variations in a learner's affective state may influence motor performance during motor learning. Using a prism adaptation paradigm, we assessed emotion during motor learning on a trial-by-trial basis. We designed two dart-throwing experiments to dissociate motor performance and reward outcomes by giving participants maximum points for accurate throws and reduced points for throws that hit zones away from the target (i.e., "accidental points"). Experiment 1 dissociated motor performance from emotional responses and found that affective ratings tracked points earned more closely than error magnitude. Further, both reward and error uniquely contributed to motor learning, as indexed by the change in error from one trial to the next. Experiment 2 manipulated accidental point locations vertically, whereas prism displacement remained horizontal. Results demonstrated that reward could bias motor performance even when concurrent sensorimotor adaptation was taking place in a perpendicular direction. Thus, these experiments demonstrate that affective states were dissociable from error magnitude during motor learning and that affect more closely tracked points earned. Our findings further implicate reward as another factor, other than error, that contributes to motor learning, suggesting the importance of incorporating affective states into models of motor learning. PMID:26746312

  19. The development and standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Edwards, Lisa; Sugden, David; Rosenblum, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the United Kingdom (U.K.), is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. In the past this was regarded as a childhood disorder, however there is increasing evidence that a significant number of children will continue to have persistent difficulties into adulthood. Despite this, there remains little information as to how the difficulties might present at this stage, and additionally the impact on every day functioning. As young people move into further and higher education there is a need for screening and assessment tools. Such tools allow for identification of these difficulties, access to support, and clarification of areas where appropriate support needs to be targeted. This paper describes the first adult screening tool for DCD. The development and the results from testing this tool in two countries, Israel and the U.K. are outlined and the implications for its use in further and higher education discussed. PMID:19819107

  20. Limitations of Radar Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  1. Cognitive constraints on motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Stephan F; Rieger, Martina

    2016-03-01

    Executed bimanual movements are prepared slower when moving to symbolically different than when moving to symbolically same targets and when targets are mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they are mapped in an inner/outer fashion [Weigelt et al. (Psychol Res 71:238-447, 2007)]. We investigated whether these cognitive bimanual coordination constraints are observable in motor imagery. Participants performed fast bimanual reaching movements from start to target buttons. Symbolic target similarity and mapping were manipulated. Participants performed four action conditions: one execution and three imagination conditions. In the latter they indicated starting, ending, or starting and ending of the movement. We measured movement preparation (RT), movement execution (MT) and the combined duration of movement preparation and execution (RTMT). In all action conditions RTs and MTs were longer in movements towards different targets than in movements towards same targets. Further, RTMTs were longer when targets were mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they were mapped in an inner/outer fashion, again in all action conditions. RTMTs in imagination and execution were similar, apart from the imagination condition in which participants indicated the start and the end of the movement. Here MTs, but not RTs, were longer than in the execution condition. In conclusion, cognitive coordination constraints are present in the motor imagery of fast (motor imagery. PMID:25758054

  2. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle ...

  3. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet See a list of all ... can I get more information? What are motor neuron diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  4. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  5. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early foetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons’ expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or ‘expressive art’ therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion.

  6. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or "expressive art" therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  7. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  8. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  9. Brief Overview of Motor Learning and It's Application to Rehabilitation: Part Ⅰ: Motor Learning Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher A Zaino

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 DEFINITION OF MOTOR LEARNING Motor learning is the study of how we acquire and modify movements.1 The acquisition of motor skills is the process of learning how to do a particular movement (performance), but the real key to therapeutic intervention is being able to affect permanent changes in motor skills via the process of motor learning. Therefore, motor learning is defined as the ability to retain the ability to perform a motor task at a later time. In rehabilitation, it is important to be cognizant of the concepts of acquisition and retention. We can facilitate acquisition,but do little to assist in the retention of the task (learning). Conversely, we can arrange practice such that acquisition is slowed, but we can actually be assisting learning the task. It is important to have a clear goal in mind and work towards the eventual learning of the task to allow full functional use of that skill.

  10. Musical Creativity "Revealed" in Brain Structure: Interplay between Motor, Default Mode, and Limbic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashwiner, David M; Wertz, Christopher J; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2016-01-01

    Creative behaviors are among the most complex that humans engage in, involving not only highly intricate, domain-specific knowledge and skill, but also domain-general processing styles and the affective drive to create. This study presents structural imaging data indicating that musically creative people (as indicated by self-report) have greater cortical surface area or volume in a) regions associated with domain-specific higher-cognitive motor activity and sound processing (dorsal premotor cortex, supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and planum temporale), b) domain-general creative-ideation regions associated with the default mode network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and temporal pole), and c) emotion-related regions (orbitofrontal cortex, temporal pole, and amygdala). These findings suggest that domain-specific musical expertise, default-mode cognitive processing style, and intensity of emotional experience might all coordinate to motivate and facilitate the drive to create music. PMID:26888383

  11. Musical Creativity “Revealed” in Brain Structure: Interplay between Motor, Default Mode, and Limbic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashwiner, David M.; Wertz, Christopher J.; Flores, Ranee A.; Jung, Rex E.

    2016-01-01

    Creative behaviors are among the most complex that humans engage in, involving not only highly intricate, domain-specific knowledge and skill, but also domain-general processing styles and the affective drive to create. This study presents structural imaging data indicating that musically creative people (as indicated by self-report) have greater cortical surface area or volume in a) regions associated with domain-specific higher-cognitive motor activity and sound processing (dorsal premotor cortex, supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and planum temporale), b) domain-general creative-ideation regions associated with the default mode network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and temporal pole), and c) emotion-related regions (orbitofrontal cortex, temporal pole, and amygdala). These findings suggest that domain-specific musical expertise, default-mode cognitive processing style, and intensity of emotional experience might all coordinate to motivate and facilitate the drive to create music. PMID:26888383

  12. Early Motor Stimulation and Personal Development. A Study of Four- to Six-Year-Old German Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Liselott

    1982-01-01

    A study of 165 West German preschool children participating in a motor program which included swimming as an important activity showed that early motor stimulation affected the children's motor, social, and individual development. (CJ)

  13. Robot drive mechanism uses conventional electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, I.

    1986-02-01

    The development and use of three phase asynchronous electric motors in robot technology are presented. The mechanical arm of a robot has as many drives as it has joints. Manipulators in use in modern industry must have six to nine degrees of mobility, and experimental prototypes with 18 coordinates of movement are already developed. A simple, common, and inexpensive industrial electric motor is proposed for use in the robots. This motor was previously considered unsuitable for delicate work because of its low precision in executing commands and the difficulty in controlling it. Control methods were developed to overcome this difficulty. Integrated microcircuits and a power converter control the operation of the single motor. A cassette made up of six units controls the operation of the whole mechanical arm. This cassette is linked with the brain of the robot (a microprocessor system or microcomputer).

  14. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  15. Alteration in global motor strategy following lateral ankle sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Bastien, Maude; Moffet, Hélène; Bouyer, Laurent J; Perron, Marc; Hébert, Luc J; Leblond, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) has often been considered an injury leading to localized joint impairments affecting the musculoskeletal system. Persistent chronic ankle instability and bilateral alterations in motor control after a first ankle sprain episode suggest that the origin of relapses might be a maladaptive reorganization of central motor commands. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare the quality of motor control through motor strategy variables of two groups (with...

  16. Changes in Voice Onset Time and Motor Speech Skills in Children following Motor Speech Therapy: Evidence from /pa/ productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; Kadis, Darren S.; Oh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) subsequent to PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets) intervention. We measured the distribution patterns of voice onset time (VOT) for a voiceless stop (/p/) to examine the changes in inter-gestural coordination. Two standardized tests were used (VMPAC, GFTA-2) to assess the changes in motor speech skills and articulation. Data showed positive changes in patterns of VOT with a lower pattern of variability. All children showed significantly higher scores for VMPAC, but only some children showed higher scores for GFTA-2. Results suggest that the proprioceptive feedback provided through PROMPT had a positive influence on motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination in voicing behavior. This set of VOT data for children with SSD adds to our understanding of the speech characteristics underlying motor speech control. Directions for future studies are discussed. PMID:24446799

  17. Information for Parents and Teachers on the European Academy for Childhood Disability (EACD) Recommendations on Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition characterized by difficulty in the development of motor coordination and learning new motor skills. It impacts on a child's ability to carry out everyday tasks such as getting dressed, using cutlery, writing or drawing, running, and playing sport. It is not due to any intellectual difficulty…

  18. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  19. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  20. A Coordination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    J. Foss, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Important aspects of leadership behavior can be rendered intelligible through a focus on coordination games. The concept of common knowledge is shown to be particularly important to understanding leadership. Thus, leaders may establish common knowledge conditions and assist the coordination of strategies in this way, or make decisions in situations where coordination problems persist in spite of common knowledge.

  1. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  2. Measuring collective transport by defined numbers of processive and nonprocessive kinesin motors

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Ken’ya; Furuta, Akane; Toyoshima, Yoko Y.; Amino, Misako; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular transport is thought to be achieved by teams of motor proteins bound to a cargo. However, the coordination within a team remains poorly understood as a result of the experimental difficulty in controlling the number and composition of motors. Here, we developed an experimental system that links together defined numbers of motors with defined spacing on a DNA scaffold. By using this system, we linked multiple molecules of two different types of kinesin motors, processive kinesin-...

  3. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordi...

  4. Olhares distintos sobre a noção de estabilidade e mudança no desempenho da coordenação motora grossa Ángulos diferentes sobre el concepto de estabilidad y cambio en el rendimiento de la coordinación motora gruesa Distinct views on the notion of stability and change in the performance of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Basso

    2012-09-01

    discuten en términos de diferentes trayectorias de desarrollo de la CMG.Studies about gross motor coordination in children (GMC focus on the description of normative values derived from age and sex, and few analyzed the dynamics of change of each child within its group. The goal of the present study is estimate the stability of intra-individual change over inter-individual differences over eighteen months. One hundred and twenty students with seven years old in the city of Muzambinho - MG participated in the study. Data was collected four times, with a six-month interval between each assessment. GMC was evaluated through KTK test battery. Mean values for all tests increased over time, with differences between sex for equilibrium test. The correlation values between initial performance and improvements over eighteen months indicated high heterogeneity. Results of stability estimates were weak for tests. These results were discussed about different trajectories in the development of motor coordination.

  5. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  6. Adventures in Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    A variety of coordinate systems have been used to study the N-body problem for cases involving a dominant central mass. These include the traditional Keplerian orbital elements and the canonical Delaunay variables, which both incorporate conserved quantities of the two-body problem. Recently, Cartesian coordinate systems have returned to favour with the rise of mixed-variable symplectic integrators, since these coordinates prove to be more efficient than using orbital elements. Three sets of canonical Cartesian coordinates are well known, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Inertial coordinates (which include barycentric coordinates as a special case) are the simplest and easiest to implement. However, they suffer from the disadvantage that the motion of the central body must be calculated explicitly, leading to relatively large errors in general. Jacobi coordinates overcome this problem by replacing the coordinates and momenta of the central body with those of the system as a whole, so that momentum is conserved exactly. This leads to substantial improvements in accuracy, but has the disadvantage that every object is treated differently, and interactions between each pair of bodies are now expressed in a complicated manner involving the coordinates of many bodies. Canonical heliocentric coordinates (also known as democratic heliocentric coordinates) treat all bodies equally, and conserve the centre of mass motion, but at the cost of introducing momentum cross terms into the kinetic energy. This complicates the development of higher order symplectic integrators and symplectic correctors, as well as the development of methods used to resolve close encounters with the central body. Here I will re-examine the set of possible canonical Cartesian coordinate systems to determine if it is possible to (a) conserve the centre of mass motion, (b) treat all bodies equally, and (c) eliminate the momentum cross terms. I will demonstrate that this is indeed possible

  7. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  8. Directed flux motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  9. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  10. Motor action and emotional memory

    OpenAIRE

    Casasanto, D.; Dijkstra, K.

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction of movement was congruent with the valence of the memory (upward for positive, downward for negative memories). Given neutral-valence prompts in Expe...

  11. Neuro-mechanics of muscle coordination during recumbent pedaling in post-acute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, C; Ambrosini, E; Schmid, M; Monticone, M; Pedrocchi, A; Ferrigno, G; D'Alessio, T; Conforto, S; Ferrante, S

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been hypothesized to be related, among others, to impairments in the modular control of movement. In this study we analyzed muscle coordination and pedal forces during a recumbent pedaling exercise from a sample of post-acute stroke patients (n=5) and a population of age-matched healthy individuals (n=4). Healthy subjects and the less impaired patients showed a shared modular organization of pedaling based on 4 similar muscle synergies. The most impaired patient, characterized by a Motricity Index of 52/100, showed a reduced complexity (only 2 muscle synergies for the affected side). Differences between healthy subjects and post-stroke patients in the execution of the task were identified in terms of unbalance in mechanical work production, which well corresponded to the level of impairment. This pedaling unbalance could be traced back to different activation strategies of the 4 identified modules. Investigation on a more representative sample will provide a full characterization of the neuro-mechanics of pedaling after stroke, helping our understandings of the disruption of motor coordination at central level after stroke and of the most effective solutions for functional recovery. PMID:26736246

  12. Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real measurem......In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... measurements from a specially designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate both terminal disconnections, inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits. The results show good agreement between the measurements and the simulated signals obtained from the model. In the tests focus is on the...

  13. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with Comorbid DCD and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Podoly, Tamar; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two developmental disorders with considerable comorbidity. The impact of Methylphenidate (MPH) on ADHD symptoms is well documented. However, the effects of MPH on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of MPH on motor performance…

  14. Expression of NR2B in cerebellar granule cells specifically facilitates effect of motor training on motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Jiao

    Full Text Available It is believed that gene/environment interaction (GEI plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor learning in the mouse. Moreover, this effect was characterized as motor learning-specific and developmental stage-dependent, because neither emotional/spatial memory was affected nor was the enhanced motor learning observed when the motor training was conducted starting at the age of 3 months old in these transgenic mice. These results indicate that changes in the expression of gene(s that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity in cerebellar granule cells may constitute a molecular basis for the cerebellum to be involved in the GEI by facilitating motor skill learning.

  15. Motor system contribution to action prediction: Temporal accuracy depends on motor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapel, Janny C; Hunnius, Sabine; Meyer, Marlene; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-03-01

    Predicting others' actions is essential for well-coordinated social interactions. In two experiments including an infant population, this study addresses to what extent motor experience of an observer determines prediction accuracy for others' actions. Results show that infants who were proficient crawlers but inexperienced walkers predicted crawling more accurately than walking, whereas age groups mastering both skills (i.e. toddlers and adults) were equally accurate in predicting walking and crawling. Regardless of experience, human movements were predicted more accurately by all age groups than non-human movement control stimuli. This suggests that for predictions to be accurate, the observed act needs to be established in the motor repertoire of the observer. Through the acquisition of new motor skills, we also become better at predicting others' actions. The findings thus stress the relevance of motor experience for social-cognitive development. PMID:26744806

  16. Mapping brains without coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Kötter, Rolf; Wanke, Egon

    2005-01-01

    Brain mapping has evolved considerably over the last century. While most emphasis has been placed on coordinate-based spatial atlases, coordinate-independent parcellation-based mapping is an important technique for accessing the multitude of structural and functional data that have been reported from invasive experiments, and provides for flexible and efficient representations of information. Here, we provide an introduction to motivations, concepts, techniques and implications of coordinate-...

  17. Adaptive Coordinate Descent

    OpenAIRE

    Loshchilov, Ilya; Schoenauer, Marc; Sebag, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Independence from the coordinate system is one source of efficiency and robustness for the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). The recently proposed Adaptive Encoding (AE) procedure generalizes CMA-ES adaptive mechanism, and can be used together with any optimization algorithm. Adaptive Encoding gradually builds a transformation of the coordinate system such that the new coordinates are as decorrelated as possible with respect to the objective function. But any optimizat...

  18. Stochastic mechano-chemical kinetics of molecular motors: a multidisciplinary enterprise from a physicist's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2013-01-01

    A molecular motor is made of either a single macromolecule or a macromolecular complex. Just like their macroscopic counterparts, molecular motors "transduce" input energy into mechanical work. All the nano-motors considered here operate under isothermal conditions far from equilibrium. Moreover, one of the possible mechanisms of energy transduction, called Brownian ratchet, does not even have any macroscopic counterpart. But, molecular motor is not synonymous with Brownian ratchet; a large number of molecular motors execute a noisy power stroke, rather than operating as Brownian ratchet. We review not only the structural design and stochastic kinetics of individual single motors, but also their coordination, cooperation and competition as well as the assembly of multi-module motors in various intracellular kinetic processes. Although all the motors considered here execute mechanical movements, efficiency and power output are not necessarily good measures of performance of some motors. Among the intracellular...

  19. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, which are known to occur in association with these diseases, such as extrapyramidal, amyotrophic, and cerebellar features as well as complex cognitive‐motor phenomena such as apraxia. EMAS has been developed by a team of neurologists and psychiatrists at the ...

  20. CONSOLIDATION OF MOTOR MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Krakauer, John W.; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-01-01

    A question of great recent interest is whether motor memory consolidates in a manner analogous to declarative memories, with the formation of a memory that progresses over time from a fragile state, susceptible to interference by a lesion or a conflicting motor task, to a stabilized state, resistant to such interference. Here, we first review studies that examine the anatomical basis for motor consolidation: evidence implicates cerebellar circuitry for two types of associative motor learning,...

  1. Motor Neurons that Multitask

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Animals use a form of sensory feedback termed proprioception to monitor their body position and modify the motor programs that control movement. In this issue of Neuron, Wen et al. (2012) provide evidence that a subset of motor neurons function as proprioceptors in C. elegans, where B-type motor neurons sense body curvature to control the bending movements that drive forward locomotion.

  2. Quantum motor and future

    CERN Document Server

    Fateev, Evgeny G

    2013-01-01

    In a popular language, the possibilities of the Casimir expulsion effect are presented, which can be the basis of quantum motors. Such motors can be in the form of a special multilayer thin film with periodic and complex nanosized structures. Quantum motors of the type of the Casimir platforms can be the base of transportation, energy and many other systems in the future.

  3. The Movement Assessment Battery in Greek Preschoolers: The Impact of Age, Gender, Birth Order, and Physical Activity on Motor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kabitsis, Nikolaos; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Zaragas, Charilaos; Katartzi, Ermioni; Kabitsis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Early identification of possible risk factors that could impair the motor development is crucial, since poor motor performance may have long-term negative consequences for a child's overall development. The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination in Greek pre-school aged children and the detection of…

  4. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  5. A simulated actuator driven by motor cortical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashin, A V; Amirikian, B R; Georgopoulos, A P

    1996-11-01

    One problem in motor control concerns the mechanism whereby the central nervous system translates the motor cortical command encoded in cell activity into a coordinated contraction of limb muscles to generate a desired motor output. This problem is closely related to the design of adaptive systems that transform neuronal signals chronically recorded from the motor cortex into the physiologically appropriate motor output of multijoint prosthetic limbs. In this study we demonstrated how this transformation can be carried out by an artificial neural network using as command signals the actual impulse activity obtained from recordings in the motor cortex of monkeys during the performance of a task that required the exertion of force in different directions. The network receives experimentally measured brain signals and recodes them into motor actions of a simulated actuator that mimics the primate arm. The actuator responds to the motor cortical commands with surprising fidelity, generating forces in close quantitative agreement with those exerted by trained monkeys, in both the temporal and spatial domains. Moreover, we show that the time-varying motor output may be controlled by the impulse activity of as few as 15 motor cortical cells. These results outline a potentially implementable computation scheme that utilizes raw neuronal signals to drive artificial mechanical systems. PMID:8981430

  6. Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.

  7. Development programme motor function of children with mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the rehabilitation program recovery of motor function of children with mental retardation. Material-methods: the study involved 19 students from primary diagnosis - mental retardation. Age of children was 8 - 9 years and 9 - 10 years. Motor speed detection reaction carried out using a falling line setting (in cm. Determination of speed integral motor actions performed with running 30 meters to go. From cross-country test also used the shuttle run 4x9 meters. Results : a program of exercise for children with mental retardation. Exercises aimed at correcting the basic movements, flexibility correction, correction and development of coordination abilities, adjustment and development of physical fitness, correction and prevention of secondary fractures. Conclusions : it was found that the rehabilitation program for development and correction of motor function of children with mental retardation is an effective and affordable to adjust coordination abilities and flexibility.

  8. Reversal of Handedness Effects on Bimanual Coordination in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, G. M.; Ringenbach, S. D. R.; Jung, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on unimanual tasks suggested that motor asymmetries between hands may be reduced in people with Down syndrome. Our study examined handedness (as assessed by hand performance) and perceptual-motor integration effects on bimanual coordination. Methods: Adults with Down syndrome (13 non-right-handed, 22 right-handed), along with…

  9. Interactive Metronome Training in Children with Attention Deficit and Developmental Coordination Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosper, Sharon M.; Lee, Gregory P.; Peters, Susan Beth; Bishop, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of Interactive Metronome (Interactive Metronome, Sunrise, Florida, USA) training in a group of children with mixed attentional and motor coordination disorders to further explore which subcomponents of attentional control and motor functioning the training influences. Twelve children who had…

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  11. Drawing from memory: hand-eye coordination at multiple scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Huette

    Full Text Available Eyes move to gather visual information for the purpose of guiding behavior. This guidance takes the form of perceptual-motor interactions on short timescales for behaviors like locomotion and hand-eye coordination. More complex behaviors require perceptual-motor interactions on longer timescales mediated by memory, such as navigation, or designing and building artifacts. In the present study, the task of sketching images of natural scenes from memory was used to examine and compare perceptual-motor interactions on shorter and longer timescales. Eye and pen trajectories were found to be coordinated in time on shorter timescales during drawing, and also on longer timescales spanning study and drawing periods. The latter type of coordination was found by developing a purely spatial analysis that yielded measures of similarity between images, eye trajectories, and pen trajectories. These results challenge the notion that coordination only unfolds on short timescales. Rather, the task of drawing from memory evokes perceptual-motor encodings of visual images that preserve coarse-grained spatial information over relatively long timescales as well.

  12. Drawing from Memory: Hand-Eye Coordination at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes move to gather visual information for the purpose of guiding behavior. This guidance takes the form of perceptual-motor interactions on short timescales for behaviors like locomotion and hand-eye coordination. More complex behaviors require perceptual-motor interactions on longer timescales mediated by memory, such as navigation, or designing and building artifacts. In the present study, the task of sketching images of natural scenes from memory was used to examine and compare perceptual-motor interactions on shorter and longer timescales. Eye and pen trajectories were found to be coordinated in time on shorter timescales during drawing, and also on longer timescales spanning study and drawing periods. The latter type of coordination was found by developing a purely spatial analysis that yielded measures of similarity between images, eye trajectories, and pen trajectories. These results challenge the notion that coordination only unfolds on short timescales. Rather, the task of drawing from memory evokes perceptual-motor encodings of visual images that preserve coarse-grained spatial information over relatively long timescales as well. PMID:23554894

  13. Drawing from memory: hand-eye coordination at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huette, Stephanie; Kello, Christopher T; Rhodes, Theo; Spivey, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Eyes move to gather visual information for the purpose of guiding behavior. This guidance takes the form of perceptual-motor interactions on short timescales for behaviors like locomotion and hand-eye coordination. More complex behaviors require perceptual-motor interactions on longer timescales mediated by memory, such as navigation, or designing and building artifacts. In the present study, the task of sketching images of natural scenes from memory was used to examine and compare perceptual-motor interactions on shorter and longer timescales. Eye and pen trajectories were found to be coordinated in time on shorter timescales during drawing, and also on longer timescales spanning study and drawing periods. The latter type of coordination was found by developing a purely spatial analysis that yielded measures of similarity between images, eye trajectories, and pen trajectories. These results challenge the notion that coordination only unfolds on short timescales. Rather, the task of drawing from memory evokes perceptual-motor encodings of visual images that preserve coarse-grained spatial information over relatively long timescales as well. PMID:23554894

  14. Daytime sleep enhances consolidation of the spatial but not motoric representation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available Motor sequence learning is known to rely on more than a single process. As the skill develops with practice, two different representations of the sequence are formed: a goal representation built under spatial allocentric coordinates and a movement representation mediated through egocentric motor coordinates. This study aimed to explore the influence of daytime sleep (nap on consolidation of these two representations. Through the manipulation of an explicit finger sequence learning task and a transfer protocol, we show that both allocentric (spatial and egocentric (motor representations of the sequence can be isolated after initial training. Our results also demonstrate that nap favors the emergence of offline gains in performance for the allocentric, but not the egocentric representation, even after accounting for fatigue effects. Furthermore, sleep-dependent gains in performance observed for the allocentric representation are correlated with spindle density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep of the post-training nap. In contrast, performance on the egocentric representation is only maintained, but not improved, regardless of the sleep/wake condition. These results suggest that motor sequence memory acquisition and consolidation involve distinct mechanisms that rely on sleep (and specifically, spindle or simple passage of time, depending respectively on whether the sequence is performed under allocentric or egocentric coordinates.

  15. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  16. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  17. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  18. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...

  19. Engineering the Processive Run Length of the Kinesin Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Thorn, Kurt S.; Ubersax, Jeffrey A.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional kinesin is a highly processive molecular motor that takes several hundred steps per encounter with a microtubule. Processive motility is believed to result from the coordinated, hand-over-hand motion of the two heads of the kinesin dimer, but the specific factors that determine kinesin's run length (distance traveled per microtubule encounter) are not known. Here, we show that the neck coiled-coil, a structure adjacent to the motor domain, plays an important role in governing the...

  20. Induction Motor Control through AC/DC/AC Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Elfadili, Abderrahim; Giri, Fouad; Ouadi, Hamid; El Magri, Abdelmounime; Dugard, Luc; Abouloifa, Abdelmajid

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling inductions motors driven through AC/DC rectifiers and DC/AC inverters. The control objectives are threefold: (i) forcing the motor speed to track a reference signal, (ii) regulating the DC Link voltage, (iii) assuring a satisfactory power factor correction (PFC) with respect to the power supply net. First, a nonlinear model of the whole controlled system is developed in the Park-coordinates. Then, a nonlinear multi-loop controller is synthesized using th...

  1. Poor Motor Skills: A Risk Marker for Bully Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B

    2013-01-01

    Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood,...

  2. On Reaction Coordinate Optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    The following question is addressed: how to establish that a constructed reaction coordinate is optimal, i.e., that it provides an accurate description of dynamics. It is shown that the reaction coordinate is optimal if its cut free energy profile, determined using length-weighted transitions, is constant, i.e., it is position and sampling interval independent. The observation leads to a number of interesting results. In particular, the equilibrium flux between two boundary states can be computed exactly as diffusion on a free energy profile associated with the coordinate. The mean square displacement, for the trajectory projected onto the coordinate, grows linear with time. That for the same trajectory projected onto a suboptimal coordinate grows slower than linear with time. The results are illustrated on a number of model systems, Sierpinski gasket, FIP35 protein, and beta3s peptide. PMID:26589017

  3. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  4. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  5. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation does not improve visuo-motor impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Israeli-Korn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS affects visuo-motor coordination (VMC in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. BACKGROUND: VMC involves multi-sensory integration, motor planning, executive function and attention. VMC deficits are well-described in PD. STN-DBS conveys marked motor benefit in PD, but pyscho-cognitive complications are recognized and the effect on VMC is not known. METHODS: Thirteen PD patients with bilateral STN-DBS underwent neurological, cognitive, and mood assessment before VMC testing with optimal DBS stimulation parameters ('on-stimulation' and then, on the same day without any medication changes, after DBS silencing and establishing motor function deterioration ('off-stimulation'. Twelve age-matched healthy controls performed 2 successive VMC testing sessions, with a break of similar duration to that of the PD group. The computer cursor was controlled with a dome-shaped 'mouse' hidden from view that minimized tremor effects. Movement duration, hand velocity, tracking continuity, directional control variables, and feedback utilization variables were measured. MANOVA was performed on (1 clinically measured motor function, (2 VMC performance and (3 mood and attention, looking for main and interaction effects of: (1 group (controls/PD, (2 test-order (controls: first/second, PD: on-stimulation/off-stimulation, (3 path (sine/square/circle and (4 hand (dominant/non-dominant. RESULTS: Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS Part III worsened off-stimulation versus on-stimulation (mean: 42.3 versus 21.6, p = 0.02, as did finger tapping (p = 0.02, posture-gait (p = 0.01, upper limb function (p<0.001 and backwards digit span (p = 0.02. Stimulation state did not affect mood. PD patients performed worse in non-velocity related VMC variables than controls (F(5,18 = 8.5, p<0.001. In the control group there were significant main effects of hand (dominant/non-dominant, path

  6. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose; Roos, Michael M. W.

    2012-01-01

    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination on the e......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  7. Structural model of in-group dynamic of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko O.V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine structural model of in-group dynamic of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness. Material: in the research 6 years old boys (n=48, 7 years old (n=45, 8 years old (n=60, 9 years’ age (n=47 and10 years’ age (n=40 participated. We carried out analysis of factorial model of schoolchildren’s motor fitness. Results: we received information for taking decisions in monitoring of physical education. This information is also necessary for working out of effective programs of children’s and adolescents’ physical training. We determined model of motor fitness and specified informative tests for pedagogic control in every age group. In factorial model of boys’ motor fitness the following factor is the most significant: for 6 years - complex development of motor skills; for 7 years - also complex development of motor skills; for 8 years - strength and coordination; for 9 years - complex development of motor skills; for 10 years - complex development of motor skills. Conclusions: In factorial model of 6-10 years old boys’ motor fitness the most significant are backbone and shoulder joints’ mobility, complex manifestation of motor skills, motor coordination. The most informative tests for assessment of different age boys’ motor fitness have been determined.

  8. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  9. Functional Neuroimaging of Motor Control inParkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Eickhoff, Simon B; Løkkegaard, Annemette;

    2014-01-01

    denervation affects neural processing in the denervated striatal motor territory. In contrast, fronto-parietal motor areas display both increases as well as decreases in movement related activation. This points to a more complex relationship between altered cortical physiology and nigrostriatal dopaminergic...... and yielded consistent alterations in neural activity in patients with PD. Differences in cortical activation between PD patients and healthy controls converged in a left-lateralized fronto-parietal network comprising the presupplementary motor area, primary motor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and...... posterior motor putamen, which improved with dopaminergic medication. The likelihood of detecting a decrease in putaminal activity increased with motor impairment. This reduced motor activation of the posterior putamen across previous neuroimaging studies indicates that nigrostriatal dopaminergic...

  10. Molecular Motor Proteins and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Farg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the brain, brainstem and spinal cord, which is characterized by motor dysfunction, muscle dystrophy and progressive paralysis. Both inherited and sporadic forms of ALS share common pathological features, however, the initial trigger of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Motor neurons are uniquely targeted by ubiquitously expressed proteins in ALS but the reason for this selectively vulnerability is unclear. However motor neurons have unique characteristics such as very long axons, large cell bodies and high energetic metabolism, therefore placing high demands on cellular transport processes. Defects in cellular trafficking are now widely reported in ALS, including dysfunction to the molecular motors dynein and kinesin. Abnormalities to dynein in particular are linked to ALS, and defects in dynein-mediated axonal transport processes have been reported as one of the earliest pathologies in transgenic SOD1 mice. Furthermore, dynein is very highly expressed in neurons and neurons are particularly sensitive to dynein dysfunction. Hence, unravelling cellular transport processes mediated by molecular motor proteins may help shed light on motor neuron loss in ALS.

  11. Lower motor neuron dysfunction in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Swash, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In the motor system there is a complex interplay between cortical structures and spinal cord lower motor neurons (LMN). In this system both inhibitory and excitatory neurons have relevant roles. LMN loss is a marker of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS). Conventional needle electromyography (EMG) does not allow LMN loss to be quantified. Measurement of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude or area, and the neurophysiological index, provide a surrogate estimate of the number of functional motor units. Increased motor neuronal excitability is a neurophysiological marker of ALS in the context of a suspected clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis. In the LMN system, fasciculation potentials (FPs) are the earliest changes observed in affected muscles, a feature of LMN hyperexcitability. Reinnervation is best investigated by needle EMG although other methods can be explored. Moreover needle EMG give information about the temporal profile of the reinnervation process, important ancillary data. Quantitative motor unit potential analysis is a valuable method of evaluating reinnervation. The importance of FPs has been recognized in the Awaji criteria for the electrodiagnosis of ALS, criteria that are a sensitive adjunct to the revised El Escorial criteria. Finally, functionality of LMN's, and perhaps excitability studies in motor nerves, aids understanding of the disease process, allowing measurement of potential treatment effects in clinical trials. Other investigational techniques, such as electrical impedance myography, muscle and nerve ultrasound, and spinal cord imaging methods may prove useful in future. PMID:27117334

  12. Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, W

    2008-04-01

    Although still considered a paradigmatic movement disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a broad spectrum of non-motor symptoms. These include disorders of mood and affect with apathy, anhedonia and depression, cognitive dysfunction and hallucinosis, as well as complex behavioural disorders. Sensory dysfunction with hyposmia or pain is almost universal, as are disturbances of sleep-wake cycle regulation. Autonomic dysfunction including orthostatic hypotension, urogenital dysfunction and constipation is also present to some degree in a majority of patients. Whilst overall non-motor symptoms become increasingly prevalent with advancing disease, many of them can also antedate the first occurrence of motor signs - most notably depression, hyposmia or rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). Although exact clinicopathological correlations for most of these non-motor features are still poorly understood, the occurrence of constipation, RBD or hyposmia prior to the onset of clinically overt motor dysfunction would appear consistent with the ascending hypothesis of PD pathology proposed by Braak and colleagues. Screening these early non-motor features might, therefore, be one approach towards early 'preclinical' diagnosis of PD. This review article provides an overview of the clinical spectrum of non-motor symptoms in PD together with a brief review of treatment options. PMID:18353132

  13. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Reported Enjoyment of Physical Education in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Mandigo, James; Wade, Terrance; Faught, Brent E.; Flouris, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are less likely to enjoy participating in physical education (PE) than children without motor coordination difficulties. However, no studies have attempted to quantify this relationship or examine potentially modifiable mediating variables. Using a large sample (N = 590) of children (aged 9…

  14. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. PMID:26991728

  15. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  16. Geometric Form Drawing: A Perceptual-Motor Approach to Preventive Remediation (The Steiner Approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    1975-01-01

    Provided is a rationale for geometric form drawing developed by Rudolf Steiner as a tool to develop motor coordination, perceptual skills, and cognition for mentally retarded and perceptually handicapped children. (Author/CL)

  17. Motor Development and Motor Resonance Difficulties in Autism: Relevance to Early Intervention for Language and Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Mccleery

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural mirroring mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  18. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  19. Asynchronous Torque Characteristics of VR Type Vernier Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoshitaro; Xu, Li; Anazawa, Yoshihisa

    Recently, various types of vernier motor are developed. The VR type vernier motor is a kind of three-phase reluctance motor, and its stator has slots and distributed three-phase windings. The rotor is slotted iron core without windings. Relationship between S, R and P is S = R±2, where S and R are the numbers of stator and rotor slots per pair of poles, and the number of poles P is two. The rotor of the vernier motor moves at a sub-multiple of the angular velocity of the stator mmf. The multiplying factor is P/R. Authors had reported that the VR type vernier motors are analyzed as a three-phase reluctance motor, and have obtained the voltage equations on the γ-δ axis and expression of the torque.However, the asynchronous characteristics of the vernier motor are not clear yet. In this paper, the asynchronous characteristics of the vernier motors are analyzed with the symmetric components transformation and the commutator transformation. The voltage equations on the symmetrical co-ordinates and asynchronous and synchronous torque expression at steady state condition are obtained. The tests were performed on the trial motor. The calculated asynchronous torque has agreed well with the measured values.

  20. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bestaven, Emma; Kambrun, Charline; Guehl, Dominique; Cazalets, Jean-René; Guillaud, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. M...

  1. Albinism: Particular Attention to the Ocular Motor System

    OpenAIRE

    Richard W Hertle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to v...

  2. DC Brushless Motor Control Design and Preliminary Testing for Independent 4-Wheel Drive Rev-11 Robotic Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Permana Saputra; Rizqi Andry Ardiansyah; Midriem Mirdanies; Arif Santoso; Aditya Sukma Nugraha; Anwar Muqorobin; Hendri Maja Saputra; Vita Susanti; Estiko Rijanto

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of control system for brushless DC motor using microcontroller ATMega 16 that will be applied to an independent 4-wheel drive Mobile Robot LIPI version 2 (REV-11). The control system consists of two parts which are brushless DC motor control module and supervisory control module that coordinates the desired command to the motor control module. To control the REV-11 platform, supervisory control transmit the reference data of speed and direction of motor to cont...

  3. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Anneke; Sagvolden Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  4. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  5. Movement and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Movement and Coordination Page Content Article Body At this age, your child will seem to be continually on the go— ...

  6. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from...... measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice, on...... our research group which aim at elucidating how different types of training (and disuse) may be accompanied by changes in behaviour as well as cortical representational maps and excitability, corticospinal drive and corticomuscular coherence, spinal reflex parameters etc....

  7. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  8. Coordination and Policy Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletos, George-Marios; Hellwig, Christian; Pavan, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of a policy maker to control equilibrium outcomes in an environment where market participants play a coordination game with information heterogeneity. We consider defense policies against speculative currency attacks in a model where speculators observe the fundamentals with idiosyncratic noise. The policy maker is willing to take a costly policy action only for moderate fundamentals. Market participants can use this information to coordinate on di.erent respon...

  9. Attribute coordination in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Chenggang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We study coordination in organizations with a variety of organizational forms. Coordination in organization is modeled as the adjustment of attributes and capacities of tasks when facing external shocks. An M-form (U-form) organization groups complementary (substitutable) tasks together in one unit. In the presence of only attribute shocks, particularly when gains from specialization are small, communication is poor, or shocks are more likely, the expected payoff of the decentralized M-form i...

  10. Motor Axon Pathfinding

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanomi, Dario; Pfaff, Samuel L

    2010-01-01

    Motor neurons are functionally related, but represent a diverse collection of cells that show strict preferences for specific axon pathways during embryonic development. In this article, we describe the ligands and receptors that guide motor axons as they extend toward their peripheral muscle targets. Motor neurons share similar guidance molecules with many other neuronal types, thus one challenge in the field of axon guidance has been to understand how the vast complexity of brain connection...

  11. Motor and Visuospatial Attention and Motor Planning After Stroke: Considerations for the Rehabilitation of Standing Balance and Gait

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Sue; Handy, Todd C.; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A.; Garland, S. Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Attention and planning can be altered by stroke, which can influence motor performance. Although the influence of these factors on recovery from stroke has been explored for the upper extremity (UE), their impact on balance and gait are unknown. This perspective article presents evidence that altered motor and visuospatial attention influence motor planning of voluntary goal-directed movements poststroke, potentially affecting balance and gait. Additionally, specific strategies for rehabilita...

  12. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  13. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  14. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast’s Talent Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr.) and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years), competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz’s battery (1985), and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p < 0.01) and ranking (p < 0.05) of elite cadet athletes. Precision, in skill acquisition test results, was positively and significantly associated with scores in 2013 (adj. R2 = 0.26, p < 0.01). Gymnasts with the best results in coordination and motor learning tests went on to achieve better competition results in three- year time. Key points In talent identification and selection procedures it is better to include the evaluation of coordination and motor learning ability. Motor learning assessment concerns performance improvement and the ability to develop it, rather than evaluating the athlete’s current performance. In this manner talent identification processes should be focused on the future performance capabilities of athletes. PMID:25435768

  15. Spike-field activity in parietal area LIP during coordinated reach and saccade movements

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Maureen A.; Dean, Heather L.; Pesaran, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex is situated between visual and motor areas and supports coordinated visually guided behavior. Area LIP in the intraparietal sulcus contains representations of visual space and has been extensively studied in the context of saccades. However, area LIP has not been studied during coordinated movements, so it is not known whether saccadic representations in area LIP are influenced by coordinated behavior. Here, we studied spiking and local field potential (LFP) acti...

  16. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  17. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  18. Are my motors oversized?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-phase induction motors accounts with an important share of the electricity consumption in industrialized countries. Therefore, the misapplication of such machines conducts to efficiency reduction and large amounts of energy waste. Motor oversize is one of the most frequently misapplication encountered and difficult to be fixed. The paper presents a road map to evaluate whether a direct line fed three-phase induction motor is oversized, considering not only its steady loading, but also its dynamic behavior. In addition, case studies are presented and some solutions to increase the energy efficiency of the whole motor-load system are proposed.

  19. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-05-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  20. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horsepower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability

  1. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that...

  2. Human growth, biological maturation, motor performance and contextual factors in Madeira children

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, António Manuel Marques

    2014-01-01

    The central aims of this study were: (1) to construct age- and gender-specific percentiles for motor coordination (MC), (2) to analyze the change, stability, and prediction of MC, (3) to investigate the relationship between motor performance and body fatness, and (4) to evaluate the relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills (FMS) and MC. The data collected was from the ‘Healthy Growth of Madeira Children Study’ and from the ‘Madeira Child Growth Study’. In thes...

  3. Robust control of synchronous motors through AC/DC/AC converters

    OpenAIRE

    El Magri, Abdelmounime; Giri, Fouad; Abouloifa, Abdelmajid; Chaoui, Fatima Zara

    2010-01-01

    The problem of controlling synchronous motors, driven through AC/DC rectifiers and DC/AC inverters is addressed. The control objectives are three fold: (i) forcing the motor speed to track a varying reference signal in presence of motor parameter uncertainties;(ii) regulating the DC Link voltage; (iii )assuring a satisfactory power factor correction (PFC) with respect to the power supply net .First, a nonlinear model of the whole controlled system is developed in the Park-coordinates. Then, a...

  4. Deliberate Play and Preparation Jointly Benefit Motor and Cognitive Development: Mediated and Moderated Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, ...

  5. Coordination under the Shadow of Career Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht

    To innovate, firms require their employees to develop novel ideas and to coordinate with each other to turn these ideas into products, services or business strategies. Because the quality of implemented designs that employees are associated with affects their labor market opportunities, career co...

  6. Motor Learning as Young Gymnast’s Talent Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra di Cagno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification plans are designed to select young athletes with the ability to achieve future success in sports. The aim of the study was to verify the predictive value of coordination and precision in skill acquisition during motor learning, as indicators of talent. One hundred gymnasts, both cadets (aged 11.5 ± 0.5 yr. and juniors (aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years, competing at the national level, were enrolled in the study. The assessment of motor coordination involved three tests of the validated Hirtz’s battery (1985, and motor skill learning involved four technical tests, specific of rhythmic gymnastics. All the tests were correlated with ranking and performance scores reached by each gymnast in the 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Championships. Coordination tests were significantly correlated to 2013 Championships scores (p < 0.01 and ranking (p < 0.05 of elite cadet athletes. Precision, in skill acquisition test results, was positively and significantly associated with scores in 2013 (adj. R2 = 0.26, p < 0.01. Gymnasts with the best results in coordination and motor learning tests went on to achieve better competition results in three- year time.

  7. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2013-01-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...

  8. MISR Motor Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the output for the Level 1A Motor data (Suggested Usage: MISR SCF processing needs the MISR motor data samples for the analysis of motor...

  9. Adaptive Vector Control of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Opeiko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of adaptive PID controller has been executed for flux linkage and speed channels of a vector control system for an induction short-circuited motor. While using an imitation simulation method results of a synthesized system analysis show that the adaptive PID controller has some advantages under conditions of parametric disturbances affecting the object.

  10. Organizing motor imageries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. PMID:26602980

  11. Generator Coordinate Truncations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, K; Reinhard, P G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of several schemes to calculate ground-state correlation energies using the generator coordinate technique. Our test-bed for the study is the $sd$ interacting boson model, equivalent to a 6-level Lipkin-type model. We find that the simplified projection of a triaxial generator coordinate state using the $S_3$ subgroup of the rotation group is not very accurate in the parameter space of the Hamiltonian of interest. On the other hand, a full rotational projection of an axial generator coordinate state gives remarkable accuracy. We also discuss the validity of the simplified treatment using the extended Gaussian overlap approximation (top-GOA), and show that it works reasonably well when the number of boson is four or larger.

  12. Reactor coolant pump testing using motor current signatures analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, N.; Bellamy, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes reactor coolant pump motor testing carried out at Florida Power Corporation`s Crystal River plant using Framatome Technologies` new EMPATH (Electric Motor Performance Analysis and Trending Hardware) system. EMPATH{trademark} uses an improved form of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, for detecting deterioration in the rotors of AC induction motors. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) is a monitoring tool for motor driven equipment that provides a non-intrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment. The base technology was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the affects of aging and service wear specifically on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant safety systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of electric machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. The motor current variations, resulting from changes in load caused by gears, pulleys, friction, bearings, and other conditions that may change over the life of the motor, are carried by the electrical cables powering the motor and are extracted at any convenient location along the motor lead. These variations modulate the 60 Hz carrier frequency and appear as sidebands in the spectral plot.

  13. Assessment of developmental coordination disorder in children born with extremely low birth weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Deborah; Creighton, Dianne E; Heath, Jennifer A; Wilson, Brenda N; Anseeuw-Deeks, Debbie; Crawford, Susan G; Sauve, Reg

    2011-01-01

    There is no tool that is considered the "gold" standard for identifying children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and various techniques have been reported in the research literature. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of DCD in a cohort of extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight ≤ 1,000g) children at age 5 years using various methods including standardized motor assessment measures, an established clinic protocol, and a parent report. We also examined the association between selected neonatal risk factors and severity of the motor impairment. Four methods were used to assess motor functioning: (1) the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC); (2) a motor assessment battery, which included the Movement ABC, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2; (3) a Perinatal Follow-up Clinic protocol, which included the Geometric Design and the Mazes subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Fine and Gross Motor subscales of the Child Development Inventory, and a pediatric neuromotor exam; and (4) a parent completed questionnaire (i.e., Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)). The prevalence of motor impairment in ELBW children was 64% on the Movement ABC, 67% on the motor assessment battery, 66% on the Perinatal Follow-up Clinic protocol, and 26% on the DCDQ. Sensitivity ranged from 36% to 100% and specificity from 65% to 92% using the Movement ABC as the reference standard. Neonatal risk factors associated with increased severity of motor impairment were bronchopulmonary dysplasia, postnatal steroids, and increasing gestational age. Children with birth weights ≤ 1,000 g are at considerable risk for motor impairment; therefore, developmental evaluations should include an assessment of motor functions. A standardized motor assessment test such as the Movement ABC appears to be the most

  14. Age-dependent motor unit remodelling in human limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Mathew; Ireland, Alex; Jones, David A; McPhee, Jamie S

    2016-06-01

    Voluntary control of skeletal muscle enables humans to interact with and manipulate the environment. Lower muscle mass, weakness and poor coordination are common complaints in older age and reduce physical capabilities. Attention has focused on ways of maintaining muscle size and strength by exercise, diet or hormone replacement. Without appropriate neural innervation, however, muscle cannot function. Emerging evidence points to a neural basis of muscle loss. Motor unit number estimates indicate that by age around 71 years, healthy older people have around 40 % fewer motor units. The surviving low- and moderate-threshold motor units recruited for moderate intensity contractions are enlarged by around 50 % and show increased fibre density, presumably due to collateral reinnervation of denervated fibres. Motor unit potentials show increased complexity and the stability of neuromuscular junction transmissions is decreased. The available evidence is limited by a lack of longitudinal studies, relatively small sample sizes, a tendency to examine the small peripheral muscles and relatively few investigations into the consequences of motor unit remodelling for muscle size and control of movements in older age. Loss of motor neurons and remodelling of surviving motor units constitutes the major change in ageing muscles and probably contributes to muscle loss and functional impairments. The deterioration and remodelling of motor units likely imposes constraints on the way in which the central nervous system controls movements. PMID:26667009

  15. Coordination and citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D J

    1980-03-01

    This study investigates the validity of the assumption that coordination and citizen participation are related inversely and, thus, are incompatible as features in the same social service reform strategy. Seventeen social service organizations situated in the same urban area were studied. Data were obtained by structured interview. The concepts of coordination and citizen participation were operationalized by means of scales. The findings support the validity of the assumption noted above. Although interpretations of the findings can be provided, they are post-factum. This implies a need for explanatory research which might be guided by theories of community power structure and of organizational behavior. PMID:10246483

  16. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  17. The bipolar assembly domain of the mitotic motor kinesin-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Seyda; Carlson, David B; Budamagunta, Madhu S; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Correia, John J; Niñonuevo, Milady R; Jia, Weitao; Tao, Li; Leary, Julie A; Voss, John C; Evans, James E; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    An outstanding unresolved question is how does the mitotic spindle utilize microtubules and mitotic motors to coordinate accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis? This process depends upon the mitotic motor, kinesin-5, whose unique bipolar architecture, with pairs of motor domains lying at opposite ends of a central rod, allows it to crosslink microtubules within the mitotic spindle and to coordinate their relative sliding during spindle assembly, maintenance and elongation. The structural basis of kinesin-5's bipolarity is, however, unknown, as protein asymmetry has so far precluded its crystallization. Here we use electron microscopy of single molecules of kinesin-5 and its subfragments, combined with hydrodynamic analysis plus mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and site-directed spin label electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, to show how a staggered antiparallel coiled-coil 'BASS' (bipolar assembly) domain directs the assembly of four kinesin-5 polypeptides into bipolar minifilaments. PMID:23299893

  18. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  19. The coordination dynamics of social neuromarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tognoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior is a complex integrative function that entails many aspects of the brain's sensory, cognitive, emotional and motor capacities. Its neural processes are seldom simultaneous but occur according to precise spatiotemporal choreographies, manifested by the coordination of their oscillations within and between brains. Methods with good temporal resolution can help to identify so-called "neuromarkers" of social function and aid in disentangling the dynamical architecture of social brains. In our ongoing research, we have used dual-EEG to study neuromarker dynamics during synchronic interactions in which pairs of subjects coordinate behavior spontaneously and intentionally (social coordination and during diachronic transactions that require subjects to perceive or behave in turn (action observation, delayed imitation. In this paper, after outlining our dynamical approach to the neurophysiological basis of social behavior, we examine commonalities and differences in the neuromarkers that are recruited for both kinds of tasks. We find the neuromarker landscape to be task-specific: synchronic paradigms of social coordination reveal medial mu, alpha and the phi complex as contributing neuromarkers. Diachronic tasks recruit alpha as well, in addition to lateral mu rhythms and the newly discovered nu and kappa rhythms whose functional significance is still unclear. Social coordination, observation, and delayed imitation share commonality of context: in each of our experiments, subjects exchanged information through visual perception and moved in similar ways. Nonetheless, there was little overlap between their neuromarkers, a result that hints strongly of task-specific neural mechanisms for social behavior. The only neuromarker that transcended both synchronic and diachronic social behaviors was the ubiquitous alpha rhythm, which appears to be a key signature of visually-mediated social behaviors. The present paper is both an entry point and a

  20. Motor Impairment in Sibling Pairs Concordant and Discordant for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia List; Zhang, Yi; Whilte, Megan R.; Klohr, Cheryl L.; Constantino, John

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although motor impairment is frequently observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the manner in which these impairments aggregate in families affected by autism is unknown. We used a standardized measure of motor proficiency to objectively examine quantitative variation in motor proficiency in sibling pairs concordant and…

  1. Effect of neuroleptic treatment on involuntary movements and motor performances in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Girotti, F.; Carella, F; Scigliano, G; Grassi, M P; Soliveri, P; Giovannini, P.; Parati, E.; Caraceni, T

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Huntington's chorea were examined before and after neuroleptic treatment (haloperidol, pimozide, tiapride) to study the effect of such treatment on hyperkinesia and motor performance. Pimozide and haloperidol improved hyperkinesia; none of the drugs significantly affected motor performance. No correlation was found between the severity of hyperkinesia and motor performance scores, or between hyperkinesia and intelligence score, before and after therapy.

  2. Psychosocial Modulators of Motor Learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemankova, Petra; Lungu, Ovidiu; Bares, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here, we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD. PMID:26973495

  3. Psychosocial modulators of motor learning in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eZemankova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD.

  4. Balanced and Coordinated Development of Chemistry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Tianping; Wang Fei; Ding Hong; Xing Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Balanced and coordinated development of Chemistry has narrow sense and generalized comprehension. The former only refers to the balanced layout and coordinated development among "every discipline and specialty in chemistry", and the latter taking the balanced layout of discipline as core and synthetically balancing the talent troop, the region distribution, the national strategy demand as well as the social affect and so on.

  5. Recursive Advice for Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terepeta, Michal Tomasz; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    Aspect-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that is often praised for the ability to create modular software and separate cross-cutting concerns. Recently aspects have been also considered in the context of coordination languages, offering similar advantages. However, introducing aspect...... systems. Even though primarily used for analysis of recursive programs, we are able to adapt them to fit this new context....

  6. Coordination of mobile labor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-46. ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * general equilibrium * global game s Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2008

  7. Facets of coordination chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwala, BV

    1993-01-01

    A concise account of coordination chemistry since its inception is given here together with some of the newer significant facets. This book covers a broad spectrum of various topics on Environment, Cyclic Voltammetry, Chromatography, Metal Complexes of biological interest, Alkoxides, NMR spectroscopy and others. These are useful to the scientific community engaged in the field of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry.

  8. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte­grating...

  9. The preferential nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole and the non-selective one N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester administered alone or jointly with L-DOPA differentially affect motor behavior and monoamine metabolism in sham-operated and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna; Konieczny, Jolanta; Lenda, Tomasz; Lorenc-Koci, Elżbieta

    2015-11-01

    Reciprocal interactions between nitrergic and dopaminergic systems play a key role in the control of motor behavior. In the present study, we performed a comparative analysis of motor behavior (locomotor activity, catalepsy, rotational behavior) and monoamine metabolism in the striatum and substantia nigra of unilaterally sham-operated and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats treated with the preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) or the non-selective one N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), alone or in combination with L-DOPA. Each NOS inhibitor given alone (50mg/kg) induced a distinct catalepsy 30 min after injection but only 7-NI impaired spontaneous locomotion after 10 min. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, chronic L-DOPA (25mg/kg) induced 2.5-h long contralateral rotations. 7-NI (30 and 50mg/kg) markedly reduced the intensity of L-DOPA-induced contralateral rotations while extending their duration until 4.5h whereas L-NAME (50 and 100mg/kg) only tended to attenuate their intensity without affecting the duration. 7-NI but not L-NAME significantly increased endogenous tissue DA levels in the nigrostriatal system of both sham-operated and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In L-DOPA-treated group, 7-NI significantly enhanced the L-DOPA-derived tissue DA content in this system and decreased the level of the intracellular DA metabolite DOPAC produced by monoamine oxidase (MAO). In contrast to 7-NI, L-NAME decreased markedly DA content and did not affect DOPAC level in the ipsilateral striatum. It means that the differences in 7-NI and L-NAME-mediated modulation of L-DOPA-induced behavioral and biochemical effects resulted not only from the inhibition of NOS activity but also from differences in their ability to inhibit MAO. PMID:26319690

  10. Selective effect of physical fatigue on motor imagery accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Di Rienzo

    Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to

  11. Association between fatigue and other motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solla, Paolo; Cannas, Antonino; Mulas, Cesare Salvatore; Perra, Silvia; Corona, Andrea; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Although fatigue is a common non-motor symptom in patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD), its association with motor and other non-motor symptoms is still largely unclear. We assessed fatigue in PD patients studying the possible association with motor and non-motor symptoms. Eighty-one PD patients were included in the study. The PD Fatigue Scale (PFS) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) scale were used to measure fatigue. Non-motor symptoms were assessed with the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS). Motor impairment was assessed using the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging and the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part-III and IV. Bivariate tests comparing all independent variables between patients with our without fatigue were used. Significant predictors of presence and severity of fatigue were determined with different models of logistic regression analyses. Fatigue severity was significantly higher in female patients. Bivariate test showed significant higher NMSS score in fatigued patients according to PFS (p < 0.00001) and FFS (p < 0.001), while HY was higher only in fatigued patients according to FSS (p < 0.022). Significant correlations between severity of fatigue and HY stage (p < 0.002) and UPDRS-III score (p < 0.001) were found, while, among specific non-motor symptoms, anhedonia presented with the most significant correlation (p < 0.003). Binary logistic regression confirmed NMSS as the main variable predicting presence of fatigue, while HY was significant as predicting variable only in the FSS model. Strongest non-motor symptoms predictors of severity were those included in Domain 3 (mood/anxiety) and Domain 2 (sleep disorders) of the NMSS. A significant increase in severity of fatigue related to the burden of non-motor symptoms (mainly affective and sleep disorders) was observed. Our findings indicate a moderate discrepancy in the ratings of the two fatigue scales, with PFS principally directed towards the burden of non-motor symptoms

  12. Pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl substances and offspring behaviour and motor development at age 5-9 years - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Obel, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances affect growth and neuro-behavioural outcomes. Human epidemiological studies are sparse. The aim was to investigate the association between pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS......) and offspring behaviour and motor development at 5-9 years of age. METHODS: Maternal sera from the INUENDO cohort (2002-2004) comprising 1,106 mother-child pairs from Greenland, Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Warsaw (Poland) were analysed for PFOS and PFOA, using liquid......-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry. Exposures were grouped into country specific as well as pooled tertiles as well as being used as continuous variables for statistical analyses. Child motor development and behaviour at follow-up (2010-2012) were measured by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ) and Strength and...

  13. ProC: Process Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck software Team

    2016-01-01

    ProC (short for Process Coordinator) is a versatile workflow engine that allows the user to build, run and manage workflows with just a few clicks. It automatically documents every processing step, making every modification to data reproducible. ProC provides a graphical user interface for constructing complex data processing workflows out of a given set of computer programs. The user can, for example, specify that only data products which are affected by a change in the input data are updated selectively, avoiding unnecessary computations. The ProC suite is flexible and satisfies basic needs of data processing centers that have to be able to restructure their data processing along with the development of a project.

  14. Social defeat leads to changes in the endocannabinoid system: An overexpression of calreticulin and motor impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Roig, J; Piscitelli, F; Gil, V; Del Río, J A; Moore, T P; Agbemenyah, H; Salinas-Riester, G; Pommerenke, C; Lorenzen, S; Beißbarth, T; Hoyer-Fender, S; Di Marzo, V; Havemann-Reinecke, U

    2016-04-15

    Prolonged and sustained stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis have adverse effects on numerous brain regions, including the cerebellum. Motor coordination and motor learning are essential for animal and require the regulation of cerebellar neurons. The G-protein-coupled cannabinoid CB1 receptor coordinates synaptic transmission throughout the CNS and is of highest abundance in the cerebellum. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-lasting effects of chronic psychosocial stress on motor coordination and motor learning, CB1 receptor expression, endogenous cannabinoid ligands and gene expression in the cerebellum. After chronic psychosocial stress, motor coordination and motor learning were impaired as indicated the righting reflex and the rota-rod. The amount of the endocannabinoid 2-AG increased while CB1 mRNA and protein expression were downregulated after chronic stress. Transcriptome analysis revealed 319 genes differentially expressed by chronic psychosocial stress in the cerebellum; mainly involved in synaptic transmission, transmission of nerve impulse, and cell-cell signaling. Calreticulin was validated as a stress candidate gene. The present study provides evidence that chronic stress activates calreticulin and might be one of the pathological mechanisms underlying the motor coordination and motor learning dysfunctions seen in social defeat mice. PMID:26815100

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF COORDINATION ABILITIES OF SPECIAL MEDICAL GROUPS STUDENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Dotsenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the problem of motor abilities development and health of students of special medical group in the process of physical education in technical universities. Determine the major factors, characteristics, and the relationship of physical development, physical fitness and coordination abilities of female students in special medical group. Establish regularities in precise movements mastering of different coordination structure and develop model characteristics of the relationship of coordination abilities and motor characteristics of students in special medical group. To substantiate and verify efficiency of coordination abilities development method of female students with regard to their functional status in the course of physical education in higher school. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological argument, characteristic of the experimental program in physical education teaching process of students in special medical group was shown. Findings. Research is to develop the training content in special medical groups with the use of coordinating elements and exercises to enhance the motor abilities of female students. Their influence on the level of physical development, functional training, as well as regularities in mastering and movement control of different coordinating structure at the female students of special medical group was studied. The comparative characteristic of female students athletic ability in the dynamics of the educational process, differentiated into groups according to nosology was presented. The criterion of spare capacities upgrade of the motor system in controlling the movements of different coordination structure was determined. Originality. The method of coordination abilities development of female students in special medical group, that aims on the formation and correction of motor control system of different coordination structure, a sense of body position and its individual parts in space, improving

  16. Mapping genetic influences on the corticospinal motor system in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheeran, B J; Ritter, C; Rothwell, J C;

    2009-01-01

    contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and variable number tandem repeats. In humans, the corticospinal motor system is essential to the acquisition of fine manual motor skills which require a finely tuned coordination of activity in distal forelimb muscles. Here we review recent brain mapping......It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic variations account for a certain amount of variance in the acquisition and maintenance of different skills. Until now, several levels of genetic influences were examined, ranging from global heritability estimates down to the analysis of the...... studies that have begun to explore the influence of functional genetic variation as well as mutations on function and structure of the human corticospinal motor system, and also the clinical implications of these studies. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor hand area revealed a...

  17. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  18. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  19. A Recommended New Approach on Motorization Ratio Calculations of Stepper Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Ruben; Blais, Thierry; Horth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Stepper motors are widely used on most spacecraft mechanisms requiring repeatable and reliable performance. The unique detent torque characteristics of these type of motors makes them behave differently when subjected to low duty cycle excitations where the applied driving pulses are only energized for a fraction of the pulse duration. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in discrete permanent magnet stepper motors used in the space industry. While the inherent high detent properties of discrete permanent magnets provide desirable unpowered holding performance characteristics, it results in unique behavior especially in low duty cycles. Notably, the running torque reduces quickly to the unpowered holding torque when the duty cycle is reduced. The space industry's accepted methodology of calculating the Motorization Ratio (or Torque Margin) is more applicable to systems where the power is continuously applied to the motor coils like brushless DC motors where the cogging torques are low enough not to affect the linear performance of the motors as a function of applied current. This paper summarizes the theoretical and experimental studies performed on a number of space qualified motors under different pulse rates and duty cycles. It is the intention of this paper to introduce a new approach to calculate the Motorization Ratios for discrete permanent magnet steppers under all full and partial duty cycle regimes. The recommended approach defines two distinct relationships to calculate the Motorization Ratio for 100 percent duty cycle and partial duty cycle, when the motor detent (unpowered holding torque) is the main contributor to holding position. These two computations reflect accurately the stepper motor physical behavior as a function of the command phase (ON versus OFF times of the pulses), pointing out how the torque contributors combine. Important points highlighted under this study are the torque margin computations, in particular for well characterized

  20. Cognitive-motor integration deficits in young adult athletes following concussion

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeffrey A.; Dalecki, Marc; Hughes, Cindy; MacPherson, Alison K.; Sergio, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to perform visually-guided motor tasks requires the transformation of visual information into programmed motor outputs. When the guiding visual information does not align spatially with the motor output, the brain processes rules to integrate the information for an appropriate motor response. Here, we look at how performance on such tasks is affected in young adult athletes with concussion history. Methods Participants displaced a cursor from a central to peripheral tar...

  1. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner Irene; Arrubla Jorge; Ehlen Corinna; Janouschek Hildegard; Nordt Carlos; Fimm Bruno; Schneider Frank; Shah N; Kawohl Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investi...

  2. Velocity Fluctuations in Kinesin-1 Gliding Motility Assays Originate in Motor Attachment Geometry Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacci, Henri; Idan, Ofer; Armstrong, Megan J; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Nitta, Takahiro; Hess, Henry

    2016-08-01

    Motor proteins such as myosin and kinesin play a major role in cellular cargo transport, muscle contraction, cell division, and engineered nanodevices. Quantifying the collective behavior of coupled motors is critical to our understanding of these systems. An excellent model system is the gliding motility assay, where hundreds of surface-adhered motors propel one cytoskeletal filament such as an actin filament or a microtubule. The filament motion can be observed using fluorescence microscopy, revealing fluctuations in gliding velocity. These velocity fluctuations have been previously quantified by a motional diffusion coefficient, which Sekimoto and Tawada explained as arising from the addition and removal of motors from the linear array of motors propelling the filament as it advances, assuming that different motors are not equally efficient in their force generation. A computational model of kinesin head diffusion and binding to the microtubule allowed us to quantify the heterogeneity of motor efficiency arising from the combination of anharmonic tail stiffness and varying attachment geometries assuming random motor locations on the surface and an absence of coordination between motors. Knowledge of the heterogeneity allows the calculation of the proportionality constant between the motional diffusion coefficient and the motor density. The calculated value (0.3) is within a standard error of our measurements of the motional diffusion coefficient on surfaces with varying motor densities calibrated by landing rate experiments. This allowed us to quantify the loss in efficiency of coupled molecular motors arising from heterogeneity in the attachment geometry. PMID:27414063

  3. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  4. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  5. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  6. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  7. Partial motor status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Rebello de Mattos; José C. Rollemberg Filho

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a young female patient with photosensitive primary epilepsy who presented partial motor status epilepticus provoked by the act of shutting the eyes. Clinical, EEG and neuroimage data are presented and discussed.

  8. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls) with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  9. Nonautistic Motor Stereotypies

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Clinical features and long-term outcomes of 100 children (62 boys and 35 girls) with motor stereotypies were evaluated by review of records and telephone interviews at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  10. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the...

  11. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Nordmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a systematic literature review (April 2014 of 29 studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies, the cerebellum (8 studies, or the temporal cortex (3 studies. One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus. Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls into question the practice of re-adjusting the stimulation intensity according to the motor threshold over the course of the

  12. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  13. Development of motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Schellekens, Johannes Maria Hubertus

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation. The aim of this thesis is to study the role and efficiency of motor control and anticipation processes in the development of children with and without disturbances in the motor system. Chapter I is a general introduction to the subjec...

  14. Motor neurone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, K.

    2002-01-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion ...

  15. Symmetric Brownian motor

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Marin, A.; Sancho, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a model of a symmetric Brownian motor (SBM) which changes the sign of its velocity when the temperature gradient is inverted. The velocity, external work and efficiency are studied as a function of the temperatures of the baths and other relevant parameters. The motor shows a current reversal when another parameter (a phase shift) is varied. Analytical predictions and results from numerical simulations are performed and agree very well. Generic properties of this type...

  16. Multifocal motor neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Thy P Nguyen; Vinay Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a unique disorder characterized by slowly progressive, asymmetric, distal and upper limb predominant weakness without significant sensory abnormalities. Electrophysiology is crucial to the diagnosis, revealing the hallmark partial conduction block. MMN is considered immune mediated due to the association with anti-GM1 antibodies and the response to immunomodulatory treatment. It is paramount to recognize MMN from other motor neuronopathies or peripheral ne...

  17. Starter Motor Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhardsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Starter motors are sensitive for overheating. By estimating the temperature and preventing cranking in time, there is an option to avoid the dangerous temperatures. The truck manufacturer Scania CV AB proposed a master thesis that should evaluate the need of an overheating protection for the starter motor. The aim is to evaluate any positive effects of implementing an algorithm that can estimate the brush temperature instead of using the available time constrain, which allows 35 seconds of cr...

  18. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 39 is July 08, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates....

  19. Contributions of intrinsic motor neuron properties to the production of rhythmic motor output in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O; Kjaerulff, O; Tresch, M C; Harris-Warrick, R M

    2000-01-01

    firing. Motor neurons were recorded intracellularly during locomotion induced with a mixture of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and serotonin, after pharmacological blockade of I(h). I(h) was then replaced by using dynamic clamp, a computer program that allows artificial conductances to be inserted into real...... neurons. I(h) was simulated with biophysical parameters determined in voltage clamp experiments. The data showed that electronic replacement of the native I(h) caused a depolarization of the average membrane potential, a phase-advance of the locomotor drive potential, and increased motor neuron spiking...... showing that the neonatal rat spinal cord can produce a stable motor rhythm in the absence of spike activity in premotor interneuronal networks. These coordinated motor neuron oscillations are dependent on NMDA-evoked pacemaker properties, which are synchronized across gap junctions. We discuss the...

  20. Affect of mood and cognitive function on motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction%情绪和认知功能对早期脑梗死患者运动功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱菊清; 冯子平; 杨旭东; 伯丹花; 陈世兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between motor dysfunction with cognitive function and mood among patients with a-cute cerebral infarction. Methods:Collected 78 cases patients with cerebral infarction, use upper limb function assessment table (DASH), 10m walking speed, Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Self -Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self -Rating Depression Scale ( SDS) to assess;comparison of patients with diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI) parameters:fractional anisotropy ( FA) values, and the ap-parent diffusion coefficient ( ADC) and FA index, ADC index, then correlation analysis and assessment of cognitive and emotional.Re-sults:DASH score and 10m walking speed had no correlation with MoCA, SAS, SDS scores (P>0.05);FA values in the ipsilateral and contralateral handers were negatively correlated (P<0.05) with SDS sorce.Conclusion:Cerebral infarction movement disorders might have no correlation with mood and cognitive function, while the infarct-induced defects in patients with neural networks should be associ-ated with emotions.%目的:研究脑梗死患者早期运动功能障碍与认知功能和情绪之间的关系。方法:收集自2011年5月~2014年5月于我院就诊的脑梗死患者78例,用上肢功能评定表( DASH)、10m步行速度、认知评估量表( MoCA)、焦虑自评量表( SAS)、抑郁自评量表( SDS)进行评定;比较患者弥散张量成像( DTI)相关参数:各向异性分数( FA)值、表观扩散系数( ADC)和FA指数、ADC指数,并与认知和情绪评估结果进行相关性分析。结果:DASH评分和10m步行速度与MoCA、SAS、SDS评分无相关性( P>0.05);患侧和健侧内囊后肢的FA值均与SDS评分呈负相关(P<0.05)。结论:脑梗死患者早期运动障碍与情绪和认知功能无相关性,而梗死灶所致的神经网络缺损则与情绪相关。

  1. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable ef...

  2. Principles of Coordination Polymerisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuran, Witold

    2001-11-01

    The first all-inclusive text covering coordination polymerisation, including important classes of non-hydrocarbon monomers. Charting the achievements and progress in the field, in terms of both basic and industrial research, this book offers a unified and complete overview of coordination polymerisation. Provides detailed description of the historical development of the subject Presents a unified view of catalysis, mechanisms, structures and utility Encourages learning through a step-by-step progression from basic to in-depth text Features end-of-chapter exercises to reinforce understanding Offers a full bibliography and comprehensive literature review Requisite reading for research students studying introductory and advanced courses in; polymer science, catalysis and polymerisation catalysis, and valuable reference for researchers and technicians in industry.

  3. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, Yu; Pirogov, S

    2007-01-01

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  4. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  5. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  6. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  7. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ian A; Ohayon, David; Li, Huiliang; de Faria, Joana Paes; Emery, Ben; Tohyama, Koujiro; Richardson, William D

    2014-10-17

    Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor learning. Consistent with this idea, we show that production of newly formed OLs is briefly accelerated in mice that learn a new skill (running on a "complex wheel" with irregularly spaced rungs). By genetically manipulating the transcription factor myelin regulatory factor in OL precursors, we blocked production of new OLs during adulthood without affecting preexisting OLs or myelin. This prevented the mice from mastering the complex wheel. Thus, generation of new OLs and myelin is important for learning motor skills. PMID:25324381

  8. Preclinical detection of motor and nonmotor manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrud, J W

    1991-08-01

    The advent of possible protective therapies for Parkinson's disease has created a need for methods of diagnosing the disease before the clinical features become fully evident. As a number of motor and nonmotor manifestations of the disease emerge months to years before a diagnosis can be made, a battery of clinical tests might be sufficient to identify individuals at an earlier stage than is currently possible using the standard history and physical examination. A list of questions regarding possible risk factors, specific symptoms, and observations of family members could be combined in a self-administered questionnaire that might identify individuals with a high probability of early, but otherwise undiagnosable, Parkinson's disease. Identification of subtle motor features is another possible screening method. For example, handwriting and speech are commonly affected prior to diagnosis; thus, automated analysis of these motor actions might also provide detection of incipient disease. PMID:1894144

  9. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C deficiency causes motor impairment and hypoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricia; Jacas, Jordi; Sahún, Ignasi; Muley, Helena; Ramírez, Sara; Puisac, Beatriz; Mezquita, Pau; Pié, Juan; Dierssen, Mara; Casals, Núria

    2013-11-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1c (CPT1C), a brain-specific protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons, is expressed in almost all brain regions, but its only known functions to date are involved in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis and in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. To identify other physiological and behavioral functions of this protein, we performed a battery of neurological tests on Cpt1c-deficient mice. The animals showed intact autonomic and sensory systems, but some motor disturbances were observed. A more detailed study of motor function revealed impaired coordination and gait, severe muscle weakness, and reduced daily locomotor activity. Analysis of motor function in these mice at ages of 6-24 weeks showed that motor disorders were already present in young animals and that impairment increased progressively with age. Analysis of CPT1C expression in different motor brain areas during development revealed that CPT1C levels were low from birth to postnatal day 10 and then rapidly increased peaking at postnatal day 21, which suggests that CPT1C plays a relevant role in motor function during and after weaning. As CPT1C is known to regulate ceramide levels, we measured these biolipids in different motor areas in adult mice. Cerebellar, striatum, and motor cortex extracts from Cpt1c knockout mice showed reduced levels of ceramide and its derivative sphingosine when compared to wild-type animals. Our results indicate that altered ceramide metabolism in motor brain areas induced by Cpt1c deficiency causes progressive motor dysfunction from a young age. PMID:23973755

  10. Communication and interference coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco-Serrano, Ricardo; Thobaben, Ragnar; Skoglund, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of controlling the interference created to an external observer by a communication processes. We model the interference in terms of its type (empirical distribution), and we analyze the consequences of placing constraints on the admissible type. Considering a single interfering link, we characterize the communication-interference capacity region. Then, we look at a scenario where the interference is jointly created by two users allowed to coordinate their actions prior to...

  11. Advertising and Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    We show that when relevant market information such as price is difficult to communicate, advertising plays a key role in bringing about optimal coordination of purchase behavior: an efficient firm uses advertising expenditures in place of price to inform sophisticated consumers that it offers a better deal. This provides a theoretical explanation for Benham's (1972) empirical association of the ability to advertise with lower prices and larger scale. We find that advertising improves welfare ...

  12. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Sharma; M M Nayak; N S Dinesh

    2008-10-01

    Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or in servo mode of operation. Each phase of the motor consists of an SMA wire with a spring in series. The principle of operation of the poly phase motor is presented. The motor resembles a stepper motor in its functioning though the actuation principles are different and hence has been characterized similar to a stepper motor. The motor can be actuated in either direction with different phase sequencing methods, which are presented in this work. The motor is modelled and simulated and the results of simulations and experiments are presented. The experimental model of the motor is of dimension 150 mm square, 20 mm thick and uses SMA wire of 0·4 mm diameter and 125 mm of length in each phase.

  13. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  14. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  15. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  16. Rationales for improving motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelsheim, H

    1999-12-01

    New findings in basic neuroscience, and the growing knowledge regarding neuroplasticity and motor learning have exerted influence and have provided stimuli for motor rehabilitation research. Repeated motor practice has been identified as crucial for motor recovery. Further novel and scientifically based therapeutic approaches have been developed: constraint-induced movement therapy, electromyogram-initiated neuromuscular stimulation, motor imagery and music therapy are all discussed in the present review. PMID:10676751

  17. SIMULATING THE SUPPLY DISRUPTION FOR THE COORDINATED SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are many disruptive accidents in the supply chain operations system and achieving the coordination of supply chain is main objective for supply chain research. While disruptive accidents have increasingly influenced the coordinated operation of the supply chain, existing research literature on the supply chain coordination is setting in a stationary environment. The answer for how the disruptive accidents affect the coordinated supply chain is given in this paper. Based on the benchmark supply chain which is coordinated by the negative incentive mechanism, we study the impacts of supply disruption on the supply chain system by using simulation approach in which two different distribution function of random variable are used to express the supply disruption. Comparison between these two simulation results and possible coordination mechanism under the supply disruption are proposed. From the perspective of supply chain risk management, we provide the inspiration for the manager.

  18. Characterization of pen-tip coordinates and velocity using electromyographic signals of the forearm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès CHIHI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting is considered as one of the most delicate and complex human activities. This habit requires a certain level of evolution of the language, the control of the graphic space and a certain degree of affective and praxis development. The production of a meaningful and readable writing involves a variety of motor commands generated by the brain and sent to the muscles to define, with an extreme precision, the motion of each joint at a given time. In this paper, two models characterizing the handwriting process are proposed. Using the activities of the forearm muscles, called the ElectroMyoGraphic signals (EMG, the first model is based on the coordinates of the pen-tip moving on (x,y plan and the second model is defined from the velocity of the pen-tip. The parameters' estimation of both models is determined from the Recursive Least Square algorithm (RLS. The comparison of responses of two proposed structures shows the interest of the velocity to model the complex biological process. Indeed, the model based on the velocity shows best results then the model bases on the coordinates of the pen-tip.

  19. Interference of psychomotor and spatio-temporal parameters on the efficiency of motor actions involved in the eastern species physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify interferences psychomotor abilities for consistency in the management of spatio-temporal parameters of procedural and final precision in the movements with complex motor structure. Material : the study involved 30 people occupying the eastern species physical culture (Wushu Qigong and Tai Chi Chuan. Results : It was found that the identified trusted connection as positive (n = 59, r = 0.63 to 0.92 and negative (n = 21, r = from -0.63 to -0.89 confirm the influence of particular classes in the eastern system ability to coordinated control movements of different coordination complexity. Conclusions : the ability to control the internal forces, the ability to focus, alertness and mind control depend on three complementary levels - substance "Jing", "Qi" and "Shen", which directly affect the state of psychomotor sphere and target accuracy of spatio-temporal motion parameters.

  20. Coordinating International Response to Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandemic disease, natural disasters and terrorism can affect thousands of people in a relatively short period of time anywhere in the world. Our recent international experience with hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and infectious diseases (AIDS, TB and highly pathogenic avian influenza) show us that we must respond with a coordinated approach or we will fail the very people we intend to help. Nations from around the world are often eager to send assistance to the site of a disaster, but coordinating the incoming aid is more often flawed and imprecise than it must be in order to save lives and mitigate suffering. How can any one country, suffering from a horrendous calamity coordinate the incoming aid from around the world? Can any one agency hope to coordinate the myriad nation's response let alone that of the hundreds of non-governmental organizations? Currently, the answer is sadly, no. The purpose of this presentation is not to recommend one over the many international bodies which claim to oversee humanitarian assistance; the purpose of this presentation is to discuss the elements of only one aspect of the overall response effort: public health and medical response coordination. Public health response is of course different than a purely medical response. Traditionally, in a natural disaster, immediate public health concerns center around water, sewerage/waste disposal, potential for disease outbreaks, etc, whereas medical response concentrates on triage, saving those who can be saved, patching up the injured, and to a lesser extent, primary care to the survivors. In order to avoid political controversy, this presentation will use the example of Hurricane Iniki in Hawaii, September 1992, to illustrate key concepts. The State of Hawaii is no stranger to natural disasters. Their emergency response mechanisms are well honed, exercised and quite capable. However, the local community leaders on Kauai Island went thru each of the following phases before they

  1. Motor of Lift RSG-GAS Performance Analysis after Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The out of order an equipment is ordinary natural process happened, above all the equipment be used continually with very old time, as for as out of order can be resulted from kinds of cause. Lift motor out of order can be result by motor is broken or happened the body shorten then affected do not function it the lift, so until done rewinding process. The rewinding is furl to repeat at motor coils. Motor of Lift represent main activator machine turning around shares pulley. Lift Motor will work if there is called in normal operation condition or the moment manual switch if done maintenance. Motor used at lift is motor three phases with two speeds that is low speed and high speed. Rewinding process must be done removed the motor from Lift machine and have to be done by professional workshop. In during function test take place, temperature at coil reach 70oC (exceeding boundary permitted). After done installation addition thermal at motor coil hence his temperature become normal that is only reach 50 oC. (author)

  2. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry's large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs

  3. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  4. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eAlesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.

  5. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  6. Why Bother About Clumsiness? The Implications of Having Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Gillberg; Björn Kadesjö

    2003-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor problem affecting—even in rather severe form—several percent of school age children. In the past, DCD has usually been called ‘clumsy child syndrome’ or ‘non-cerebralpalsy motor-perception dysfunction’. This disorder is more common in boys than in girls and is very often associated with psychopathology, particularly with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders/ autistic-type problems. Conversely,...

  7. Communication, leadership and coordination failure

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Lu; Montero, Maria; Possajennikov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Using experimental methods, this paper investigates the limits of communication and leadership in aiding group coordination in a minimum effort game. Choosing the highest effort is the payoff dominant Nash equilibrium in this game, and communication and leadership are expected to help in coordinating on such an equilibrium. We consider an environment in which the benefits of coordination are low compared to the cost of mis-coordination. In this environment, players converge to the most ineffi...

  8. Communication, Leadership and Coordination Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Dong; Maria Montero; Alex Possajennikov

    2015-01-01

    Using experimental methods, this paper investigates the limits of communication and leadership in aiding group coordination in a minimum effort game. Choosing the highest effort is the payoff dominant Nash equilibrium in this game, and communication and leadership are expected to help in coordinating on such an equilibrium. We consider an environment in which the benefits of coordination are low compared to the cost of mis-coordination. In this environment, players converge to the most ineffi...

  9. Ectopic cerebellar cell migration causes maldevelopment of Purkinje cells and abnormal motor behaviour in Cxcr4 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Jen; Edwards, Andrew; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Shin; Peng, Lei; Era, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chen, Shu-Jen; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice. PMID:24516532

  10. Neuro-vestibular and Sensory-motor Challenges Associated with NASA Mission Architectures for Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Data from six-month low Earth orbit space flight missions suggest that that substantial neuro-vestibuladsensory-motor adaptation will take place during six-month transit missions to and from Mars. Could intermittent or continuous artificial gravity be used to offset these effects? To what degree would the effects of adaptation to this rotational cure affect its potential benefits? Also, little information exists regarding the gravity thresholds for maintaining functional performance of complex sensory-motor tasks such as balance control and locomotion. Will sensory-motor coordination systems adapt to 30-90 days of 1/6 g on the lunar surface or 18 months of 3/8 g on the Martian surface? Would some form of gravity replacement therapy be required on the surface? And, will transitions between 0 g and 1/6 g or 1/3 g present as great a challenge to the vestibular system as transitions between 0 g and 1 g? Concerted research and development efforts will be required to obtain the answers.

  11. Ectopic cerebellar cell migration causes maldevelopment of Purkinje cells and abnormal motor behaviour in Cxcr4 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jen Huang

    Full Text Available SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice.

  12. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26164472

  13. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Anxiety and perceptual-motor performance: toward an integrated model of concepts, mechanisms, and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Under anxiety, people sometimes perform poorly. This concerns cognitive performance (e.g., taking an important exam) as well as perceptual-motor performance (e.g., picking up a cup from a table). There is still much debate about how anxiety affects perceptual-motor performance. In the current paper we review the experimental literature on anxiety and perceptual-motor performance, thereby focusing on how anxiety affects the perception, selection, and realization of action possibilities. Based ...

  15. Modeling Students' Units Coordinating Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Steven James

    2014-01-01

    Primarily via constructivist teaching experiment methodology, units coordination (Steffe, 1992) has emerged as a useful construct for modeling students' psychological constructions pertaining to several mathematical domains, including counting sequences, whole number multiplicative conceptions, and fractions schemes. I describe how consideration of units coordination as a Piagetian (1970b) structure is useful for modeling units coordination across contexts. In this study, I extend teaching ...

  16. Continuity of visual and auditory rhythms influences sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.

  17. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  18. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  19. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  20. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......) To what outcome does this coordination lead and why? Based on an analysis of EU coordination before and during the International Labour Conference in 2005, and on a comparison with coordination processes of the IMEC group, it is found that the Commission and the Presidency act as twin-agents vis...