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Sample records for affects event-related potential

  1. Post-Decision Wagering Affects Metacognitive Awareness of Emotional Stimuli: An Event Related Potential Study.

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    Wierzchoń, Michał; Wronka, Eligiusz; Paulewicz, Borysław; Szczepanowski, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigated metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli and its psychophysiological correlates. We used a backward masking task presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces. We asked participants for face discrimination and then probed their metacognitive awareness with confidence rating (CR) and post-decision wagering (PDW) scales. We also analysed psychophysiological correlates of awareness with event-related potential (ERP) components: P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and P3. We have not observed any differences between PDW and CR conditions in the emotion identification task. However, the "aware" ratings were associated with increased accuracy performance. This effect was more pronounced in PDW, especially for fearful faces, suggesting that emotional stimuli awareness may be enhanced by monetary incentives. EEG analysis showed larger N170, EPN and P3 amplitudes in aware compared to unaware trials. It also appeared that both EPN and P3 ERP components were more pronounced in the PDW condition, especially when emotional faces were presented. Taken together, our ERP findings suggest that metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli depends on the effectiveness of both early and late visual information processing. Our study also indicates that awareness of emotional stimuli can be enhanced by the motivation induced by wagering. PMID:27490816

  2. Alcohol affects the emotional mod ulation of cognitive control: An event-related brain potential study

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    A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method

  3. The relation of expression recognition and affective experience in facial expression processing: an event-related potential study

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    Guangheng Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Guangheng Dong1, Shenglan Lu21Department of Psychology, 2Department of International Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, ChinaAbstract: The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP. Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy, neutral (neutral, and negative (angry. Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively.Keywords: affective experience, expression recognition, cognitive load, event-related potential

  4. Emotional Modulation of Conflict Processing in the Affective Domain: Evidence from Event-related Potentials and Event-related Spectral Perturbation Analysis.

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    Ma, Jianling; Liu, Chang; Chen, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed the impact of emotion on conflict processing. The present study was conducted to investigate whether cognitive control in the affective domain is also affected by emotion. Emotional face-word and body-word Stroop tasks were explored and contrasted, and both behavioural and electrophysiological measures were recorded. Behavioural results showed that both tasks replicated previous robust interference effects. At the physiological level, the two tasks showed dissociable neural activity in the early attention and perception stages. It was also found that the face-word task evoked more pronounced N1 and P2 amplitudes than the body-word task. However, the two tasks evoked comparable N450 amplitudes. At later processing stages, positive slow potentials were modulated by target emotion and congruency. In addition, time-frequency analyses also revealed that the face-word task induced enhanced theta activity compared to the body-word task at both early and later stages of processing. The present findings provide support for the dual competition framework and suggest the dynamic modulation of emotion on cognitive control in the affective domain. PMID:27511609

  5. Motivation and semantic context affect brain error-monitoring activity: an event-related brain potentials study.

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    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2008-01-01

    During speech production, we continuously monitor what we say. In situations in which speech errors potentially have more severe consequences, e.g. during a public presentation, our verbal self-monitoring system may pay special attention to prevent errors than in situations in which speech errors are more acceptable, such as a casual conversation. In an event-related potential study, we investigated whether or not motivation affected participants' performance using a picture naming task in a semantic blocking paradigm. Semantic context of to-be-named pictures was manipulated; blocks were semantically related (e.g., cat, dog, horse, etc.) or semantically unrelated (e.g., cat, table, flute, etc.). Motivation was manipulated independently by monetary reward. The motivation manipulation did not affect error rate during picture naming. However, the high-motivation condition yielded increased amplitude and latency values of the error-related negativity (ERN) compared to the low-motivation condition, presumably indicating higher monitoring activity. Furthermore, participants showed semantic interference effects in reaction times and error rates. The ERN amplitude was also larger during semantically related than unrelated blocks, presumably indicating that semantic relatedness induces more conflict between possible verbal responses. PMID:17920932

  6. Single doses of piracetam affect 42-channel event-related potential microstate maps in a cognitive paradigm.

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    Michel, C M; Lehmann, D

    1993-01-01

    We examined whether a single administration of piracetam produces dose-dependent effects on brain functions in healthy young men. In 6 subjects, 42-channel event-related EEG potential maps (ERP) were recorded during a task requiring subjects to watch single digits presented in a pseudorandom order on a screen and to press a button after all triplets of three consecutive odd or even digits. The ERP maps to the three digits of the correctly detected triplets were analyzed in terms of their mapped ERP field configuration (landscape). Different landscapes of the maps indicate different configuration of the activated neural population and therefore reflect different functional microstates of the brain. In order to identify these microstates, adaptive segmentation of the map series based on their landscapes was done. Nineteen time segments were found. These segments were tested for direct effects on brain function of three single doses of piracetam (2.9, 4.8 or 9.6 g) and a placebo given double-blind in balanced order. Piracetam mainly affected the map landscape of the time segments following the triplet's last digit. U-shaped dose-dependent effects were found; they were strongest after 4.8 g piracetam. Since these particular ERP segments are recognized to be strongly correlated to cognitive functions, the present findings suggest that single medium doses of piracetam selectively activate differently located or oriented neurons during cognitive steps of information processing.

  7. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

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    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  8. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

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    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  9. How is sentence processing affected by external semantic and syntactic information? Evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Annekathrin Schacht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A crucial question for understanding sentence comprehension is the openness of syntactic and semantic processes for other sources of information. Using event-related potentials in a dual task paradigm, we had previously found that sentence processing takes into consideration task relevant sentence-external semantic but not syntactic information. In that study, internal and external information both varied within the same linguistic domain-either semantic or syntactic. Here we investigated whether across-domain sentence-external information would impact within-sentence processing. METHODOLOGY: In one condition, adjectives within visually presented sentences of the structure [Det]-[Noun]-[Adjective]-[Verb] were semantically correct or incorrect. Simultaneously with the noun, auditory adjectives were presented that morphosyntactically matched or mismatched the visual adjectives with respect to gender. FINDINGS: As expected, semantic violations within the sentence elicited N400 and P600 components in the ERP. However, these components were not modulated by syntactic matching of the sentence-external auditory adjective. In a second condition, syntactic within-sentence correctness-variations were combined with semantic matching variations between the auditory and the visual adjective. Here, syntactic within-sentence violations elicited a LAN and a P600 that did not interact with semantic matching of the auditory adjective. However, semantic mismatching of the latter elicited a frontocentral positivity, presumably related to an increase in discourse level complexity. CONCLUSION: The current findings underscore the open versus algorithmic nature of semantic and syntactic processing, respectively, during sentence comprehension.

  10. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

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    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  11. When memory meets beauty: Insights from event-related potentials.

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    Marzi, T; Viggiano, M P

    2010-05-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in human social and affective behavior. To study the time course of the neural processing of attractiveness and its influence on recognition memory we investigated the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited in an old/new recognition task in response to faces with a neutral expression that, at encoding, were rated for their attractiveness. Highly attractive faces elicited a specific early positive-going component on frontal sites; in addition, with respect to less attractive faces, they elicited larger later components related to structural encoding and recognition memory. All in all, our results show that facial attractiveness, independently from facial expression, modulates face processing throughout all stages from encoding to retrieval. PMID:20109520

  12. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

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    Chronaki, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalizing behavior, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention. PMID:27199803

  13. Brain Event-Related Potential Correlates of Concept Learning.

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    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    An irrelevant auditory probe procedure was used to evoke brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in 56 Navy recruits while they learned pulsed radar concepts presented to them in study booklets. A mastery test was administered to assess concept acquisition. The research issue was whether brain ERPs recorded while students are in the process of…

  14. Event-Related Potentials Index Segmentation of Nonsense Sounds

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    Sanders, Lisa D.; Ameral, Victoria; Sayles, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To understand the world around us, continuous streams of information including speech must be segmented into units that can be mapped onto stored representations. Recent evidence has shown that event-related potentials (ERPs) can index the online segmentation of sound streams. In the current study, listeners were trained to recognize sequences of…

  15. Event-related potentials to expectancy violation in musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M; Brattico, E;

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed neuronal processing of musical tones that violate expectancies primed by auditorily and visually presented musical material. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while the musically trained subjects were presented with short melodies composed for the exp...

  16. Measurement of event-related potentials and placebo

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    Sovilj Platon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ERP is common abbreviation for event-related brain potentials, which are measured and used in clinical practice as well as in research practice. Contemporary studies of placebo effect are often based on functional neuromagnetic resonance (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and event related potentials (ERP. This paper considers an ERP instrumentation system used in experimental researches of placebo effect. This instrumentation system can be divided into four modules: electrodes and cables, conditioning module, digital measurement module, and PC module for stimulations, presentations, acquisition and data processing. The experimental oddball paradigm is supported by the software of the instrumentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019 and Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia under research grant No. 114-451-2723

  17. Event-related evoked potentials in chronic respiratory encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidan, Radwan

    2010-01-01

    A R Al Tahan1, R Zaidan1, S Jones2, A Husain3, A Mobeireek1, A Bahammam11Department of Medicine, 3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, London, UKBackground: Cognitive event-related potential (P300) is an index of cognitive processing time. It was found to be prolonged in dementia, renal, and hepatic encephalopathies, but was not extensively assessed in respiratory failure.Objective: T...

  18. An Efficient Method for Mining Event-Related Potential Patterns

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    Seyed Aliakbar Mousavi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we propose a Neuroelectromagnetic Ontology Framework (NOF for mining Event-related Potentials (ERP patterns as well as the process. The aim for this research is to develop an infrastructure for mining, analysis and sharing the ERP domain ontologies. The outcome of this research is a Neuroelectromagnetic knowledge-based system. The framework has 5 stages: 1 Data pre-processing and preparation; 2 Data mining application; 3 Rule Comparison and Evaluation; 4 Association rules Post-processing 5 Domain Ontologies. In 5th stage a new set of hidden rules can be discovered base on comparing association rules by domain ontologies and expert rules.

  19. An Efficient Method for Mining Event-Related Potential Patterns

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    Mousavi, Seyed Aliakbar; Mohamed, Hasimah Hj; Alomari, Saleh Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a Neuroelectromagnetic Ontology Framework (NOF) for mining Event-related Potentials (ERP) patterns as well as the process. The aim for this research is to develop an infrastructure for mining, analysis and sharing the ERP domain ontologies. The outcome of this research is a Neuroelectromagnetic knowledge-based system. The framework has 5 stages: 1) Data pre-processing and preparation; 2) Data mining application; 3) Rule Comparison and Evaluation; 4) Association rules Post-processing 5) Domain Ontologies. In 5th stage a new set of hidden rules can be discovered base on comparing association rules by domain ontologies and expert rules.

  20. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

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    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  1. Study of Object Substitution Masking Using Event-related Potential

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    Nuruki, Atsuo; Yamada, Masafumi; Kawabata, Takuro; Shimozono, Tomoyuki; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    We make use of especially visual information though we are using a lot of information among modality in daily life. However, there is a difference between the real world and the perception of visual world. For instance, conscious perception of a briefly presented target can be reduced by a subsequent dot mask that does not touch it. However, the theory of this phenomenon, called Object Substitution Masking (OSM), is not clear. We investigated this issue by examining the effect of OSM on the N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP). As expected, subsequent dot mask significantly reduced accuracy in identifying the target. The N170 amplitude of P4 was also diminished by OSM. It was suggested that OSM is concerned in right posterior parietal cortex.

  2. Syntactic processing with aging: an event-related potential study.

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    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; De Ochoa, Esmeralda; Kutas, Marta

    2004-05-01

    To assess age-related changes in simple syntactic processing with normal aging, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by grammatical number violations as individuals read sentences for comprehension were analyzed. Violations were found to elicit a P600 of equal amplitude and latency regardless of an individual's age. Instead, advancing age was associated with a change in the scalp distribution of the P600 effect, being less asymmetric and more frontal (though still with a parietal maximum) in older than younger adults. Our results thus show that the brain's response to simple syntactic violations, unlike those reported for simple binary categorizations and simple semantic violations, is neither slowed nor diminished in amplitude by age. At the same time, the brain's processing of these grammatical number violations did engage at least somewhat different brain regions as a function of age, suggesting a qualitative change rather than any simple quantitative change in speed of processing.

  3. Retinotopic mapping of visual event-related potentials.

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    Capilla, Almudena; Melcón, María; Kessel, Dominique; Calderón, Rosbén; Pazo-Álvarez, Paula; Carretié, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Visual stimulation is frequently employed in electroencephalographic (EEG) research. However, despite its widespread use, no studies have thoroughly evaluated how the morphology of the visual event-related potentials (ERPs) varies according to the spatial location of stimuli. Hence, the purpose of this study was to perform a detailed retinotopic mapping of visual ERPs. We recorded EEG activity while participants were visually stimulated with 60 pattern-reversing checkerboards placed at different polar angles and eccentricities. Our results show five pattern-reversal ERP components. C1 and C2 components inverted polarity between the upper and lower hemifields. P1 and N1 showed higher amplitudes and shorter latencies to stimuli located in the contralateral lower quadrant. In contrast, P2 amplitude was enhanced and its latency was reduced by stimuli presented in the periphery of the upper hemifield. The retinotopic maps presented here could serve as a guide for selecting optimal visuo-spatial locations in future ERP studies. PMID:27235686

  4. Retinotopic mapping of visual event-related potentials.

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    Capilla, Almudena; Melcón, María; Kessel, Dominique; Calderón, Rosbén; Pazo-Álvarez, Paula; Carretié, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Visual stimulation is frequently employed in electroencephalographic (EEG) research. However, despite its widespread use, no studies have thoroughly evaluated how the morphology of the visual event-related potentials (ERPs) varies according to the spatial location of stimuli. Hence, the purpose of this study was to perform a detailed retinotopic mapping of visual ERPs. We recorded EEG activity while participants were visually stimulated with 60 pattern-reversing checkerboards placed at different polar angles and eccentricities. Our results show five pattern-reversal ERP components. C1 and C2 components inverted polarity between the upper and lower hemifields. P1 and N1 showed higher amplitudes and shorter latencies to stimuli located in the contralateral lower quadrant. In contrast, P2 amplitude was enhanced and its latency was reduced by stimuli presented in the periphery of the upper hemifield. The retinotopic maps presented here could serve as a guide for selecting optimal visuo-spatial locations in future ERP studies.

  5. Enhancement of event related potentials by iterative restoration algorithms

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    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; McGillem, Clare D.

    1986-12-01

    An iterative procedure for the restoration of event related potentials (ERP) is proposed and implemented. The method makes use of assumed or measured statistical information about latency variations in the individual ERP components. The signal model used for the restoration algorithm consists of a time-varying linear distortion and a positivity/negativity constraint. Additional preprocessing in the form of low-pass filtering is needed in order to mitigate the effects of additive noise. Numerical results obtained with real data show clearly the presence of enhanced and regenerated components in the restored ERP's. The procedure is easy to implement which makes it convenient when compared to other proposed techniques for the restoration of ERP signals.

  6. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

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    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach. PMID:27114057

  7. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach.

  8. Analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) by damped sinusoids.

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    Demiralp, T; Ademoglu, A; Istefanopulos, Y; Gülçür, H O

    1998-06-01

    Several researchers propose that event-related potentials (ERPs) can be explained by a superposition of transient oscillations at certain frequency bands in response to external or internal events. The transient nature of the ERP is more suitable to be modelled as a sum of damped sinusoids. These damped sinusoids can be completely characterized by four sets of parameters, namely the amplitude, the damping coefficient, the phase and the frequency. The Prony method is used to estimate these parameters. In this study, the long-latency auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and the auditory oddball responses (P300) of 10 healthy subjects are analysed by this method. It is shown that the original waveforms can be reconstructed by summing a small number of damped sinusoids. This allows for a parsimonious representation of the ERPs. Furthermore, the method shows that the oddball target responses contain higher amplitude, slower delta and slower damped theta components than those of the AEPs. With this technique, we show that the differentiation of sensory and cognitive potentials are not inherent in their overall frequency content but in their frequency components at certain bands.

  9. Stability of auditory event-related potentials in coma research.

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    Schorr, Barbara; Schlee, Winfried; Arndt, Marion; Lulé, Dorothée; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Lopez-Rolon, Alexander; Bender, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS) after brain injury show significant fluctuations in their behavioural abilities over time. As the importance of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the detection of traces of consciousness increases, we investigated the retest reliability of ERPs with repeated tests at four different time points. Twelve healthy controls and 12 inpatients (8 UWS, 4 MCS; 6 traumatic, 6 non-traumatic) were tested twice a day (morning, afternoon) for 2 days with an auditory oddball task. ERPs were recorded with a 256-channel-EEG system, and correlated with behavioural test scores in the Coma Recovery Scale-revised (CRS-R). The number of identifiable P300 responses varied between zero and four in both groups. Reliabilities varied between Krippendorff's α = 0.43 for within-day comparison, and α = 0.25 for between-day comparison in the patient group. Retest reliability was strong for the CRS-R scores for all comparisons (α = 0.83-0.95). The stability of auditory information processing in patients with disorders of consciousness is the basis for other, even more demanding tasks and cognitive potentials. The relatively low ERP-retest reliability suggests that it is necessary to perform repeated tests, especially when probing for consciousness with ERPs. A single negative ERP test result may be mistaken for proof that a UWS patient truly is unresponsive.

  10. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

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    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency. PMID:24504195

  11. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Sophia eKnoth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability, associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioural impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN, N2 and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  12. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  13. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  14. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Ana P.; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G.; McCarley, Robert W.; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral ...

  15. [Event-related potentials and performance errors during falling asleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Verbitskaia, Iu S; Lavrova, T P

    2009-01-01

    Sound is the most adequate external stimulus for studying information processes in the brain during falling asleep and at different sleep stages. Common procedure of analysis of the event-related potentials (ERPs) averaged for a group of subjects has some drawbacks because of the ERP interindividual variability. Therefore in our work, we determined parameters of the auditory ERP components selectively summed up for individual subjects in different series of a psychomotor test with their subsequent group analysis. Search for the ERP parameters which would allow us to quantitatively estimate brain functional states during performance errors associated with a decrease in the level of wakefulness and falling asleep was the aim of our work. The ERPs were recorded in healthy volunteers (n = 41) in the evening from eight EEG derivations (F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2) in reference to a linked mastoid electrode. The analysis was performed in 14 subjects with a sufficient number of falling asleep episodes. A monotonous psychomotor test was performed in a supine position with the eyes closed. The test consisted of two alternating series: calculation of sound stimuli from 1 up to 10 with simultaneous pressing the button and calculation from 1 up to 5 without pressing the button and so on. Computer-generated sound stimuli (50-ms pulses with the frequency of 1000 Hz, 60 dB HL) were presented binaurally through earphones with interstimulus intervals in 2.4-2.7 s. Comparison of the ERP parameters (latency and amplitude of components N1, P2, N, and P3) during correct and erroneous performance of the psychomotor test showed that a decrease in the level of wakefulness caused a statistically significant increase in the amplitude of components of vertex complex N1-P2-N2 in series without pressing the button. The greatest changes in the ERPs in different series of the psychomotor test were observed for component N2 (latency 330-360 ms), which has the common origin with the EEG theta

  16. Reward Promotes Self-face Processing: An Event-related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Youlong eZhan; Jie eChen; Xiao eXiao; Jin eLi; Zilu eYang; Wei eFan; Yiping eZhong

    2016-01-01

    The present study adopted a reward-priming paradigm to investigate whether and how monetary reward cues affected self-face processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during judgments of head orientation of target faces (self, friend, and stranger), with performance associated with a monetary reward. The results showed self-faces elicited larger N2 mean amplitudes than other-faces, and mean N2 amplitudes increased after monetary reward as compared with no reward cue. Moreover, a...

  17. Reward Promotes Self-Face Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Youlong; Chen, Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Jin; Yang, Zilu; Fan, Wei; Zhong, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study adopted a reward-priming paradigm to investigate whether and how monetary reward cues affected self-face processing. Event-related potentials were recorded during judgments of head orientation of target faces (self, friend, and stranger), with performance associated with a monetary reward. The results showed self-faces elicited larger N2 mean amplitudes than other-faces, and mean N2 amplitudes increased after monetary reward as compared with no reward cue. Moreover, an inter...

  18. [Unconscious Acoustical Stimuli Effects on Event-related Potentials in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikina, E A; Choroshich, V V; Aleksandrov, A Y; Ivanova, V Y

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious perception essentially affects human behavior. The main results in this area obtained in experiments with visual stimuli. However, the acoustical stimuli play not less important role in behavior. The main idea of this paper is the electroencephalographic investigation of unconscious acoustical stimulation effects on electro-physiological activity of the brain. For this purpose, the event-related potentials were acquired under unconscious stimulus priming paradigm. The one syllable, three letter length, Russian words and pseudo-words with single letter substitution were used as primes and targets. As a result, we find out that repetition and alternative priming similarly affects the event-related potential's component with 200 ms latency after target application in frontal parietal and temporal areas. Under alternative priming the direction of potential amplitude modification nearby 400 ms was altered for word and semi-word targets. Alternative priming reliably increase ERP's amplitude in 400 ms locality with pseudo-word targets and decrease it under word targets. Taking into account, that all participants were unable to distinguish the applied prime stimuli, we can assume that the event-related potential changes evoked by unconscious perception of acoustical stimuli. The ERP amplitude dynamics revealed in current investigation demonstrate the opportunity of subliminal acoustical stimuli to modulate the electrical activity evoked by verbal acoustical stimulation. PMID:26237945

  19. Event Related Potential Analysis of Stimulus Over-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Savile, Amy; Truzoli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity is a phenomenon often displayed by individuals with many forms of developmental and intellectual disabilities, and also by individuals lacking such disabilities who are under cognitive strain. It occurs when only one of potentially many aspects of the environment controls behavior. Adult participants were trained and…

  20. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  1. Emotion and the processing of symbolic gestures: an event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Flaisch, Tobias; Häcker, Frank; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine the hypothesis that emotional gestures draw attentional resources at the level of distinct processing stages. Twenty healthy volunteers viewed pictures of hand gestures with negative (insult) and positive (approval) emotional meaning as well as neutral control gestures (pointing) while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Emotion effects were reflected in distinct ERP modulations in early and later time wi...

  2. Prognostic value of evoked and event-related potentials in moderate to severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Castaneda, Annabel; Salerno, Rose Marie; Gray, Max

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians are often expected to project patients' clinical outcomes to allow effective planning for future care. This can be a challenge in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who are often unable to participate reliably in clinical evaluations. With recent advances in computer instrumentation and signal processing, evoked potentials and event-related potentials show increasing promise as powerful tools for prognosticating the trajectory of recovery and ultimate outcome from the TBI. Short- and middle-latency evoked potentials can now effectively predict coma outcomes in patients with acute TBI. Long-latency event-related potential components hold promise in predicting recovery of higher order cognitive abilities. PMID:16915010

  3. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  4. Auditory event-related brain potentials for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Dushanova; Mario Christov

    2013-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone – right hand movement and high frequency tone – left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.

  5. Event-related brain potentials in emotion perception research, individual cognitive assessment and brain-computer interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bostanov, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    All of the experimental and theoretical work presented in this dissertation has been inspired by the general idea of applying event-related brain potential (ERP) measurement and assessment for practical purposes: cognitive diagnostics and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) for paralyzed people. In Chapter 1, two new ERP paradigms are introduced, which were developed for the diagnostics of a particular cognitive function, the recognition of affective prosody. The affective state of a speaker ...

  6. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  7. Emotional processing and psychopathic traits in male college students: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amy L; Kirilko, Elvira; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    Emotional processing deficits are often considered a hallmark of psychopathy. However, there are relatively few studies that have investigated how the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by both positive and negative emotional stimuli is modulated by psychopathic traits, especially in undergraduates. Attentional deficits have also been posited to be associated with emotional blunting in psychopathy, consequently, results from previous studies may have been influenced by task demands. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the neural correlates of emotional processing and psychopathic traits by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) during a task with a relatively low cognitive load. A group of male undergraduates were classified as having either high or low levels of psychopathic traits according to their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R). A subgroup of these participants then passively viewed complex emotional and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their EEGs were recorded. As hypothesized, in general the late LPP elicited by emotional pictures was found to be significantly reduced for participants with high Total PPI-R scores relative to those with low scores, especially for pictures that were rated as less emotionally arousing. Our data suggest that male undergraduates with high, but subclinical levels of psychopathic traits did not maintain continued higher-order processing of affective information, especially when it was perceived to be less arousing in nature. PMID:27302151

  8. The impact of hunger on food cue processing: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Bublatzky, Florian; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-10-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials to examine deprivation effects on visual attention to food stimuli at the level of distinct processing stages. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (16 females) were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 h of food deprivation or after normal food intake. Participants viewed a continuous stream of food and flower images while dense sensor ERPs were recorded. As revealed by distinct ERP modulations in relatively earlier and later time windows, deprivation affected the processing of food and flower pictures. Between 300 and 360 ms, food pictures were associated with enlarged occipito-temporal negativity and centro-parietal positivity in deprived compared to satiated state. Of main interest, in a later time window (approximately 450-600 ms), deprivation increased amplitudes of the late positive potential elicited by food pictures. Conversely, flower processing varied by motivational state with decreased positive potentials in the deprived state. Minimum-Norm analyses provided further evidence that deprivation enhanced visual attention to food cues in later processing stages. From the perspective of motivated attention, hunger may induce a heightened state of attention for food stimuli in a processing stage related to stimulus recognition and focused attention.

  9. Slowing of Event-Related Potentials in Primary Progressive Aphasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giaquinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA is a rare and insidious language impairment that worsens over time. It belongs to the group of fronto–temporal dementias. This study was aimed at assessing the role of speed of cognitive abilities, such as word recognition, in PPA. The design is a single-case, longitudinal study. A male patient suffering from PPA was enrolled and 15 healthy older adults were the control group. An event-related electrical potential connected with word recognition, namely the N400, was delayed by 200 msec at baseline compared to healthy controls and progressively deteriorated. One year later, the delay was greater and two years later the potential had disappeared. Reduced speed of processing is an early pathological factor that negatively affecting higher cognitive functions in APP. Event–related electrical potentials are recommended in the field of aphasia and cognitive decline. They permit observation of a speed decline in higher cognitive abilities, when pathological changes at a central level begin and language comprehension seems to be unaffected.

  10. Two Languages, One Developing Brain: Event-Related Potentials to Words in Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Barbara T.; Mills, Debra L.

    2006-01-01

    Infant bilingualism offers a unique opportunity to study the relative effects of language experience and maturation on brain development, with each child serving as his or her own control. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to words were examined in 19- to 22-month-old English-Spanish bilingual toddlers. The children's dominant vs. nondominant…

  11. How Children Process Over-Regularizations: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Luck, Monika; Hahne, Anja

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the mental processes involved in children's on-line recognition of inflected word forms using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixty children in three age groups (20 six- to seven-year-olds, 20 eight- to nine-year-olds, 20 eleven- to twelve-year-olds) and 23 adults (tested in a previous study) listened to sentences containing…

  12. Event-related brain potentials reflect discourse-referential ambiguity in spoken language comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. van Berkum; C.M. Brown; P. Hagoort; P. Zwitserlood

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments, we explored the use of event-related brain potentials to selectively track the processes that establish reference during spoken language comprehension. Subjects listened to stories in which a particular noun phrase like "the girl" either uniquely referred to a single referent men

  13. P3 Event-Related Potentials and Childhood Maltreatment in Successful and Unsuccessful Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball…

  14. Mental Rotation of Mirrored Letters: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. Isabel; Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (n=13) were presented with mirrored and normal letters at different orientations and were asked to make mirror-normal letter discriminations. As it has been suggested that a mental rotation out of the plane might be necessary to decide on mirrored letters, we wanted to…

  15. Developmental Changes in Error Monitoring: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of error monitoring. For this purpose, children (age 7-8), young adolescents (age 13-14) and adults (age 23-24) performed a Go/No-Go task and were compared on overt reaction time (RT) performance and on event-related potentials (ERPs), thought to reflect error detection…

  16. Error processing in heroin addicts:an event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between impulsive behaviors and the error related negativity (ERN) component of event-related potentials of error processing in heroin addicts. Methods Using the paradigms for psychological experiment,the Iowa gambling task(IGT) was performed both in heroin

  17. Gender Differences in Memory Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, F.; Mograss, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on memory processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral data and ERPs were recorded in 16 males and 10 females during a recognition memory task for faces. The behavioral data results showed that females performed better than males. Gender differences on ERPs were evidenced over anterior…

  18. Scalp topography of event-related brain potentials and cognitive transitions during childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; M.W. van der Molen; J.E.A. Stauder

    1993-01-01

    Examined the relation between cognitive development (CGD) and the ontogenesis of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during childhood among 48 girls (aged 5-7 yrs). The level of CGD was assessed with a standard Piagetian conservation kit. Ss performed a visual selective attention (oddball) task an

  19. Working memory processes show different degrees of lateralization : Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and

  20. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations with Real-World Knowledge: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; Fisher, Kristie J.; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)--N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving…

  1. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  2. MODULATION OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS BY WORD REPETITION - THE ROLE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OTTEN, LJ; RUGG, MD; DOYLE, MC

    1993-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects viewed visually presented words, some of which occurred twice. Each trial consisted of two colored letter strings, the requirement being to attend to and make a word/nonword discrimination for one of the strings. Attention was manipulated

  3. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  4. Anaphoric Reference to Quantified Antecedents: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. "many") and negative (e.g. "not many") quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in "Many of the fans attended the…

  5. Human recognition memory and conflict control: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Liu, X; Xiao, T; Shi, J

    2016-01-28

    The relationship between recognition memory and cognitive control is an important research topic. The current study investigated how conflict control influences an individual's emotional memory. During the encoding phase, participants were required to judge the affective valence of a Chinese Chengyu word (either positive or negative) in a modified Simon paradigm and to remember the word. Half of the words were presented in the congruent condition and the other half were displayed in the incongruent condition. During the retrieval phase, participants were instructed to make an 'old/new judgment' and decide whether the word had been presented previously. Electrophysiological responses were recorded using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The behavioral results of retrieval processes showed that participants remembered more positive than negative words when they were encoded in the congruent condition. The electrophysiological results revealed that the retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition elicited less negative frontal negativity (FN) and early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes than those encoded in the congruent condition. The retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition induced greater late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes, relative to those encoded in the congruent condition on the left hemisphere. It was also observed that the recognition of positive words induced faster LPC responses than negative words when they were encoded in the incongruent condition. The present electrophysiological study illustrates that emotional memory processes may be affected by conflict control.

  6. Recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel; Treese, Anne-Cécile

    2004-12-01

    This study examined emotional influences on the hypothesized event-related potential (ERP) correlates of familiarity and recollection (Experiment 1) and the states of awareness (Experiment 2) accompanying recognition memory for faces differing in facial affect. Participants made gender judgments to positive, negative, and neutral faces at study and were in the test phase instructed to discriminate between studied and nonstudied faces. Whereas old-new discrimination was unaffected by facial expression, negative faces were recollected to a greater extent than both positive and neutral faces as reflected in the parietal ERP old-new effect and in the proportion of remember judgments. Moreover, emotion-specific modulations were observed in frontally recorded ERPs elicited by correctly rejected new faces that concurred with a more liberal response criterion for emotional as compared to neutral faces. Taken together, the results are consistent with the view that processes promoting recollection are facilitated for negative events and that emotion may affect recognition performance by influencing criterion setting mediated by the prefrontal cortex. PMID:15701233

  7. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  8. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension.

  9. Source analysis of bimodal event-related potentials with auditory-visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, H; Xie, X.; Yan, H; Feng, L; Xu, S; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Dipole source analysis is applied to model brain generators of surface-recorded evoked potentials, epileptiform activity, and event-related potentials (ERP). The aim of this study was to explore brain activity of interaction between bimodal sensory cognition. Seven healthy volunteers were recruited in the study and ERP to these stimuli were recorded by 64 electrodes EEG recording system. Subjects were exposed to either the auditory and the visual stimulus alone or the combined auditory-visual...

  10. On the Origin of Event-Related Potentials Indexing Covert Attentional Selection During Visual Search

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Heitz, Richard P.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Despite nearly a century of electrophysiological studies recording extracranially from humans and intracranially from monkeys, the neural generators of nearly all human event-related potentials (ERPs) have not been definitively localized. We recorded an attention-related ERP component, known as the N2pc, simultaneously with intracranial spikes and local field potentials (LFPs) in macaques to test the hypothesis that an attentional-control structure, the frontal eye field (FEF), contributed to...

  11. Event-related potentials elicited by errors during the stop-signal task. I: Macaque monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Godlove, David C.; Emeric, Erik E.; Segovis, Courtney M.; Young, Michelle S.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) and positivity (Pe) are components of event-related potential (ERP) waveforms recorded from humans that are thought to reflect performance monitoring. Error-related signals have also been found in single-neuron responses and local-field potentials recorded in supplementary eye field and anterior cingulate cortex of macaque monkeys. However, the homology of these neural signals across species remains controversial. Here, we show that monkeys exhibit ERN and P...

  12. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita eMelloni; Claudia eUrbistondo; Lucas eSedeño; Carlos eGelormini; Rafael eKichic; Agustin eIbanez

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, su...

  13. Compound headedness in the mental lexicon: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Marelli, Marco; Buodo, Giulia; Mondini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Compound words in Romance languages may have the head either in the initial or in the final position. In the present event-related potential (ERP) study, we address the hypothesis that Italian compounds are processed differently according to their head position and that this is mostly due to the perceived change in the canonical order of syntactic elements. Compound stimuli (head-initial, head-final, or exocentric) were visually displayed in two presentation modes, as whole words or separated into their constituents, in the context of a lexical decision task. Behavioural results showed an increased split cost in head-final and exocentric compounds as compared to head-initial compounds. ERP results showed an enhanced left anterior negativity (LAN) for head-final and exocentric compounds as compared to head-initial compounds, regardless of the presentation mode. Results suggest that the analogy with syntactic order may influence the internal structure of a compound and, as a consequence, its processing, but other characteristics (such as the grammatical properties of constituents) may affect the processing itself.

  14. Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder: An event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Magnuson, James S; Rakhlin, Natalia; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-05-01

    Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have been postulated to arise as sequelae of their grammatical deficits (either directly or via compensatory mechanisms) and vice versa. We examined event-related potential indices of lexical processing in children with DLD (n = 23) and their typically developing peers (n = 16) using a picture-word matching paradigm. We found that children with DLD showed markedly reduced N400 amplitudes in response both to auditorily presented words that had initial phonological overlap with the name of the pictured object and to words that were not semantically or phonologically related to the pictured object. Moreover, this reduction was related to behavioral indices of phonological and lexical but not grammatical development. We also found that children with DLD showed a depressed phonological mapping negativity component in the early time window, suggesting deficits in phonological processing or early lexical access. The results are partially consistent with the overactivation account of lexical processing deficits in DLD and point to the relative functional independence of lexical/phonological and grammatical deficits in DLD, supporting a multidimensional view of the disorder. The results also, although indirectly, support the neuroplasticity account of DLD, according to which language impairment affects brain development and shapes the specific patterns of brain responses to language stimuli. PMID:25997765

  15. Dispositional mindfulness and semantic integration of emotional words: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, Dusana; Lally, Níall; Darrall-Rew, Jonathan; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Initial research shows that mindfulness training can enhance attention and modulate the affective response. However, links between mindfulness and language processing remain virtually unexplored despite the prominent role of overt and silent negative ruminative speech in depressive and anxiety-related symptomatology. Here, we measured dispositional mindfulness and recorded participants' event-related brain potential responses to positive and negative target words preceded by words congruent or incongruent with the targets in terms of semantic relatedness and emotional valence. While the low mindfulness group showed similar N400 effect pattern for positive and negative targets, high dispositional mindfulness was associated with larger N400 effect to negative targets. This result suggests that negative meanings are less readily accessible in people with high dispositional mindfulness. Furthermore, high dispositional mindfulness was associated with reduced P600 amplitudes to emotional words, suggesting less post-analysis and attentional effort which possibly relates to a lower inclination to ruminate. Overall, these findings provide initial evidence on associations between modifications in language systems and mindfulness.

  16. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  17. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  18. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalography by a series of signal processing steps. The present tutorial will highlight several of the analysis techniques required to obtain event-related potentials. Some methodological issues that may be encountered will also be discussed.

  19. Expression of physiological sensation of anatomical patterns in wood: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Sha Song; Guang Jie Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The emotional and psychological activities associated with the visual perception of macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of wood were investigated. The macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of 18 different timber tree species of northeast China were selected as the research objects, and these were divided into eight categories for event-related potential analysis. The 30 effective subjects’ tasks were to watch the wood structure stimuli patterns and evaluate them on a 7-poi...

  20. Cognitive processing of cluster headache patients: evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rongfei; Dong, Zhao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ruozhuo; Zhang, Mingjie; Wu, Jinglong; Yu, Shengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The peripheral and central origins of pain in cluster headache (CH) have been a matter of much debate. The development and application of functional imaging techniques have provided more evidence supporting the hypothesis that CH is not a disorder exclusively peripheral in origin, and in fact central regions might be more important. Event-related potentials confer advantages in the functional evaluation of the cortex, but few studies thus far have employed this method in cluster he...

  1. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: An event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Robbin A Miranda; Ullman, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmon...

  2. Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

  3. A Wavelet Based Algorithm for the Identification of Oscillatory Event-Related Potential Components

    OpenAIRE

    A., Arun Kumar; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Samar, Vincent J; Desjardins, James A; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2014-01-01

    Event Related Potentials (ERPs) are very feeble alterations in the ongoing Electroencephalogram (EEG) and their detection is a challenging problem. Based on the unique time-based parameters derived from wavelet coefficients and the asymmetry property of wavelets a novel algorithm to separate ERP components in single-trial EEG data is described. Though illustrated as a specific application to N170 ERP detection, the algorithm is a generalized approach that can be easily adapted to isolate diff...

  4. Glucose enhancement of event-related potentials associated with episodic memory and attention

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Louise; Riby, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that increasing glycaemia by a glucose-containing drink enhances memory functioning. The aim of the present study was to extend this literature by examining the effects of glucose on episodic memory as well as attention processes, and to investigate associated event-related potential (ERP) markers. Fifteen minutes after treatment (25 g glucose or placebo drink), 35 participants performed an old/new recognition memory task and a Stroop colour naming task. Consist...

  5. Glucose modulates event-related potential components of recollection and familiarity in healthy adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Riby, Leigh; Sünram-Lea, Sandra; van Eekelen, Anke; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural evidence supports the notion that oral glucose ingestion enhances recognition memory judgements based on recollection, but not familiarity. The present study sought to clarify and extend upon these behavioural findings by investigating the influence of glucose administration on event-related potential (ERP) components that are thought to be differentially mediated by recollection and familiarity processes in healthy adolescents. In a within subjects design, participants performed ...

  6. Meditation (Vipassana) and the P3a Event-Related Brain Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cahn, B. Rael; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    A three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented to experienced Vipassana meditators during meditation and a control thought period to elicit event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the two different mental states. The stimuli consisted of a frequent standard tone (500 Hz), an infrequent oddball tone (1000 Hz), and an infrequent distracter (white noise), with all stimuli passively presented through headphones and no task imposed. The strongest meditation compared to control state effec...

  7. Nonlinear denoising of transient signals with application to event related potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Effern, A; Schreiber, T; Grunwald, T; David, P; Elger, C E

    2000-01-01

    We present a new wavelet based method for the denoising of {\\it event related potentials} ERPs), employing techniques recently developed for the paradigm of deterministic chaotic systems. The denoising scheme has been constructed to be appropriate for short and transient time sequences using circular state space embedding. Its effectiveness was successfully tested on simulated signals as well as on ERPs recorded from within a human brain. The method enables the study of individual ERPs against strong ongoing brain electrical activity.

  8. Relationship between event-related potential P300 and first episode schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; LU Ying-zhi; WANG Ji-jun; WANG Hong-xing; ZHANG Ming-dao; LOU Fei-yin; CHEN Chong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Although P300 abnormalities of event-related potentials (ERPs) are consistently reported among schizophrenic patients as being the most compelling indices of their brain dysfunction,1 whether they are trait markers or state markers of schizophrenia remains in controversy.2,3 To shed a light on this point, we made a longitudinal study of P300 among first episode schizophrenic patients, from no medication until the patients had been medicated for 12 weeks.

  9. P3 event-related potentials and childhood maltreatment in successful and unsuccessful psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball task. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) while childhood physical maltreatment was assessed using the Co...

  10. An Event-related Brain Potential Study of English Morphosyntactic Processing in Japanese Learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuta, Natsuko

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...

  11. Distinctions between Spatial and Verbal Working Memory: A Study Using Event-related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Nien Chen; Suvobrata Mitra

    2009-01-01

    Background: The main manifestation of dementia is a defect in working memory. N-backtasks are frequently used in research on working memory. Researchers canstudy differences between different loadings by controlling N factors.Furthermore, the interface of N-back tasks can be verbal or visual-spatial.Methods: Event-related potentials under verbal and spatial tasks and different loadingswere recorded using a digital electroencephalogram, and analyzed togetherwith behavior results.Results: The d...

  12. An event-related brain potential study of schizotypal personality and associative semantic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Michael; Prugh, Jocelyn; Kutas, Marta

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether schizotypal personality is associated with the degree to which concepts activate each other in semantic memory, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a delayed lexical decision task from healthy volunteers rated for schizotypy. Each target word was directly, indirectly, or not at all related to a prime word preceding it at a 300- or 750-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). Overall, N400 amplitudes were largest for unrelated targets, smallest for directly...

  13. Reward Promotes Self-Face Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Youlong; Chen, Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Jin; Yang, Zilu; Fan, Wei; Zhong, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study adopted a reward-priming paradigm to investigate whether and how monetary reward cues affected self-face processing. Event-related potentials were recorded during judgments of head orientation of target faces (self, friend, and stranger), with performance associated with a monetary reward. The results showed self-faces elicited larger N2 mean amplitudes than other-faces, and mean N2 amplitudes increased after monetary reward as compared with no reward cue. Moreover, an interaction effect between cue type and face type was observed for the P3 component, suggesting that both self-faces and friend-faces elicited larger P3 mean amplitudes than stranger-faces after no reward cue, with no significant difference between self-faces and friend-faces under this condition. However, self-faces elicited larger P3 mean amplitudes than friend-faces when monetary reward cues were provided. Interestingly, the enhancement of reward on friend-faces processing was observed at late positive potentials (LPP; 450–600 ms), suggesting that the LPP difference between friend-faces and stranger-faces was enhanced with monetary reward cues. Thus, we found that the enhancement effect of reward on self-relevant processing occurred at the later stages, but not at the early stage. These findings suggest that the activation of the reward expectations can enhance self-face processing, yielding a robust and sustained modulation over their overlapped brain areas where reward and self-relevant processing mechanisms may operate together. PMID:27242637

  14. Simultaneous functional near-infrared brain imaging and event-related potential studies of Stroop effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-02-01

    Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.

  15. Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T. P.; Makeig, S.; Westerfield, M.; Townsend, J.; Courchesne, E.; Sejnowski, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a linear decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), is applied to single-trial multichannel EEG data from event-related potential (ERP) experiments. Spatial filters derived by ICA blindly separate the input data into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components arising from distinct or overlapping brain or extra-brain sources. Both the data and their decomposition are displayed using a new visualization tool, the "ERP image," that can clearly characterize single-trial variations in the amplitudes and latencies of evoked responses, particularly when sorted by a relevant behavioral or physiological variable. These tools were used to analyze data from a visual selective attention experiment on 28 control subjects plus 22 neurological patients whose EEG records were heavily contaminated with blink and other eye-movement artifacts. Results show that ICA can separate artifactual, stimulus-locked, response-locked, and non-event-related background EEG activities into separate components, a taxonomy not obtained from conventional signal averaging approaches. This method allows: (1) removal of pervasive artifacts of all types from single-trial EEG records, (2) identification and segregation of stimulus- and response-locked EEG components, (3) examination of differences in single-trial responses, and (4) separation of temporally distinct but spatially overlapping EEG oscillatory activities with distinct relationships to task events. The proposed methods also allow the interaction between ERPs and the ongoing EEG to be investigated directly. We studied the between-subject component stability of ICA decomposition of single-trial EEG epochs by clustering components with similar scalp maps and activation power spectra. Components accounting for blinks, eye movements, temporal muscle activity, event-related potentials, and event-modulated alpha activities were largely replicated across subjects. Applying ICA and ERP image

  16. Analysis and visualization of single-trial event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T P; Makeig, S; Westerfield, M; Townsend, J; Courchesne, E; Sejnowski, T J

    2001-11-01

    In this study, a linear decomposition technique, independent component analysis (ICA), is applied to single-trial multichannel EEG data from event-related potential (ERP) experiments. Spatial filters derived by ICA blindly separate the input data into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components arising from distinct or overlapping brain or extra-brain sources. Both the data and their decomposition are displayed using a new visualization tool, the "ERP image," that can clearly characterize single-trial variations in the amplitudes and latencies of evoked responses, particularly when sorted by a relevant behavioral or physiological variable. These tools were used to analyze data from a visual selective attention experiment on 28 control subjects plus 22 neurological patients whose EEG records were heavily contaminated with blink and other eye-movement artifacts. Results show that ICA can separate artifactual, stimulus-locked, response-locked, and non-event-related background EEG activities into separate components, a taxonomy not obtained from conventional signal averaging approaches. This method allows: (1) removal of pervasive artifacts of all types from single-trial EEG records, (2) identification and segregation of stimulus- and response-locked EEG components, (3) examination of differences in single-trial responses, and (4) separation of temporally distinct but spatially overlapping EEG oscillatory activities with distinct relationships to task events. The proposed methods also allow the interaction between ERPs and the ongoing EEG to be investigated directly. We studied the between-subject component stability of ICA decomposition of single-trial EEG epochs by clustering components with similar scalp maps and activation power spectra. Components accounting for blinks, eye movements, temporal muscle activity, event-related potentials, and event-modulated alpha activities were largely replicated across subjects. Applying ICA and ERP image

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry in interpreting novel literal language: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

    2013-04-01

    Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts

  18. Focused analgesia in waking and hypnosis: effects on pain, memory, and somatosensory event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Cacace, Immacolata; Massicolle, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) to painful electric standard stimuli under an odd-ball paradigm were analyzed in 12 high hypnotizable (HH), 12 medium hypnotizable (MH), and 12 low hypnotizable (LH) subjects during waking, hypnosis, and a cued eyes-open posthypnotic condition. In each of these conditions subjects were suggested to produce an obstructive imagery of stimulus perception as a treatment for pain reduction. A No-Analgesia treatment served as a control in waking and hypnosis conditions. The subjects were required to count the number of delivered target stimuli. HH subjects experienced significant pain and distress reductions during posthypnotic analgesia as compared to hypnotic analgesia and between these two analgesic conditions as compared to the two control conditions. Outside of hypnosis, these subjects remembered less pain and distress levels than they reported during hypnotic and posthypnotic analgesia treatments. In contrast, for waking-analgesia treatment, HH subjects remembered similar pain and distress levels to those they reported concurrently with the stimulation. HH subjects, during hypnotic and posthypnotic analgesia treatments, detected a smaller number of target stimuli and displayed a significant amplitude reduction of the midline frontal and central N140 and P200 SERP components. No significant SERP differences were observed for these subjects between treatments in waking condition and between hypnotic and posthypnotic analgesic treatments. For the MH and LH subjects no significant N140 and P200 amplitude changes were observed among analgesic conditions as compared to control conditions. These amplitude findings are seen as indicating that hypnotic analgesia can affect earlier and later stages of stimulus processing. PMID:18023535

  19. Event-related potential correlates of performance-monitoring in a lateralized time-estimation task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo O J Gruendler

    Full Text Available Performance-monitoring as a key function of cognitive control covers a wide range of diverse processes to enable goal directed behavior and to avoid maladjustments. Several event-related brain potentials (ERP are associated with performance-monitoring, but their conceptual background differs. For example, the feedback-related negativity (FRN is associated with unexpected performance feedback and might serve as a teaching signal for adaptational processes, whereas the error-related negativity (ERN is associated with error commission and subsequent behavioral adaptation. The N2 is visible in the EEG when the participant successfully inhibits a response following a cue and thereby adapts to a given stop-signal. Here, we present an innovative paradigm to concurrently study these different performance-monitoring-related ERPs. In 24 participants a tactile time-estimation task interspersed with infrequent stop-signal trials reliably elicited all three ERPs. Sensory input and motor output were completely lateralized, in order to estimate any hemispheric processing preferences for the different aspects of performance monitoring associated with these ERPs. In accordance with the literature our data suggest augmented inhibitory capabilities in the right hemisphere given that stop-trial performance was significantly better with left- as compared to right-hand stop-signals. In line with this, the N2 scalp distribution was generally shifted to the right in addition to an ipsilateral shift in relation to the response hand. Other than that, task lateralization affected neither behavior related to error and feedback processing nor ERN or FRN. Comparing the ERP topographies using the Global Map Dissimilarity index, a large topographic overlap was found between all considered components.With an evenly distributed set of trials and a split-half reliability for all ERP components ≥.85 the task is well suited to efficiently study N2, ERN, and FRN concurrently which

  20. Effects of Sound Frequency on Audiovisual Integration: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yanna; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    A combination of signals across modalities can facilitate sensory perception. The audiovisual facilitative effect strongly depends on the features of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how sound frequency, which is one of basic features of an auditory signal, modulates audiovisual integration. In this study, the task of the participant was to respond to a visual target stimulus by pressing a key while ignoring auditory stimuli, comprising of tones of different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 kHz). A significant facilitation of reaction times was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the task-irrelevant sounds were low or high frequency. Using event-related potential (ERP), audiovisual integration was found over the occipital area for 0.5 kHz auditory stimuli from 190-210 ms, for 1 kHz stimuli from 170-200 ms, for 2.5 kHz stimuli from 140-200 ms, 5 kHz stimuli from 100-200 ms. These findings suggest that a higher frequency sound signal paired with visual stimuli might be early processed or integrated despite the auditory stimuli being task-irrelevant information. Furthermore, audiovisual integration in late latency (300-340 ms) ERPs with fronto-central topography was found for auditory stimuli of lower frequencies (0.5, 1 and 2.5 kHz). Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration is affected by the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Taken together, the neurophysiological results provide unique insight into how the brain processes a multisensory visual signal and auditory stimuli of different frequencies.

  1. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin;

    2013-01-01

    Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...

  2. A new method for detecting interactions between the senses in event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Röder, B.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) can be used in multisensory research to determine the point in time when different senses start to interact, for example, the auditory and the visual system. For this purpose, the ERP to bimodal stimuli (AV) is often compared to the sum of the ERPs to auditory (A...... not contain common activity: This activity would be subtracted twice from one ERP and would, therefore, contaminate the result. In the present study, ERPs to unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli (T) were recorded. We demonstrate that (T + TAV) - (TA + TV) is equivalent...

  3. Exclusion and micro-rejection: event-related potential response predicts mitigated distress

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Michael J.; Wu, Jia; McCarty, Erika R.; David, Daryn H.; Bailey, Christopher A.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    We studied time-based neural activity with event-related potentials (ERPs) in young adults during a computer-simulated ball-toss game. Experiencing fair play initially, participants were ultimately excluded by other players. Dense-array ERPs showed time-dependent associations between slow-wave activity (580–900 ms) in left prefrontal/medial frontal cortical regions for exclusion events and self-reported distress. More subtle ‘micro-rejections’ during fair play showed a similar distress to ERP...

  4. Dealing with others' physical pain reveals variance in empathic processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    OpenAIRE

    Meconi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The present work consists of a review of 5 event-related potentials (i.e., ERPs) experiments I conducted, which deal with the multifaceted nature of human empathy for pain (Experiment 1) and variances in empathic processes, as a function of others’ race (Experiment 2) and others’ perceived trustworthiness, i.e. driven by facial features (Experiments 4-5), addressed through classical and modified versions of the pain decision task. The classical version of the pain decision task requires p...

  5. Kullback-Leibler Penalized Sparse Discriminant Analysis for Event-Related Potential Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Victoria; Rufiner, Hugo Leonardo; Spies, Ruben Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system which provides direct communication between the mind of a person and the outside world by using only brain activity (EEG). The event-related potential (ERP)-based BCI problem consists of a binary pattern recognition. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is widely used to solve this type of classification problems, but it fails when the number of features is large relative to the number of observations. In this work we propose a penalized version of t...

  6. Yoga breathing through a particular nostril is associated with contralateral event-related potential changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In earlier studies uninostril yoga breathing was shown to influence the activity of the cerebral hemispheres differently, based on (i auditory evoked potentials recorded from bilateral scalp sites, and (ii performance in hemisphere-specific tasks. But change in P300 (event-related potential generated when subjects attend to and discriminate between stimuli from bilateral scalp sites when subjects were practicing uni- and alternate-nostril breathing are yet to be explored. Aim: The present study was designed to determine whether or not immediately after uninostril or alternate nostril yoga breathing there would be a change in the ability to pay attention to a given stimulus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers, with ages between 20 and 45 years were randomly allocated to five sessions, viz., (i right-, (ii left-, (iii alternate-nostril yoga breathing, (iv breath awareness and (v no intervention, each for 45 min on separate days. The P300 event related potential was recorded using an auditory oddball paradigm from sites on the left (C3 and right (C4, referenced to linked earlobes, before and after each session. Results: Post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment showed that the P300 peak latency was significantly lower at C3 compared to that at C4, following right nostril yoga breathing (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggest that right nostril yoga breathing facilitates the activity of contralateral (left hemisphere, in the performance of the P300 task.

  7. Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Placebo and Buprenorphine Effects on Event-Related Potentials in Experimental Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus V; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate placebo and buprenorphine effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) in experimental pain and the potential benefit of population pharmacodynamic modelling in data analysis. Nineteen healthy volunteers received transdermal placebo and buprenorphine in a...... cross-over study. Drug plasma concentrations and ERPs after electrical stimulation at the median nerve with intensity adjusted to pain detection threshold were recorded until 144 hrs after administration. Placebo and concentration-effect models were fitted to data using non-linear mixed-effects...... modelling implemented in NONMEM (V7.2.0.). Pharmacodynamic models were developed to adequately describe both placebo and buprenorphine ERP data. Models predicted significant placebo effects, but did not predict significant effects related to buprenorphine concentration. Models revealed that ERPs varied both...

  8. Auditory evoked potentials in young patients with Down syndrome. Event-related potentials (P3) and histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R; Hauser, E; Bernert, G; Marx, M; Freilinger, M; Lubec, G

    1997-06-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome exhibit various types of cognitive impairment. Besides abnormalities in a number of neurotransmitter systems (e.g. cholinergic), histaminergic deficits have recently been identified. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs), were recorded from 10 children (aged 11-20 years) with Down syndrome and from 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In Down subjects, BAEPs revealed shortened latencies for peaks III and V with shortened interpeak latencies I-III and I-V. ERPs showed a delay of components N1, P2, N2 and P3. In addition, subjects with Down syndrome failed to show P3 amplitude reduction during repeated stimulation. To evaluate the cognitive effects of histaminergic dysfunction, ERPs were recorded from 12 healthy adults (aged 20-28 years) before and after antihistaminergic intervention (pheniramine) compared to placebo. Whereas components N1, P2, N2 remained unchanged after H1-receptor antagonism, P3 latency increased and P3 amplitude showed no habituation in response to repeated stimulation. The results suggest that the characteristic neurofunctional abnormalities present in children with Down syndrome must be the consequence of a combination of structural and neurochemical aberrations. The second finding was that antihistaminergic treatment affects information processing tested by ERPs similar to that seen with anticholinergic treatment.

  9. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion. PMID:23110131

  10. Correlation between event-related potentials and MR measurements in chronic alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event-related potentials were recorded in 25 abstinent alcoholics, and 25 gender- and age-matched controls during a two-tone discrimination (odd ball) task. All the subjects were free from medication and dextral. MR images were examined in the alcoholics. The amplitudes of N100, N200 and P300 in the alcoholics were reduced compared with those of the controls. In order to identify morphological changes responsible for ERP abnormalities, linear regression analyses were performed between ERP measures and MRI parameters. The amplitude of N100 was inversely correlated with ventricular size. The amplitudes of P300 were inversely correlated with both ventricular size and width of cortical sulci. It was suggested that the N100 abnormality was related to subcortical structure, and P300 alteration was related to both subcortical and cortical structures in the alcoholics. (author)

  11. A wavelet based algorithm for the identification of oscillatory event-related potential components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniyan, Arun Kumar; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Samar, Vincent J; Desjardins, James A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-08-15

    Event related potentials (ERPs) are very feeble alterations in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) and their detection is a challenging problem. Based on the unique time-based parameters derived from wavelet coefficients and the asymmetry property of wavelets a novel algorithm to separate ERP components in single-trial EEG data is described. Though illustrated as a specific application to N170 ERP detection, the algorithm is a generalized approach that can be easily adapted to isolate different kinds of ERP components. The algorithm detected the N170 ERP component with a high level of accuracy. We demonstrate that the asymmetry method is more accurate than the matching wavelet algorithm and t-CWT method by 48.67 and 8.03 percent, respectively. This paper provides an off-line demonstration of the algorithm and considers issues related to the extension of the algorithm to real-time applications. PMID:24931710

  12. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride:P300 event related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Xiu-juan Wang; Zhe-cheng Zhang; Rong Xue; Ping Li; Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture atShenting (DU24),Tianzhu (BL10),Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra),Renzhong (DU26),Neiguan (PC6),Shenmen (HT7),Fengchi (GB20),Wangu (GB12) andBaihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased ampli-tude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identiifed within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These ifndings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  13. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  14. Event-related brain potential evidence for animacy processing asymmetries during sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Martin, Andrea E; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The animacy distinction is deeply rooted in the language faculty. A key example is differential object marking, the phenomenon where animate sentential objects receive specific marking. We used event-related potentials to examine the neural processing consequences of case-marking violations on animate and inanimate direct objects in Spanish. Inanimate objects with incorrect prepositional case marker 'a' ('al suelo') elicited a P600 effect compared to unmarked objects, consistent with previous literature. However, animate objects without the required prepositional case marker ('el obispo') only elicited an N400 effect compared to marked objects. This novel finding, an exclusive N400 modulation by a straightforward grammatical rule violation, does not follow from extant neurocognitive models of sentence processing, and mirrors unexpected "semantic P600" effects for thematically problematic sentences. These results may reflect animacy asymmetry in competition for argument prominence: following the article, thematic interpretation difficulties are elicited only by unexpectedly animate objects.

  15. Electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Gregory A; Williams, Lisa E; Minow, Falk; Sprock, Joyce; Rissling, Anthony; Sharp, Richard; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the basic neural processes that underlie complex higher-order cognitive operations and functional domains is a fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive method for assessing neurophysiological function that can be used to achieve this goal. EEG measures the electrical activity of large, synchronously firing populations of neurons in the brain with electrodes placed on the scalp. This unit outlines the basics of setting up an EEG experiment with human participants, including equipment, and a step-by-step guide to applying and preparing an electrode cap. Also included are support protocols for two event-related potential (ERP) paradigms, P50 suppression, and mismatch negativity (MMN), which are measures of early sensory processing. These paradigms can be used to assess the integrity of early sensory processing in normal individuals and clinical populations, such as individuals with schizophrenia.

  16. Event-related potentials study in children with borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Vaney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low general cognitive ability is a common cause for learning and academic difficulties. The present study was undertaken to objectively investigate the cognitive functioning of children having borderline intelligence using electrophysiological measures. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on children having borderline intelligence (IQ: 70-85. The cognitive functioning of children was assessed using event-related potentials. Results: Significant prolongation of the latency of P200, N200, and P300 with no significant difference in the amplitudes was seen in the children having borderline intelligence as compared to controls. Conclusions: Brain systems that are important for stimulus discrimination and using cognitive representation to guide cognition and behavior are impaired in children with borderline intelligence.

  17. Event related potentials reveal differences between morphological (prefixes) and phonological (syllables) processing of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alberto; Alija, Maira; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Mauel

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral measures in visual priming tasks show opposite effects for syllables and morphemes, which indicate that they are processed by two independent systems. We used event related potentials (ERPs) to explore two priming situations in Spanish: prefix related words (reacción-REFORMA [reaction-reform]), in which prime and target words shared a first syllable that was also a prefix, and syllable related words (regalo-REFORMA [gift-reform.]), in which the shared first syllable was a pseudoprefix in the prime word. Prefix related pairs, unlike syllable related pairs, evoked a very early positivity in reaction to the target (at 150-250ms window), suggesting that the prefix information is immediately available, at a prelexical stage. By contrast, syllable related pairs showed a larger N400 effect. This late negativity may be caused by lateral inhibition among lexical candidates activated in the lexicon by the prime's first syllable.

  18. The cognitive demands of second order manual control: Applications of the event related brain potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, C.; Gill, R.; Kramer, A.; Ross, W.; Donchin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three experiments are described in which tracking difficulty is varied in the presence of a covert tone discrimination task. Event related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by the tones are employed as an index of the resource demands of tracking. The ERP measure reflected the control order variation, and this variable was thereby assumed to compete for perceptual/central processing resources. A fine-grained analysis of the results suggested that the primary demands of second order tracking involve the central processing operations of maintaining a more complex internal model of the dynamic system, rather than the perceptual demands of higher derivative perception. Experiment 3 varied tracking bandwidth in random input tracking, and the ERP was unaffected. Bandwidth was then inferred to compete for response-related processing resources that are independent of the ERP.

  19. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  20. Classification of event-related potentials using multivariate autoregressive modeling combined with simulated annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasios C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a new method for the classification of Event Related Potentials (ERPs is proposed. The proposed method consists of two modules: the feature extraction module and the classification module. The feature extraction module comprises the implementation of the Multivariate Autoregressive model in conjunction with the Simulated Annealing technique, for the selection of optimum features from ERPs. The classification module is implemented with a single three-layer neural network, trained with the back-propagation algorithm and classifies the data into two classes: patients and control subjects. The method, in the form of a Decision Support System (DSS, has been thoroughly tested to a number of patient data (OCD, FES, depressives and drug users, resulting successful classification up to 100%.

  1. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  2. Negative feedback influences auditory recognition: behavioral and event-related potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelzow, Nadine; Nessler, Doreen; Saenger, Jessica; Schneider, Till R; Debener, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Stress induced by negative feedback is known to impair recognition memory, although little is known about its neural correlates. Immediately before an auditory recognition test, a negative- and positive-feedback group received different, faked scores about their performance in a Tower-of-Hanoi task. Negative feedback increased reaction times for correct rejections of new sounds. Although the positive-feedback group showed frontally and parietally more positive-going event-related potentials for correctly recognized old items than correct rejections (OLD/NEW effect) between 400 and 700 ms, suggesting the presence of familiarity and recollection-related recognition processes, the negative-feedback group showed late (>1100 ms) sustained right-frontal OLD/NEW effects possibly reflecting postmemory monitoring. Hence, negative feedback might change recognition memory by disabling recollection in favor of postmemory monitoring processes. PMID:20531235

  3. Processing of global and local properties——An analysis with event-related brain potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世辉; 陈霖

    1996-01-01

    The different processing of global and local properties of compound visual stimuli was studied with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the present experiment. It was found that, compared with the identification of global properties, the discrimination of local properties elicited longer RTs, lower accuracies, increased amplitudes of P1, decreased amplitudes of N1, and longer latencies of N2 and P3. The conflict of global and local properties increased the amplitudes of P2, decreased the amplitudes of P3, and prolonged latencies of N2 and P3. These results indicated that the advantage of global processing occurs at an early perceptual stage, and the attentional mechanisms for global and local processing may be different.

  4. Event-related potentials in response to 3-D auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Okubo, Osami; Fujita, Yukihiko; Kohira, Ryutaro; Arakawa, Chikako; Endo, Ayumi; Haruyama, Wakako; Imai, Yuki; Mugishima, Hideo

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate auditory spatial cognitive function, age correlations for event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect were studied in normal children. A sound with a Doppler effect is perceived as a moving audio image. A total of 99 normal subjects (age range, 4-21 years) were tested. In the task-relevant oddball paradigm, P300 and key-press reaction time were elicited using auditory stimuli (1000 Hz fixed and enlarged tones with a Doppler effect). From the age of 4 years, the P300 latency for the enlarged tone with a Doppler effect shortened more rapidly with age than did the P300 latency for tone-pips, and the latencies for the different conditions became similar towards the late teens. The P300 of auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect may be used to evaluate auditory spatial cognitive function in children.

  5. Selective attention to orientation and closure: An event- related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅世敏; 范思陆; 陈霖

    2000-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when the subjects attended selectively to stimuli in one visual field and responded to the targets including designated feature (orientation or closure) value. Attention to spatial location elicited enlarged PI and Nl at posterior electrodes contralater-al to the stimulus location, whereas selection to orientation or closure elicited selection negativity (SN) and a late negative component (LNC). The selection of spatial location was prior to the selection of orientation or closure. SN was elicited only by the stimuli in the attended visual field, suggesting that the selection of orientation and closure are contingent on the prior selection of location. Moreover, the onset latency of SN was earlier for closure selection than for orientation selection, indicating that the processing of closure occurred earlier than the processing of orientation. The results are consistent with the early-selection theories of attention and provide psycho-physiological evidence

  6. Selective attention to orientation and closure: An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when the subjects attended selectively to stimuli in one visual field and responded to the targets including designated feature (orientation or closure) value. Attention to spatial location elicited enlarged P1 and N1 at posterior electrodes contralateral to the stimulus location, whereas selection to orientation or closure elicited selection negativity (SN) and a late negative component (LNC). The selection of spatial location was prior to the selection of orientation or closure. SN was elicited only by the stimuli in the attended visual field, suggesting that the selection of orientation and closure are contingent on the prior selection of location. Moreover, the onset latency of SN was earlier for closure selection than for orientation selection, indicating that the processing of closure occurred earlier than the processing of orientation. The results are consistent with the early-selection theories of attention and provide psycho-physiological evidence for the topology theory of visual perception.

  7. Asymmetry between the upper and lower visual fields: An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examined the electrophysiological and attentional asymmetries between the upper visual field (UVF) and the lower visual field (LVF) while subjects were performing a target detecting task. The early ERP components showed a smaller P1 and a larger N1 in LVF than in UVF over the occipito-parietal areas, while the late components (N2 and P3) showed no difference between the two visual fields. In addition, the attention enhancement on the P1 component was greater in UVF than in LVF. These findings suggest that the function of the UVF and LVF differ in terms of both early visual information processing and attentional modulation.

  8. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Jonker, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N = 25) and older (N = 38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic

  9. Human brain EEG indices of emotions: delineating responses to affective vocalizations by measuring frontal theta event-related synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Rossi, John; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    At present there is no direct brain measure of basic emotional dynamics from the human brain. EEG provides non-invasive approaches for monitoring brain electrical activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis, based on power shifts in specific frequency bands, has some potential as a method for differentiating responses to basic emotions as measured during brief presentations of affective stimuli. Although there appears to be fairly consistent theta ERS in frontal regions of the brain during the earliest phases of processing affective auditory stimuli, the patterns do not readily distinguish between specific emotions. To date it has not been possible to consistently differentiate brain responses to emotion-specific affective states or stimuli, and some evidence to suggests the theta ERS more likely measures general arousal processes rather than yielding veridical indices of specific emotional states. Perhaps cortical EEG patterns will never be able to be used to distinguish discrete emotional states from the surface of the brain. The implications and limitations of such approaches for understanding human emotions are discussed. PMID:21596060

  10. RELATIONSHIP OF LATE POSITIVE ERPS (EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS), AGE, INTELLIGENCE AND LEAD ABSORPTION IN SOCIOECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families are at risk for malnutrition, learning disabilities, and many other problems associated with poverty. Increasing application of event-related potentials (ERP) methods has been made in studies of aberrant development, although...

  11. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies. PMID:26557933

  12. Executive dysfunctions and event-related brain potentials in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eSeer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence implies psychological disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Specifically, executive dysfunctions occur in up to 50% of ALS patients. The recently shown presence of cytoplasmic aggregates (TDP-43 in ALS patients and in patients with behavioral variants of frontotemporal dementia suggests that these two disease entities form the extremes of a spectrum. The present study aimed at investigating behavioral and electrophysiological indices of conflict processing in patients with ALS. A non-verbal variant of the flanker task demanded two-choice responses to target stimuli that were surrounded by flanker stimuli which either primed the correct response or the alternative response (the latter case representing the conflict situation. Behavioral performance, event-related potentials (ERP, and lateralized readiness potentials (LRP were analyzed in 21 ALS patients and 20 controls. In addition, relations between these measures and executive dysfunctions were examined. ALS patients performed the flanker task normally, indicating preserved conflict processing. In similar vein, ERP and LRP indices of conflict processing did not differ between groups. However, ALS patients showed enhanced posterior negative ERP waveform deflections, possibly indicating increased modulation of visual processing by frontoparietal networks in ALS. We also found that the presence of executive dysfunctions was associated with more error-prone behavior and enhanced LRP amplitudes in ALS patients, pointing to a prefrontal pathogenesis of executive dysfunctions and to a potential link between prefrontal and motor cortical functional dysregulation in ALS, respectively.

  13. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  14. The impact of emotional involvement on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meina; Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2015-12-01

    When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers' emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals' emotional involvement toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers' evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions. PMID:26457370

  15. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  16. Age difference in numeral recognition and calculation: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Dong; Wang, Suhong; Yang, Yilin; Meng, Ping; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wen; Sheng, Wei; Yang, Yuxia

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the age difference in numeral recognition and calculation in one group of school-aged children (n = 38) and one of undergraduate students (n = 26) using the event-related potential (ERP) methods. Consistent with previous reports, the age difference was significant in behavioral results. Both numeral recognition and calculation elicited a negativity peaking at about 170-280 ms (N2) and a positivity peaking at 200-470 ms (pSW) in raw ERPs, and a difference potential (dN3) between 360 and 450 ms. The difference between the two age groups indicated that more attention resources were devoted to arithmetical tasks in school-aged children, and that school-aged children and undergraduate students appear to use different strategies to solve arithmetical problems. The analysis of frontal negativity suggested that numeral recognition and mental calculation impose greater load on working memory and executive function in schoolchildren than in undergraduate students. The topography data determined that the parietal regions were responsible for arithmetical function in humans, and there was an age-related difference in the area of cerebral activation. PMID:17364561

  17. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  18. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model.

  19. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples. PMID:23629689

  20. Effects of emotional intensity under perceptual load: An event-related potentials (ERPs) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Bardorff, Miriam; Schulz, Claudia; Peterburs, Jutta; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang; Straube, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Effects of emotional intensity and valence on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are still poorly understood, in particular in the context of limited attentional resources. In the present EEG study, we investigated the effect of emotional intensity of different emotional facial expressions on P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) while varying the amount of available attentional resources. A new stimulus set comprising 90 full color pictures of neutral, happy (low, high intensity), and angry (low, high intensity) expressions was developed. These facial expressions were presented centrally, superimposed by two horizontal bars, and participants engaged in a focal bars task. Availability of attentional resources was varied in two conditions by manipulating the difficulty of the focal bars task (low vs. high perceptual load). Our findings demonstrate intensity and valence effects of task-irrelevant facial expressions on early (N170) and intermediate processing stages (EPN). In addition, task-related effects of perceptual load evolved at intermediate processing stages and were full blown in the time window of LPP. In line with limited resource accounts, valence effects on N170 and EPN were reduced under high perceptual load. Interestingly, apart from this valence by load interaction no further interactions between stimulus and task-driven factors were obtained: Effects of emotional intensity were not modulated by the perceptual load of the focal bars task, indicating that emotional intensity was processed even though attentional resources were heavily restricted.

  1. The impact of emotional involvement on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meina; Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2015-12-01

    When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers' emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals' emotional involvement toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers' evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions.

  2. Effects of emotional intensity under perceptual load: An event-related potentials (ERPs) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Bardorff, Miriam; Schulz, Claudia; Peterburs, Jutta; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang; Straube, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Effects of emotional intensity and valence on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are still poorly understood, in particular in the context of limited attentional resources. In the present EEG study, we investigated the effect of emotional intensity of different emotional facial expressions on P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) while varying the amount of available attentional resources. A new stimulus set comprising 90 full color pictures of neutral, happy (low, high intensity), and angry (low, high intensity) expressions was developed. These facial expressions were presented centrally, superimposed by two horizontal bars, and participants engaged in a focal bars task. Availability of attentional resources was varied in two conditions by manipulating the difficulty of the focal bars task (low vs. high perceptual load). Our findings demonstrate intensity and valence effects of task-irrelevant facial expressions on early (N170) and intermediate processing stages (EPN). In addition, task-related effects of perceptual load evolved at intermediate processing stages and were full blown in the time window of LPP. In line with limited resource accounts, valence effects on N170 and EPN were reduced under high perceptual load. Interestingly, apart from this valence by load interaction no further interactions between stimulus and task-driven factors were obtained: Effects of emotional intensity were not modulated by the perceptual load of the focal bars task, indicating that emotional intensity was processed even though attentional resources were heavily restricted. PMID:26995785

  3. The application of particle filters in single trial event-related potential estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an approach for the estimation of single trial event-related potentials (ST-ERPs) using particle filters (PFs) is presented. The method is based on recursive Bayesian mean square estimation of ERP wavelet coefficients using their previous estimates as prior information. To enable a performance evaluation of the approach in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian distributed noise conditions, we added Gaussian white noise (GWN) and real electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded during rest to the simulated ERPs. The results were compared to that of the Kalman filtering (KF) approach demonstrating the robustness of the PF over the KF to the added GWN noise. The proposed method also outperforms the KF when the assumption about the Gaussianity of the noise is violated. We also applied this technique to real EEG potentials recorded in an odd-ball paradigm and investigated the correlation between the amplitude and the latency of the estimated ERP components. Unlike the KF method, for the PF there was a statistically significant negative correlation between amplitude and latency of the estimated ERPs, matching previous neurophysiological findings

  4. Aesthetic appreciation of poetry correlates with ease of processing in event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A; Jessen, Sarah; Raettig, Tim; von Koppenfels, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-04-01

    Rhetorical theory suggests that rhythmic and metrical features of language substantially contribute to persuading, moving, and pleasing an audience. A potential explanation of these effects is offered by "cognitive fluency theory," which stipulates that recurring patterns (e.g., meter) enhance perceptual fluency and can lead to greater aesthetic appreciation. In this article, we explore these two assertions by investigating the effects of meter and rhyme in the reception of poetry by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants listened to four versions of lyrical stanzas that varied in terms of meter and rhyme, and rated the stanzas for rhythmicity and aesthetic liking. The behavioral and ERP results were in accord with enhanced liking and rhythmicity ratings for metered and rhyming stanzas. The metered and rhyming stanzas elicited smaller N400/P600 ERP responses than their nonmetered, nonrhyming, or nonmetered and nonrhyming counterparts. In addition, the N400 and P600 effects for the lyrical stanzas correlated with aesthetic liking effects (metered-nonmetered), implying that modulation of the N400 and P600 has a direct bearing on the aesthetic appreciation of lyrical stanzas. We suggest that these effects are indicative of perceptual-fluency-enhanced aesthetic liking, as postulated by cognitive fluency theory. PMID:26697879

  5. Stop-signal response inhibition in schizophrenia: behavioural, event-related potential and functional neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew Edward; Fulham, William Ross; Johnston, Patrick James; Michie, Patricia Therese

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control deficits are well documented in schizophrenia, supported by impairment in an established measure of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). We investigated the neural basis of this impairment by comparing schizophrenia patients and controls matched for age, sex and education on behavioural, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) indices of stop-signal task performance. Compared to controls, patients exhibited slower SSRT and reduced right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) activation, but rIFG activation correlated with SSRT in both groups. Go stimulus and stop-signal ERP components (N1/P3) were smaller in patients, but the peak latencies of stop-signal N1 and P3 were also delayed in patients, indicating impairment early in stop-signal processing. Additionally, response-locked lateralised readiness potentials indicated response preparation was prolonged in patients. An inability to engage rIFG may predicate slowed inhibition in patients, however multiple spatiotemporal irregularities in the networks underpinning stop-signal task performance may contribute to this deficit. PMID:22027085

  6. Scale-Free Brain Networks Based on the Event-Related Potential during Visual Spatial Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; JIN Zhen-Lan

    2011-01-01

    @@ The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe.The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks.Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data.We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event-related potential activity between visual spatial attention and unattention conditions.It is found that the degree distribution of the brain functional networks under both the conditions is a power law distribution, which reflects a scale-free property.Moreover, the scaling exponent of the attention condition is significantly smaller than that of the unattention condition.However, the degree distribution of equivalent random networks does not follow the power law distribution.In addition, the clustering coefficient of these random networks is smaller than those of brain networks, and the shortest path length of these random networks is large and comparable with those of brain networks.Our results, typical of scale-free networks, indicate that the scaling exponent of brain activity could reflect different cognitive processes.%The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe. The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks. Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data. We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event-related

  7. Tracking the intrusion of unwanted memories into awareness with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary retrieval of unwanted memories is a common symptom in several clinical disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. With an aim to track the temporal dynamics of such memory intrusions, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while participants engaged in a Think/No-Think task. We presented the left hand word (the cue) of previously encoded word pairs in green or red font. We asked participants to think of the associated right hand word (the associate) when the cue appeared in green (Think condition) and to avoid thinking of the associate when the cue appeared in red (No-Think condition). To isolate cases when participants experienced an intrusive memory, at the end of each trial, participants judged whether the response had come to mind; we classified memories that came to mind during No-Think trials, despite efforts to stop retrieval, as intrusions. In an event-related potential (ERP) analysis, we observed a negative going slow wave (NSW) effect that indexed the duration of a trace in mnemonic awareness; whereas voluntary retrieval and maintenance of the associate was related to a sustained NSW that lasted throughout the 3-s recording epoch, memory intrusions generated short-lived NSWs that were rapidly truncated. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the intrusion-NSW reflects the associate briefly penetrating working memory. More broadly, these findings exploit the high temporal resolution of ERPs to track the online dynamics of memory intrusions. PMID:27396675

  8. The processing of morphological structure information in Chinese coordinative compounds: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K H; Tong, Xiuhong; Liu, Phil D; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2010-09-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological structure processing of Chinese compounds at short SOAs of 57ms. Event-related potentials were recorded while 16 Hong Kong Chinese university students were instructed to make visual lexical decisions in a decision-making task involving Chinese compound words. Only words in the category of the coordinative compounding structure were included in the present study. In this compounding structure, both morphemes comprising the compound word are of equal importance, similar to the phrase "in-and-out" in English, where neither "in" nor "out" can be considered the head or modifier in the compound; both morphemes are of equal weight in communicating meaning. While the classic N400 semantic priming effect was replicated at this short SOA, an earlier P250 component, suggested to reflect semantic memory network activation during semantic information processing, was also obtained. The morphological structure effect was only found in the P250 component, suggesting that morphological structure may automatically influence the semantic information processing during Chinese compound word processing. PMID:20627093

  9. Event-related potentials in response to violations of content and temporal event knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Janna; van der Meer, Elke; Schaadt, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Scripts that store knowledge of everyday events are fundamentally important for managing daily routines. Content event knowledge (i.e., knowledge about which events belong to a script) and temporal event knowledge (i.e., knowledge about the chronological order of events in a script) constitute qualitatively different forms of knowledge. However, there is limited information about each distinct process and the time course involved in accessing content and temporal event knowledge. Therefore, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to either correctly presented event sequences or event sequences that contained a content or temporal error. We found an N400, which was followed by a posteriorly distributed P600 in response to content errors in event sequences. By contrast, we did not find an N400 but an anteriorly distributed P600 in response to temporal errors in event sequences. Thus, the N400 seems to be elicited as a response to a general mismatch between an event and the established event model. We assume that the expectancy violation of content event knowledge, as indicated by the N400, induces the collapse of the established event model, a process indicated by the posterior P600. The expectancy violation of temporal event knowledge is assumed to induce an attempt to reorganize the event model in working memory, a process indicated by the frontal P600.

  10. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  11. Distributed patterns of event-related potentials predict subsequent ratings of abstract stimulus attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bode

    Full Text Available Exposure to pleasant and rewarding visual stimuli can bias people's choices towards either immediate or delayed gratification. We hypothesised that this phenomenon might be based on carry-over effects from a fast, unconscious assessment of the abstract 'time reference' of a stimuli, i.e. how the stimulus relates to one's personal understanding and connotation of time. Here we investigated whether participants' post-experiment ratings of task-irrelevant, positive background visual stimuli for the dimensions 'arousal' (used as a control condition and 'time reference' were related to differences in single-channel event-related potentials (ERPs and whether they could be predicted from spatio-temporal patterns of ERPs. Participants performed a demanding foreground choice-reaction task while on each trial one task-irrelevant image (depicting objects, people and scenes was presented in the background. Conventional ERP analyses as well as multivariate support vector regression (SVR analyses were conducted to predict participants' subsequent ratings. We found that only SVR allowed both 'arousal' and 'time reference' ratings to be predicted during the first 200 ms post-stimulus. This demonstrates an early, automatic semantic stimulus analysis, which might be related to the high relevance of 'time reference' to everyday decision-making and preference formation.

  12. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  13. How children process over-regularizations: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Lück, Monika; Hahne, Anja

    2007-08-01

    This study examines the mental processes involved in children's on-line recognition of inflected word forms using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixty children in three age groups (20 six- to seven-year-olds, 20 eight- to nine-year-olds, 20 eleven- to twelve-year-olds) and 23 adults (tested in a previous study) listened to sentences containing correct or incorrect German noun plural forms. In the two older child groups, as well as in the adult group, over-regularized plural forms elicited brain responses that are characteristic of combinatorial (grammatical) violations. We also found that ERP components associated with language processing change from child to adult with respect to their onsets and their topography. The ERP violation effects obtained for over-regularizations suggest that children (aged eight years and above) and adults employ morphological computation for processing purposes, consistent with dual-mechanism models of inflection. The observed differences between children's and adults' ERP responses are argued to result from children's smaller lexicons and from slower and less efficient processing.

  14. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Kyong; Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-03-01

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect. PMID:24518230

  15. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  16. Gender and number processing in Chinese learners of Spanish - evidence from Event Related Potentials.

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    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Guo, Taomei; Guo, Jingjing; Barber, Horacio; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, age of acquisition (AoA) has been considered the single most important factor in second language (L2) acquisition and processing, particularly in the area of syntax processing. However, there is now growing evidence of the importance of other factors, such as the level of proficiency attained and the degree of overlap or similarity between the first language (L1) and L2 structures and possibility of transfer of features and/or processing routines. However, the relative importance of these factors and the nature of L1-L2 transfer are still unclear. To shed light on these issues, we recorded the electrical brain activity of a group of Chinese proficient late learners of Spanish, using the Event Related Potentials technique, while they read Spanish sentences containing violations of number and grammatical gender agreement (adjective-noun agreement and article-noun agreement). Unlike Spanish, Mandarin Chinese is an isolating language in which morphosyntactic features such as gender and number are not computed and so the ERP results from this group can help to clarify the role of L1-L2 transfer in morpho-syntax processing routines. The results included P600 effects for both gender and number agreement violations, with no differences between these disagreement conditions. These results are taken to support second language acquisition models which stress the roles of proficiency and L1-L2 transfer in L2 syntax processing.

  17. From mind to mouth: event related potentials of sentence production in classic galactosemia.

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    Inge Timmers

    Full Text Available Patients with classic galactosemia, an inborn error of metabolism, have speech and language production impairments. Past research primarily focused on speech (motor problems, but these cannot solely explain the language impairments. Which specific deficits contribute to the impairments in language production is not yet known. Deficits in semantic and syntactic planning are plausible and require further investigation. In the present study, we examined syntactic encoding while patients and matched controls overtly described scenes of moving objects using either separate words (minimal syntactic planning or sentences (sentence-level syntactic planning. The design of the paradigm also allowed tapping into local noun phrase- and more global sentence-level syntactic planning. Simultaneously, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs. The patients needed more time to prepare and finish the utterances and made more errors. The patient ERPs had a very similar morphology to that of healthy controls, indicating overall comparable neural processing. Most importantly, the ERPs diverged from those of controls in several functionally informative time windows, ranging from very early (90-150 ms post scene onset to relatively late (1820-2020 ms post scene onset. These time windows can be associated with different linguistic encoding stages. The ERP results form the first neuroscientific evidence for language production impairments in patients with galactosemia in lexical and syntactic planning stages, i.e., prior to the linguistic output phase. These findings hence shed new light on the language impairments in this disease.

  18. The esthetic preference of Chinese typefaces--an event-related potential study.

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    Li, Rui; Qin, Ruilin; Zhang, Junsong; Wu, Junjie; Zhou, Changle

    2015-02-19

    Emotional stimuli such as pictures, logos, geometric shapes, etc can evoke human esthetic preference from previous neuroesthetic studies. Chinese characters can be considered as emotional stimuli as they have an important property: typeface. Intuitively, the emotional meaning of Chinese characters can cause esthetic preference. However, whether a typeface can cause esthetic preference or not from an empirical perspective is still unknown. To address this issue, participants׳ event-related potential (ERP) waves are recorded while they are presented a series of Chinese characters in different typefaces. Participants are asked to distinguish specific target from the others. Afterwards, from the Chinese characters presented in this task, participants are asked individually to select the characters they like the most and dislike the most. By recording the ERP responses (a response of implicit preference to Chinese characters themselves) during the experiment to different typefaces of Chinese characters, we find a significant difference between disliked and all characters in the frontal-central area in the 200-300 ms window after the stimulus׳ onset. In the 400-600 ms window, after the stimulus׳ onset, a significant bias for disliked characters emerges in frontal, central, parietal and occipital areas. Our results suggest that people could make a rapid, implicit esthetic preference for the typefaces of Chinese characters. PMID:25498863

  19. Picture encoding and retrieval:An event-related potentials study

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    NIE Aiqing; GUO Chunyan; WU Yanhong; QU Nan; DING Jinhong

    2004-01-01

    A study-test paradigm was used to investigate the Dm (Differential memory) effect and the old/new effect of pictures. The participants were asked to judge whether the pictures were previously studied or not when they were presented with a series of pictures during the test phase. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during encoding and retrieval phases. The results showed that (1) during 400-700 ms of encoding, the remembered old pictures elicited more positive waveforms than the forgotten old pictures at frontal and central areas; (2) during 500-600 ms of retrieval, the correctly judged old pictures elicited more positive waveforms than the correctly judged new pictures at medial-midline in both hemispheres; (3) the duration of Dm effect was longer than that of old/new effect for picture. The present results suggest that the Dm effect of pictures is different from that of words and faces in spatial and temporal distributions. The neural mechanisms of picture encoding and picture retrieval are also different, which indicates that retrieval is not the simple recovery of encoding.

  20. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention.

  1. Neurocognitive mechanisms of statistical-sequential learning: what do event-related potentials tell us?

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    Daltrozzo, Jerome; Conway, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Statistical-sequential learning (SL) is the ability to process patterns of environmental stimuli, such as spoken language, music, or one's motor actions, that unfold in time. The underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of SL and the associated cognitive representations are still not well understood as reflected by the heterogeneity of the reviewed cognitive models. The purpose of this review is: (1) to provide a general overview of the primary models and theories of SL, (2) to describe the empirical research - with a focus on the event-related potential (ERP) literature - in support of these models while also highlighting the current limitations of this research, and (3) to present a set of new lines of ERP research to overcome these limitations. The review is articulated around three descriptive dimensions in relation to SL: the level of abstractness of the representations learned through SL, the effect of the level of attention and consciousness on SL, and the developmental trajectory of SL across the life-span. We conclude with a new tentative model that takes into account these three dimensions and also point to several promising new lines of SL research. PMID:24994975

  2. Short-Term Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Aggression: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 minutes, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT, which is based on Taylor’s Aggression Paradigm and measures both reaction time and noise intensity preference as indices of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT (noise intensity preference. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  3. Effects of incense on brain function: evaluation using electroencephalograms and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Mutsumi; Osawa, Mikio; Nishitani, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the odor of incense on brain activity, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a push/wait paradigm were recorded in 10 healthy adults (aged 23-39 years) with normal olfactory function. EEG was recorded from 21 electrodes on the scalp, according to the International 10-20 system, and EEG power spectra were calculated by fast Fourier transform for 3 min before and during odor presentation. ERPs were recorded from 15 electrodes on the scalp before, during and after exposure to incense with intervals of 10 min. In a push/wait paradigm, two Japanese words, 'push' as the go stimulus and 'wait' as the no-go stimulus, appeared randomly on a CRT screen with equal probability. The subjects were instructed to push a button whenever the 'push' signal appeared. Fast alpha activity (10-13 Hz) increased significantly in bilateral posterior regions during incense exposure compared to that during rose oil exposure. The peak amplitudes of no-go P3 at Fz and Cz were significantly greater during incense inhalation. The latencies of go P3 and no-go P3, and the amplitude and latencies of no-go N2 did not change by exposure to the odors of both incense, rose and odorless air. These results suggest that the odor of incense may enhance cortical activities and the function of inhibitory processing of motor response.

  4. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

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    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  5. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

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    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  6. Auditory P300 Event-Related Potentials in Children with Sydenham?s Chorea

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    Hasan Hüseyin Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available P300 event-related potentials (ERPs, objective measures related to cognitive processing, have not been studied in Sydenham’s chorea (SC patients. Purpose: To assess cognitive impairment with P300 ERPs. Method: Seventeen patients with SC and 20 unaffected healthy children were included. Stanford–Binet test was used for psychometric assessment, and odd-ball paradigm was used for auditory ERPs. Results: There was no significant difference in P300 latencies between the SC-pretreatment group, SC-posttreatment group and control group (p>0.05. Mean interpeak latencies in SC-pretreatment group and SC-posttreatment group showed significant prolongation compared with the control group (p<0.05. Mean interpeak latencies in SC-posttreatment group were significantly decreased compared with SC-pretreatment group (p<0.05. Compared to controls, patients did not show significant difference in Stanford-Binet intelligence examination. Conclusion: This report suggests that interpeak latencies and amplitudes of P300 ERPs could be useful for detecting and monitoring cognitive impairment in SC patients.

  7. Prestimulus EEG microstates influence visual event-related potential microstates in field maps with 47 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakor, I; Lehmann, D; Michel, C M; Brandeis, D; Kochi, K; Koenig

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the immediate prestimulus EEG microstate (sub-second epoch of stable topography/map landscape) on the map landscape of visually evoked 47-channel event-related potential (ERP) microstates was examined using the frequent, non-target stimuli of a cognitive paradigm (12 volunteers). For the two frequent prestimulus microstate classes (oriented left anterior-right posterior and right anterior-left posterior), ERP map series were selectively averaged. The post-stimulus ERP grand average map series was segmented into microstates; 10 were found. The centroid locations of positive and negative map areas extracted as landscape descriptors. Significant differences (MANOVAs and t-tests) between the two prestimulus classes were found in four of the ten ERP microstates. The relative orientation of the two ERP microstate classes was the same as prestimulus in some ERP microstates, but reversed in others. Thus, brain electric microstates at stimulus arrival influence the landscapes of the post-stimulus ERP maps and therefore, information processing; prestimulus microstate effects differed for different post-stimulus ERP microstates.

  8. Discrepancy of neural response between exogenous and endogenous task switching: an event-related potentials study.

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    Miyajima, Maki; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kusumi, Ichiro; Murohashi, Harumitsu; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2012-08-01

    Task switching is a well-known cognitive paradigm to explore task-set reconfiguration processes such as rule shifting. In particular, endogenous task switching is thought to differ qualitatively from stimulus-triggered exogenous task switching. However, no previous study has examined the neural substrate of endogenous task switching. The purpose of the present study is to explore the differences between event-related potential responses to exogenous and endogenous rule switching at cue stimulus. We modified two patterns of cued switching tasks: exogenous (bottom-up) rule switching and endogenous (top-down) rule switching. In each task cue stimulus was configured to induce switching or maintaining rule. In exogenous switching tasks, late positive deflection was larger in the switch rule condition than in the maintain rule condition. However, in endogenous switching tasks late positive deflection was unexpectedly larger in the maintain-rule condition than in the switch-rule condition. These results indicate that exogenous rule switching is explicit stimulus-driven processes, whereas endogenous rule switching is implicitly parallel processes independent of external stimulus.

  9. The impact of perceived quality on online buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

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    Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2014-10-01

    Consumer neuroscience can provide useful insights into the neural foundations of consumer decisions, such as perceived quality. One of the applications is to guide attribute configuration of products to fit consumers' expectations on the basis of individual preferences. In this study, we required 20 participants to decide whether to buy the product provided in the stimuli and to respond as soon as possible. According to their reports of expectations after the experiment, we subdivided the stimuli into two conditions. Condition 1 contained the stimuli that fit individual preferences, whereas Condition 2 contained the other stimuli. An essential component of event-related potentials (ERPs), the P300, was elicited in the two conditions and distributed over almost all parietal and occipital regions. Products in Condition 1 induced a higher P300 amplitude than those in Condition 2. The results show that evaluating product attributes is a cognitive process that modulates attention in the aforementioned regions. When participants evaluate the alternatives, categorical processing occurred on the basis of similarity judgment. The situation in Condition 1 produced a similarity overlap between the product and the expectation and resulted in a higher P300. Otherwise, there was no overlap, leading to a smaller P300. Hence, the P300 may be a useful neural endogenous indicator for measuring consumers' evaluations of products in marketing research. PMID:25037004

  10. Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

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    Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A

    1999-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent. PMID:10344021

  11. Time-Frequency Data Reduction for Event Related Potentials: Combining Principal Component Analysis and Matching Pursuit

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    Selin Aviyente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint time-frequency representations offer a rich representation of event related potentials (ERPs that cannot be obtained through individual time or frequency domain analysis. This representation, however, comes at the expense of increased data volume and the difficulty of interpreting the resulting representations. Therefore, methods that can reduce the large amount of time-frequency data to experimentally relevant components are essential. In this paper, we present a method that reduces the large volume of ERP time-frequency data into a few significant time-frequency parameters. The proposed method is based on applying the widely used matching pursuit (MP approach, with a Gabor dictionary, to principal components extracted from the time-frequency domain. The proposed PCA-Gabor decomposition is compared with other time-frequency data reduction methods such as the time-frequency PCA approach alone and standard matching pursuit methods using a Gabor dictionary for both simulated and biological data. The results show that the proposed PCA-Gabor approach performs better than either the PCA alone or the standard MP data reduction methods, by using the smallest amount of ERP data variance to produce the strongest statistical separation between experimental conditions.

  12. Neurophysiological evidence for the country-of-origin effect: an event-related potential study.

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    Min, Byoung-Kyong; Cho, Kwangsu; Sung, Jungyeon; Cho, Erin

    2014-03-01

    Consumers often rely on observable cues that hint at the hidden quality of a product. The aim of this study was to investigate brain activities associated with the country-of-origin (COO) effect and consumer evaluation of a product design. Electroencephalogram recordings were used to observe event-related brain potentials associated with the COO effect and design evaluation. We found that the frontocentral N90 and parieto-occipital P220 amplitudes are involved in forming preference to design, whereas the COO effect is processed in the centroparietal P500 amplitude. We also found a significant interaction effect between COO and design preference with regard to reaction times. Specifically, participants tended to spend more time making a preference decision when they did not like the product design made in a country with a favorable COO. These results imply that the two cognitive processes, evaluation of COO and formation of design preference, are activated independently at an early stage. It also suggests that these two processes interact with each other toward the end of the decision phase. Together, the results of this study provide neuropsychological evidence supporting a significant role of COO in the formation of design preference. Future studies are required to further delve into other neurophysiological activities associated with the COO effect.

  13. Neural responses to cartoon facial attractiveness: An event-related potential study.

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    Lu, Yingjun; Wang, Jingmei; Wang, Ling; Wang, Junli; Qin, Jinliang

    2014-06-01

    Animation creates a vivid, virtual world and expands the scope of human imagination. In this study, we investigated the time-courses of brain responses related to the evaluation of the attractiveness of cartoon faces using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The results demonstrated that N170 amplitude was higher for attractive than for unattractive cartoon faces in males, while the opposite was found in females. Facial attractiveness notably modulated the late positive component (LPC), which might reflect the task-related process of aesthetic appraisal of beauty. The mean LPC amplitude in males was significantly higher for attractive cartoon faces than for unattractive faces, while the LPC amplitude in females did not significantly differ between attractive and unattractive cartoon faces. Moreover, the paint mode (computer graphics, gouache, and stick figure) modulated the early encoding of facial structures and the late evaluative process. The early modulation effect by paint mode may be related to the spatial frequency of the pictures. The processing speed and intensity in females were both higher than those in males. In conclusion, our study, for the first time, reported ERP modulation based on the assessment of cartoon facial attractiveness, suggesting the facilitated selection of attractiveness information at the early stage, and that the attentional enhancement of attractive faces at the late stage only exists in males. This suggests that men's brains are hard-wired to be sensitive to facial beauty, even in cartoons.

  14. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS IN PATIENTS WITH OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER, DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zeping; CHEN Xingshi; ZHANG Mingdao; LOU Feiying; CHEN Jue

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of contingent negative variations (CNV), P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), depression and anxiety. Methods: Event- related potentials CNV, P300 and MMN were recorded in 31 patients with OCD by Nicolet Spirit Instrument, and were compared with that of 20 depression controls (DC) and 17 anxiety controls (AC) and 28 normal controls (NC). Results: A significant difference of CNV among 4 subject groups was found in both post- imperative negative variation (PINV) and amplitudes (M1) (P < 0.01 ) (emergence of PINV were 45%,60%, 35%, and 4% in OCD, DC, AC and NC groups respectively). Compared with NC group, DC and AC groups showed decreased M1 amplitude ( P < 0.01). A significant difference of P300 among 4 groups was found in both latencies (Cz/N2) and P3 and nontarget - P2 amplitudes (P < 0.05 ~ 0.01). The delayed MMN latencies of OCD and DC were similar to that of P300 changes. Conclusions: CNV, P300 and MMN are useful tools for assessing the brain malfunction of OCD, DC and AC, and its clinical application are suggested. The characteristics ERPs of those patients might be useful indexes in distinguishing OCD from DC and AC patients.

  15. Gender differences in memory processing of female facial attractiveness: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wei, Bin; Zhao, Peiqiong; Zheng, Minxiao; Zhang, Lili

    2016-06-01

    High rates of agreement in the judgment of facial attractiveness suggest universal principles of beauty. This study investigated gender differences in recognition memory processing of female facial attractiveness. Thirty-four Chinese heterosexual participants (17 females, 17 males) aged 18-24 years (mean age 21.63 ± 1.51 years) participated in the experiment which used event-related potentials (ERPs) based on a study-test paradigm. The behavioral data results showed that both men and women had significantly higher accuracy rates for attractive faces than for unattractive faces, but men reacted faster to unattractive faces. Gender differences on ERPs showed that attractive faces elicited larger early components such as P1, N170, and P2 in men than in women. The results indicated that the effects of recognition bias during memory processing modulated by female facial attractiveness are greater for men than women. Behavioral and ERP evidences indicate that men and women differ in their attentional adhesion to attractive female faces; different mating-related motives may guide the selective processing of attractive men and women. These findings establish a contribution of gender differences on female facial attractiveness during memory processing from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:26928269

  16. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  17. The effects of direction similarity in visual working memory: Behavioural and event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Shouxin; Wang, Xiusong; Che, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    Object similarity can improve visual working memory (VWM) performance in the change-detection task, but impair the recognition performance when it occurs at retrieval of VWM in the recognition task. The effect of direction similarity is an issue that has not been well resolved. Furthermore, electrophysiological evidence in support of the mechanisms that underlie the effects of similarity is still scarce. In the current study, we conducted three behavioural experiments to examine the effects of direction similarity on memory performance with regard to both the encoding and retrieval phases of VWM and one event-related potential (ERP) experiment to explore the neural signatures of direction similarity in VWM. Our behavioural studies indicated that direction similarity improved performance when it occurred at the encoding phase but impaired performance when it occurred at the retrieval phase. Moreover, the ERP experiment showed that the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA) increased with the increasing set size for similar but not dissimilar directions. In addition, the CDA amplitude for similar directions was lower than that for dissimilar directions at set size 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that direction similarity at encoding has a positive effect on VWM performance and at retrieval has a negative effect. Given that VWM capacity depends on information load and the number of objects, the positive effect of similarity may be attributed to reduced information load of memory objects. PMID:26443895

  18. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs. PMID:26513169

  19. Event-related potentials indicate context effect in reading ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; El-Khoury, Sylvain

    2014-10-29

    The aim of the study was a comparison of lexical and contextual factors in understanding ambiguous words in German. First, a sample of native speakers selected 56 words having maximally strong differences between a dominant and a subordinate meaning. After this, another sample from the same population was visually presented with sentences that activated dominant or subordinate meanings of the words and were accompanied by probes associated with dominant or subordinate meanings. This resulted in a crossed design with two factors: sentence dominant vs. sentence subordinate and probe dominant vs. probe subordinate. An analysis of event-related brain potentials revealed a large, long-lasting and highly-significant N400 wave whenever the meaning of the probe was incongruent with the meaning of the sentence and the lack of this wave whenever the two meanings were congruent. In the typical N400 space and time, the effect was independent of whether the lexical word meaning was dominant or subordinate. At other sites and times, however (e.g., at lateral frontal electrodes F7/F8, and after 700ms), the congruence effect was significant after dominant sentences only. The data indicate that lexical factors have a rather limited influence on the activation of a particular meaning of ambiguous words. A strong context can virtually override even a very strong difference in the preference for different meanings. PMID:25463139

  20. Cognitive impairment in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by event-related potential N270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yingxue Yang,1,2 Xiating Zhang,1,2 Yu Zhu,1,2 Yakang Dai,3 Ting Liu,3 Yuping Wang1,2 1Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270.Methods: Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp.Results: The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression.Conclusion: Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning. Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, N270, cognitive function, selective attention, working memory

  1. Unitization improves source memory in older adults: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Juan; Xiao, Fengqiu; Ren, Weicong; He, Rongqiao

    2016-08-01

    Aging-related decline in episodic memory, particularly in associative memory, is attributed to an impaired recollection of the specific details of a study episode. Fortunately, familiarity is relatively preserved in older adults. Previous studies have indicated that unitization is a specialized form of learning that increases the contribution of familiarity to associative retrieval. Here we examined whether older adults' associative memory could be improved when employing an encoding strategy that encouraged unitization. Young and older adults encoded items and background colors either in a unitized condition (i.e., by imagining the color as an internal feature of the item) or in a non-unitized condition (i.e., by imagining the color as a contextual feature of the item). The participants then performed a source recognition test. The effects of unitization on the neural correlates of familiarity were measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). The age differences in source memory performance were lower in the unitized condition than in the non-unitized condition. The older adults only demonstrated neural correlates of familiarity-based source recognition in the unitized condition. These findings suggest that a unitized encoding strategy could improve source memory performance in older adults by enhancing the involvement of familiarity in source recognition. PMID:27343684

  2. An Event-related Potential Study on the Interaction between Lighting Level and Stimulus Spatial Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretié, Luis; Ruiz-Padial, Elisabeth; Mendoza, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux) and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux), characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod > cone and rod < cone, respectively. Stimuli, which were exactly the same in L and H, consisted of squares presented at fixation, at the vertical periphery (above or below fixation) or at the horizontal periphery (left or right). Analyses showed that occipital ERPs presented important L vs. H differences in the 100 to 450 ms window, which were significantly modulated by spatial location of stimulation: differences were greater in response to peripheral stimuli than to stimuli presented at fixation. Moreover, in the former case, significance of L vs. H differences was even stronger in response to stimuli presented at the horizontal than at the vertical periphery. These low vs. high mesopic differences may be explained by photoreceptor activation and their retinal distribution, and confirm that ERPs discriminate between rod– and cone-originated visual processing. PMID:26635588

  3. An event-related potential study on the interaction between lighting level and stimulus spatial location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eCarretié

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to heterogeneous photoreceptor distribution, spatial location of stimulation is crucial to study visual brain activity in different light environments. This unexplored issue was studied through occipital event-related potentials (ERPs recorded from 40 participants in response to discrete visual stimuli presented at different locations and in two environmental light conditions, low mesopic (L, 0.03 lux and high mesopic (H, 6.5 lux, characterized by a differential photoreceptor activity balance: rod>cone and rod

  4. Estimation of single event-related potentials utilizing the Prony method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, M; Gänsler, T; Salomonsson, G

    1996-10-01

    This paper deals with estimation of the waveform of a single event-related potential, sERP. An additive noise model is used for the measured signal and the SNR of the disturbed sERP is approximately 0 dB. The sERP is described by a series expansion where the basis functions are damped sinusoids. The fundamental basis function is estimated by the least squares Prony method, derived for colored noise. The performance of the Prony method for different forms of the power density spectrum of the noise is investigated. A white noise approximation can be used at a low signal-to-noise (SNR). The basis functions change slowly but the waveform of the sERP may vary from one stimulus to another, thus we average a small number of correlation functions in order to increase the SNR. The method is evaluated by using measurements from four subjects and the results confirm the variability of the sERP.

  5. Scale-Free Brain Networks Based on the Event-Related Potential during Visual Spatial Attention

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    Li, Ling; Jin, Zhen-Lan

    2011-04-01

    The human brain is thought of as one of the most complex dynamical systems in the universe. The network view of the dynamical system has emerged since the discovery of scale-free networks. Brain functional networks, which represent functional associations among brain regions, are extracted by measuring the temporal correlations from electroencephalogram data. We measure the topological properties of the brain functional network, including degree distribution, average degree, clustering coefficient and the shortest path length, to compare the networks of multi-channel event-related potential activity between visual spatial attention and unattention conditions. It is found that the degree distribution of the brain functional networks under both the conditions is a power law distribution, which reflects a scale-free property. Moreover, the scaling exponent of the attention condition is significantly smaller than that of the unattention condition. However, the degree distribution of equivalent random networks does not follow the power law distribution. In addition, the clustering coefficient of these random networks is smaller than those of brain networks, and the shortest path length of these random networks is large and comparable with those of brain networks. Our results, typical of scale-free networks, indicate that the scaling exponent of brain activity could reflect different cognitive processes.

  6. Subject combination and electrode selection in cooperative brain-computer interface based on event related potentials.

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    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject's will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP) based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications. PMID:24961765

  7. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  8. Modulation of early and late event-related potentials by emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Hart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although emotionally salient stimuli influence higher order information processing, the relative vulnerability of specific stages of cognitive processing to modulation by emotional input remains elusive. To test the temporal dynamics of emotional interference during executive function, we recorded event-related potentials while participants performed an effortful anticipation task with aversive emotional and neutral distracters. Participants were presented with a modified delayed Stroop task that dissociated the anticipation of an easier or more difficult task (instructional cues to attend to word versus color from the response to the Stroop stimulus, while aversive and neutral pictures were displayed during the delay period. Our results indicated a relative decrease in the amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV during aversive trials that was greater during the early anticipatory phase than during the later response preparation phase, and greater during (the more difficult color than word trials. During the initial stage of cue processing, there was also significant interaction between emotion and anticipatory difficulty on N1 amplitude, where emotional stimuli led to significantly enhanced negativity during color cues relative to word cues. These results suggest that earlier processes of orientation and effortful anticipation may reflect executive engagement that is influenced by emotional interference while later phases of response preparation may be modulated by emotional interference regardless of anticipatory difficulty.

  9. Mathematical anxiety effects on simple arithmetic processing efficiency: an event-related potential study.

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    Suárez-Pellicioni, M; Núñez-Peña, M I; Colomé, A

    2013-12-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials to investigate the difficulties that high math anxious individuals face when processing dramatically incorrect solutions to simple arithmetical problems. To this end, thirteen high math-anxious (HMA) and thirteen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with simple addition problems in a verification task. The proposed solution could be correct, incorrect but very close to the correct one (small-split), or dramatically incorrect (large-split). The two groups did not differ in mathematical ability or trait anxiety. We reproduced previous results for flawed scores suggesting HMA difficulties in processing large-split solutions. Moreover, large-split solutions elicited a late positive component (P600/P3b) which was more enhanced and delayed in the HMA group. Our study proposes that the pattern of flawed scores found by previous studies (and that we replicate) has to do with HMA individuals'difficulties in inhibiting an extended processing of irrelevant information (large-split solutions).

  10. Rejection in Bargaining Situations: An Event-Related Potential Study in Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Zanolie

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs in mid-adolescents (14-17 years and early adults (19-24 years. Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3 and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5 or a hyperfair distribution (3/7. Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5 when the alternative was unfair (7/3, but made mostly unfair offers (7/3 when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7. When participants' fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3 were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7. Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3 compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence.

  11. Kernel PLS Estimation of Single-trial Event-related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosipal, Roman; Trejo, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear kernel partial least squaes (KPLS) regressior, is a novel smoothing approach to nonparametric regression curve fitting. We have developed a KPLS approach to the estimation of single-trial event related potentials (ERPs). For improved accuracy of estimation, we also developed a local KPLS method for situations in which there exists prior knowledge about the approximate latency of individual ERP components. To assess the utility of the KPLS approach, we compared non-local KPLS and local KPLS smoothing with other nonparametric signal processing and smoothing methods. In particular, we examined wavelet denoising, smoothing splines, and localized smoothing splines. We applied these methods to the estimation of simulated mixtures of human ERPs and ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) activity using a dipole simulator (BESA). In this scenario we considered ongoing EEG to represent spatially and temporally correlated noise added to the ERPs. This simulation provided a reasonable but simplified model of real-world ERP measurements. For estimation of the simulated single-trial ERPs, local KPLS provided a level of accuracy that was comparable with or better than the other methods. We also applied the local KPLS method to the estimation of human ERPs recorded in an experiment on co,onitive fatigue. For these data, the local KPLS method provided a clear improvement in visualization of single-trial ERPs as well as their averages. The local KPLS method may serve as a new alternative to the estimation of single-trial ERPs and improvement of ERP averages.

  12. An event-related potential study of working memory in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rong; GUO Chunyan; JIANG Yang

    2006-01-01

    To examine the neural mechanisms of working memory in children, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the 12―13 year-old while they performed a delayed match-to-sample task. The ERP results revealed that new and studied objects both evoked a late positive ERP component peaking around 350 ms during the working memory process. New objects evoke a more positive ERP waveform than the studied objects. The scalp distribution showed that the frontal-central electrode sites were associated with object working memory processes. When tracking new or studied targets among visual distracters, ERPs of targets and distracters revealed differential responses as early as 150 ms. The visual targets evoked larger and more positive ERP responses than the distracters. The typical old-new effect was observed between ERPs of studied and new distracters. However, ERPs of new and studied targets differed at about 250 ms, in which new targets evoked more positive-going and slightly earlier ERP responses. In addition, a P3a component was found for new targets only, and was absent in ERPs of studied targets at frontal and central sites. The present study results reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural mechanisms underlying working memory in children, some of which are distinct from those in adults.

  13. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  14. Event-related potentials study on cross-modal discrimination of Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗跃嘉; 魏景汉

    1999-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured in 15 normal young subjects (18—22 years old) using the "cross-modal and delayed response" paradigm, which is able to improve inattention purity. The stimuli consisted of written and spoken single Chinese characters. The presentation probability of standard stimuli was 82.5% and that of deviant stimuli was 17.5%. The attention components were obtained by subtracting the ERPs of inattention condition from those of attention condition. The results of the N1 scalp distribution demonstrated a cross-modal difference. This result is in contrast to studies with non-verbal as well as with English verbal stimuli. This probably reflected the brain mechanism feature of Chinese language processing. The processing location of attention was varied along with verbal/non-verbal stimuli, auditory/visual modalities and standard/deviant stimuli, and thus it has plasticity. The early attention effects occurred before the exogenous components, and thus provided evidence support

  15. Event-related potentials reveal rapid registration of features of infrequent changes during change blindness

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    Astikainen Piia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Change blindness refers to a failure to detect changes between consecutively presented images separated by, for example, a brief blank screen. As an explanation of change blindness, it has been suggested that our representations of the environment are sparse outside focal attention and even that changed features may not be represented at all. In order to find electrophysiological evidence of neural representations of changed features during change blindness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in adults in an oddball variant of the change blindness flicker paradigm. Methods ERPs were recorded when subjects performed a change detection task in which the modified images were infrequently interspersed (p = .2 among the frequently (p = .8 presented unmodified images. Responses to modified and unmodified images were compared in the time window of 60-100 ms after stimulus onset. Results ERPs to infrequent modified images were found to differ in amplitude from those to frequent unmodified images at the midline electrodes (Fz, Pz, Cz and Oz at the latency of 60-100 ms even when subjects were unaware of changes (change blindness. Conclusions The results suggest that the brain registers changes very rapidly, and that changed features in images are neurally represented even without participants' ability to report them.

  16. Does erotic stimulus presentation design affect brain activation patterns? Event-related vs. blocked fMRI designs

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Jane; Vollstädt-Klein Sabine; Bühler Mira; Smolka Michael N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing brain imaging studies, investigating sexual arousal via the presentation of erotic pictures or film excerpts, have mainly used blocked designs with long stimulus presentation times. Methods To clarify how experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design affects stimulus-induced brain activity, we compared brief event-related presentation of erotic vs. neutral stimuli with blocked presentation in 10 male volunteers. Results Brain activation differed...

  17. A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood: An Event-Related Potential Study of Lexical Relationships and Prediction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Two related questions critical to understanding the predictive processes that come online during sentence comprehension are 1) what information is included in the representation created through prediction and 2) at what functional stage does top-down, predicted information begin to affect bottom-up word processing? We investigated these questions by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants read sentences that ended with expected words or with unexpected items (words, pseudowords, or illegal strings) that were either orthographically unrelated to the expected word or were one of its orthographic neighbors. The data show that, regardless of lexical status, attempts at semantic access (N400) for orthographic neighbors of expected words is facilitated relative to the processing of orthographically unrelated items. Our findings support a view of sentence processing wherein orthographically organized information is brought online by prediction and interacts with input prior to any filter on lexical status. PMID:20161064

  18. Covert effects of "one drink" of alcohol on brain processes related to car driving: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebe, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-04-23

    The effects of a low dose of alcohol on car driving remain controversial. To address this issue, event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a simple car-following task in a driving simulator before and after consuming either "one drink" of beer (representing one standard alcoholic beverage containing 14 g of alcohol) or mineral water (control condition). Subjects who had consumed the determined amount of alcohol demonstrated no detectable outward behavioral signs of intoxication while performing the driving task, an observation in agreement with previous findings. However, the parietal P3 elicited by the brake lights of the preceding car was significantly reduced in amplitude, approximately 50% that observed under the control condition, likely indicating alteration of the neural processing of visual information critical for safe driving. The finding suggests that alcohol begins to affect neural processes for driving even at quantities too low to modify behavior.

  19. Temporal dynamics of visual attention measured with event-related potentials.

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    Yoshiyuki Kashiwase

    Full Text Available How attentional modulation on brain activities determines behavioral performance has been one of the most important issues in cognitive neuroscience. This issue has been addressed by comparing the temporal relationship between attentional modulations on neural activities and behavior. Our previous study measured the time course of attention with amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP and found that the modulation latency of phase coherence rather than that of amplitude was consistent with the latency of behavioral performance. In this study, as a complementary report, we compared the time course of visual attention shift measured by event-related potentials (ERPs with that by target detection task. We developed a novel technique to compare ERPs with behavioral results and analyzed the EEG data in our previous study. Two sets of flickering stimulus at different frequencies were presented in the left and right visual hemifields, and a target or distracter pattern was presented randomly at various moments after an attention-cue presentation. The observers were asked to detect targets on the attended stimulus after the cue. We found that two ERP components, P300 and N2pc, were elicited by the target presented at the attended location. Time-course analyses revealed that attentional modulation of the P300 and N2pc amplitudes increased gradually until reaching a maximum and lasted at least 1.5 s after the cue onset, which is similar to the temporal dynamics of behavioral performance. However, attentional modulation of these ERP components started later than that of behavioral performance. Rather, the time course of attentional modulation of behavioral performance was more closely associated with that of the concurrently recorded SSVEPs analyzed. These results suggest that neural activities reflected not by either the P300 or N2pc, but by the SSVEPs, are the source of attentional modulation of behavioral performance.

  20. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design. PMID:26995041

  1. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS, which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.

  2. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Yuan, Ruixian; Zhang, Wuke

    2015-01-01

    Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs) to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.

  3. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S.; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Gooding, Diane C.; Trachik, Benjamin J.; Chan, Chi C.; Spencer, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female), which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16), bipolar disorders (n = 10), other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5), and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13). Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs) of feedback-related negativity (FRN), feedback-related positivity (FRP), and the late positive potential (LPP), following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding) outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised) Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive) outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27299996

  4. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Yuan, Ruixian; Zhang, Wuke

    2015-01-01

    Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs) to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement. PMID:26057891

  5. Event-related potentials elicited by pre-attentive emotional changes in temporal context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Fujimura

    Full Text Available The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN: the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100-200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200-260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context.

  6. Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eSan Martín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.

  7. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Potts, Geoffrey F; Gooding, Diane C; Trachik, Benjamin J; Chan, Chi C; Spencer, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female), which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16), bipolar disorders (n = 10), other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5), and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13). Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs) of feedback-related negativity (FRN), feedback-related positivity (FRP), and the late positive potential (LPP), following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding) outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised) Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive) outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27299996

  8. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes.

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    Jeffrey S Bedwell

    Full Text Available There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female, which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16, bipolar disorders (n = 10, other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5, and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13. Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs of feedback-related negativity (FRN, feedback-related positivity (FRP, and the late positive potential (LPP, following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms.

  9. The role of REM sleep in the processing of emotional memories: evidence from behavior and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, S; Wilhelm, I; Diekelmann, S; Born, J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional memories are vividly remembered for the long-term. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been repeatedly proposed to support the superior retention of emotional memories. However, its exact contribution and, specifically, whether its effect is mainly on the consolidation of the contents or the processing of the affective component of emotional memories is not clear. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep rich in slow wave sleep (SWS) or REM sleep on the consolidation of emotional pictures and the accompanying changes in affective tone, using event-related potentials (ERPs) together with subjective ratings of valence and arousal. Sixteen healthy, young men learned 50 negative and 50 neutral pictures before 3-h retention sleep intervals that were filled with either SWS-rich early or REM sleep-rich late nocturnal sleep. In accordance with our hypothesis, recognition was better for emotional pictures than neutral pictures after REM compared to SWS-rich sleep. This emotional enhancement after REM-rich sleep expressed itself in an increased late positive potential of the ERP over the frontal cortex 300-500 ms after stimulus onset for correctly classified old emotional pictures compared with new emotional and neutral pictures. Valence and arousal ratings of emotional pictures were not differentially affected by REM or SWS-rich sleep after learning. Our results corroborate that REM sleep contributes to the consolidation of emotional contents in memory, but suggest that the affective tone is preserved rather than reduced by the processing of emotional memories during REM sleep.

  10. The effects of reward magnitude on reward processing: An averaged and single trial event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Caroline C; Gable, Philip A; Lohse, Keith R; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    From a neurobiological and motivational perspective, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) components should increase with reward magnitude (reward associated with valence (success/failure) feedback). To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' electroencephalograms while presenting them with potential monetary rewards ($0.00-$4.96) pre-trial for each trial of a reaction time task and presenting them with valence feedback post-trial. Averaged ERPs time-locked to valence feedback were extracted, and results revealed a valence by magnitude interaction for neural activity in the FRN/RewP time window. This interaction was driven by magnitude affecting RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Moreover, single trial ERP analyses revealed a reliable correlation between magnitude and RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Finally, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were affected by magnitude. Results partly support the neurobiological (dopamine) account of the FRN/RewP and suggest motivation affects feedback processing, as indicated by multiple ERP components.

  11. The effects of reward magnitude on reward processing: An averaged and single trial event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Caroline C; Gable, Philip A; Lohse, Keith R; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    From a neurobiological and motivational perspective, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) components should increase with reward magnitude (reward associated with valence (success/failure) feedback). To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' electroencephalograms while presenting them with potential monetary rewards ($0.00-$4.96) pre-trial for each trial of a reaction time task and presenting them with valence feedback post-trial. Averaged ERPs time-locked to valence feedback were extracted, and results revealed a valence by magnitude interaction for neural activity in the FRN/RewP time window. This interaction was driven by magnitude affecting RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Moreover, single trial ERP analyses revealed a reliable correlation between magnitude and RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Finally, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were affected by magnitude. Results partly support the neurobiological (dopamine) account of the FRN/RewP and suggest motivation affects feedback processing, as indicated by multiple ERP components. PMID:27288743

  12. An Event-Related Potential Examination of Contour Integration Deficits in Schizophrenia

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    Pamela D Butler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual organization, which refers to the ability to integrate fragments of stimuli to form a representation of a whole edge, part, or object, is impaired in schizophrenia. A contour integration paradigm, involving detection of a set of Gabor patches forming an oval contour pointing to the right or left embedded in a field of randomly oriented Gabors, has been developed for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to assess contributions of early and later stages of processing to deficits in contour integration, as well as to develop an event-related potential (ERP analog of this task. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 28 controls participated. The Gabor elements forming the contours were given a low or high degree of orientational jitter, making it either easy or difficult to identify the direction in which the contour was pointing. ERP results showed greater negative peaks at ~165 (N1 component and ~270 ms for the low-jitter versus the high-jitter contours, with a much greater difference between jitter conditions at 270 ms. This later ERP component was previously termed Ncl for closure negativity. Source localization identified the Ncl in the lateral occipital object recognition area. Patients showed a significant decrease in the Ncl, but not N1, compared to controls, and this was associated with impaired behavioral ability to identify contours. In addition, an earlier negative peak was found at ~120 ms (termed N120 that differentiated jitter conditions, had a dorsal stream source, and differed between patients and controls. Patients also showed a deficit in the dorsal stream sensory P1 component. These results are in accord with impairments in distributed circuitry contributing to perceptual organization deficits and provide an ERP analog to the behavioral contour integration task.

  13. Automatic temporal expectancy: a high-density event-related potential study.

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    Giovanni Mento

    Full Text Available How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2 interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials, the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each, it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA, respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy.

  14. Automatic temporal expectancy: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mento, Giovanni; Tarantino, Vincenza; Sarlo, Michela; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2013-01-01

    How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2) interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI) that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials), the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each), it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA), respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy. PMID:23650537

  15. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  16. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    Full Text Available The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2, and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2. Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms, the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms, the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.

  17. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

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    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  18. Mouse model predicts effects of smoking and varenicline on event-related potentials in humans

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    Rudnick, Noam D.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Jepson, Christopher; Patterson, Freda; Frey, Joseph M.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Lerman, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Nicotine alters auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in rodents and humans and is an effective treatment for smoking cessation. Less is known about the effects of the partial nicotine agonist varenicline on ERPs. Methods: We measured the effects of varenicline and nicotine on the mouse P20 and varenicline and smoking on the human P50 in a paired-click task. Eighteen mice were tested following nicotine, varenicline, and their combination. One hundred and fourteen current smokers enrolled in a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover study to test the effects of varenicline during smoking and abstinence. Thirty-two subjects participated in the ERP study, with half receiving placebo first and half varenicline first (VP). Results: Nicotine and varenicline enhanced mouse P20 amplitude, while nicotine improved P20 habituation by selectively increasing the first-click response. Similar to mice, abstinence reduced P50 habituation relative to smoking by reducing the first-click response. There was no effect of varenicline on P50 amplitude during abstinence across subjects. However, there was a significant effect of medication order on P50 amplitude during abstinence. Subjects in the PV group displayed reduced P50 during abstinence, which was blocked by varenicline. However, subjects in the VP group did not display abstinence-induced P50 reduction. Conclusions: Data suggest that smoking improves sensory processing. Varenicline mimics amplitude changes associated with nicotine and smoking but fails to alter habituation. The effect of medication order suggests a possible carryover effect from the previous arm. This study supports the predictive validity of ERPs in mice as a marker of drug effects in human studies. PMID:20395358

  19. Relationship between perceptual and semantic levels of representation: An event-related potential study

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    ZHANG YunHong; GUO ChunYan

    2008-01-01

    An event-related potential study was conducted to make clear the relationships between perceptual and semantic levels of representation. Subjects judged the semantic relationship between a picture sample and a word match using the delayed match-to-sample paradigm. The experiment includes three types of matching trials, i.e., identical match trials, where the words had the same meanings as the pictures, categorical match trials where the words matched the pictures in category, and non-match trials where the words matched neither in identification nor in category with the pictures. The three conditions evoke significantly different N400-1ike and P300 ERP components. Specifically, for the N400-like negative responses, the averaged amplitude of the non-match condition is the largest and the most negative-going, that of the categorical match condition is less negative-going, and that of the identical match condition is the smallest among all three conditions. In addition, only the identical match condition evokes an early P300 component. As for the late P300 component, the averaged amplitude of the categorical match condition is more robust in the frontal brain areas. In contrast, ERPs of the non-match condition are stronger in the posterior brain areas. From 250 to 450 ms, the difference waves between the identical match and non-match conditions are located in the central areas, and the difference waves between categorical match and non-match conditions occur in the right frontal areas.Our results suggest that cross-form picture-word identical matching and categorical matching involve different underlying mechanisms. The existence of the early P300 component evokes by the identical match condition provides support for theories of template matching and facilitation model.

  20. Extending or creating a new brand: evidence from a study on event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Wang, Cuicui; Yu, Liping; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-07-01

    Brand strategy is a critical problem in new product promotion. In relation to this, producers typically have two main options, namely, brand extension and new brand creation. The current study investigated the neural basis of evaluating these brand strategies at the brain level by using event-related potentials. The experiment used a word-pair paradigm, in which the first word was either a famous beverage brand name or a newly created brand, and the second word was a product name from one of the two product categories (beverage or household appliance). Therefore, four conditions existed as follows: a famous beverage brand paired with a beverage product (BB) or with a household appliance (BH) and a newly created brand paired with a beverage product (NB) or with a household appliance (NH). Behavioral results showed that brand extension obtained a higher acceptance rate than new brand creation under the beverage product category; however, a lower acceptance rate was observed under the household appliance category. Moreover, at the brain level, BB elicited lower N400 mean amplitude than the new brand product NB, whereas BH led to higher N400 amplitude than the new brand product NH. These results showed that the likelihood of accepting a product depended on the association between the brand name and product name, and that the N400 could serve as an index of brand strategy evaluation. In addition, this study also confirmed that brand extension is not always the best brand strategy; an inappropriate extension sometimes performed worse than the creation of a new brand. PMID:26053698

  1. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  2. Statistical analysis of event-related potential elicited by verb-complement merge in Brazilian Portuguese

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    M. Cagy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An interesting fact about language cognition is that stimulation involving incongruence in the merge operation between verb and complement has often been related to a negative event-related potential (ERP of augmented amplitude and latency of ca. 400 ms - the N400. Using an automatic ERP latency and amplitude estimator to facilitate the recognition of waves with a low signal-to-noise ratio, the objective of the present study was to study the N400 statistically in 24 volunteers. Stimulation consisted of 80 experimental sentences (40 congruous and 40 incongruous, generated in Brazilian Portuguese, involving two distinct local verb-argument combinations (nominal object and pronominal object series. For each volunteer, the EEG was simultaneously acquired at 20 derivations, topographically localized according to the 10-20 International System. A computerized routine for automatic N400-peak marking (based on the ascendant zero-cross of the first waveform derivative was applied to the estimated individual ERP waveform for congruous and incongruous sentences in both series for all ERP topographic derivations. Peak-to-peak N400 amplitude was significantly augmented (P < 0.05; one-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test due to incongruence in derivations F3, T3, C3, Cz, T5, P3, Pz, and P4 for nominal object series and in P3, Pz and P4 for pronominal object series. The results also indicated high inter-individual variability in ERP waveforms, suggesting that the usual procedure of grand averaging might not be considered a generally adequate approach. Hence, signal processing statistical techniques should be applied in neurolinguistic ERP studies allowing waveform analysis with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Disentangling the Attention Network Test: Behavioral, Event Related Potentials and neural source analyses.

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    Alejandro eGalvao-Carmona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of the attentional system remains a challenge for current neuroscience. The Attention Network Test (ANT was designed to study simultaneously three different attentional networks (alerting, orienting and executive based in subtraction of different experimental conditions. However, some studies recommend caution with these calculations due to the interactions between the attentional networks. In particular, it is highly relevant that several interpretations about attentional impairment have arisen from these calculations in diverse pathologies. Event Related Potentials (ERPs and neural source analysis can be applied to disentangle the relationships between these attentional networks not specifically shown by behavioural measures. Results. This study shows that there is a basic level of alerting (tonic alerting in the no cue condition, represented by a slow negative trend in the ERP trace prior to the onset of the target stimuli. A progressive increase in the CNV amplitude related to the amount of information provided by the cue conditions is also shown. Neural source analysis reveals specific modulations of the CNV related to a task-related expectancy presented in the no cue condition; a late modulation triggered by the central cue condition and probably representing a generic motor preparation; and an early and late modulation for spatial cue condition suggesting specific motor and sensory preactivation. Finally, the first component in the information processing of the target stimuli modulated by the interaction between orienting network and the executive system can be represented by N1. Conclusions. The ANT is useful as a paradigm to study specific attentional mechanisms and their interactions. However, calculation of network effects is based in subtractions with non-comparable experimental conditions, as evidenced by the present data, which can induce misinterpretations in the study of the attentional capacity in human

  4. Examining Event-Related Potential (ERP correlates of decision bias in recognition memory judgments.

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    Holger Hill

    Full Text Available Memory judgments can be based on accurate memory information or on decision bias (the tendency to report that an event is part of episodic memory when one is in fact unsure. Event related potentials (ERP correlates are important research tools for elucidating the dynamics underlying memory judgments but so far have been established only for investigations of accurate old/new discrimination. To identify the ERP correlates of bias, and observe how these interact with ERP correlates of memory, we conducted three experiments that manipulated decision bias within participants via instructions during recognition memory tests while their ERPs were recorded. In Experiment 1, the bias manipulation was performed between blocks of trials (automatized bias and compared to trial-by-trial shifts of bias in accord with an external cue (flexibly controlled bias. In Experiment 2, the bias manipulation was performed at two different levels of accurate old/new discrimination as the memory strength of old (studied items was varied. In Experiment 3, the bias manipulation was added to another, bottom-up driven manipulation of bias induced via familiarity. In the first two Experiments, and in the low familiarity condition of Experiment 3, we found evidence of an early frontocentral ERP component at 320 ms poststimulus (the FN320 that was sensitive to the manipulation of bias via instruction, with more negative amplitudes indexing more liberal bias. By contrast, later during the trial (500-700 ms poststimulus, bias effects interacted with old/new effects across all three experiments. Results suggest that the decision criterion is typically activated early during recognition memory trials, and is integrated with retrieved memory signals and task-specific processing demands later during the trial. More generally, the findings demonstrate how ERPs can help to specify the dynamics of recognition memory processes under top-down and bottom-up controlled retrieval conditions.

  5. Prior probabilities modulate cortical surprise responses: A study of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Boos, Moritz; Dengler, Reinhard; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The human brain predicts events in its environment based on expectations, and unexpected events are surprising. When probabilistic contingencies in the environment are precisely instructed, the individual can form expectations based on quantitative probabilistic information ('inference-based learning'). In contrast, when probabilistic contingencies are imprecisely instructed, expectations are formed based on the individual's cumulative experience ('experience-based learning'). Here, we used the urn-ball paradigm to investigate how variations in prior probabilities and in the precision of information about these priors modulate choice behavior and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of surprise. In the urn-ball paradigm, participants are repeatedly forced to infer hidden states responsible for generating observable events, given small samples of factual observations. We manipulated prior probabilities of the states, and we rendered the priors calculable or incalculable, respectively. The analysis of choice behavior revealed that the tendency to consider prior probabilities when making decisions about hidden states was stronger when prior probabilities were calculable, at least in some of our participants. Surprise-related P3b amplitudes were observed in both the calculable and the incalculable prior probability condition. In contrast, calculability of prior probabilities modulated anteriorly distributed ERP amplitudes: when prior probabilities were calculable, surprising events elicited enhanced P3a amplitudes. However, when prior probabilities were incalculable, surprise was associated with enhanced N2 amplitudes. Furthermore, interindividual variability in reliance on prior probabilities was associated with attenuated P3b surprise responses under calculable in comparison to incalculable prior probabilities. Our results suggest two distinct neural systems for probabilistic learning that are recruited depending on contextual cues such as the precision of

  6. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2007-11-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.

  7. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

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    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  8. Material differences of auditory source retrieval:Evidence from event-related potential studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE AiQing; GUO ChunYan; SHEN MoWei

    2008-01-01

    Two event-related potential experiments were conducted to investigate the temporal and the spatial distributions of the old/new effects for the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task using picture and Chinese character as stimuli respectively. Stimuli were presented on the center of the screen with their names read out either by female or by male voice simultaneously during the study phase and then two testa were performed separately. One test task was to differentiate the old items from the new ones, and the other task was to judge the items read out by a certain voice during the study phase as targets and other ones as non-targets. The results showed that the old/new effect of the auditory source retrieval task was more sustained over time than that of the item recognition task in both experiments, and the spatial distribution of the former effect was wider than that of the latter one. Both experiments recorded reliable old/new effect over the prefrontal cortex during the source retrieval task. However, there existed some differences of the old/new effect for the auditory source retrieval task between picture and Chinese character, and LORETA source analysis indicated that the differ-ences might be rooted in the temporal lobe. These findings demonstrate that the relevancy of the old/new effects between the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task supports the dual-process model; the spatial and the temporal distributions of the old/new effect elicited by the auditory source retrieval task are regulated by both the feature of the experimental material and the perceptual attribute of the voice.

  9. Auditory stream segregation using bandpass noises: evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjiu eNie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study measured neural responses to investigate auditory stream segregation of noise stimuli with or without clear spectral contrast. Sequences of alternating A and B noise bursts were presented to elicit stream segregation in normal-hearing listeners. The successive B bursts in each sequence maintained an equal amount of temporal separation with manipulations introduced on the last stimulus. The last B burst was either delayed for 50% of the sequences or not delayed for the other 50%. The A bursts were jittered in between every two adjacent B bursts. To study the effects of spectral separation on streaming, the A and B bursts were further manipulated by using either bandpass-filtered noises widely spaced in center frequency or broadband noises. Event-related potentials (ERPs to the last B bursts were analyzed to compare the neural responses to the delay vs. no-delay trials in both passive and attentive listening conditions. In the passive listening condition, a trend for a possible late mismatch negativity (MMN or late discriminative negativity (LDN response was observed only when the A and B bursts were spectrally separate, suggesting that spectral separation in the A and B burst sequences could be conducive to stream segregation at the pre-attentive level. In the attentive condition, a P300 response was consistently elicited regardless of whether there was spectral separation between the A and B bursts, indicating the facilitative role of voluntary attention in stream segregation. The results suggest that reliable ERP measures can be used as indirect indicators for auditory stream segregation in conditions of weak spectral contrast. These findings have important implications for cochlear implant (CI studies – as spectral information available through a CI device or simulation is substantially degraded, it may require more attention to achieve stream segregation.

  10. Auditory stream segregation using bandpass noises: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yingjiu; Zhang, Yang; Nelson, Peggy B

    2014-01-01

    The current study measured neural responses to investigate auditory stream segregation of noise stimuli with or without clear spectral contrast. Sequences of alternating A and B noise bursts were presented to elicit stream segregation in normal-hearing listeners. The successive B bursts in each sequence maintained an equal amount of temporal separation with manipulations introduced on the last stimulus. The last B burst was either delayed for 50% of the sequences or not delayed for the other 50%. The A bursts were jittered in between every two adjacent B bursts. To study the effects of spectral separation on streaming, the A and B bursts were further manipulated by using either bandpass-filtered noises widely spaced in center frequency or broadband noises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to the last B bursts were analyzed to compare the neural responses to the delay vs. no-delay trials in both passive and attentive listening conditions. In the passive listening condition, a trend for a possible late mismatch negativity (MMN) or late discriminative negativity (LDN) response was observed only when the A and B bursts were spectrally separate, suggesting that spectral separation in the A and B burst sequences could be conducive to stream segregation at the pre-attentive level. In the attentive condition, a P300 response was consistently elicited regardless of whether there was spectral separation between the A and B bursts, indicating the facilitative role of voluntary attention in stream segregation. The results suggest that reliable ERP measures can be used as indirect indicators for auditory stream segregation in conditions of weak spectral contrast. These findings have important implications for cochlear implant (CI) studies-as spectral information available through a CI device or simulation is substantially degraded, it may require more attention to achieve stream segregation. PMID:25309306

  11. Sex differences in event-related potentials and attentional biases to emotional facial stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. Pfabigan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attentional processes play an important role in the processing of emotional information. Previous research reported attentional biases during stimulus processing in anxiety and depression. However, sex differences in the processing of emotional stimuli and higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders among women, compared to men, suggest that attentional biases may also differ between the two sexes. The present study used a modified version of the dot probe task with happy, angry, and neutral facial stimuli to investigate the time course of attentional biases in healthy volunteers. Moreover, associations of attentional biases with alexithymia were examined on the behavioral and physiological level. Event-related potentials were measured while 21 participants (11 women performed the task, utilizing also for the first time a difference wave approach in the analysis to highlight emotion-specific aspects. Women showed overall enhanced probe P1 amplitudes compared to men, in particular after rewarding facial stimuli. Under the difference wave approach, probe P1 amplitudes appeared specifically enhanced with regard to congruently presented happy facial stimuli among women, compared to men. Both methods yielded enhanced probe P1 amplitudes after presentation of the emotional stimulus in the left compared to the right visual hemifield. Probe P1 amplitudes correlated negatively with self-reported alexithymia, most of these correlations were only observable in women. Our results suggest that women orient their attention to a greater extent to facial stimuli than men and corroborate that alexithymia is a correlate of reduced emotional reactivity on a neuronal level. We recommend using a difference wave approach when addressing attentional processes of orientation and disengagement also in future studies.

  12. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

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    Inge Timmers

    Full Text Available During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards", to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards", to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square.". Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W' and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity. In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'. The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  13. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on event-related potential P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tetsuya; Sato, Aya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2012-04-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on brain activity. P300 latency of event-related potential (ERP) was used to evaluate the effects of low-frequency and short-term rTMS by stimulating the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is considered to be the related area of P300 origin. In addition, the prolonged stimulation effects on P300 latency were analyzed after applying rTMS. A figure-eight coil was used to stimulate left-right SMG, and intensity of magnetic stimulation was 80% of motor threshold. A total of 100 magnetic pulses were applied for rTMS. The effects of stimulus frequency at 0.5 or 1 Hz were determined. Following rTMS, an odd-ball task was performed and P300 latency of ERP was measured. The odd-ball task was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min post-rTMS. ERP was measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was measured at Fz, Cz, and Pz that were indicated by the international 10-20 electrode system. Results demonstrated that different effects on P300 latency occurred between 0.5-1 Hz rTMS. With 1 Hz low-frequency magnetic stimulation to the left SMG, P300 latency decreased. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 15 ms at Cz. This decrease continued for approximately 10 min post-rTMS. In contrast, 0.5 Hz rTMS resulted in delayed P300 latency. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 20 ms at Fz, and this delayed effect continued for approximately 15 min post-rTMS. Results demonstrated that P300 latency varied according to rTMS frequency. Furthermore, the duration of the effect was not similar for stimulus frequency of low-frequency rTMS.

  14. Distinct features of auditory steady-state responses as compared to transient event-related potentials.

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    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Transient event-related potentials (ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis, while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis. In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1 SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2 scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3 the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4 whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain.

  15. Mind wandering and retrieval from episodic memory: a pilot event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh Martin; Smallwood, Jonathan; Gunn, Valerie P

    2008-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of mind wandering (task-unrelated thought) on the subcomponents of episodic memory as reflected by event-related potentials (ERPs). Specifically, individual differences in the pattern of ERP episodic 'old/new' effects (left-parietal, right-frontal and central-negativity effects) were examined across groups of participants experiencing either high or low frequencies of task-unrelated thought during encoding. Twenty participants studied lists of words and line drawings in one of two contexts (red versus green coloured boxes). At test, participants discriminated between target (old words or line drawings presented in one colour) and nontargets (old items from the other colour and new items). On completion of the memory task, participants completed the 'thinking' component of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire to provide a retrospective measure of task-unrelated thought. Behavioural data indicated that irrespective of the presence of task-unrelated thought, participants were able to complete the memory task equally well. However, an analysis of ERPs across High and Low task-unrelated thought groups revealed differences in retrieval strategy. Those individuals with infrequent episodes of task-unrelated thought at study used a 'pure' recollection strategy (left-parietal effect only). Conversely, those participants experiencing frequent episodes of task-unrelated thought were unable to recollect the stimuli with ease, as indexed by a diminished parietal effect. As a consequence, these participants employed additional strategic processes for task completion, as indexed by an elevated amplitude of central negativity effects. These data are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis of mind wandering which suggests impaired recollection when attention becomes directed away from the task.

  16. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Correlates of Belief Updating(1,2,3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel; Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Belief updating-the process by which an agent alters an internal model of its environment-is a core function of the CNS. Recent theory has proposed broad principles by which belief updating might operate, but more precise details of its implementation in the human brain remain unclear. In order to address this question, we studied how two components of the human event-related potential encoded different aspects of belief updating. Participants completed a novel perceptual learning task while electroencephalography was recorded. Participants learned the mapping between the contrast of a dynamic visual stimulus and a monetary reward and updated their beliefs about a target contrast on each trial. A Bayesian computational model was formulated to estimate belief states at each trial and was used to quantify the following two variables: belief update size and belief uncertainty. Robust single-trial regression was used to assess how these model-derived variables were related to the amplitudes of the P3 and the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), respectively. Results showed a positive relationship between belief update size and P3 amplitude at one fronto-central electrode, and a negative relationship between SPN amplitude and belief uncertainty at a left central and a right parietal electrode. These results provide evidence that belief update size and belief uncertainty have distinct neural signatures that can be tracked in single trials in specific ERP components. This, in turn, provides evidence that the cognitive mechanisms underlying belief updating in humans can be described well within a Bayesian framework. PMID:26473170

  17. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  18. Synthetic event-related potentials: a computational bridge between neurolinguistic models and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrès, Victor; Simons, Arthur; Arbib, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work developed Synthetic Brain Imaging to link neural and schema network models of cognition and behavior to PET and fMRI studies of brain function. We here extend this approach to Synthetic Event-Related Potentials (Synthetic ERP). Although the method is of general applicability, we focus on ERP correlates of language processing in the human brain. The method has two components: Phase 1: To generate cortical electro-magnetic source activity from neural or schema network models; and Phase 2: To generate known neurolinguistic ERP data (ERP scalp voltage topographies and waveforms) from putative cortical source distributions and activities within a realistic anatomical model of the human brain and head. To illustrate the challenges of Phase 2 of the methodology, spatiotemporal information from Friederici's 2002 model of auditory language comprehension was used to define cortical regions and time courses of activation for implementation within a forward model of ERP data. The cortical regions from the 2002 model were modeled using atlas-based masks overlaid on the MNI high definition single subject cortical mesh. The electromagnetic contribution of each region was modeled using current dipoles whose position and orientation were constrained by the cortical geometry. In linking neural network computation via EEG forward modeling to empirical results in neurolinguistics, we emphasize the need for neural network models to link their architecture to geometrically sound models of the cortical surface, and the need for conceptual models to refine and adopt brain-atlas based approaches to allow precise brain anchoring of their modules. The detailed analysis of Phase 2 sets the stage for a brief introduction to Phase 1 of the program, including the case for a schema-theoretic approach to language production and perception presented in detail elsewhere. Unlike Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and Bojak's mean field model, Synthetic ERP builds on models of networks

  19. Event-related potentials as a measure of sleep disturbance: A tutorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews event-related potentials (ERPs the minute responses of the human brain that are elicited by external auditory stimuli and how the ERPs can be used to measure sleep disturbance. ERPs consist of a series of negative- and positive-going components. A negative component peaking at about 100 ms, N1, is thought to reflect the outcome of a transient detector system, activated by change in the transient energy in an acoustic stimulus. Its output and thus the amplitude of N1 increases as the intensity level of the stimulus is increased and when the rate of presentation is slowed. When the output reaches a certain critical level, operations of the central executive are interrupted and attention is switched to the auditory channel. This switching of attention is thought to be indexed by a later positivity, P3a, peaking between 250 and 300 ms. In order to sleep, consciousness for all but the most relevant of stimuli must be prevented. Thus, during sleep onset and definitive non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the amplitude of N1 diminishes to near-baseline level. The amplitude of P2, peaking from 180 to 200 ms, is however larger in NREM sleep than in wakefulness. P2 is thought to reflect an inhibitory process protecting sleep from irrelevant disturbance. As stimulus input becomes increasingly obtrusive, the amplitude of P2 also increases. With increasing obtrusiveness particularly when stimuli are presented slowly, a later large negativity, peaking at about 350 ms, N350, becomes apparent. N350 is unique to sleep, its amplitude also increasing as the stimulus becomes more obtrusive. Many authors postulate that when the N350 reaches a critical amplitude, a very large amplitude N550, a component of the K-Complex is elicited. The K-Complex can only be elicited during NREM sleep. The P2, N350 and N550 processes are thus conceived as sleep protective mechanisms, activated sequentially as the risk for disturbance increases. During REM sleep

  20. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  1. Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

  2. Core disgust and moral disgust are related to distinct spatiotemporal patterns of neural processing: an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.; Shen, W.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, T.Y.; Huang, H.; Li, H.

    2013-01-01

    Core disgust is thought to rely more on sensory and perceptual processes, whereas moral disgust is thought to rely more on social evaluation processes. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these two types of disgust. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from

  3. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, HT; Wijers, AA; Mars, RB; Benjamins, JS; Stowe, LA; Mars, Ruben

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that inv

  4. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that inv

  5. Visual Information Processing Deficits as Biomarkers of Vulnerability to Schizophrenia: An Event-Related Potential Study in Schizotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koychev, Ivan; El-Deredy, Wael; Haenschel, Corinna; Deakin, John Francis William

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to clarify the importance of early visual processing deficits for the formation of cognitive deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum. We carried out an event-related potential (ERP) study using a computerised delayed matching to sample working memory (WM) task on a sample of volunteers with high and low scores on the Schizotypal…

  6. A comparison of event-related potential of humans and rats elicited by a serial feature-positive discrimination task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambeth, A.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to compare components of the human and rat auditory event-related potential (ERP) in a serial feature-positive discrimination task. Subjects learned to respond to an auditory target stimulus when it followed a visual feature (X→A+), but to not respond when it was p

  7. The effect of repetition of infrequent familiar and unfamiliar visual patterns on components of the event-related brain potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kok; H. de Looren de Jong

    1980-01-01

    Examined changes in the waveforms of the event-related brain potential (ERP) during repeated presentations of infrequent-familiar and infrequent-unfamiliar visual patterns; Ss were 12 male university students. The EEG waveforms were averaged separately for each presentation of the 2 types of stimuli

  8. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  9. Event-related potential responses to beloved and familiar faces in different marriage styles: evidence from Mosuo subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eWu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime. In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity.

  10. Effects of second language study of phonemic discrimination and auditory event-related potentials in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, J D; Bush, A M; Geist, C R

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of acquisition of a second language on auditory even-related brain potentials and discrimination of foreign language phonemes by 36 women (ages 18 to 47 years), and 25 men (ages 18 to 36 years) and of varying linguistic background, in response to synthetic versions of Japanese phonemes. Subjects were subsequently tested on discrimination between spoken Japanese phonemes. Analysis indicated that the men and women differed in phonological processing and in the way acquisition of the second language affected phonological processing.

  11. Statistical language learning in neonates revealed by event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näätänen Risto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical learning is a candidate for one of the basic prerequisites underlying the expeditious acquisition of spoken language. Infants from 8 months of age exhibit this form of learning to segment fluent speech into distinct words. To test the statistical learning skills at birth, we recorded event-related brain responses of sleeping neonates while they were listening to a stream of syllables containing statistical cues to word boundaries. Results We found evidence that sleeping neonates are able to automatically extract statistical properties of the speech input and thus detect the word boundaries in a continuous stream of syllables containing no morphological cues. Syllable-specific event-related brain responses found in two separate studies demonstrated that the neonatal brain treated the syllables differently according to their position within pseudowords. Conclusion These results demonstrate that neonates can efficiently learn transitional probabilities or frequencies of co-occurrence between different syllables, enabling them to detect word boundaries and in this way isolate single words out of fluent natural speech. The ability to adopt statistical structures from speech may play a fundamental role as one of the earliest prerequisites of language acquisition.

  12. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants at risk who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  13. The dysfunction of face processing in patients with internet addiction disorders: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Lun

    2016-10-19

    To investigate face processing in patients with internet addiction disorders (IAD), an event-related brain potential experiment was conducted in IAD patients and healthy age-matched controls in which participants were instructed to classify each stimulus (face vs. nonface object) as quickly and accurately as possible. Although we did not find a significant difference in the performance between two groups, both the N110 and the P2 components in response to faces were larger in the IAD group than in the control group, whereas the N170 to faces decreased in the IAD group than in the control group. In addition, the source analysis of event-related potential components showed different generators between two groups. These data indicated that there was a dysfunction of face processing in IAD patients and the underlying mechanism of processing faces could be different from healthy individuals. PMID:27563738

  14. Alterations in event-related potential responses to empathy for pain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Brown, Elliot C; Tas, Cumhur; Breidenstein, Anja; Brüne, Martin

    2016-07-30

    Lack of empathy is a critical factor impacting on social functioning and quality of life in schizophrenia. There is, however, a paucity of research into the underlying neurophysiological correlates of empathy deficits in this disorder. Accordingly, we sought: (1) to identify whether dysfunctional empathic abilities in schizophrenia are related to alterations in early or late brain processes, and (2) to explore the potential relationship between brain activity and mood, self-reported empathy and symptom severity. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy matched controls performed an empathy-for-pain paradigm where photographs of hands in neutral or painful situations were shown while we recorded their electroencephalography (EEG), and we examined mood, empathic concern for others and symptom severity. Significant group differences between patients and controls emerged in early (50-150ms after stimulus onset) and late (after 300ms) timeframes. Moreover, brain activity was related with unpleasantness ratings in all participants, with self-reported empathic concern only in controls and with negative mood and personal distress only in patients. Differences in social behavior in schizophrenia may be explained by early as well as late differences, affecting mostly the early frontocentral ERPs, i.e. those suggested to correspond to the emotional sharing component of empathy. PMID:27152905

  15. A Brief Introduction to the Use of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Studies of Perception and Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the precise temporal resolution of electrophysiological recordings, the event-related potential (ERP) technique has proven particularly valuable for testing theories of perception and attention. Here, I provide a brief tutorial of the ERP technique for consumers of such research and those considering the use of human electrophysiology in their own work. My discussion begins with the basics regarding what brain activity ERPs measure and why they are well suited to reveal critical aspect...

  16. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie eChen; Qing eShui; Yiping eZhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  17. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Response Inhibition in School-Aged Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L; Burden, Matthew J.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradi...

  18. Emotional Processing and Attention Control Impairments in Children with Anxiety: An Integrative Review of Event-Related Potentials Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Wauthia, Erika; Rossignol, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, th...

  19. Neural Correlates of Self-Appraisals in the Near and Distant Future: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yangmei Luo; Todd Jackson; Xiaogang Wang; Xiting Huang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men) made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now) and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now). Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events ...

  20. Exploring the Temporal Dynamics of Visual Word Recognition in the Masked Repetition Priming Paradigm using Event-Related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the time-course of visual word recognition using a masked repetition priming paradigm. In two experiments participants monitored a stream of words for occasional animal names, and ERPs were recorded to non-animal critical target items that were either repetitions or were unrelated to the immediately preceding masked prime word. In Experiment 1 the onset interval between the prime and target (stimulus-onset-asynchrony – SOA) was...

  1. Emotion and memory: Event-related potential indices predictive for subsequent successful memory depend on the emotional mood state.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Markus; Schuch, Stefanie; Schenck, Wolfram; Fiedler, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the influencesof emotional mood states on cognitive processes and neural circuits during long-term memory encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). We assessed whether the subsequent memory effect (SME), an electrophysiological index of successful memory encoding, varies as a function of participants’ current mood state. ERPs were recorded while participants in good or bad mood states were presented with words that had to be memorized for subsequent rec...

  2. Language Processing in Reading and Speech Perception is Fast and Incremental: Implications for Event Related Potential Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Keith; Clifton, Charles

    2008-01-01

    An overview of language processing during reading and listening is provided. Evidence is reviewed indicating that language processing in both domains is fast and incremental. We also discuss some aspects of normal reading and listening that are often obscured in event related potential (ERP) research. We also discuss some apparent limitations of ERP techniques, as well as some recent indications that EEG measures can be used to probe how lexical knowledge and lexical or structural expectation...

  3. Epidural Auditory Event-Related Potentials in the Rat to Frequency and duration Deviants: Evidence of Mismatch Negativity?

    OpenAIRE

    TamoNakamura; WilliamRFulham

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of the human brain to detect deviance in the acoustic environment pre-attentively is reflected in a brain event-related potential (ERP), mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is observed in response to the presentation of rare oddball sounds that deviate from an otherwise regular pattern of frequent background standard sounds. While the primate and cat auditory cortex (AC) exhibit MMN-like activity, it is unclear whether the rodent AC produces a deviant response that reflects deviance d...

  4. Who are you talking about? Tracking discourse-level referential processing with event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwland, M.; Otten, M.; Berkum, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this event-related brain potentials (ERPs) study, we explored the possibility to selectively track referential ambiguity during spoken discourse comprehension. Earlier ERP research has shown that referentially ambiguous nouns (e.g., “the girl” in a two-girl context) elicit a frontal, sustained negative shift relative to unambiguous control words. In the current study, we examined whether this ERP effect reflects “deep” situation model ambiguity or “superficial” textbase ambiguity. We contr...

  5. Deficits in Error-Monitoring by College Students with Schizotypal Traits: An Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Hee Kim; Kyoung-Mi Jang; Myung-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate deficits in error-monitoring by college students with schizotypal traits. Scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) were used to categorize the participants into schizotypal-trait (n = 17) and normal control (n = 20) groups. The error-monitoring abilities of the participants were evaluated using the Simon task, which consists of congruent (locations of stimulus and response are the same) and incongruent (loc...

  6. Components and sequential changes in event-related potential induced by gaze orientation processing under a reflective attention cue paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingdi Li; Xuemin Zhang; Yan Song; Qing Feng

    2010-01-01

    Gaze orientation induces activation of relevant brain regions,presents differences in specificity and time course,and is exhibited in patients with brain injury.However,the components of activated event-related potential remain controversial.Previous studies of behavior and cognitive neuroscience related to gaze orientation investigated conscious attention of visual orientation.The present study explored gaze orientation processing-induced event-related potential components and changes with time using reflective orientation of visual attention under a reflective attention cue paradigm.Visual attention processing of gaze orientation was recorded using event-related potential and electroencephalographic recording.Results demonstrated that the reflective attention cue task evoked early directing attention negativity and anterior directing attention negativity,but did not trigger late directing attention positivity.These results suggest that reflective attention occurs over a short time of visual stimulus presentation.During the early stage of attention processing,early directing attention negativity and anterior directing attention negativity were detected,but late directing attention positivity did not occur.These results confirmed reflectivity and time-course superiority of gaze orientation attention processing.

  7. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  8. Effects of auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane on audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Li, Qi; Ochi, Tatsuya; Yang, Jingjing; Gao, Yulin; Tang, Xiaoyu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one location in an equidistant horizontal plane at the front (0°, the fixation point), right (90°), back (180°), or left (270°) of the participants, and audiovisual stimuli that include both visual stimuli and auditory stimuli originating from one of the four locations were simultaneously presented. These stimuli were presented randomly with equal probability; during this time, participants were asked to attend to the visual stimulus and respond promptly only to visual target stimuli (a unimodal visual target stimulus and the visual target of the audiovisual stimulus). A significant facilitation of reaction times and hit rates was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in the front or back of the participant. However, no significant interactions were found between visual stimuli and auditory stimuli from the right or left. Two main ERP components related to audiovisual integration were found: first, auditory stimuli from the front location produced an ERP reaction over the right temporal area and right occipital area at approximately 160-200 milliseconds; second, auditory stimuli from the back produced a reaction over the parietal and occipital areas at approximately 360-400 milliseconds. Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration was also elicited, even though auditory stimuli were presented behind the participant, but no integration occurred when auditory stimuli were presented in the right or left spaces, suggesting that the human brain might be particularly sensitive to information received from behind than both sides.

  9. The Extended Fronto-Striatal Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Convergence from Event-Related Potentials, Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita eMelloni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, basal ganglia (BG and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC- and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN, N200 and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement, neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD.

  10. The influence of monetary incentives on context processing in younger and older adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hannah; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Kray, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that neuronal activity related to reward anticipation benefits subsequent stimulus processing, but the effect of penalties remains largely unknown. Since the dual-mechanisms-of-control theory (DMC; Braver & Barch, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 809-81, 2002) assumes that temporal differences in context updating underlie age differences in cognitive control, in this study we investigated whether motivational cues (signaling the chance to win or the risk to lose money, relative to neutral cues) preceding context information in a modified AX-CPT paradigm influence the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. In the behavioral data, younger adults benefited from gain cues, evident in their enhanced context updating, whereas older adults exhibited slowed responding after motivational cues, irrespective of valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the enhanced processing of motivational cues in the P2 and P3b was mainly age-invariant, whereas age-differential effects were found for the ERP correlates of context processing. Younger adults showed improved context maintenance (i.e., a larger negative-going CNV), as well as increased conflict detection (larger N450) and resolution (indicated by a sustained positivity), whenever incorrect responding would lead to a monetary loss. In contrast, motivationally salient cues benefited context representations (in cue-locked P3b amplitudes), but increased working memory demands during response preparation (via a temporally prolonged P3b) in older adults. In sum, motivational valence and salience effects differentially modulated the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. These results are discussed in terms of the DMC theory, recent findings of emotion regulation in old age, and the relationship between cognitive and affective processing. PMID:25665666

  11. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  12. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  13. A Neurally Plausible Parallel Distributed Processing Model of Event-Related Potential Word Reading Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Sarah; Plaut, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework has significant potential for producing models of cognitive tasks that approximate how the brain performs the same tasks. To date, however, there has been relatively little contact between PDP modeling and data from cognitive neuroscience. In an attempt to advance the relationship between…

  14. Imaginative Language: What Event-Related Potentials have Revealed about the Nature and Source of Concreteness Effects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological evidence suggest that abstract and concrete concepts may be represented, retrieved, and processed differently in the human brain. As reviewed in this paper, data using event-related potential measures, some in combination with visual half-field presentation methods, have offered a detailed picture of the nature and source of concreteness effects. In particular, the results provide strong evidence for multiple mechanisms underlying the behavioral processing differences that have long been noted for concrete and abstract words and, further, suggest an intriguing, unique role for the right hemisphere in associating words with sensory imagery.

  15. Perceiving temporal regularity in music: the role of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in probing beat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Bouwer, Fleur L; Háden, Gábor P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of how the perception of a regular beat in music can be studied in humans adults, human newborns, and nonhuman primates using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Next to a review of the recent literature on the perception of temporal regularity in music, we will discuss in how far ERPs, and especially the component called mismatch negativity (MMN), can be instrumental in probing beat perception. We conclude with a discussion on the pitfalls and prospects of using ERPs to probe the perception of a regular beat, in which we present possible constraints on stimulus design and discuss future perspectives.

  16. Lexical processing of vocabulary class in patients with Broca's aphasia: An event-related brain potential study on agrammatic comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Keurs, M.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents electrophysiological evidence of an impairment in the on-line processing of word class information in patients with Broca’s aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the scalp while Broca patients and non-aphasic control subjects read open- and closed-class words that appeared one at a time on a PC screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed a modula...

  17. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus...

  18. The characteristics of event related potential in the cognitive course of individual Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshi, Wang; Hongqiang, Yu; Huisheng, Lu

    2005-01-01

    The difference between the Chinese and English character recognition process and the characteristics of Chinese character recognition process are investigated by analyzing the ERP difference between the matched and mismatched ending strokes of a single Chinese character. First, the P300 are observed in the mismatched ERP waveforms, which don't exist in the matched ERP waveforms (Ppictograph Chinese characters are not only affected by the semanteme, but also closely related to its image of the figure. Secondly, the amplitude of the N400 in the mismatched ending strokes of Chinese character is obviously higher than that in the matched groups (P<0.05). The N400 is distributed in the other areas except the right side of temporal lobe and is higher in the left side. However, the amplitude of N400 in the waveforms has no obvious distinction between the cerebral hemispheres, where the amplitude of N400 are obtained by distracting the ERP of the mismatched individual Chinese character by the ERP of the matched group. These results show that the difference between cerebral hemispheres is attributed to the formal and phonic processing, not due to the semantic processing, which verify that the left and right cerebral hemisphere are both used in the Chinese character recognition, which is very different from the English character recognition, where the left side cerebral hemisphere is used with high percentage.

  19. Social context and perceived agency affects empathy for pain: an event-related fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitsuki, Yuko; Decety, Jean

    2009-08-15

    Studying of the impact of social context on the perception of pain in others is important for understanding the role of intentionality in interpersonal sensitivity, empathy, and implicit moral reasoning. Here we used an event-related fMRI with pain and social context (i.e., the number of individuals in the stimuli) as the two factors to investigate how different social contexts and resulting perceived agency modulate the neural response to the perception of pain in others. Twenty-six healthy participants were scanned while presented with short dynamic visual stimuli depicting painful situations accidentally caused by or intentionally caused by another individual. The main effect of perception of pain was associated with signal increase in the aMCC, insula, somatosensory cortex, SMA and PAG. Importantly, perceiving the presence of another individual led to specific hemodynamic increase in regions involved in representing social interaction and emotion regulation including the temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, the functional connectivity pattern between the left amygdala and other brain areas was modulated by the perceived agency. Our study demonstrates that the social context in which pain occurs modulate the brain response to other's pain. This modulation may reflect successful adaptation to potential danger present in a social interaction. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underpinning implicit moral reasoning that concern actions that can harm other people. PMID:19439183

  20. How attitude strength and information influence moral decision making: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrieser, Manuela; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-05-01

    Moral judgments are based on complex processing. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of moral decisions. Participants (N = 32) were asked to express their opinion on various moral issues while ERPs were recorded. After reading texts containing either confirming or contradicting arguments regarding the issues, participants were asked to express their opinion again. A higher N400 amplitude and a higher amplitude of the late positive potential for value-incongruent words compared to value-congruent words could be observed. Furthermore, after participants had read conflicting arguments, slower responses and larger N400 differences (value-incongruent minus value-congruent) were observed. These results showed that language processing for a moral context is influenced by the subjective value system, and it can be assumed that a demanding cognitive elaboration contributed to the observed RT and N400 priming effects. This is the first ERP study comparing moral judgments before and after reading confirming or conflicting information; it revealed that evaluative reasoning can influence neural processing for moral decisions. PMID:26818492

  1. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  2. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  3. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  4. Seeing sounds and hearing colors: an event-related potential study of auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Aviva I; Otten, Leun J; Ward, Jamie

    2009-10-01

    In auditory-visual synesthesia, sounds automatically elicit conscious and reliable visual experiences. It is presently unknown whether this reflects early or late processes in the brain. It is also unknown whether adult audiovisual synesthesia resembles auditory-induced visual illusions that can sometimes occur in the general population or whether it resembles the electrophysiological deflection over occipital sites that has been noted in infancy and has been likened to synesthesia. Electrical brain activity was recorded from adult synesthetes and control participants who were played brief tones and required to monitor for an infrequent auditory target. The synesthetes were instructed to attend either to the auditory or to the visual (i.e., synesthetic) dimension of the tone, whereas the controls attended to the auditory dimension alone. There were clear differences between synesthetes and controls that emerged early (100 msec after tone onset). These differences tended to lie in deflections of the auditory-evoked potential (e.g., the auditory N1, P2, and N2) rather than the presence of an additional posterior deflection. The differences occurred irrespective of what the synesthetes attended to (although attention had a late effect). The results suggest that differences between synesthetes and others occur early in time, and that synesthesia is qualitatively different from similar effects found in infants and certain auditory-induced visual illusions in adults. In addition, we report two novel cases of synesthesia in which colors elicit sounds, and vice versa. PMID:18823243

  5. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  6. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  7. How attitude strength and information influence moral decision making: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrieser, Manuela; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-05-01

    Moral judgments are based on complex processing. This study aimed to investigate neural correlates of moral decisions. Participants (N = 32) were asked to express their opinion on various moral issues while ERPs were recorded. After reading texts containing either confirming or contradicting arguments regarding the issues, participants were asked to express their opinion again. A higher N400 amplitude and a higher amplitude of the late positive potential for value-incongruent words compared to value-congruent words could be observed. Furthermore, after participants had read conflicting arguments, slower responses and larger N400 differences (value-incongruent minus value-congruent) were observed. These results showed that language processing for a moral context is influenced by the subjective value system, and it can be assumed that a demanding cognitive elaboration contributed to the observed RT and N400 priming effects. This is the first ERP study comparing moral judgments before and after reading confirming or conflicting information; it revealed that evaluative reasoning can influence neural processing for moral decisions.

  8. Parafoveal processing in reading Chinese sentences: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Niefind, Florian; Wang, Suiping; Sommer, Werner; Dimigen, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Natural reading involves the preprocessing of upcoming words, resulting in shorter fixations on words visible in the parafovea during preceding fixations. While this preview benefit is established in behavior, its brain-electric correlates have only recently been investigated. Using fixation-related potentials, an attenuation of the occipitotemporal N1 component for words that were parafoveally visible during preceding fixations has been demonstrated. In contrast, another study, using an RSVP paradigm with parafoveal flanker words, observed no such general preview benefit in ERPs, but instead reported N400 effects triggered by semantically incongruous parafoveal words. To follow up on these discrepant findings and to extend them to a nonalphabetic writing system, we conducted two ERP experiments with Chinese readers using the RSVP-with-flankers paradigm and rigorous fixation control via eye tracking. We replicate robust parafoveal N400 semantic congruency effects in Chinese participants. Additionally, we found that, once a word was directly looked at, words after a valid preview elicited a smaller N1 and a weaker N400 than those after an invalid preview. Results underline the importance of considering parafoveal vision in ERP studies on reading. PMID:26289548

  9. Event-related potential indices of congruency sequence effects without feature integration or contingency learning confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Kirwan, C Brock; Weissman, Daniel H

    2016-06-01

    The congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks (i.e., increased response time and reduced accuracy in incongruent relative to congruent trials) is often smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent. This congruency sequence effect (CSE) is thought to reflect cognitive control processes that shift attention to the target and/or modulate the response engendered by the distracter differently after incongruent relative to congruent trials. The neural signatures of CSEs are therefore usually attributed to cognitive control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. However, CSEs in previous functional neuroimaging studies were ubiquitously confounded with feature integration and/or contingency learning processes. We therefore investigated whether a neural CSE can be observed without such confounds in a group of healthy young adults (n = 56). To this end, we combined a prime-probe task that lacks such confounds with high-density ERPs to identify, for the first time, the neural time course of confound-minimized CSEs. Replicating recent behavioral findings, we observed strong CSEs in this task for mean response time and mean accuracy. Critically, conceptually replicating prior ERP results from confounded tasks, we also observed a CSE in both the parietal conflict slow potential (conflict SP) and the frontomedial N450. These findings indicate for the first time that neural CSEs as indexed by ERPs can be observed without the typical confounds. More broadly, the present study provides a confound-minimized protocol that will help future researchers to better isolate the neural bases of control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. PMID:26854028

  10. Cortical Auditory Event Related Potentials (P300) for Frequency Changing Dynamic Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives P300 has been studied with a variety of stimuli. However, the nature of P300 has not been investigated for deviant stimuli which change its characteristics from standard stimuli after a period of time from onset. Subjects and Methods Nine young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The P300 was elicited using an oddball paradigm, the probability of standard and deviant stimuli was 80% and 20% respectively. Six stimuli were used to elicit P300, it included two pure-tones (1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz) and four tone-complexes (tones with frequency changes). Among these stimuli, 1,000 Hz tone served as standard while others served as deviant stimuli. The P300 was recorded in five separate blocks, with one of the deviant stimuli as target in each block. Electroencephalographic was recorded from electrode sites Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and Pz. Latency and amplitude of components of the cortical auditory evoked potentials were measured at Cz. Results Waveforms obtained in the present study shows that, all the deviant stimuli elicited obligatory P1-N1-P2 for stimulus onset. 2,000 Hz deviant tone elicited P300 at a latency of 300 ms. While, tone-complexes elicited acoustic change complex (ACC) for frequency changes and finally elicited P300 at a latency of 600 ms. In addition, the results showed shorter latency and larger amplitude ACC and P300 for rising tone-complexes compared to falling tone-complexes. Conclusions Tone-complexes elicited distinct waveforms compared to 2,000 Hz deviant tone. Rising tone-complexes which had an increase in frequency elicited shorter latency and larger amplitude responses, which could be attributed to perceptual bias for frequency changes. PMID:27144230

  11. Effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate on the P300 event-related potential in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisaki Mihisa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines carry the risk of inducing cognitive impairments, which may go unnoticed while profoundly disturbing social activity. Furthermore, these impairments are partly associated with the elimination half-life (EH of the substance from the body. The object of the present study was to examine the effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate, with EHs of 6 h and 122 h, respectively, on information processing in healthy subjects. Methods Healthy people were administered etizolam and ethyl loflazepate acutely and subchronically (14 days. The auditory P300 event-related potential and the neuropsychological batteries described below were employed to assess the effects of drugs on cognition. The P300 event-related potential was recorded before and after drug treatments. The digit symbol test, trail making test, digit span test and verbal paired associates test were administered to examine mental slowing and memory functioning. Results Acute administration of drugs caused prolongation in P300 latency and reduction in P300 amplitude. Etizolam caused a statistically significant prolongation in P300 latency compared to ethyl loflazepate. Furthermore, subchronic administration of etizolam, but not ethyl loflazepate, still caused a weak prolongation in P300 latency. In contrast, neuropsychological tests showed no difference. Conclusions The results indicate that acute administration of ethyl loflazepate induces less effect on P300 latency than etizolam.

  12. Perceptual and lexical effects in letter identification: an event-related potential study of the word superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clara D; Nazir, Tatjana; Thierry, Guillaume; Paulignan, Yves; Démonet, Jean-François

    2006-07-01

    Most classical models of visual word recognition are based on sequentially organized levels of representation and involve feedback mechanisms to various extents. In this study, we aim at clarifying which of the early processing stages of visual word recognition are modulated by top-down lexical effects. We studied the identification of letters embedded in briefly presented words (e.g., TABLE) and illegal nonwords (e.g., GTFRS) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were involved in the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm: they were asked to indicate which of two letters displayed above and below a string of hashes was flashed immediately before at fixation within a letter string, which was either a word or a nonword. Event-related potentials were significantly modulated by the lexical status of stimuli around 200 ms after stimulus onset, i.e., in the peaking window of the N1 component. In light of our results, we propose that visual word form representations can constrain letter identification at a prelexical stage i.e., during the extraction of letter-shape information. In addition, we show that this facilitatory top-down effect is sensitive to stimulus exposure duration. PMID:16774747

  13. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jing; NI Dao-feng; WANG Jian; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). Methods We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. Results An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. Conclusions We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrephysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  14. Sensitivity of P300 auditory event-related potentials for assessing cognitive impairment in elderly type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yang; Junhong She; Xianfu Lu; Rihong Peng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies, cognitive function in elderly type 2 diabetic patients was evaluated by psychometric tests. These studies have confirmed that P300 event-related potential is an objective way of assessing cognitive function.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the objectivity of P300 for assessment of cognitive function in elderly type 2diabetic patients.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This case-control experiment was performed at the Department of Endocrinology of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University from January 2004 to December 2006.PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two patients (38 males and 34 females) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided according to those with diabetes alone (diabetes alone group) (n=38) and those with diabetes and cerebral ischemia (diabetes and cerebral ischemia group)(n=34). A further 31 healthy individuals (16 males and 15 females), who received health examinations over the same period, were included as normal controls (normal control group).METHODS: All subjects were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Abnormalities in cognitive functions were identified by analyzing the auditory P300 event-related potentials.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Auditory event-related potentials and MMSE scores. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using the "enter method" with the 72 elderly patients with type 2diabetes mellitus. P3 latency, P3 amplitude and N2 latency served as dependent variables. Age, sex,education, course of the disease, glycosylated hemoglobin, and ischemic brain damage were used as independent variables.RESULTS: No significant difference in scores of MMSE was detected between the diabetes alone and normal control groups (P > 0.05). MMSE score was significantly lower in the diabetes and cerebral ischemia group (P < 0.01) than in the normal control group. N2 and P3 latencies of auditory event-related potential were significantly longer, and P3 amplitude was

  15. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Cacace, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs) whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA) method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3), middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24). Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32), while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22), middle (BA37), inferior temporal (BA19) gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7). Hypnotic hypoalgesia in HHs, for N

  16. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3, middle frontal gyrus (BA6 and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24. Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32, while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22, middle (BA37, inferior temporal (BA19 gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7. Hypnotic hypoalgesia in

  17. Working memory maintenance contributes to long-term memory formation: evidence from slow event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Patrick; Ranganath, Charan; Seemüller, Anna; Rösler, Frank

    2007-09-01

    Behavioral research has led to conflicting views regarding the relationship between working memory (WM) maintenance and long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used slow event-related brain potentials to investigate the degree to which neural activity during WM maintenance is associated with successful LTM formation. Participants performed a WM task with objects and letter strings, followed by a surprise LTM test. Slow potentials were found to be more negative over the parietal and occipital cortex for objects and over the left frontal cortex for letter strings during WM maintenance. Within each category, they were enhanced for items that were subsequently successfully remembered. These effects were topographically distinct, with maximum effects at those electrodes that showed the maximum negativity during WM maintenance in general. Together, these results are strongly consistent with the ideas that WM maintenance contributes to LTM formation and that this may occur through strengthening of stimulus-specific cortical memory traces. PMID:17993207

  18. Using Event-Related Brain Potentials to Assess Perceptibility: The Case of French Speakers and English [h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jennifer; Goad, Heather; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    French speaking learners of English encounter persistent difficulty acquiring English [h], thus confusing words like eat and heat in both production and perception. We assess the hypothesis that the acoustic properties of [h] may render detection of this segment in the speech stream insufficiently reliable for second language acquisition. We use the mismatch negativity (MMN) in event-related potentials to investigate [h] perception in French speaking learners of English and native English controls, comparing both linguistic and non-linguistic conditions in an unattended oddball paradigm. Unlike native speakers, French learners of English elicit an MMN response only in the non-linguistic condition. Our results provide neurobiological evidence against the hypothesis that French speakers’ difficulties with [h] are acoustically based. They instead suggest that the problem is in constructing an appropriate phonological representation for [h] in the interlanguage grammar. PMID:27757086

  19. Discrimination of fearful and happy body postures in 8-month-old infants: An event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eMissana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Responding to others’ emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Adults readily detect emotions from body postures, but it is unclear whether infants are sensitive to emotional body postures. We examined 8-month-old infants’ brain responses to emotional body postures by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs to happy and fearful bodies. Our results revealed two emotion-sensitive ERP components: body postures evoked an early N290 at occipital electrodes and a later Nc at fronto-central electrodes that were enhanced in response to fearful (relative to happy expressions. These findings demonstrate that, (a 8-month-old infants discriminate between static emotional body postures, and (b similar to infant emotional face perception, the sensitivity to emotional body postures is reflected in early perceptual (N290 and later attentional (Nc neural processes. This provides evidence for an early developmental emergence of the neural processes involved in the discrimination of emotional body postures.

  20. Event-related potentials associated with Chinese and English color-word Stroop tasks in Chinese bilinguals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the neural electrophysiological activity underlying Chinese and English Stroop tasks for Chinese-English bilinguals. Methods: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 14 Chinese bilinguals with a moderate command of English when they performed the Stroop task presented in English words and Chinese characters, respectively. Results: In Chinese task version, it was found an increased positivity over bilateral front-polar regions on incongruent trials compared with congruent trials, followed by an increased negativity over fronto-central region and an increased positivity over occipital region. While in English task version, only the increased negativity was observed over fronto-central region, but with reduced amplitude and anterior distribution. Conclusion: This increased negativity was proposed as an index of the resolution processes of conflicting information in the incongruent situation. The increased positivity over occipital region on Chinese incongruent trials may indicate visually rechecking effect for Chinese character.

  1. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. PMID:27345597

  2. Detection and Separation of Event-related Potentials from Multi-Artifacts Contaminated EEG by Means of Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGRong-chang; DUSi-dan; GAODun-tang

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERP) is an important type of brain dynamics in human cognition research. However, ERP is often submerged by the spontaneous brain activity EEG, for its relatively tiny scale. Further more, the brain activities collected from scalp electrodes are often inevitably contaminated by several kinds of artifacts, such as blinks, eye movements, muscle noise and power line interference. A new approach to correct these disturbances is presented using independent component analysis (ICA). This technique can effectively detect and extract ERP components from the measured electrodes recordings even if they are heavily contaminated. The results compare favorably to those obtained by parametric modeling. Besides, auto--adaptive projection of decomposed results to ERP components was also given. Through experiments, ICA proves to be highly capable of ERP extraction and S/N ratio improving.

  3. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls.

  4. Neural correlates of short-term perceptual learning in orientation discrimination indexed by event-related potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yan; PENG DanLing; LI XiaoLan; ZHANG Yi; KANG Jing; QU Zhe; DING YuLong

    2007-01-01

    The current work investigated the neural correlates of visual perceptual learning in grating orientation discrimination by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) from human adults. Subjects were trained with a discrimination task of grating orientation in three consecutive training sessions within 2 h. While reaction times (RTs) were shortened gradually across training sessions, the N1 was decreased and the P2 was increased over the parietal and occipital areas. A broadly distributed P3 was increased along with more practices. In addition, the time course of learning reflected in the P2 and P3 amplitudes was in line with the changes of reaction times and exhibited a stable level during later training. The implications of these results to the neural mechanisms subserving perceptual learning were discussed.

  5. Mechanisms underlying syntactic and semantic processing of Chinese simple sentences Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanhai Fang; Ming Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to test the processing of three types of sentences in Chinese, as correct sentences, semantic violation sentences, and sentences containing semantic and syntactic violations, based on the following sentence pattern: "subject (noun) + yi/gang/zheng + predicate (verb)". Event-related potentials on the scalp were recorded using 32-channel electroencephalography. Compared with correct sentences, target words elicited an early left anterior negativity (N400) and a later positivity (P600) over frontal, central and temporal sites in sentences involving semantic violations. In addition, when sentences contained both semantic and syntactic violations, the target words elicited a greater N400 and P600 distributed in posterior brain areas. These results indicate that Chinese sentence comprehension involves covert grammar processes.

  6. Aging affects both perceptual and lexical/semantic components of word stem priming: An event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Daselaar; D.J. Veltman; S. Rombouts; J.G.W. Raaijmakers; C. Jonker

    2005-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, brain activity patterns were compared in extensive groups of young (N=25) and older (N=38) adults, while they were performing a word stem completion priming task. Based on behavioral findings, we tested the hypothesis that aging affects only the lexical/semantic, bu

  7. Brain and personality bases of insensitivity to infant cues in neglectful mothers: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; León, Inmaculada; Quiñones, Ileana; Lage, Agustín; Byrne, Sonia; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2011-02-01

    This investigation examined the neural and personality correlates of processing infant facial expressions in mothers with substantiated neglect of a child under 5 years old. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 14 neglectful and 14 control mothers as they viewed and categorized pictures of infant cries, laughs, and neutral faces. Maternal self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also completed. Early (negative occipitotemporal component peaking at around 170 ms on the scalp [N170] and positive electrical potential peaking at about 200 ms [P200]) and late positive potential (LPP) components were selected. Both groups of mothers showed behavioral discrimination between the different facial expressions via reaction time and accuracy measures. Neglectful mothers did not exhibit increased N170 amplitude at temporal leads in response to viewing crying versus laughing and neutral expressions compared to control mothers. Both groups had greater P200 and LPP amplitudes at centroparietal leads in response to viewing crying versus neutral facial expressions. However, neglectful mothers displayed an overall attenuated brain response in LPP that was related to their higher scores in social anhedonia but not to their empathy scores. The ERP data suggest that the brain's failures in the early differentiation of cry stimuli and in the sustained processing of infant expressions related to social anhedonia may underlie the insensitive responding in neglectful mothers. The implications of these results for the design and evaluation of preventive interventions are discussed.

  8. Neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition predict relapse in detoxified alcoholic patients: some preliminary evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Géraldine Petit, Agnieszka Cimochowska, Charles Kornreich, Catherine Hanak, Paul Verbanck, Salvatore CampanellaLaboratory of Psychological Medicine and Addictology, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Brussels, BelgiumBackground: Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disease. The impairment of response inhibition and alcohol-cue reactivity are the main cognitive mechanisms that trigger relapse. Despite the interaction suggested between the two processes, they have long been investigated as two different lines of research. The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between response inhibition and alcohol-cue reactivity and their potential link with relapse.Materials and methods: Event-related potentials were recorded during a variant of a “go/no-go” task. Frequent and rare stimuli (to be inhibited were superimposed on neutral, nonalcohol-related, and alcohol-related contexts. The task was administered following a 3-week detoxification course. Relapse outcome was measured after 3 months, using self-reported abstinence. There were 27 controls (seven females and 27 patients (seven females, among whom 13 relapsed during the 3-month follow-up period. The no-go N2, no-go P3, and the “difference” wave (P3d were examined with the aim of linking neural correlates of response inhibition on alcohol-related contexts to the observed relapse rate.Results: Results showed that 1 at the behavioral level, alcohol-dependent patients made significantly more commission errors than controls (P<0.001, independently of context; 2 through the subtraction no-go P3 minus go P3, this inhibition deficit was neurophysiologically indexed in patients with greater P3d amplitudes (P=0.034; and 3 within the patient group, increased P3d amplitude enabled us to differentiate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers (P=0.026.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that recently detoxified alcoholics are characterized by poorer

  9. The separate and combined effects of monoamine oxidase A inhibition and nicotine on the mismatch negativity event related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan M; Fisher, Derek; Blier, Pierre; Ilivitsky, Vadim; Knott, Verner

    2015-10-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) auditory event-related potential (ERP) has been extensively studied as a potential biomarker for abnormal auditory processing in schizophrenia (SZ), a population which exhibits abnormally high smoking rates. The relationship between nicotinic activation and cognition in SZ may be related to underlying nicotinic and NMDA receptor dysfunction within the disease. However, transient cognitive improvements via smoking in patients may also result from monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, achieved through tobacco smoke. In 24 healthy non-smoking males, we investigated the separate and combined effects of nicotine and MAO-A inhibition via moclobemide (75mg) on the optimal-5 variation of the MMN paradigm. No significant drug effects were observed in our total sample, however, stratification of individuals into low (N=12) and high (N=12) baseline MMN amplitude groups revealed increases in duration MMN amplitude relative to placebo by nicotine, as well as moclobemide, but not after the combination of the two. Because previous research has shown there was no effect of monoamine modulation on MMN, this study shows an unexpected effect of moclobemide on duration MMN. PMID:26226350

  10. Emotional processing and attention control impairments in children with anxiety: An integrative review of event-related potentials findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Wauthia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention towards threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder. This review summarizes the results of researches having used ERPs to index emotional processing and attention control in children suffering from anxiety. We will focus on the P1, indexing basic visual perceptual processing, the N2, thought to reflect cognitive control process, the P3 typically associated with response inhibition, and the late positive potential (LPP that indicates sustained attention towards motivationally salient stimuli. We will also examine the error-related negativity (ERN that indexes monitoring system for detecting errors. Electro-physiological studies generally reported increased amplitudes of these components in anxious children, even when they did not differ from typically developing children at a behavioural level. These results suggest diminished cognitive control that influences children's selective attention mechanisms towards threatening information. Theoretical perspectives and implications for future researches will be discussed in the framework of current models of childhood anxiety.

  11. An Efficient Decoder for the Recognition of Event-Related Potentials in High-Density MEG Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reichert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain–computer interfacing (BCI is a promising technique for regaining communication and control in severely paralyzed people. Many BCI implementations are based on the recognition of task-specific event-related potentials (ERP such as P300 responses. However, because of the high signal-to-noise ratio in noninvasive brain recordings, reliable detection of single trial ERPs is challenging. Furthermore, the relevant signal is often heterogeneously distributed over several channels. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for recognizing a sequence of attended events from multi-channel brain recordings. The framework utilizes spatial filtering to reduce both noise and signal space considerably. We introduce different models that can be used to construct the spatial filter and evaluate the approach using magnetoencephalography (MEG data involving P300 responses, recorded during a BCI experiment. Compared to the accuracy achieved in the BCI experiment performed without spatial filtering, the recognition rate increased significantly to up to 95.3% on average (SD: 5.3%. In combination with the data-driven spatial filter construction we introduce here, our framework represents a powerful method to reliably recognize a sequence of brain potentials from high-density electrophysiological data, which could greatly improve the control of BCIs.

  12. The time course of emotional picture processing: an event-related potential study using a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlin eZhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid recognition of the emotional significance of visual stimuli plays an important role in our daily life. The present study recorded event-related potentials with rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm to explore the time course of processing of emotionally charged pictures (emotional pictures. Participants completed a dual-target task as quickly and accurately as possible, in which they were asked to judge the valence (positive, neutral, or negative of the given picture and the gender of the person depicted. The results showed that the amplitudes of P2 were larger for emotional pictures than for neutral pictures and therefore represents brain processes that distinguish emotional stimuli from non-emotional. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the late positive potential elicited by positive, neutral, and negative pictures differ from each other, implicating this component in brain processes that discriminate different types of emotion. Additionally, the time course of the processing of emotional pictures was consistent with the latter two stages of a three-stage model derived from studies of emotional facial expressions processing and emotional adjectives processing. This indicated that in late perceptual and early cognitive processing, the processes by which the same emotion is conveyed by different types of material are similar, when attentional resources are limited.

  13. Emotional Processing and Attention Control Impairments in Children with Anxiety: An Integrative Review of Event-Related Potentials Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthia, Erika; Rossignol, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder. This review summarizes the results of researches having used ERPs to index emotional processing and attention control in children suffering from anxiety. We will focus on the P1, indexing basic visual perceptual processing, the N2, thought to reflect cognitive control process, the P3 typically associated with response inhibition, and the late positive potential (LPP) that indicates sustained attention toward motivationally salient stimuli. We will also examine the error-related negativity (ERN) that indexes monitoring system for detecting errors. Electro-physiological studies generally reported increased amplitudes of these components in anxious children, even when they did not differ from typically developing children at a behavioral level. These results suggest diminished cognitive control that influences children's selective attention mechanisms toward threatening information. Theoretical perspectives and implications for future researches will be discussed in the framework of current models of childhood anxiety. PMID:27199802

  14. Deficits in error-monitoring by college students with schizotypal traits: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate deficits in error-monitoring by college students with schizotypal traits. Scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ were used to categorize the participants into schizotypal-trait (n = 17 and normal control (n = 20 groups. The error-monitoring abilities of the participants were evaluated using the Simon task, which consists of congruent (locations of stimulus and response are the same and incongruent (locations of stimulus and response are different conditions. The schizotypal-trait group committed more errors on the Simon task and exhibited smaller error-related negativity (ERN amplitudes than did the control group. Additionally, ERN amplitude measured at FCz was negatively correlated with the error rate on the Simon task in the schizotypal-trait group but not in the control group. The two groups did not differ in terms of correct-related potentials (CRN, error positivity (Pe and correct-related positivity (Pc amplitudes. The present results indicate that individuals with schizotypal traits have deficits in error-monitoring and that reduced ERN amplitudes may represent a biological marker of schizophrenia.

  15. Why it is time to develop the use of cognitive event-related potentials in the treatment of psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The relapse rate for many psychiatric disorders is staggeringly high, indicating that treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, in psychiatry, there is a current push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy and medication-based approaches. Cognitive deficits have gained considerable importance in the field as critical features of mental illness, and it is now believed that they might represent valid therapeutic targets. Indeed, an increase in cognitive skills has been shown to have a long-lasting, positive impact on the patients' quality of life and their clinical symptoms. We hereby present four principal arguments supporting the use of event-related potentials (ERP) that are derived from electroencephalography, which allow the identification of specific neurocognitive deficiencies in patients. These arguments could assist psychiatrists in the development of individualized, targeted therapy, as well as a follow-up and rehabilitation plan specific to each patient's deficit. Furthermore, they can be used as a tool to assess the possible benefits of combination therapy, consisting of medication, psychotherapy, and "ERP-oriented cognitive rehabilitation". Using this strategy, specific cognitive interventions could be planned based on each patient's needs, for an "individualized" or "personalized" therapy, which may have the potential to reduce relapse rates for many psychiatric disorders. The implementation of such a combined approach would require intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. PMID:24348040

  16. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD. PMID:26812042

  17. Aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses for event-related potential classification in brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Qibin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-02-01

    Two main issues for event-related potential (ERP) classification in brain-computer interface (BCI) application are curse-of-dimensionality and bias-variance tradeoff, which may deteriorate classification performance, especially with insufficient training samples resulted from limited calibration time. This study introduces an aggregation of sparse linear discriminant analyses (ASLDA) to overcome these problems. In the ASLDA, multiple sparse discriminant vectors are learned from differently l1-regularized least-squares regressions by exploiting the equivalence between LDA and least-squares regression, and are subsequently aggregated to form an ensemble classifier, which could not only implement automatic feature selection for dimensionality reduction to alleviate curse-of-dimensionality, but also decrease the variance to improve generalization capacity for new test samples. Extensive investigation and comparison are carried out among the ASLDA, the ordinary LDA and other competing ERP classification algorithms, based on different three ERP datasets. Experimental results indicate that the ASLDA yields better overall performance for single-trial ERP classification when insufficient training samples are available. This suggests the proposed ASLDA is promising for ERP classification in small sample size scenario to improve the practicability of BCI. PMID:24344691

  18. An event-related potential investigation of the effects of age on alerting, orienting, and executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A S Kaufman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared young and older adults on behavioral and neural correlates of three attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control. Nineteen young and 16 older neurologically-healthy adults completed the Attention Network Test (ANT while behavioral data (reaction time and error rates and 64-channel event-related potentials (ERPs were acquired. Significant age-related RT differences were observed across all three networks; however, after controlling for generalized slowing, only the alerting network remained significantly reduced in older compared with young adults. ERP data revealed that alerting cues led to enhanced posterior N1 responses for subsequent attentional targets in young adults, but this effect was weakened in older adults. As a result, it appears that older adults did not benefit fully from alerting cues, and their lack of subsequent attentional enhancements may compromise their ability to be as responsive and flexible as their younger counterparts. N1 alerting deficits were associated with several key neuropsychological tests of attention that were difficult for older adults. Orienting and executive attention networks were largely similar between groups. Taken together, older adults demonstrated behavioral and neural alterations in alerting, however, they appeared to compensate for this reduction, as they did not significantly differ in their abilities to use spatially informative cues to aid performance (e.g., orienting, or successfully resolve response conflict (e.g., executive control. These results have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of age-related changes in attentional networks.

  19. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  20. Alterations in attention capture to auditory emotional stimuli in job burnout: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, Laura; Huotilainen, Minna; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Alain, Claude; Müller, Kiti; Pakarinen, Satu

    2014-12-01

    Job burnout is a significant cause of work absenteeism. Evidence from behavioral studies and patient reports suggests that job burnout is associated with impairments of attention and decreased working capacity, and it has overlapping elements with depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Here, we examined the electrophysiological correlates of automatic sound change detection and involuntary attention allocation in job burnout using scalp recordings of event-related potentials (ERP). Volunteers with job burnout symptoms but without severe depression and anxiety disorders and their non-burnout controls were presented with natural speech sound stimuli (standard and nine deviants), as well as three rarely occurring speech sounds with strong emotional prosody. All stimuli elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) responses that were comparable in both groups. The groups differed with respect to the P3a, an ERP component reflecting involuntary shift of attention: job burnout group showed a shorter P3a latency in response to the emotionally negative stimulus, and a longer latency in response to the positive stimulus. Results indicate that in job burnout, automatic speech sound discrimination is intact, but there is an attention capture tendency that is faster for negative, and slower to positive information compared to that of controls.

  1. A brain-computer interface controlled auditory event-related potential (p300) spelling system for locked-in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Andrea; Furdea, Adrian; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva Maria; Nijboer, Femke; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2009-03-01

    Using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) humans can select letters or other targets on a computer screen without any muscular involvement. An intensively investigated kind of BCI is based on the recording of visual event-related brain potentials (ERP). However, some severely paralyzed patients who need a BCI for communication have impaired vision or lack control of gaze movement, thus making a BCI depending on visual input no longer feasible. In an effort to render the ERP-BCI usable for this group of patients, the ERP-BCI was adapted to auditory stimulation. Letters of the alphabet were assigned to cells in a 5 x 5 matrix. Rows of the matrix were coded with numbers 1 to 5, and columns with numbers 6 to 10, and the numbers were presented auditorily. To select a letter, users had to first select the row and then the column containing the desired letter. Four severely paralyzed patients in the end-stage of a neurodegenerative disease were examined. All patients performed above chance level. Spelling accuracy was significantly lower with the auditory system as compared with a similar visual system. Patients reported difficulties in concentrating on the task when presented with the auditory system. In future studies, the auditory ERP-BCI should be adjusted by taking into consideration specific features of severely paralyzed patients, such as reduced attention span. This adjustment in combination with more intensive training will show whether an auditory ERP-BCI can become an option for visually impaired patients. PMID:19351359

  2. The procrastinators want it now: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence of the procrastination of intertemporal choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Gui, Danyang; Lin, Wenzheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhu, Xiangru; Liu, Xun

    2016-08-01

    Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing. The participants were assigned to a high procrastination group and a low procrastination group according to their scores on self-report measures. We found that high procrastination participants preferred immediate rewards compared to future ones whereas low procrastination participants did not. High procrastinators also exhibited a larger and delayed P2 component, indicating delay time processing and abnormal reward processing. No significant effect associated with procrastination was found on the P300 component. Taken together, these findings suggest that high procrastinators are more impulsive and encode the information of delay time more slowly but with a higher level of motivation-driven attention. The current study substantiates higher impulsivity in procrastination and verifies that a difference exists in the sensitivity to time delay between high and low procrastinators. PMID:27363005

  3. Joint Maximum Likelihood Time Delay Estimation of Unknown Event-Related Potential Signals for EEG Sensor Signal Quality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Lim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Won-Seok; Moon, Cheil; Choi, Ji-Woong

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalograms (EEGs) measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI) studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR) is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP) signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE) schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML) criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°. PMID:27322267

  4. Emotional expectations influence neural sensitivity to fearful faces in humans:An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested whether neural sensitivity to salient emotional facial expressions was influenced by emotional expectations induced by a cue that validly predicted the expression of a subsequently presented target face. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by fearful and neutral faces were recorded while participants performed a gender discrimination task under cued (‘expected’) and uncued (‘unexpected’) conditions. The behavioral results revealed that accuracy was lower for fearful compared with neutral faces in the unexpected condition, while accuracy was similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. ERP data revealed increased amplitudes in the P2 component and 200–250 ms interval for unexpected fearful versus neutral faces. By contrast, ERP responses were similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. These findings indicate that human neural sensitivity to fearful faces is modulated by emotional expectations. Although the neural system is sensitive to unpredictable emotionally salient stimuli, sensitivity to salient stimuli is reduced when these stimuli are predictable.

  5. Event-related potential study of intentional and incidental retrieval of item and source memory during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Riggins, Tracy

    2016-07-01

    The event related potential (ERP) technique is a useful methodology for studying neural changes underlying memory development during childhood. However, systematic comparisons of differences in memory tasks and retrieval demands are lacking. To address this gap, the present study explored the effects of memory task (i.e., item versus source) and retrieval paradigm (i.e., intentional versus incidental) on 4- to 5-year-old children's memory performance and associated electrophysiological responses. Children were familiarized with items in a play-like setting and then asked to retrieve item or source memory details while their brain activity was recorded (intentional retrieval) or while they passively viewed images of the items with no explicit task (incidental retrieval). Memory assessments for the incidental groups followed ERP recording. Analyses of the ERP data suggested that the brain's response during intentional retrieval of source information differed from the other three conditions. These results are discussed within a two-component framework of memory development (e.g., Shing et al., 2010), and implications for future methodological decisions are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 556-567, 2016. PMID:26969036

  6. The effects of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin addicts with response inhibition function impairments: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition has been a core issue in addictive behavior. Many previous studies have found that response inhibition abilities are damaged in those with drug dependence. However, whether heroin addicts who are treated with methadone maintenance have an abnormal response inhibition ability is not clear. In order to investigate the response inhibition functions in heroin addicts who were treated with methadone maintenance, electroencephalography (EEG was used to examine 14 heroin addicts treated with methadone maintenance (HDM, 17 heroin addicts (HD, and 18 healthy controls (HC in an equiprobability Go∖NoGo task. The reaction times (RTs for the Go stimuli in the HD group were slower than those in the HDM and HC groups. Event-related potential (ERP measurements showed that NoGo stimuli elicited larger N2 amplitudes than Go stimuli in the HDM and HC groups. However, for the HD group, the N2 amplitudes were similar for the two conditions. In addition, the HDM and HD groups were associated with longer P3 latencies. Our results demonstrated that methadone maintenance treatment might ease the deficits in response inhibition that result from long-term drug abuse. However, compared to normal people, HDM patients have serious problems evaluating and inhibiting inappropriate behaviors.

  7. Internal Consistency of Event-Related Potentials Associated with Cognitive Control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdijk, Wim J. R.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Thurik, A. Roy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks). An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha) of a measure. In this study, we examine the internal consistency of the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task. Furthermore, we attempt to replicate the previously found internal consistency of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Positive-Error (Pe) in an Eriksen Flanker task. Healthy participants performed a Go/No-Go task and an Eriksen Flanker task, whereby the amplitudes of the correct No-Go N2/P3, and error trials for ERN/Pe were the variables of interest. This study provides evidence that the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task are internally consistent after 20 and 14 trials are included in the average, respectively. Moreover, the ERN and Pe become internally consistent after approximately 8 trials are included in the average. In addition guidelines and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25033272

  8. Print-Tuning Lateralization and Handedness: an Event-Related Potential Study in Dyslexic Higher Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Ellie R H; Martinez-Ferreiro, Silvia; Maurits, Natasha M; Maassen, Ben A M

    2016-02-01

    Despite their ample reading experience, higher education students with dyslexia still show deficits in reading and reading-related skills. Lateralized print tuning, the early sensitivity to print of the left parietal cortex signalled by the N1 event-related potential (ERP) component, differs between beginning dyslexic readers and controls. For adults, the findings are mixed. The present study aims to investigate whether print tuning, as indexed by the N1 component, differs between 24 students with dyslexia and 15 non-dyslexic controls. Because handedness has been linked to lateralization, first, a separate analysis was conducted including only right-handed participants (n = 12 in both groups), like in most previous studies. ERPs were measured during a judgement task, requiring visual, phonological, or semantic judgments. In both groups, the N1 was earlier and stronger in the left than in the right hemisphere. However, when only strongly right-handed participants were evaluated, the N1 was less left-lateralized for participants with dyslexia as compared with controls. Participants with dyslexia had longer reaction times during the ERP experiment and performed worse on many reading (-related) tasks. These findings suggest that abnormal print tuning can still be found among higher education students with dyslexia and that handedness should be regarded in the study of print tuning.

  9. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangmei; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men) made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now) and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now). Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component) within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  10. Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony; Kohls, Gregor; Naples, Adam J; Mukerji, Cora E; Coffman, Marika C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2015-10-01

    Diminished responsivity to reward incentives is a key contributor to the social-communication problems seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Social motivation theories suggest that individuals with ASD do not experience social interactions as rewarding, leading to negative consequences for the development of brain circuitry subserving social information. In this study, we examined neural responses to social and non-social reward anticipation in 35 typically developing young adults, examining modulation of reward sensitivity by level of autistic traits. Using an Event-related potential incentive-delay task incorporating novel, more ecologically valid forms of reward, higher expression of autistic traits was associated with an attenuated P3 response to the anticipation of social (simulated real-time video feedback from an observer), but not non-social (candy), rewards. Exploratory analyses revealed that this was unrelated to mentalizing ability. The P3 component reflects motivated attention to reward signals, suggesting attenuated motivation allocation specific to social incentives. The study extends prior findings of atypical reward anticipation in ASD, demonstrating that attenuated social reward responsiveness extends to autistic traits in the range of typical functioning. Results support the development of innovative paradigms for investigating social and non-social reward responsiveness. Insight into vulnerabilities in reward processing is critical for understanding social function in ASD. PMID:25752905

  11. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing.

  12. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

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    Yangmei Luo

    Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  13. A study of verbal and spatial information processing using event-related potentials and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activated cerebral regions and the timing of information processing in the hemispheres was investigated using event-related potentials (ERP) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as the neurophysiological indicators. Seven men and one woman (age 19-27 years) were asked to categorize two-syllable Japanese nouns (verbal condition) and to judge the difference between pairs of rectangles (spatial condition), both tests presented on a monochrome display. In the electroencephalogram (EEG) session, EEG were recorded from 16 electrode sites, with linked earlobe electrodes as reference. In the positron emission tomography (PET) session, rCBF were measured by the 15O-labeled H2O bolus injection method. Regions of interest were the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and central lobes, and the entire cerebral hemispheres. When the subtracted voltages of the ERP in homologous scalp sites were compared for the verbal and spatial conditions, the significant differences were at F7·F8 and T5·T6 (the 10-20 system). The latencies of the differences at T5·T6 were around 200, 250 and 320 ms. A significant difference in rCBF between the verbal and spatial conditions was found only in the temporal region. It was concluded that early processing of information, that is, registration and simple recognition, may be performed mainly in the left temporal lobe for verbal information and in the right for spatial information. (author)

  14. Vertical position of Chinese power words influences power judgments: Evidence from spatial compatibility task and event-related Potentials.

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    Wu, Xiangci; Jia, Huibin; Wang, Enguo; Du, Chenguang; Wu, Xianghua; Dang, Caiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the influence of vertical position on power judgments. Participants were asked to identify whether a Chinese word represented a powerful or powerless group (e.g., "king" or "servant"), which was presented in the top or bottom of the screen. The behavioral analysis showed that judging the power of powerful words were significantly faster when they were presented at the top position, compared with when they were presented at the bottom position. The ERP analysis showed enhanced N1 amplitude for congruent trials (i.e., the powerful words in the top and the powerless words in the bottom of the screen) and larger P300 and LPC amplitude for incongruent trials (i.e., the powerful words in the bottom and the powerless words in the top of the screen). The present findings provide further electrophysiological evidence that thinking about power can automatically activate the underlying spatial up-down (verticality) image schema and that the influence of vertical position on the power judgments not only occurs at the early perceptual stage of power word processing, but also at the higher cognitive stage (i.e., allocation of attention resources, conflict solving and response selection). This study revealed the neural underpinnings of metaphor congruent effect which have great significance to our understanding of the abstract concept power.

  15. Visual event-related potential studies supporting the validity of VARK learning styles' visual and read/write learners.

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    Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd

    2016-06-01

    The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P word set for both V learners (P superiority effects in both learners. The results revealed the first objective electrophysiological evidence partially supporting the validity of the subjective psychological VARK questionnaire study. PMID:27105739

  16. Early event-related potentials indicate context-specific target processing for eye and hand motor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrspaun, Claudia C; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Sailer, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent eye and hand movements toward a common visual target require different motor programs based on identical visual input. We used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to determine if and when the processing of the visual target differs for the two motor systems. The N2, an index for target evaluation, was more negative for the target of a hand than of an eye movement in two experiments. A possible interpretation for this finding is different visual target processing. Targets for hand movements require a different weighting of visual information, for example concerning features such as surface structure which are important for hand but not for eye movements. In experiment 2, the early C1-component, which had an average maximum at 67 ms following target onset, was significantly more negative when subjects pointed at the stimuli. Traditionally, the C1 has been regarded as a sensory component, but recent studies have linked it to higher order processing, such as attention and expectations. Thus, the present data indicate that target processing for eye or hand movements is already context-specific during early visual information processing. We suggest that differences in a target's relevance for upcoming movements modify target processing as well as sensory expectations.

  17. Event-related potentials in a moving matrix modification of the P300 brain-computer interface paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Sergei L; Ganin, Ilya P; Kaplan, Alexander Ya

    2011-06-01

    In the standard design of the brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on the P300 component of the event-related potentials (ERP), target and non-target stimuli are presented at fixed positions in a motionless matrix. Can we let this matrix be moving (e.g., if attached to a robot) without loosing the efficiency of BCI? We assessed changes of the positive peak at Pz in the time interval 300-500 ms after the stimulus onset (P300) and the negative peak at the occipital electrodes in the range 140-240 ms (N1), both important for the operation of the P300 BCI, during fixating a target cell of a moving matrix in healthy participants (n=12). N1 amplitude in the difference (target-non-target) waveforms decreased with the velocity, although remained high (M=-4.3, SD=2.1) even at highest velocity (20°/s). In general, the amplitudes and latencies of these ERP components were remarkably stable in studied types of matrix movement and all velocities of horizontal movement (5, 10 and 20°/s) comparing to matrix in fixed position. These data suggest that, for the users controlling their gaze, the P300 BCI design can be extended to modifications requiring stimuli matrix motion.

  18. The procrastinators want it now: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence of the procrastination of intertemporal choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Gui, Danyang; Lin, Wenzheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhu, Xiangru; Liu, Xun

    2016-08-01

    Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing. The participants were assigned to a high procrastination group and a low procrastination group according to their scores on self-report measures. We found that high procrastination participants preferred immediate rewards compared to future ones whereas low procrastination participants did not. High procrastinators also exhibited a larger and delayed P2 component, indicating delay time processing and abnormal reward processing. No significant effect associated with procrastination was found on the P300 component. Taken together, these findings suggest that high procrastinators are more impulsive and encode the information of delay time more slowly but with a higher level of motivation-driven attention. The current study substantiates higher impulsivity in procrastination and verifies that a difference exists in the sensitivity to time delay between high and low procrastinators.

  19. Life-long music practice and executive control in older adults: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bermudez, Patrick; Alain, Claude; Tays, William; Moreno, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has indicated that music practice can influence cognitive processing across the lifespan. Although extensive musical experience may have a mitigating effect on cognitive decline in older adults, the nature of changes to brain functions underlying performance benefits remains underexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms that may support apparent beneficial effects of life-long musical practice on cognition. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in older musicians (N=17; average age=69.2) and non-musicians (N=17; average age=69.9), matched for age and education, while they completed an executive control task (visual go/no-go). Whereas both groups showed similar response speed and accuracy on go trials, older musicians showed fewer no-go errors. ERP recordings revealed the typical N2/P3 complex, but the nature of these responses differed between groups in that (1) older musicians showed larger N2 and P3 effects ('no-go minus go' amplitude), with the N2 amplitude being correlated with behavioral accuracy for no-go trials and (2) the topography of the P3 response was more anterior in musicians. Moreover, P3 amplitude was correlated with measures of musical experience in musicians. In our discussion of these results, we propose that music practice may have conferred an executive control advantage for musicians in later life. PMID:27021953

  20. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD. PMID:26812042

  1. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei eChen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.

  2. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120

  3. Learning disability subtypes and the effects of auditory and visual priming on visual event-related potentials to words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J; Stelmack, R M

    1994-02-01

    Three learning-disability (LD) subtype groups and a normal control group of children were compared in their visual event-related potentials (ERPs) to primed and unprimed words. The LD subtypes were defined by deficient performance on tests of arithmetic (Group A), reading and spelling (Group RS), or both (Group RSA). The primed words were preceded by pictures or spoken words having a related meaning, while unprimed words were preceded by non-associated pictures or spoken words. For normal controls, N450 amplitude was greater to unprimed words than to words primed by pictures and spoken words. For Group A, N450 amplitude was reduced by spoken-word primes, but not by picture primes, an effect that demonstrates a deficit in processing visual-spatial information. For Group RS and Group RSA, neither picture nor spoken-word primes reduced N450 amplitude. These effects can be understood in terms of deficiencies in processing auditory-verbal information. Normal controls displayed a greater left- than right-hemispheric asymmetry in frontal N450 amplitude to unprimed words, an effect that is consistent with the association of skilled reading with hemispheric specialization. This asymmetry was absent in the ERPs of all the LD subtypes. The distinct ERP effects for the groups endorses the value of defining LD subtypes on the basis of patterns of deficits in arithmetic and reading and spelling. PMID:8150889

  4. Revisiting the incremental effects of context on word processing: Evidence from single-word event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brennan R; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-11-01

    The amplitude of the N400-an event-related potential (ERP) component linked to meaning processing and initial access to semantic memory-is inversely related to the incremental buildup of semantic context over the course of a sentence. We revisited the nature and scope of this incremental context effect, adopting a word-level linear mixed-effects modeling approach, with the goal of probing the continuous and incremental effects of semantic and syntactic context on multiple aspects of lexical processing during sentence comprehension (i.e., effects of word frequency and orthographic neighborhood). First, we replicated the classic word-position effect at the single-word level: Open-class words showed reductions in N400 amplitude with increasing word position in semantically congruent sentences only. Importantly, we found that accruing sentence context had separable influences on the effects of frequency and neighborhood on the N400. Word frequency effects were reduced with accumulating semantic context. However, orthographic neighborhood was unaffected by accumulating context, showing robust effects on the N400 across all words, even within congruent sentences. Additionally, we found that N400 amplitudes to closed-class words were reduced with incrementally constraining syntactic context in sentences that provided only syntactic constraints. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeling word-level variability in ERPs reveals mechanisms by which different sources of information simultaneously contribute to the unfolding neural dynamics of comprehension. PMID:26311477

  5. Event-related potentials reflect the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatments in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Uratani, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Naoko; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-08-30

    Few objective biological measures of pharmacological treatment efficacy exist for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although we have previously demonstrated that event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect the effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate in treatment of naïve pediatric patients with ADHD, whether this is true for the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine (ATX) is unknown. Here, we used the Japanese version of the ADHD rating-scale IV to evaluate 14 patients with ADHD, and compared their ERP data with 14 age- and sex-matched controls. We measured P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task before treatment (treatment naïve) and after 2 months of ATX treatment. Compared with controls, P300 components at baseline were attenuated and prolonged in the ADHD group at Fz (fronto-central), Cz (centro-parietal), Pz (parietal regions), C3 and C4 electrodes. ATX treatment reduced ADHD symptomology, and after 2 months of treatment, P300 latencies at Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4 electrodes were significantly shorter than those at baseline. Moreover, MMN amplitudes at Cz and C3 electrodes were significantly greater than those at baseline. Thus, ERPs may be useful for evaluating the pharmacological effects of ATX in pediatric and adolescent patients with ADHD. PMID:27318633

  6. Vegetative versus minimally conscious states: a study using TMS-EEG, sensory and event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Ragazzoni

    Full Text Available Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs and event-related potentials (ERPs. Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity and scalp distributions (connectivity of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and

  7. Epidural auditory event-related potentials in the rat to frequency and duration deviants: evidence of mismatch negativity?

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    Tamo eNakamura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the human brain to detect deviance in the acoustic environment pre-attentively is reflected in a brain event-related potential (ERP, mismatch negativity (MMN. MMN is observed in response to the presentation of rare oddball sounds that deviate from an otherwise regular pattern of frequent background standard sounds. While the primate and cat auditory cortex (AC exhibit MMN-like activity, it is unclear whether the rodent AC produces a deviant response that reflects deviance detection in a background of regularities evident in recent auditory stimulus history or differential adaptation of neuronal responses due to rarity of the deviant sound. We examined whether MMN-like activity occurs in epidural AC potentials in awake and anaesthetised rats to high and low frequency and long and short duration deviant sounds. ERPs to deviants were compared with ERPs to common standards and also with ERPs to deviants when interspersed with many different standards to control for background regularity effects. High frequency and long duration deviant ERPs in the awake rat showed evidence of deviance detection, consisting of negative displacements of the deviant ERP relative to ERPs to both common standards and deviants with many standards. The high frequency deviant MMN-like response was also sensitive to the extent of regularity in recent acoustic stimulation. Anaesthesia in contrast resulted in positive displacements of deviant ERPs. Our results suggest that epidural MMN-like potentials to high frequency sounds in awake rats encode deviance in an analogous manner to the human MMN, laying the foundation for animal models of disorders characterised by disrupted MMN generation, such as schizophrenia.

  8. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS) as measures of schizophrenia deficits in emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Tirelli, Simone; Frezza, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Recent research evidences supported the significant role of multimethodological neuroscientific approach for the diagnosis and the rehabilitative intervention in schizophrenia. Indeed both electrophysiological and neuroimaging measures in integration each other appear able to furnish a deep overview of the cognitive and affective behavior in schizophrenia patients (SPs). The aim of the present review is focused on the emotional dysfunctional response taking into account the multimeasures for emotional behavior, i.e., the event-related potentials (ERPs) and the hemodynamic profile functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). These measures may be considered as predictive measures of the SPs' deficits in emotional behavior. The integration between ERP and fNIRS may support both the prefrontal cortical localization anomaly and the attentional bias toward some specific emotional conditions (mainly negative). PMID:26579058

  9. Event-related Potentials (ERPs and hemodynamic (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS as measures of Schizophrenia deficits in emotional behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eBalconi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research evidences supported the significant role of multimethodological neuroscientific approach for the diagnosis and the rehabilitative intervention in Schizophrenia. Indeed both electrophysiological and neuroimaging measures in integration each other appear able to furnish a deep overview of the cognitive and affective behavior in schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present review is focused on the emotional dysfunctional response taking into account the multimeasures for emotional behavior, i.e. the Event-related Potentials (ERPs and the hemodynamic profile (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS. These measures may be considered as predictive measures of the schizophrenia patients’ deficits in emotional behavior. The integration between ERP and fNIRS may support both the prefrontal cortical localization anomaly and the attentional bias toward some specific emotional conditions (mainly negative.

  10. Retrieving self-vocalized information: An event-related potential (ERP) study on the effect of retrieval orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Timm; Johansson, Mikael; Sprondel, Volker; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-11-18

    Retrieval orientation refers to a pre-retrieval process and conceptualizes the specific form of processing that is applied to a retrieval cue. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we sought to find evidence for an involvement of the auditory cortex when subjects attempt to retrieve vocalized information, and hypothesized that adopting retrieval orientation would be beneficial for retrieval accuracy. During study, participants saw object words that they subsequently vocalized or visually imagined. At test, participants had to identify object names of one study condition as targets and to reject object names of the second condition together with new items. Target category switched after half of the test trials. Behaviorally, participants responded less accurately and more slowly to targets of the vocalize condition than to targets of the imagine condition. ERPs to new items varied at a single left electrode (T7) between 500 and 800ms, indicating a moderate retrieval orientation effect in the subject group as a whole. However, whereas the effect was strongly pronounced in participants with high retrieval accuracy, it was absent in participants with low retrieval accuracy. A current source density (CSD) mapping of the retrieval orientation effect indicated a source over left temporal regions. Independently from retrieval accuracy, the ERP retrieval orientation effect was surprisingly also modulated by test order. Findings are suggestive for an involvement of the auditory cortex in retrieval attempts of vocalized information and confirm that adopting retrieval orientation is potentially beneficial for retrieval accuracy. The effects of test order on retrieval-related processes might reflect a stronger focus on the newness of items in the more difficult test condition when participants started with this condition.

  11. The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yppärilä, Heidi; Nunes, Silvia; Korhonen, Ilkka; Partanen, Juhani; Ruokonen, Esko

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. Methods Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. Results Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients. PMID:15566595

  12. Co-registration of Eye Movements and Event-Related Potentials in Connected-Text Paragraph Reading

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    John M Henderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eyetracking during reading has provided a critical source of on-line behavioral data informing basic theory in language processing. Similarly, event-related potentials have provided an important on-line measure of the neural correlates of language processing. Recently there has been strong interest in co-registering eyetracking and ERPs from simultaneous recording to capitalize on the strengths of both techniques, but a challenge has been devising approaches for controlling artifacts produced by eye movements in the EEG waveform. In this paper we describe our approach to correcting for eye movements in EEG and demonstrate its applicability to reading. The method is based on independent components analysis, and uses three criteria for identifying components tied to saccades: (1 component loadings on the surface of the head are consistent with eye movements; (2 source analysis localizes component activity to the eyes, and (3 the temporal activation of the component occurred at the time of the eye movement and differed for right and left eye movements. We demonstrate this method’s applicability to reading by comparing ERPs time-locked to fixation onset in two reading conditions. In the text-reading condition, participants read paragraphs of text. In the pseudo-reading control condition, participants moved their eyes through spatially similar pseudo-text that preserved word locations, word shapes, and paragraph spatial structure, but eliminated meaning. The corrected EEG, time-locked to fixation onsets, showed effects of reading condition in early ERP components. The results indicate that co-registration of eyetracking and EEG in connected-text paragraph reading is possible, and has the potential to become an important tool for investigating the cognitive and neural bases of on-line language processing in reading.

  13. Intensity-amplitude relationships in monkey event-related potentials: parallels to human augmenting-reducing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J A; Holmes, T C; Foote, S L

    1991-06-01

    In human, the amplitudes of specific event-related potential (ERP) components can increase or decrease in response to increasing stimulus intensity depending on the location of the recording site. Large increases characterize components presumably generated by modality-specific sites, while smaller increases or even decreases are associated with those originating in associational areas. Comparable data from non-human primates, which would permit invasive studies of the neural substrates underlying these intensity-amplitude differences, are limited. To more fully characterize these relationships, auditory ERPs were recorded from chronically implanted epidural electrodes in 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in response to tones (500 Hz, 300 msec duration) of varying intensities (50, 60, 70, 80 dB SPL). Squirrel monkey ERPs recorded at Fz exhibited 3 peaks during the 200 msec post-stimulus interval. These peaks included a positivity (P1), followed by a negativity (N1), and then another positivity (P2). At posterior sites, the frontal P1-N1 configuration was recorded as an N1-P1 complex. At these sites, a small negativity (N2) preceded the last positive peak (P2). Changes in polarity were independent of reference site and posterior N1-P1 peaks exhibited latencies similar to those of the frontal P1-N1 components. Amplitudes at Fz, Cz, and Pz increased substantially with increasing stimulus intensity ('augmenting'). In contrast, only small increases or even decreases in amplitude ('reducing') were evident at T3 and T4. On the other hand, peak latencies decreased with higher stimulus intensities at most sites. The site-specific amplitude responses exhibited considerable temporal stability. In one subject, for example, similar 'augmenting' profiles were recorded at Fz in 8 sessions over a 6-month period. The topography of monkey intensity-amplitude response profiles, their temporal stability, and peak latency shifts resemble observations made in humans. The data show

  14. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

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    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  15. From event-related potential to oscillations: genetic diathesis in brain (dys)function and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2008-01-01

    Recording the brain's electrical activity using electrodes placed on the individual's scalp provides noninvasive sensitive measures of brain function in humans. Regardless of whether an individual receives sensory information or performs higher cognitive processes, the brain regions involved exhibit measurable electrical activity, and by recording this activity with numerous electrodes placed on different areas of the scalp, researchers can determine when and where in the brain information processing occurs. Two general approaches can be used to record these neuroelectric phenomena: The continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) records brain activity when the subject is at rest and not involved in a task. It reflects the sum of the random activity of thousands of neurons that have similar spatial orientation in the brain. This activity typically fluctuates in wave-like patterns, and depending on the frequency of these patterns, one distinguishes different brain waves called δ (frequency of 1 to 3 Hz), θ (frequency of 4 to 7 Hz), α (frequency of 8 to 12 Hz), β (frequency of 12 to 28 Hz), and γ (frequency of 28+ Hz) rhythms. Variations in the patterns of these brain waves can indicate the level of consciousness, psychological state, or presence of neurological disorders. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are recorded while the subject is performing a sensory or cognitive task. They reflect the summated activity of network ensembles active during the task and are characterized by a specific pattern called the waveform, which is composed of negative and positive deflections (i.e., waves). For example, a target stimulus detected amidst a series of other nontarget stimuli produces a positive wave around 300 milliseconds after the stimulus. This is known as the P300 or P3 response.

  16. Event-related brain potentials that distinguish false memory for events that occurred only seconds in the past

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    Chen Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memory often involves retrieving events from the distant past that did not actually happen. However, recent evidence obtained using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm for eliciting false memory experiences suggests that individuals can falsely believe that events occurred mere seconds in the past when they in fact did not. Subjects in these experiments endorsed unstudied critical lure words as having been studied, despite the fact that word lists were studied just moments before. We identified event-related brain potential (ERP correlates of this experience, and included a repetition priming manipulation to better assess the functional significance of these ERPs. Methods Behavioral and ERP data were collected from 21 Capital Normal University students using a short-term DRM task. Results Two categories of effects were identified that distinguished true from false short-term memory: (1 early semantic priming effects from 300 to 500 ms and (2 later retrieval and retrieval-monitoring effects after 500 ms. The repetition priming manipulation had distinct influences on these effects, consistent with their differential associations with semantic priming versus episodic retrieval. Conclusion Characterization of ERPs related to semantic priming and episodic retrieval provides important information regarding the mechanisms of short-term false memory. In contrast, most studies examining false memory in standard long-delay DRM paradigms identify ERP effects related only to retrieval monitoring. These findings highlight the neural processing involved in illusions of memory after very brief delays and highlight the role of semantic processing in short-term false memory.

  17. Different frontal involvement in ALS and PLS revealed by Stroop event-related potentials and reaction times

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    Ninfa eAmato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests a link between cognitive and pathological changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and in frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD. Cognitive deficits have been investigated much less extensively in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS than in ALS. OBJECTIVE: to investigate bioelectrical activity to Stroop test, assessing frontal function, in ALS, PLS and control groups. METHODS: 32 non-demented ALS patients, 10 non-demented PLS patients and 27 healthy subjects were included. Twenty-nine electroencephalography (EEG channels with binaural reference were recorded during covert Stroop task performance, involving mental discrimination of the stimuli and not vocal or motor response. Group effects on event related potentials (ERPs latency were analyzed using statistical multivariate analysis. Topographic analysis was performed using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA. RESULTS: ALS patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs. The main ERP components were delayed in ALS, but not in PLS, compared with controls. Moreover, RTs speed but not ERP latency correlated with clinical scores. ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3 and N4 time windows compared to controls. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS. The former is increasingly recognized to be a multisystems disorder, with a spectrum of executive and behavioural impairments reflecting frontotemporal dysfunction. The latter seems to mainly involve the motor system, with largely spared cognitive functions. Moreover, our results suggest that the covert version of the Stroop task used in the present study, may be useful to assess cognitive state in the very advanced stage of the disease, when other cognitive tasks are not

  18. Chinese emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder during a subliminal Stroop task An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Shujing Xu; Huifang Yin

    2010-01-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder(MDD)develop a negative cognitive bias,but how they respond to information in Chinese emotional words is unclear.Here we used a Stroop paradigm with subliminal Chinese emotional words to explore the event-related potential components of abnormal emotional processing in patients with MDD.The correct rate was similar in MDD and normal control groups,but MDD reaction time was longer than the normal controls,especially to the negative and neutral stimuli.In N270,repeated-measure analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of the relation electrode and valence on peak amplitude and interactions between valence and electrode site.The peak amplitudes of the three kinds of words were different in the two groups(positive > negative > neutral).The topography of the difference waves indicated that the difference distributed in the frontal and left parietal-temporal sites across the scalp.In N400,there was a significant main effect of the relation electrode and valence on peak amplitude,and the latency showed a main effect of the electrode and an interaction between electrode and group.The amplitudes induced by type of words were significantly different from each other in both groups(positive > negative > neutral).The topography of the difference waves indicated that the effect of relation type was primarily at left and right frontal and central and left parietal-temporal regions.Both MDD patients and normal controls exhibited significant emotional Stroop effects during the processing of positive/negative Chinese emotional words.MDD patients showed interference in emotional stimuli in early cognitive processing that induced psychological resource intervention during late emotional information processing.

  19. Switch Costs Occur at Lemma Stage When Bilinguals Name Digits: Evidence from Language-Switching and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Xie, Jiushu; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore the locus of switch costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian–Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the analysis that was time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals spoke digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage.

  20. Target and Non-Target Processing during Oddball and Cyberball: A Comparative Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschke, Sarah; Niedeggen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of social exclusion can be investigated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball. In neuroimaging studies, structures have been identified which are activated during social exclusion. But to date the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In previous electrophysiological studies it was shown that the P3 complex is sensitive to exclusion manipulations in the Cyberball paradigm and that there is a correlation between P3 amplitude and self-reported social pain. Since this posterior event-related potential (ERP) was widely investigated using the oddball paradigm, we directly compared the ERP effects elicited by the target (Cyberball: "ball possession") and non-target (Cyberball: "ball possession of a co-player) events in both paradigms. Analyses mainly focused on the effect of altered stimulus probabilities of the target and non-target events between two consecutive blocks of the tasks. In the first block, the probability of the target and non-target event was 33% (Cyberball: inclusion), in the second block target probability was reduced to 17%, and accordingly, non-target probability was increased to 66% (Cyberball: exclusion). Our results indicate that ERP amplitude differences between inclusion and exclusion are comparable to ERP amplitude effects in a visual oddball task. We therefore suggest that ERP effects--especially in the P3 range--in the Oddball and Cyberball paradigm rely on similar mechanisms, namely the probability of target and non-target events. Since the simulation of social exclusion (Cyberball) did not trigger a unique ERP response, the idea of an exclusion-specific neural alarm system is not supported. The limitations of an ERP-based approach will be discussed.

  1. Recovery Sleep Reverses Impaired Response Inhibition due to Sleep Restriction: Evidence from a Visual Event Related Potentials Study.

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    Xiao Jin

    Full Text Available To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS.Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1 baseline, (2 after 12 h of TSD, (3 after 24 h of TSD, (4 after 36 h of TSD, and (5 following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components.Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD.TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels.Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.

  2. The effects of total sleep deprivation on semantic priming: event-related potential evidence for automatic and controlled processing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    There is general consensus that performance on a number of cognitive tasks deteriorates following total sleep deprivation. At times, however, subjects manage to maintain performance. This may be because of an ability to switch cognitive strategies including the exertion of compensatory effort. The present study examines the effects of total sleep deprivation on a semantic word priming task. Word priming is unique because it can be carried out using different strategies involving either automatic, effortless or controlled, effortful processing. Twelve subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target, that were either highly semantically associated (cat…dog), weakly associated (cow…barn) or unassociated (apple…road). In order to increase the probability of the use of controlled processing following normal sleep, the subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically related to the prime. Furthermore, the time between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target was relatively long, permitting the use of an effortful, expectancy-predictive strategy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 64 electrode sites. After normal sleep, RTs were faster and accuracy higher to highly associated targets; this performance advantage was also maintained following sleep deprivation. A large negative deflection, the N400, was larger to weakly associated and unassociated targets in both sleep-deprived and normal conditions. The overall N400 was however larger in the normal sleep condition. Moreover, a long-lasting negative slow wave developed between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target. These physiological measures are consistent with the use of an effortful, predictive strategy following normal sleep but an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. A picture priming task was also run. This task benefits less from the use of a predictive strategy. Accordingly, in this task, ERPs following the

  3. Getting a cue before getting a clue: Event-related potentials to inference in visual narrative comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Kutas, Marta

    2015-10-01

    Inference has long been emphasized in the comprehension of verbal and visual narratives. Here, we measured event-related brain potentials to visual sequences designed to elicit inferential processing. In Impoverished sequences, an expressionless "onlooker" watches an undepicted event (e.g., person throws a ball for a dog, then watches the dog chase it) just prior to a surprising finale (e.g., someone else returns the ball), which should lead to an inference (i.e., the different person retrieved the ball). Implied sequences alter this narrative structure by adding visual cues to the critical panel such as a surprised facial expression to the onlooker implying they saw an unexpected, albeit undepicted, event. In contrast, Expected sequences show a predictable, but then confounded, event (i.e., dog retrieves ball, then different person returns it), and Explicit sequences depict the unexpected event (i.e., different person retrieves then returns ball). At the critical penultimate panel, sequences representing depicted events (Explicit, Expected) elicited a larger posterior positivity (P600) than the relatively passive events of an onlooker (Impoverished, Implied), though Implied sequences were slightly more positive than Impoverished sequences. At the subsequent and final panel, a posterior positivity (P600) was greater to images in Impoverished sequences than those in Explicit and Implied sequences, which did not differ. In addition, both sequence types requiring inference (Implied, Impoverished) elicited a larger frontal negativity than those explicitly depicting events (Expected, Explicit). These results show that neural processing differs for visual narratives omitting events versus those depicting events, and that the presence of subtle visual cues can modulate such effects presumably by altering narrative structure. PMID:26320706

  4. Sound Classification and Call Discrimination Are Decoded in Order as Revealed by Event-Related Potential Components in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guangzhan; Yang, Ping; Xue, Fei; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2015-01-01

    Species that use communication sounds to coordinate social and reproductive behavior must be able to distinguish vocalizations from nonvocal sounds as well as to identify individual vocalization types. In this study we sought to identify the neural localization of the processes involved and the temporal order in which they occur in an anuran species, the music frog Babina daunchina. To do this we measured telencephalic and mesencephalic event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by synthesized white noise (WN), highly sexually attractive (HSA) calls produced by males from inside nests and male calls of low sexual attractiveness (LSA) produced outside of nests. Each stimulus possessed similar temporal structures. The results showed the following: (1) the amplitudes of the first negative ERP component (N1) at ∼ 100 ms differed significantly between WN and conspecific calls but not between HSA and LSA calls, indicating that discrimination between conspecific calls and nonvocal sounds occurs in ∼ 100 ms, (2) the amplitudes of the second positive ERP component (P2) at ∼ 200 ms in the difference waves between HSA calls and WN were significantly higher than between LSA calls and WN in the right telencephalon, implying that call characteristic identification occurs in ∼ 200 ms and (3) WN evoked a larger third positive ERP component (P3) at ∼ 300 ms than conspecific calls, suggesting the frogs had classified the conspecific calls into one category and perceived WN as novel. Thus, both the detection of sounds and the identification of call characteristics are accomplished quickly in a specific temporal order, as reflected by ERP components. In addition, the most dynamic ERP patterns appeared in the left mesencephalon and the right telencephalon, indicating the two brain regions might play key roles in anuran vocal communication. PMID:26613526

  5. Switch Costs Occur at Lemma Stage When Bilinguals Name Digits: Evidence from Language-Switching and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Xie, Jiushu; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore the locus of switch costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian–Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the analysis that was time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals spoke digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. PMID:27630589

  6. Switch Costs Occur at Lemma Stage When Bilinguals Name Digits: Evidence from Language-Switching and Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Song; Xie, Jiushu; Li, Li; Wang, Ruiming; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Switch costs are generally found in language switching tasks. However, the locus where switch costs occur during bilingual language production remains unclear. Several studies that used a cued language-switching paradigm have attempted to investigate this question in bilingual language production, but researchers have not reached a consensus. Moreover, we are interested in where switch costs occur when language selection occurs after lemma activation. Previous studies have not investigated this question because most previous studies presented language cues before or along with the stimuli. Therefore, we used a modified cued language-switching paradigm with a combined event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore the locus of switch costs during bilingual language production. The cue and stimulus were separated and presented in two different presentation sequences in which Indonesian-Chinese bilingual speakers were instructed to name digits in their L1 or L2 according to the color of the cue. The ERPs related to the cue and stimulus for two presentation sequences were measured. In the stimulus-cue sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues revealed a reversed switch cost as early as 220 ms after the cue onset; furthermore, a switch cost was shown in L1 with a late stage post-cue onset. The results suggested that when language selection occurred after lemma activation, the switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. In the cue-stimulus sequence, the analysis that was time-locked to cues did not reveal significant main effects of switching, whereas the analysis that was time-locked to digits yielded a switch cost, again indicating that switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage rather than at the language task schema competition stage. Overall, our results indicated that when bilinguals spoke digits aloud in the language switching task, switch costs mainly occurred at the lemma selection stage. PMID:27630589

  7. Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Eva Istók

    Full Text Available The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP, we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended.

  8. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

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    Nicholas A. Badcock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95 in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74. There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and their MMN ERP component.

  9. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  10. An event-related potential observation of preposition processing in Chinese Is N280 a specific component for Chinese prepositions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongping Zhang; Huanhai Fang; Qifeng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that closed-class words, such as preposititions and conjunctions, induce a left anterior negativity (N280), indicating that N280 should be a specific component of the word category. OBJECTIVE: To observe if Chinese prepositions and verbs exhibit different linguistic functions, to determine whether they are processed by different neural systems, and to verify that N280 is a specific component. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The observed neurolinguistics experiment was performed at Xuzhou Normal University between November and December 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen undergraduate students, comprising 8 females and 8 males, with no mental or neuropathological history, were selected. METHODS: A total of 15 verbs and prepositions were used as linguistic stimuli, and each verb and preposition was combined to produce four correct phrase collocations and four incorrect ones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Event-related potentials were recorded in the subjects while they read correct or incorrect phases flashed upon a video screen. RESULTS: Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the frontal site in a 230-330 ms window, as well as at the fronto-temporal and central sites in a 350-500 ms window. Neither exhibited significant differences in peak [F(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101 and latency IF(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101. Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the left and right hemisphere in a 270-400 ms window. CONCLUSION: There was no significant diffence between Chinese prepositions and verbs in the neural system process and N280 was not the specific component for closed-class words.

  11. Tell me sweet little lies: An event-related potentials study on the processing of social lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eva M; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    In reading tasks, words that convey a false statement elicit an enhanced N400 brainwave response, relative to words that convey a true statement. N400 amplitude reductions are generally linked to the online expectancy of upcoming words in discourse. White lies, contrary to false statements, may not be unexpected in social scenarios. We used the event-related potential (ERP) technique to determine whether there is an impact of social context on sentence processing. We measured ERP responses to target words that either conveyed a social "white" lie or a socially impolite blunt truth, relative to semantic violations. Word expectancy was controlled for by equating the cloze probabilities of white lying and blunt true targets, as measured in previous paper-and-pencil tests. We obtained a classic semantic violation effect (a larger N400 for semantic incongruities relative to sense making statements). White lies, in contrast to false statements, did not enhance the amplitude of the N400 component. Interestingly, blunt true statements yielded both a late frontal positivity and an N400 response in those scenarios particularly biased to white lying. Thus, white lies do not interfere with online semantic processing, and they do not engage further reanalysis processes, which are typically indexed by subsequent late positivity ERP effects. Instead, an N400 and a late frontal positivity obtained in response to blunt true statements indicate that they were treated as unexpected events. In conclusion, unwritten rules of social communicative behavior influence the electrical brain response to locally coherent but socially inappropriate statements. PMID:27007770

  12. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  13. Optimizing event-related potential based brain-computer interfaces: a systematic evaluation of dynamic stopping methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Martijn; Höhne, Johannes; Blankertz, Benjamin; Haufe, Stefan; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Tangermann, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Objective. In brain-computer interface (BCI) research, systems based on event-related potentials (ERP) are considered particularly successful and robust. This stems in part from the repeated stimulation which counteracts the low signal-to-noise ratio in electroencephalograms. Repeated stimulation leads to an optimization problem, as more repetitions also cost more time. The optimal number of repetitions thus represents a data-dependent trade-off between the stimulation time and the obtained accuracy. Several methods for dealing with this have been proposed as ‘early stopping’, ‘dynamic stopping’ or ‘adaptive stimulation’. Despite their high potential for BCI systems at the patient's bedside, those methods are typically ignored in current BCI literature. The goal of the current study is to assess the benefit of these methods. Approach. This study assesses for the first time the existing methods on a common benchmark of both artificially generated data and real BCI data of 83 BCI sessions, allowing for a direct comparison between these methods in the context of text entry. Main results. The results clearly show the beneficial effect on the online performance of a BCI system, if the trade-off between the number of stimulus repetitions and accuracy is optimized. All assessed methods work very well for data of good subjects, and worse for data of low-performing subjects. Most methods, however, are robust in the sense that they do not reduce the performance below the baseline of a simple no stopping strategy. Significance. Since all methods can be realized as a module between the BCI and an application, minimal changes are needed to include these methods into existing BCI software architectures. Furthermore, the hyperparameters of most methods depend to a large extend on only a single variable—the discriminability of the training data. For the convenience of BCI practitioners, the present study proposes linear regression coefficients for directly estimating

  14. A comment on Farwell : brain fingerprinting: a comprehensive tutorial review of detection of concealed information with event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Meijer; G. Ben-Shakhar; B. Verschuere; E. Donchin

    2013-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cognitive Neurodynamics Farwell (Cogn Neurodyn 6:115-154, 2012) published a comprehensive tutorial review of the use of Event Related Brain Potentials (ERP) in the detection of concealed information. Farwell’s review covered much of his own work employing his ‘‘brain fingerprint

  15. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  16. The Phonotactic Influence on the Perception of a Consonant Cluster /pt/ by Native English and Native Polish Listeners: A Behavioral and Event Related Potential (ERP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monica; Shafer, Valerie L.; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exposure to the contextual features of the /pt/ cluster was investigated in native-English and native-Polish listeners using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodology. Both groups experience the /pt/ cluster in their languages, but only the Polish group experiences the cluster in the context of word onset examined in…

  17. Relationships between Event-Related Potentials and Behavioral and Scholastic Measures of Reading Ability: A Large-Scale, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C.; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability…

  18. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning in 7- and 8-Year-Old Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Lindsay C.; Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Theory of mind requires belief- "and" desire-understanding. Event-related brain potential (ERP) research on belief- and desire-reasoning in adults found mid-frontal activations for both desires and beliefs, and selective right-posterior activations "only" for beliefs. Developmentally, children understand desires before beliefs; thus, a critical…

  19. The Memory That's Right and the Memory That's Left: Event-Related Potentials Reveal Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Encoding and Retention of Verbal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual…

  20. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    The increased use of automation in the cockpits of commercial planes has dramatically decreased the workload requirements of pilots, enabling them to function more efficiently and with a higher degree of safety. Unfortunately, advances in technology have led to an unexpected problem: the decreased demands on pilots have increased the probability of inducing 'hazardous states of awareness.' A hazardous state of awareness is defined as a decreased level of alertness or arousal which makes an individual less capable of reacting to unique or emergency types of situations. These states tend to be induced when an individual is not actively processing information. Under such conditions a person is likely to let his/her mind wander, either to internal states or to irrelevant external conditions. As a result, they are less capable of reacting quickly to emergency situations. Since emergencies are relatively rare, and since the high automated cockpit requires progressively decreasing levels of engagement, the probability of being seduced into a lowered state of awareness is increasing. This further decreases the readiness of the pilot to react to unique circumstances such as system failures. The HEM Lab at NASA-Langley Research Center has been studying how these states of awareness are induced and what the physiological correlates of these different states are. Specifically, they have been interested in studying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of different states of alertness to determine if such states can be identified and, hopefully, avoided. The project worked on this summer involved analyzing the EEG and the event related potentials (ERP) data collected while subjects performed under two conditions. Each condition required subjects to perform a relatively boring vigilance task. The purpose of using these tasks was to induce a decreased state of awareness while still requiring the subject to process information. Each task involved identifying an infrequently

  1. The effect of the physical presence of co-players on perceived ostracism and event-related brain potentials in the cyberball paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Weschke

    Full Text Available The affective and cognitive mechanisms elicited by the experience of social exclusion-or ostracism-have recently been explored using behavioral and neurocognitive methods. Most of the studies took advantage of the Cyberball paradigm, a virtual ball tossing game with presumed co-players connected via the internet. Consistent behavioral findings indicate that exclusion obviously threatens fundamental social needs (belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and control and lowers mood. In this study, we followed the question whether the credibility of the setting affects the processing of social exclusion. In contrast to a control group (standard Cyberball setup, co-players were physically present in an experimental group. Although the credibility of the virtual ball tossing game was significantly enhanced in the experimental group, self-reported negative mood and need threat were not enhanced compared to the control group. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs, however, indicated a differential processing of social exclusion. The N2 amplitude triggered by occasional ball receptions was significantly reduced in the experimental group. This effect was restricted for an early time range (130-210 ms, and did not extend to the following P3 components. The ERP effect in the N2 time range can be related to a differential social reward processing in ostracism if co-players are physically present. The lack of a corresponding correlate in the behavioral data indicates that some facets of ostracism processing are not covered by questionnaire data.

  2. PSPs and ERPs: applying the dynamics of post-synaptic potentials to individual units in simulation of temporally extended Event-Related Potential reading data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Sarah; Armstrong, Blair C

    2014-05-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework is built on neural-style computation, and is thus well-suited for simulating the neural implementation of cognition. However, relatively little cognitive modeling work has concerned neural measures, instead focusing on behavior. Here, we extend a PDP model of reading-related components in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) to simulation of the N400 repetition effect. We accomplish this by incorporating the dynamics of cortical post-synaptic potentials--the source of the ERP signal--into the model. Simulations demonstrate that application of these dynamics is critical for model elicitation of repetition effects in the time and frequency domains. We conclude that by advancing a neurocomputational understanding of repetition effects, we are able to posit an interpretation of their source that is both explicitly specified and mechanistically different from the well-accepted cognitive one. PMID:24686264

  3. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  4. The role of stimulus cross-splicing in an event-related potentials study. Misleading formant transitions hinder automatic phonological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The mental organization of linguistic knowledge and its involvement in speech processing can be investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential. A contradiction arises, however, between the technical need for strict control of acoustic stimulus properties and the quest for naturalness and acoustic variability of the stimuli. Here, two methods of preparing speech stimulus material were compared. Focussing on the automatic processing of a phonotactic restriction in German, two corresponding sets of various vowel-fricative syllables were used as stimuli. The former syllables were naturally spoken while the latter ones were created by means of cross-splicing. Phonetically, natural and spliced syllables differed with respect to the appropriateness of coarticulatory information about the forthcoming fricative within the vowels. Spliced syllables containing clearly misleading phonetic information were found to elicit larger N2 responses compared to their natural counterparts. Furthermore, MMN results found for the natural syllables could not be replicated with these spliced stimuli. These findings indicate that the automatic processing of the stimuli was considerably affected by the stimulus preparation method. Thus, in spite of its unquestioned benefits for MMN experiments, the splicing technique may lead to interference effects on the linguistic factors under investigation. PMID:22501085

  5. Cholinergic modulation of auditory P3 event-related potentials as indexed by CHRNA4 and CHRNA7 genotype variation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Molly; Choueiry, Joëlle; Smith, Dylan; de la Salle, Sara; Nelson, Renee; Impey, Danielle; Baddeley, Ashley; Aidelbaum, Robert; Millar, Anne; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction within the realm of attentional processing. Reduced P3a and P3b event-related potentials (ERPs), indexing involuntary and voluntary attentional processing respectively, have been consistently observed in SZ patients who also express prominent cholinergic deficiencies. The involvement of the brain's cholinergic system in attention has been examined for several decades; however, further inquiry is required to further comprehend how abnormalities in this system affect neighbouring neurotransmitter systems and contribute to neurocognitive deficits. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the moderating role of the CHRNA4 (rs1044396), CHRNA7 (rs3087454), and SLC5A7 (rs1013940) genes on ERP indices of attentional processing in healthy volunteers (N=99; Caucasians and non-Caucasians) stratified by genotype and assessed using the auditory P300 "oddball" paradigm. Results indicated significantly greater P3a and P3b-indexed attentional processing for CT (vs. CC) CHRNA4 carriers and greater P3b for AA (vs. CC) CHRNA7 carriers. SLC5A7 allelic variants did not show significant differences in P3a and P3b processing. These findings expand our knowledge on the moderating effect of cholinergic genes on attention and could help inform targeted drug developments aimed at restoring attention deficits in SZ patients. PMID:27109789

  6. Effects of valence and origin of emotions in word processing evidenced by event related potential correlates in a lexical decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT. We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects’ task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375ms at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670ms. The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words.

  7. Effects of Valence and Origin of Emotions in Word Processing Evidenced by Event Related Potential Correlates in a Lexical Decision Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K; Spustek, Tomasz; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT). We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli) help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects' task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375 ms) at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz) region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670 ms). The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words. PMID:26973569

  8. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  9. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: An event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; ZHOU Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic mea...

  10. The UCLA Study of Children with Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Event-Related Potential Measure of Interhemispheric Transfer Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, MU; Marion, SD; McArthur, DL; Babikian, T; Giza, C; Kernan, CL; NEWMAN;, N.; Moran, L.; Akarakian, R; Houshiarnejad, A; Mink, R; Johnson, J; Babbitt, CJ; Olsen, A.; Asarnow, RF

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently results in diffuse axonal injury and other white matter damage. The corpus callosum (CC) is particularly vulnerable to injury following TBI. Damage to this white matter tract has been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning in children with TBI. Event-related potentials can identify stimulus-locked neural activity with high temporal resolution. They were used in this study to measure interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) as an indicator of C...

  11. Electrophysiological manifestations of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca's aphasia with agrammatic comprehension: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Keurs, M.; Brown, C.; Hagoort, P.; Stegeman, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents electrophysiological data on the on-line processing of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca’s aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from the scalp when Broca patients and nonaphasic control subjects were visually presented with a story in which the words appeared one at a time on the screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed clear difference...

  12. Brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials: toward fast, reliable and easy-to-use communication systems for people with neurodegenerative disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) provide a muscle independent interaction channel making them particularly valuable for individuals with severe motor impairment. Thus, different BCI systems and applications have been proposed as assistive technology (AT) solutions for such patients. The most prominent system for communication utilizes event-related potentials (ERP) obtained from the electroencephalogram (EEG) to allow for communication on a character-by-character basis. Yet in their...

  13. Aging memory for pictures: Using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Waring, Jill D.; Beth, Ellen H.; McKeever, Joshua D.; Milberg, William P.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to e...

  14. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, Kirsten; ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M.

    2016-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearin...

  15. Are impairments in visual-spatial attention a critical factor for increased falls risk in seniors? An event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa Y L; Carolan, Patrick; Handy, Todd C

    2009-01-01

    Falls are experienced annually by approximately one third of community dwellers over the age of 65, and while neuro-cognitive deficits have been shown to increase falls risk, the specific nature of these deficits remain unspecified. Here we examined whether visual-spatial attention may be a core neuro-cognitive system showing abnormal function in fallers. Using a between-groups design, we recorded event-related potentials in a canonical spatial cuing task performed by two groups of senior (ag...

  16. Event-related Potentials During Target-response Tasks to Study Cognitive Processes of Upper Limb Use in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Steenbergen, Bert; Baas, C. Marjolein; Aarts, Pauline; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is a very common cause of disability in childhood. It is characterized by unilateral motor impairments that are frequently dominated in the upper limb. In addition to a reduced movement capacity of the affected upper limb, several children with unilateral CP show a reduced awareness of the remaining movement capacity of that limb. This phenomenon of disregarding the preserved capacity of the affected upper limb is regularly referred to as Developmental Disregard (DD). Different theories have been postulated to explain DD, each suggesting slightly different guidelines for therapy. Still, cognitive processes that might additionally contribute to DD in children with unilateral CP have never been directly studied. The current protocol was developed to study cognitive aspects involved in upper limb control in children with unilateral CP with and without DD. This was done by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG during target-response tasks asking for a hand-movement response. ERPs consist of several components, each of them associated with a well-defined cognitive process (e.g., the N1 with early attention processes, the N2 with cognitive control and the P3 with cognitive load and mental effort). Due to its excellent temporal resolution, the ERP technique enables to study several covert cognitive processes preceding overt motor responses and thus allows insight into the cognitive processes that might contribute to the phenomenon of DD. Using this protocol adds a new level of explanation to existing behavioral studies and opens new avenues to the broader implementation of research on cognitive aspects of developmental movement restrictions in children. PMID:26780483

  17. Reward processing deficits and impulsivity in high-risk offspring of alcoholics: A study of event-related potentials during a monetary gambling task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Bauer, Lance O.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. The goal of the present study is to elucidate reward processing deficits, externalizing disorders, and impulsivity as elicited by electrophysiological, clinical and behavioral measures in subjects at high risk for alcoholism from families densely affected by alcoholism in the context of brain maturation across age groups and gender. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) and current source density (CSD) during a monetary gambling task (MGT) were measured in 12–25 year old offspring (N = 1864) of families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Prospective study; the high risk (HR, N = 1569) subjects were from families densely affected with alcoholism and the low risk (LR, N = 295) subjects were from community families. Externalizing disorders and impulsivity scores were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring from older (16–25 years) male and younger (12–15 years) female subgroups showed lower P3 amplitude than LR subjects. The amplitude decrement was most prominent in HR males during the loss condition. Overall, P3 amplitude increase at anterior sites and decrease at posterior areas were seen in older compared to younger subjects, suggesting frontalization during brain maturation. The HR subgroups also exhibited hypofrontality manifested as weaker CSD activity during both loss and gain conditions at frontal regions. Further, the HR subjects had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders. P3 amplitudes during the gain condition were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. Conclusions Older male and younger female HR offspring, compared to their LR counterparts, manifested reward processing deficits as indexed by lower P3 amplitude and weaker CSD activity, along with higher prevalence of externalizing disorders and higher impulsivity scores

  18. Event-related Potentials During Target-response Tasks to Study Cognitive Processes of Upper Limb Use in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Steenbergen, Bert; Baas, C Marjolein; Aarts, Pauline; Jongsma, Marijtje L A

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is a very common cause of disability in childhood. It is characterized by unilateral motor impairments that are frequently dominated in the upper limb. In addition to a reduced movement capacity of the affected upper limb, several children with unilateral CP show a reduced awareness of the remaining movement capacity of that limb. This phenomenon of disregarding the preserved capacity of the affected upper limb is regularly referred to as Developmental Disregard (DD). Different theories have been postulated to explain DD, each suggesting slightly different guidelines for therapy. Still, cognitive processes that might additionally contribute to DD in children with unilateral CP have never been directly studied. The current protocol was developed to study cognitive aspects involved in upper limb control in children with unilateral CP with and without DD. This was done by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG during target-response tasks asking for a hand-movement response. ERPs consist of several components, each of them associated with a well-defined cognitive process (e.g., the N1 with early attention processes, the N2 with cognitive control and the P3 with cognitive load and mental effort). Due to its excellent temporal resolution, the ERP technique enables to study several covert cognitive processes preceding overt motor responses and thus allows insight into the cognitive processes that might contribute to the phenomenon of DD. Using this protocol adds a new level of explanation to existing behavioral studies and opens new avenues to the broader implementation of research on cognitive aspects of developmental movement restrictions in children. PMID:26780483

  19. Common and segregated neural substrates for automatic conceptual and affective priming as revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-02-01

    The brain activity associated with automatic semantic priming has been extensively studied. Thus far there has been no prior study that directly contrasts the neural mechanisms of semantic and affective priming. The present study employed event-related fMRI to examine the common and distinct neural bases underlying conceptual and affective priming with a lexical decision task. A special type of emotional word, a dual-meaning word containing both conceptual meaning and affective meaning, was adopted as target. Short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) (50 ms) was used to emphasize automatic processing. Fifteen participants were scanned in the present study. We found that the left middle/superior temporal gyrus was the brain region involved in both automatic conceptual and affective priming effects, suggesting general lexical-semantic processing that share in the two types of priming. The left inferior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were found to be the conceptual-specific areas in automatic priming effect, consistent with the role of these areas in more extensive within-category semantic processes. The results also revealed that the left fusiform gyrus and left insula were the affective-specific regions in automatic priming effect, demonstrating the involvement of the left fusiform gyrus in automatic affective priming effect, and clarifying the role of the insula in emotional processing rather than conceptual processing. Despite comparable behavioral effects of automatic conceptual priming and affective priming, the present study revealed a neural dissociation of the two types of priming, as well as the shared neural bases. PMID:20018360

  20. Just Swap Out of Negative Vibes? Rumination and Inhibition Deficits in Major Depressive Disorder: Data from Event-Related Potentials Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnart, Aurore; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a serious disorder of impaired emotion regulation. Emotion hyperactivity leads to excessive negative ruminations that daily hijack the patient’s mental life, impacting their mood. Evidence from past researches suggest that depressive patients present several cognitive impairments in attention and working memory, leading to a more acute selective attention for negative stimuli and a greater accessibility of negative memories. Recently, is has been proposed that impaired inhibitory functioning with regard to emotional information processing might be one of the mechanisms of ruminations linking memory, attention and depression. It seems that inhibition deficit is present at both the input level (i.e., the ability to reduce the interference from emotional distracters) and the higher level (i.e., the ability to direct the attention away from emotional material that has already been processed) of emotional information processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) have widely been used to study inhibition in adults suffering from various psychopathological states. In particular, depressive disorder has been linked to ERPs modulations, at early as well as at latter stages of the information-processing stream, when processing affective material. For instance, deficits in inhibiting negative information have been indexed by changes in the parameters (amplitudes and latencies) of early P2, P1 and N1 components while other ERP studies have shown an ability to differentiate depressed patients from normal controls based upon response inhibition difficulties in go-nogo tasks, indexed by later NoGo P3 differences. In this review, we will focus on results of ERP studies investigating inhibition and its interaction with emotional related cue processing in depressive populations. Implications for future research and theoretical perspectives will be discussed within the framework of current models of depressive disorder, based upon the hypothesis that negative

  1. Just Swap Out of Negative Vibes? Rumination and Inhibition Deficits in Major Depressive Disorder: Data from Event-Related Potentials Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnart, Aurore; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a serious disorder of impaired emotion regulation. Emotion hyperactivity leads to excessive negative ruminations that daily hijack the patient's mental life, impacting their mood. Evidence from past researches suggest that depressive patients present several cognitive impairments in attention and working memory, leading to a more acute selective attention for negative stimuli and a greater accessibility of negative memories. Recently, is has been proposed that impaired inhibitory functioning with regard to emotional information processing might be one of the mechanisms of ruminations linking memory, attention and depression. It seems that inhibition deficit is present at both the input level (i.e., the ability to reduce the interference from emotional distracters) and the higher level (i.e., the ability to direct the attention away from emotional material that has already been processed) of emotional information processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) have widely been used to study inhibition in adults suffering from various psychopathological states. In particular, depressive disorder has been linked to ERPs modulations, at early as well as at latter stages of the information-processing stream, when processing affective material. For instance, deficits in inhibiting negative information have been indexed by changes in the parameters (amplitudes and latencies) of early P2, P1 and N1 components while other ERP studies have shown an ability to differentiate depressed patients from normal controls based upon response inhibition difficulties in go-nogo tasks, indexed by later NoGo P3 differences. In this review, we will focus on results of ERP studies investigating inhibition and its interaction with emotional related cue processing in depressive populations. Implications for future research and theoretical perspectives will be discussed within the framework of current models of depressive disorder, based upon the hypothesis that negative

  2. 前庭刺激对人脑事件相关电位的影响%Effects of Vestibular Stimuli on Event-Related Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立军; 单希征

    2015-01-01

    目的:本研究采用事件相关电位(ERPs)技术探讨前庭刺激对人脑加工功能的影响。方法选取15名健康男子进行实验。实验中受试者坐于转椅上,在下述条件下完成视觉操作任务:(1)实验测试,(2)对照测试,同时记录原始脑电资料。结果前庭刺激后,结果显示CPZ和PZ位置得到的差异波振幅均可见有显著性的改变,在前庭刺激后均明显减小。结论前庭刺激对人体的其他功能产生了明显影响,受试者在对视觉信号的感知时,特别是对需要选择的信号,明显产生了抑制现象。%Objective To investigate effects of vestibular Stimuli on cognitive processing using event-related potentials. Methods Twelve healthy men participated in the study. During testing, the participant was seated in a revolving chair and performed visual tasks under either the testing or control conditions, while his original EEG data were recorded. Results After vestibular stimulation, significant decrease in MMN amplitudes were seen at CPZ and PZ. Conclusion Vestibular stimula⁃tion can affect other functions of the human body, including inhibition of visual signals perception, especially during signals se⁃lection tasks.

  3. Influence of P300 latency jitter on event related potential-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P.; Aloise, F.; Schettini, F.; Salinari, S.; Mattia, D.; Cincotti, F.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Several ERP-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that can be controlled even without eye movements (covert attention) have been recently proposed. However, when compared to similar systems based on overt attention, they displayed significantly lower accuracy. In the current interpretation, this is ascribed to the absence of the contribution of short-latency visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the tasks performed in the covert attention modality. This study aims to investigate if this decrement (i) is fully explained by the lack of VEP contribution to the classification accuracy; (ii) correlates with lower temporal stability of the single-trial P300 potentials elicited in the covert attention modality. Approach. We evaluated the latency jitter of P300 evoked potentials in three BCI interfaces exploiting either overt or covert attention modalities in 20 healthy subjects. The effect of attention modality on the P300 jitter, and the relative contribution of VEPs and P300 jitter to the classification accuracy have been analyzed. Main results. The P300 jitter is higher when the BCI is controlled in covert attention. Classification accuracy negatively correlates with jitter. Even disregarding short-latency VEPs, overt-attention BCI yields better accuracy than covert. When the latency jitter is compensated offline, the difference between accuracies is not significant. Significance. The lower temporal stability of the P300 evoked potential generated during the tasks performed in covert attention modality should be regarded as the main contributing explanation of lower accuracy of covert-attention ERP-based BCIs.

  4. Impact of totally and partially predictive alert in distracted and undistracted subjects: An event related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, Alexandra; COLLETTE, Boris; BUENO, Mercedes; DELEURENCE, Philippe; Bonnard, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collisions represent about 30% of all car crashes and generate a significant economic cost for society. Driver inattention has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. One possible countermeasure is the use of systems that warn drivers of potential collisions. Nevertheless, because of technical constraints, the conception of perfect warning systems is difficult to achieve and technical literature shows that these kinds of systems can be prone ...

  5. Discrimination of speech sound contrasts determined with behavioral tests and event-related potentials in cochlear implant recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Beynon, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Stegeman, D. F.; Broek, P. van den

    2005-01-01

    Cortical potentials evoked with speech stimuli were investigated in ten experienced cochlear implant (CI, type Nucleus 24M) users using three different speech-coding strategies and two different speech contrasts, one vowel (/i/-/a/) and one consonant (/ba/-/da/) contrast. On average, results showed that, compared to subjects with normal hearing, P300 amplitudes were smaller; however, most latencies were within the normal range. Next, individual P300 measures in response to the two speech cont...

  6. Hippocampal P3-Like Auditory Event-Related Potentials are Disrupted in a Rat Model of Cholinergic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease: Reversal by Donepezil Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe;

    2014-01-01

    P300 (P3) event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested to be an endogenous marker of cognitive function and auditory oddball paradigms are frequently used to evaluate P3 ERPs in clinical settings. Deficits in P3 amplitude and latency reflect some of the neurological dysfunctions related......-cognitive effects in humans remains to be fully validated. The current study characterizes P3-like ERPs in the 192-IgG-SAP (SAP) rat model of the cholinergic degeneration associated with AD. Following training in a combined auditory oddball and lever-press setup, rats were subjected to bilateral...

  7. P300 component in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II and healthy controls: a preliminary event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Francesco S; Minichino, Amedeo; Fattapposta, Francesco; Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Imperatori, Claudio; Spagnoli, Francesco; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate P300 event-related potential components in euthymic bipolar disorder type I (BDI) and bipolar disorder type II (BDII) patients and matched controls. A total of 10 BDI patients, 10 BDII patients and 10 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Event-related potential data were collected according to a standard auditory 'oddball' paradigm. A significant groups effect in both the peak amplitude (P<0.001) and the mean amplitude (P<0.001) was observed; post-hoc comparisons showed that the peak and mean amplitudes of BDI and BDII patients were significantly lower than the peak and mean amplitudes of the healthy controls. The neurophysiological patterns found in the present study might at least partially reflect the presence of a mild selective cognitive impairment in euthymic BDI and BDII patients. From a clinical point of view, these evidences support the potential role of cognitive interventions in the treatment of BD. PMID:25674905

  8. On the temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis: Inferences from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, behavioral and electrophysiological markers of information processing-the lateralized readiness potential, the N170, and the P300-were recorded in order to assess the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression processing. A two-choice go/no-go task was used in which facial expression (happy vs. angry) determined response hand and response execution depended on facial familiarity (familiar vs. unfamiliar). The duration of facial identity and expression processing was manipulated in separate experiments. Together, the present findings in measures of overt and covert response activation indicate that facial identity is analyzed in parallel with, and typically somewhat faster than, facial expression. These data support a parallel model of face perception that assumes partial output from facial identity and expression processes to motor activation processes. PMID:21098811

  9. Contribution of harmonicity and location to auditory object formation in free field: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kelly L.; Alain, Claude

    2005-09-01

    The contribution of location and harmonicity cues in sound segregation was investigated using behavioral reports and source waveforms derived from the scalp-recorded evoked potentials. Participants were presented with sounds composed of multiple harmonics in a free-field environment. The third harmonic was either tuned or mistuned and could be presented from the same or different location from the remaining harmonics. Presenting the third harmonic at a different location than the remaining harmonics increased the likelihood of hearing the tuned or slightly (i.e., 2%) mistuned harmonic as a separate object. Partials mistuned by 16% of their original value ``pop out'' of the complex and were paralleled by an object-related negativity (ORN) that superimposed the N1 and P2 components. For the 2% mistuned stimuli, the ORN was present only when the mistuned harmonic was presented at a different location than the remaining harmonics. Presenting the tuned harmonic at a different location also yielded changes in neural activity between 150 and 250 ms after sound onset. The behavioral and electrophysiological results indicate that listeners can segregate sounds based on harmonicity or location alone. The results also indicate that a conjunction of harmonicity and location cues contribute to sound segregation primarily when harmonicity is ambiguous.

  10. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Mingzhen

    2008-06-01

    addition, native speakers of a non-tone language (English were initially more sensitive to F0 onset differences (low-falling versus mid-level contrast, which was suppressed as a result of training. This result converges with results from previous behavioral studies and supports the view that attentive as well as non-attentive processing of F0 contrasts is affected by language background, but is malleable even in adult learners.

  11. Facial Cosmetics Exert a Greater Influence on Processing of the Mouth Relative to the Eyes: Evidence from the N170 Event-Related Potential Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic makeup significantly influences facial perception. Because faces consist of similar physical structures, cosmetic makeup is typically used to highlight individual features, particularly those of the eyes (i.e., eye shadow) and mouth (i.e., lipstick). Though event-related potentials have been utilized to study various aspects of facial processing, the influence of cosmetics on specific ERP components remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the application of cosmetic makeup and the amplitudes of the P1 and N170 event-related potential components during facial perception tasks. Moreover, the influence of visual perception on N170 amplitude, was evaluated under three makeup conditions: Eye Shadow, Lipstick, and No Makeup. Electroencephalography was used to monitor 17 participants who were exposed to visual stimuli under each these three makeup conditions. The results of the present study subsequently demonstrated that the Lipstick condition elicited a significantly greater N170 amplitude than the No Makeup condition, while P1 amplitude was unaffected by any of the conditions. Such findings indicate that the application of cosmetic makeup alters general facial perception but exerts no influence on the perception of low-level visual features. Collectively, these results support the notion that the application of makeup induces subtle alterations in the processing of facial stimuli, with a particular effect on the processing of specific facial components (i.e., the mouth), as reflected by changes in N170 amplitude. PMID:27656161

  12. Facial Cosmetics Exert a Greater Influence on Processing of the Mouth Relative to the Eyes: Evidence from the N170 Event-Related Potential Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic makeup significantly influences facial perception. Because faces consist of similar physical structures, cosmetic makeup is typically used to highlight individual features, particularly those of the eyes (i.e., eye shadow) and mouth (i.e., lipstick). Though event-related potentials have been utilized to study various aspects of facial processing, the influence of cosmetics on specific ERP components remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the application of cosmetic makeup and the amplitudes of the P1 and N170 event-related potential components during facial perception tasks. Moreover, the influence of visual perception on N170 amplitude, was evaluated under three makeup conditions: Eye Shadow, Lipstick, and No Makeup. Electroencephalography was used to monitor 17 participants who were exposed to visual stimuli under each these three makeup conditions. The results of the present study subsequently demonstrated that the Lipstick condition elicited a significantly greater N170 amplitude than the No Makeup condition, while P1 amplitude was unaffected by any of the conditions. Such findings indicate that the application of cosmetic makeup alters general facial perception but exerts no influence on the perception of low-level visual features. Collectively, these results support the notion that the application of makeup induces subtle alterations in the processing of facial stimuli, with a particular effect on the processing of specific facial components (i.e., the mouth), as reflected by changes in N170 amplitude.

  13. Effect of variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene on conflict information processing according to event-related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Han; Yuping Wang; Xin Wang; Ying Liu

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter(DAT)is responsible for dopamine reuptake from the synaptic cleft.A variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the DAT gene is related to DAT availability and has been associated with cognition.With the advantage of high-time resolution,event-related potential is an important method to study the time course of human information processing.Previous results have suggested that dopamine exhibits a close relationship with conflicting information processing.Therefore,the present study assumed that conflicting information processing could be influenced by DAT variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism.To confirm this,the present study analyzed the influence of DAT genotypes on N270,which is presumed to reflect neural activity of conflict information processing in young healthy adults.A S1-S2 matching task was performed in healthy adults with 10/10 genotype(n = 14)and 10/9genotypes(n = 14),respectively,when event-related potentials were recorded.Results demonstrated that subjects with the 10/10 genotype exhibited shorter N270 latency and quicker reaction times compared with subjects with the 10/9 genotype.There were no differences in N270amplitude between the two genotypes.These results suggested that 10/10 genotype subjects more efficiently processed conflict information.

  14. Event-related potentials in the implicit recognition of faces%面孔内隐认知的事件相关电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文; 吴宗耀; 罗跃嘉

    2011-01-01

    random order for 150 ms to 20 healthy subjects. The subject's attention was diverted away to search for the letter ”f ” in 6 small letters below the photos. Behavioral data were recorded synchronous with event-related potentials (ERPs). Results The P100,N170 and P170 potentials were enhanced and accelerated by faces compared with non-face images. The amplitude of P100 had the strongest correlation with the type of stimulus, showing the biggest amplitude with the mobile phone image (9.5 μV ), followed by the dog face (7.5 μV ). The weakest amplitude was evoked by the human face (6.9 μV). The amplitude of N170 responded most strongly to the human face, followed by the mobile phone (0.5 μV) and the dog face ( -1.9 μV). The P170 amplitude was largest with the human face and the latency was shortest (7.8 μV and 162.2 ms), followed by the dog face (5.2 μV, 174.4 ms) and the mobile phone (5.1 μV,173.5 ms). ERP components were not affected by the orientations or races of the faces in this situation. No difference was found in the late positive component evoked by the human faces and other images. Conclusions Implicit face recognition may depend on the specifics of the stimulus, although no race effect or inversion effect was detected using this procedure.

  15. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad;

    2010-01-01

    The classical approach for extracting event-related potentials (ERPs) from the brain is ensemble averaging. For long latency ERPs this is not optimal, partly due to the time-delay in obtaining a response and partly because the latency and amplitude for the ERP components, like the P300, are...... variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... background EEG in various input signal to noise ratios. While both methods can be applied to track dynamical changes, the simplified Kalman filter has an advantage over the Sliding Window Averaging, most notable in a better noise suppression when both are optimized for faster changing latency and amplitude...

  16. Effect of initiation-inhibition and handedness on the patterns of the P50 event-related potential component: a low resolution electromagnetic tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capsalis Christos N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research recognizes the association between handedness, linguistic processes and cerebral networks subserving executive functioning, but the nature of this association remains unclear. Since the P50 event related potential (ERP is considered to reflect thalamocortical processes in association with working memory (WM operation the present study focuses on P50 patterns elicited during the performance of a linguistic related executive functioning test in right- and left-handers. Methods In 64 young adults with a high educational level (33 left-handed the P50 event-related potential was recorded while performing the initiation and inhibition condition of a modified version of the Hayling Sentence Completion test adjusted to induce WM. The manual preference of the participants was evaluated with the use of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI. Results P50 showed greater amplitudes in left- than in right-handers, mainly in frontal leads, in the initiation condition. Reduced amplitudes in inhibition compared to initiation condition were observed in left-handers. Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA analysis showed lower frontal lobe activation in the inhibition than in the initiation condition in both right- and left-handers. Also, LORETA yielded that right-handers exhibited greater activation in the inhibition condition than left-handers. Additionally, LORETA showed assymetrical hemispheric activation patterns in right-handers, in contrast to symmetrical patterns observed in left-handers. Higher P50 amplitudes were recorded in right-hemisphere of right-handers in the initiation condition. Conclusion Brain activation, especially the one closely related to thalamocortical function, elicited during WM operation involving initiation and inhibition processes appears to be related to handedness.

  17. Research Progress of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Event-related Potentials%强迫症事件相关电位的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海星

    2012-01-01

    强迫症是一种以强迫思维和强迫行为为特征的慢性精神障碍,给个体的心理及社会功能造成了损害.在过去的几十年间,心理健康研究者及从业者花费了大量精力对强迫症进行研究,目前关于强迫症的病因病理机制仍不是很清晰.随着事件相关电位技术的发展,不少心理健康工作者及从业者开始选择事件相关电位这一脑功能成像技术对强迫症进行研究.现就其病因及临床应用两方面对强迫症事件相关电位的研究进行综述,为今后强迫症的研究和治疗提供依据.%Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a kind of chronic mental disorder which involves two major components: obsessions and compulsions, which caases damages to mental and social function of individuals. In the past few decades, many psychologists and mental health researchers spent a lot of time and energy on the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder,but until now,the etiology and pathology of the disorder remains unclear. With the development of the brain images technology for event-related potentials, many researchers began to select this new technology in their researches about obsessive-compulsive disorder. Here is to make a review on the etiology and clinical application research of obsessive-compulsive disorder event-related potentials and provide a basis for the future study and treatment.

  18. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Karns

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages.

  19. 诱发电位在精神分裂症中的相关应用及研究新进展%Applications and new research findings about Event-Related Potentials in schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳奎; 程宇琪; 许秀峰

    2011-01-01

    脑诱发电位有很多经典成分,在精神分裂症研究中有一些特征.抗精神病药可能会对诱发电位产生影响,但确切机制不清.诱发电位与脑神经影像学联合应用,更有可能清楚知道精神分裂症患者脑结构和功能何处异常以及异常是如何发生的.%There are many classical components in Event-Related Potentials ( EVP) and some of these components show special characteristics in schizophrenia. The administration of antipsychotic medication can affect event-related potential in patients with schizophrenia but the precise mechanism for this effect is unknown. The combination of EVP and neuroimaging can help identify the specific location of abnormal structure and functioning in schizophrenia and it can also help specify the mechanism that has resulted in the identified abnormality.

  20. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups. PMID:26251965

  1. Mindfulness training for adolescents: A neurodevelopmental perspective on investigating modifications in attention and emotion regulation using event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Kevanne Louise; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-09-01

    Mindfulness training is increasingly being introduced in schools, yet studies examining its impact on the developing brain have been scarce. A neurodevelopmental perspective on mindfulness has been advocated as a powerful tool to enhance our understanding of underlying neurocognitive changes that have implications for developmental well-being research and the implementation of mindfulness in education. To stimulate more research in the developmental cognitive neuroscience of mindfulness, this article outlines possible indexes of mindfulness-based change in adolescence, with a focus on event-related brain potential (ERP) markers. We provide methodological recommendations for future studies and offer examples of research paradigms. We also discuss how mindfulness practice could impact on the development of prefrontal brain structures and enhance attention control and emotion regulation skills in adolescents, impacting in turn on their self-regulation and coping skills. We highlight advantages of the ERP methodology in neurodevelopmental research of mindfulness. It is proposed that research using established experimental tasks targeting ERP components such as the contingent negative variability, N200, error-related negativity and error positivity, P300, and late positive potential could elucidate developmentally salient shifts in the neural plasticity of the adolescent brain induced by mindfulness practice.

  2. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups.

  3. Mindfulness training for adolescents: A neurodevelopmental perspective on investigating modifications in attention and emotion regulation using event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Kevanne Louise; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-09-01

    Mindfulness training is increasingly being introduced in schools, yet studies examining its impact on the developing brain have been scarce. A neurodevelopmental perspective on mindfulness has been advocated as a powerful tool to enhance our understanding of underlying neurocognitive changes that have implications for developmental well-being research and the implementation of mindfulness in education. To stimulate more research in the developmental cognitive neuroscience of mindfulness, this article outlines possible indexes of mindfulness-based change in adolescence, with a focus on event-related brain potential (ERP) markers. We provide methodological recommendations for future studies and offer examples of research paradigms. We also discuss how mindfulness practice could impact on the development of prefrontal brain structures and enhance attention control and emotion regulation skills in adolescents, impacting in turn on their self-regulation and coping skills. We highlight advantages of the ERP methodology in neurodevelopmental research of mindfulness. It is proposed that research using established experimental tasks targeting ERP components such as the contingent negative variability, N200, error-related negativity and error positivity, P300, and late positive potential could elucidate developmentally salient shifts in the neural plasticity of the adolescent brain induced by mindfulness practice. PMID:25846954

  4. Wave form variations in auditory event-related potentials evoked by a memory-scanning task and their relationship with tests of intellectual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, L; Holly, M; Slade, T; Hayward, M; Barrett, G; Blumhardt, L D

    1992-01-01

    The inter-subject wave form variability of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by digit probe identification in a memory-scanning task (Sternberg paradigm) and the effects of reaction time (RT) and task difficulty were studied in 26 healthy subjects. The response wave forms were compared with the performance of psychological tests of intelligence and memory. ERPs to 1-digit sets consisted of a sequence of waves identified as P100, N170, P250, N290, P400, P560 and N640. The major inter-subject difference in the response wave form was either the presence or absence of the late parietal positive wave P560. This wave occurred significantly more often in responses associated with larger memory sets and slow RT, suggesting that its presence reflects subjective difficulty in performing a task. With increasing set size, the P400 showed variable effects in different subjects, ranging from relative preservation of amplitude, through attenuation, to replacement or overlap by a broad surface-negative wave. This predominantly 'negative-going' effect of increasing task difficulty on the P400 was significantly correlated with scores of psychological tests; the greater the amplitude difference between the responses to easy and more difficult tasks, the better the scores, suggesting that these wave form changes reflect a more effective cognitive processing mechanism. PMID:1378004

  5. Three Experiments Examining the Use of Electroencephalogram,Event-Related Potentials, and Heart-Rate Variability for Real-Time Human-Centered Adaptive Automation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Parasuraman, Raja; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive automation represents an advanced form of human-centered automation design. The approach to automation provides for real-time and model-based assessments of human-automation interaction, determines whether the human has entered into a hazardous state of awareness and then modulates the task environment to keep the operator in-the-loop , while maintaining an optimal state of task engagement and mental alertness. Because adaptive automation has not matured, numerous challenges remain, including what the criteria are, for determining when adaptive aiding and adaptive function allocation should take place. Human factors experts in the area have suggested a number of measures including the use of psychophysiology. This NASA Technical Paper reports on three experiments that examined the psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials, electroencephalogram, and heart-rate variability for real-time adaptive automation. The results of the experiments confirm the efficacy of these measures for use in both a developmental and operational role for adaptive automation design. The implications of these results and future directions for psychophysiology and human-centered automation design are discussed.

  6. Taking one’s time in feeling other-race pain: an event-related potential investigation on the time-course of cross-racial empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meconi, Federica; Castelli, Luigi; Dell’Acqua, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Using the event-related potential (ERP) approach, we tracked the time-course of white participants’ empathic reactions to white (own-race) and black (other-race) faces displayed in a painful condition (i.e. with a needle penetrating the skin) and in a nonpainful condition (i.e. with Q-tip touching the skin). In a 280–340 ms time-window, neural responses to the pain of own-race individuals under needle penetration conditions were amplified relative to neural responses to the pain of other-race individuals displayed under analogous conditions. This ERP reaction to pain, whose source was localized in the inferior frontal gyrus, correlated with the empathic concern ratings of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index questionnaire. In a 400–750 ms time-window, the difference between neural reactions to the pain of own-race individuals, localized in the middle frontal gyrus and other-race individuals, localized in the temporoparietal junction was reduced to nil. These findings support a functional, neural and temporal distinction between two sequential processing stages underlying empathy, namely, a race-biased stage of pain sharing/mirroring followed by a race-unbiased stage of cognitive evaluation of pain. PMID:23314008

  7. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  8. 本民族面孔吸引注意:来自ERPs的证据%Own-race Faces Capture Attention: Evidence from Event-related Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦新; 杨群; 赵仑; 王艳; 郝伟; 姜萍

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨异族面孔还是本民族面孔的种族信息更吸引注意的证据及其机制.方法 采用返回抑制试验范式(inhibition of return,IOR),以反映视觉空间注意分配的N2pc为指标,记录和分析20名中国青年被试观看正立和倒立位本民族(中国人)和异族(白人)面孔诱发的事件相关电位(event-related potentials,ERPs).结果 和白人面孔相比,本民族面孔诱发出更为显著的ERPs中的N2pc成分,而这种现象在面孔翻转的时候缺如.结论 至少对中国人而言,本民族面孔吸引注意,其机制是基于高水平的整体加工.

  9. Research on Emotional Events related Potential (review)%情绪的事件相关电位研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓; 罗跃嘉

    2003-01-01

    @@ 情绪(emotion)是指人类个体受到某种刺激所产生的一种身心激动状态,是情感的外部表现,它的产生不是自发的,而是由内部或外在的刺激引起的.在心理学研究中,情绪比一般的认知活动更为复杂,更多地涉及社会环境与文化.事件相关电位(event related potential, ERP)是评价大脑信息处理活动的一种无创伤性方法,大量实验证明,ERP可以敏感地反映出情绪活动在脑内的活动过程.近年来,人们采用不同的实验方法,分析不同模式、不同性质、不同强度的情绪刺激条件下,ERP各成分的波幅、潜伏期、头皮分布区域等参数变化,以对情绪处理有关的脑机制有更进一步的了解.

  10. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: an event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-15

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was inconsistent with the context and no additional pragmatic meaning is available. In the first experiment, only pragmatically inconsistent quantifiers, not semantically inconsistent quantifiers, elicited a sustained posterior negative component. This late negativity contrasts with the N400 effect typically elicited by nouns that are incongruent with their context, suggesting that the recognition of scalar implicature errors elicits a qualitatively different ERP signature than the recognition of lexico-semantic errors. We hypothesize that the sustained negativity reflects cancellation of the pragmatic inference and retrieval of the semantic meaning. In our second experiment, we found that the process of re-interpreting the quantifier was independent from lexico-semantic processing: the N400 elicited by lexico-semantic violations was not modulated by the presence of a pragmatic inconsistency. These findings suggest that inferential pragmatic aspects of meaning are processed using different mechanisms than lexical or combinatorial semantic aspects of meaning, that inferential pragmatic meaning can be realized rapidly, and that the computation of meaning involves continuous negotiation between different aspects of meaning.

  11. Interaural cross correlation of event-related potentials and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of auditory processing disorder: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Martin, Jeffrey; McColl, Roderick

    2004-01-01

    In a previous publication (Jerger et al, 2002), we presented event-related potential (ERP) data on a pair of 10-year-old twin girls (Twins C and E), one of whom (Twin E) showed strong evidence of auditory processing disorder. For the present paper, we analyzed cross-correlation functions of ERP waveforms generated in response to the presentation of target stimuli to either the right or left ears in a dichotic paradigm. There were four conditions; three involved the processing of real words for either phonemic, semantic, or spectral targets; one involved the processing of a nonword acoustic signal. Marked differences in the cross-correlation functions were observed. In the case of Twin C, cross-correlation functions were uniformly normal across both hemispheres. The functions for Twin E, however, suggest poorly correlated neural activity over the left parietal region during the three word processing conditions, and over the right parietal area in the nonword acoustic condition. Differences between the twins' brains were evaluated using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). For Twin E, results showed reduced anisotropy over the length of the midline corpus callosum and adjacent lateral structures, implying reduced myelin integrity. Taken together, these findings suggest that failure to achieve appropriate temporally correlated bihemispheric brain activity in response to auditory stimulation, perhaps as a result of faulty interhemispheric communication via corpus callosum, may be a factor in at least some children with auditory processing disorder. PMID:15030103

  12. Visual Processing of Biological Motion in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Event Related Potential-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Anne; Hof, Katharina; Krick, Christoph; Siniatchkin, Michael; Jarczok, Tomasz; Freitag, Christine M.; Bender, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion–recently discussed as a marker of social cognition–was found to be disrupted in ASD in several studies. Thus in the present study we tested if biological motion processing is disrupted in ADHD. We used 64-channel EEG and spatio-temporal source analysis to assess event-related potentials associated with human motion processing in 21 children and adolescents with ADHD and 21 matched typically developing controls. On the behavioural level, all subjects were able to differentiate between human and scrambled motion. But in response to both scrambled and biological motion, the N200 amplitude was decreased in subjects with ADHD. After a spatio-temporal dipole analysis, a human motion specific activation was observable in occipital-temporal regions with a reduced and more diffuse activation in ADHD subjects. These results point towards neuronal determined alterations in the processing of biological motion in ADHD. PMID:24520402

  13. Visual processing of biological motion in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an event related potential-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kröger

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often accompanied by problems in social behaviour, which are sometimes similar to some symptoms of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD. However, neuronal mechanisms of ASD-like deficits in ADHD have rarely been studied. The processing of biological motion-recently discussed as a marker of social cognition-was found to be disrupted in ASD in several studies. Thus in the present study we tested if biological motion processing is disrupted in ADHD. We used 64-channel EEG and spatio-temporal source analysis to assess event-related potentials associated with human motion processing in 21 children and adolescents with ADHD and 21 matched typically developing controls. On the behavioural level, all subjects were able to differentiate between human and scrambled motion. But in response to both scrambled and biological motion, the N200 amplitude was decreased in subjects with ADHD. After a spatio-temporal dipole analysis, a human motion specific activation was observable in occipital-temporal regions with a reduced and more diffuse activation in ADHD subjects. These results point towards neuronal determined alterations in the processing of biological motion in ADHD.

  14. Looking to the eyes influences the processing of emotion on face-sensitive event-related potentials in 7-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Westerlund, Alissa; Montoya, Lina; McCormick, Sarah A; Miguel, Helga O; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies in infants have shown that face-sensitive components of the ongoing electroencephalogram (the event-related potential, or ERP) are larger in amplitude to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger) versus positive emotions (e.g., happy). However, it is still unclear whether the negative emotions linked with the face or the negative emotions alone contribute to these amplitude differences. We simultaneously recorded infant looking behaviors (via eye-tracking) and face-sensitive ERPs while 7-month-old infants viewed human faces or animals displaying happy, fear, or angry expressions. We observed that the amplitude of the N290 was greater (i.e., more negative) to angry animals compared to happy or fearful animals; no such differences were obtained for human faces. Eye-tracking data highlighted the importance of the eye region in processing emotional human faces. Infants that spent more time looking to the eye region of human faces showing fearful or angry expressions had greater N290 or P400 amplitudes, respectively. PMID:24962465

  15. Implication of auditory event related potential in autism%听觉事件相关电位在孤独症儿童的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊明

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and adaptive functioning. To investigate its neurophysiology, lots of measures have been used. In the past twenty years, due to its evaluation function in the central auditory processing and recognition, auditory event related potential has been implemented in autism more and more generally.%孤独症是一种以社会交往、言语交流及行为障碍为主要特征的广泛性发育障碍,为探讨孤独症儿童的言语及认知能力缺陷的神经生理机制,学者们运用多种方法进行研究.近年来,由于听觉事件相关电位在中枢听觉处理及认知功能评估中的优势,其在孤独症研究中的应用越来越广泛.

  16. Aging memory for pictures: using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-31

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults. PMID:17981307

  17. On-line statistical segmentation of a non-speech auditory stream in neonates as demonstrated by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Noriko; Nonaka, Yulri; Mizuno, Noriko; Mizuno, Katsumi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    The ability to statistically segment a continuous auditory stream is one of the most important preparations for initiating language learning. Such ability is available to human infants at 8 months of age, as shown by a behavioral measurement. However, behavioral study alone cannot determine how early this ability is available. A recent study using measurements of event-related potential (ERP) revealed that neonates are able to detect statistical boundaries within auditory streams of speech syllables. Extending this line of research will allow us to better understand the cognitive preparation for language acquisition that is available to neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine the domain-generality of such statistical segmentation. Neonates were presented with nonlinguistic tone sequences composed of four tritone units, each consisting of three semitones extracted from one octave, for two 5-minute sessions. Only the first tone of each unit evoked a significant positivity in the frontal area during the second session, but not in the first session. This result suggests that the general ability to distinguish units in an auditory stream by statistical information is activated at birth and is probably innately prepared in humans. PMID:21884325

  18. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  19. Inhibition deficit in the spatial tendency of the response in multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespón, Jesús; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that a high percentage of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prodromal AD is known to involve deficits in executive control processes. In the present study, we examined such deficits by recording EEG in 13 single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI), 12 multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mdaMCI) and 18 healthy elderly (control group, CG) participants while they performed a Simon task. The Simon task demands deployment of executive processes because participants have to respond to non-spatial features of a lateralized stimulus and inhibit the more automatic spatial tendency of the response. We specifically focused on the negativity central contralateral (N2cc), an event-related potential (ERP) component related to brain activity that prevents the cross-talk between direction of spatial attention and manual response preparation. The reaction time (RT) was not significantly different among the three groups of participants. The percentage of errors (PE) was higher in mdaMCI than in CG and sdaMCI participants. In addition, N2cc latency was delayed in mdaMCI (i.e., delayed implementation of mechanisms for controlling the spatial tendency of the response). The N2cc latency clearly distinguished among mdaMCI and CG/sdaMCI participants (area under curve: 0.91). Longer N2cc was therefore associated with executive control deficits, which suggests that N2cc latency is a correlate of mdaMCI. PMID:25999853

  20. Correlation between coefficient of variation of choice reaction time and components of event-related potentials (P300): effect of benzodiazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R

    2000-09-01

    We studied the relationship between accuracy in the cognitive process and components of event-related potentials (P300) in 21 young and healthy subjects. Benzodiazepine was used to manipulate the cognitive state of the subjects. We recorded the serial changes in P300, choice reaction time (CRT), and error ratio (ER) before and after oral administration of 0.4 mg of alprazolam. After administration, the coefficient of variation of CRT tended to decrease in nine subjects (group I) and increase in 12 subjects (group II). Prolongation of the P300 latency was observed in all subjects after treatment; however, such change was more predominant in group II than in group I. In group I, there was no error and no significant difference in P300 amplitude before and after administration. In group II, alprazolam significantly reduced P300 amplitude and increased ER. Our results suggest that the accuracy and P300 amplitude were preserved when the central nerve system managed to reduce fluctuations in CRT but P300 amplitude diminished and the error ratio increased following deterioration of these processes.

  1. 空间推理的脑机制:一项ERP研究%The Neural Basis of Spatial Reasoning:An Event-related Potential Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小将; 刘昌; 刘迎杰; 陈亚林; 沈汪兵

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to disentangle the neurocognitive subprocesses underlying different spatial reasoning problems with the event-related potentials technique.Fourteen healthy young Chinese students(6 males and 8 females,mean age 25.2±2.2 years) without history of neurological disorders participated in this study.There were four kinds of three-term spatial reasoning tasks and one kind of memory tasks(baseline,BS).The term orders are AB-CB in all tasks.All stimuli were generated with the Eprime 1.0 software and displayed in black against a white background on a computer screen.EEG was recorded from the scalp through 32 non-polarizable Ag/AgCl sintered electrodes in pre-configured caps,with a 500 Hz sampling rate using the Neuroscan EEG system. The ERP waveforms were time-locked to the onset of premise 2.Mean amplitudes in each time window were analyzed with the three-way repeated-measures analyses of variance.The behavioral results indicated that memory tasks were easier than reasoning tasks except for the absent valid multi-model problems.But both multi-model reasoning tasks were easier than one-model reasoning task.ERP data showed that reasoning tasks elicited more positive amplitudes than baseline tasks from 200ms to 900ms.The content-based spatial reasoning elicited a waveform similar to that of no-content spatial reasoning.One-model problem elicited different waveforms with valid twomodel problems in the time window of 300-600ms.Valid two-model problems elicited different waveform with two model and no-valid problems in the time window of 200-600ms. In conclusion,the behavioral data show that the place of indeterminate premises and the difficulty of spatial problems affected the process of resolving uncertain spatial reasoning.ERP data suggest that spatial reasoning and memory might reflect different requirement of attention resources.When confronted with a two-model problem,people process the stimulus and make a primary decision after 200ms

  2. The effect of distance on moral engagement: Event related potentials and alpha power are sensitive to perspective in a virtual shooting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten ePetras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analysed the event related potential (ERP, including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified go/nogo task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird’s view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we conducted a visually identical control experiment, where the instruction to shoot was replaced by an instruction to detect. ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the shoot task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the shoot but not for the detect task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (nogo > go and distance (ego > bird perspective but no interaction with task type (shoot vs detect. We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to shoot. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point, the moral conflict is already resolved and response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  3. Event-related potentials reveal task-dependence and inter-individual differences in negation processing during silent listening and explicit truth-value evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, C; Kissler, J

    2014-09-26

    In sentences such as dogs cannot fly/bark, evaluation of the truth-value of the sentence is assumed to appear after the negation has been integrated into the sentence structure. Moreover negation processing and truth-value processing are considered effortful processes, whereas processing of the semantic relatedness of the words within sentences is thought to occur automatically. In the present study, modulation of event-related brain potentials (N400 and late positive potential, LPP) was investigated during an implicit task (silent listening) and active truth-value evaluation to test these theoretical assumptions and determine if truth-value evaluation will be modulated by the way participants processed the negated information implicitly prior to truth-value verification. Participants first listened to negated sentences and then evaluated these sentences for their truth-value in an active evaluation task. During passive listening, the LPP was generally more pronounced for targets in false negative (FN) than true negative (TN) sentences, indicating enhanced attention allocation to semantically-related but false targets. N400 modulation by truth-value (FN>TN) was observed in 11 out of 24 participants. However, during active evaluation, processing of semantically-unrelated but true targets (TN) elicited larger N400 and LPP amplitudes as well as a pronounced frontal negativity. This pattern was particularly prominent in those 11 individuals, whose N400 modulation during silent listening indicated that they were more sensitive to violations of the truth-value than to semantic priming effects. The results provide evidence for implicit truth-value processing during silent listening of negated sentences and for task dependence related to inter-individual differences in implicit negation processing.

  4. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Kirsten; ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M.

    2016-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to “shoot” was replaced by an instruction to “detect.” ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the “shoot” task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the “shoot” but not for the “detect” task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to “shoot.” These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view. PMID:26779106

  5. Event Related Potentials Reveal Early Phonological and Orthographic Processing of Single Letters in Letter-Detection and Letter-Rhyme Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Sewon A.; Herdman, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300 ms) orthographic and phonological processing of letters. Methods: Fifteen participants aged 20–35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID) and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme) tasks. From the EEG recordings, event related potential (ERP) differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP) for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioral: Reaction times were 18 ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27 ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean evoked potentials (EPs) showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160–600 ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145 ms and 426 ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks. Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters vs. pseudoletters between 130–190 ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters. PMID:27148023

  6. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view. PMID:26779106

  7. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  8. 事件相关电位测谎技术原理探析%Principle analysis of the event-related potentials lie detection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜令章; 刘洪广

    2015-01-01

    At present,the domestic research for the event-related potentials(ERPs)lie detection technology mainly focuses on the method of design and application of exploration,less from the principle perspective to carry on the comprehensive analysis.The article has carried on a deep analysis of the theory of ERPs lie detection technology on the basis of interpreting the ERPs lie detection and believes it is mainly related to two cognitive processes which involve the recognition of memory and cheating reaction. Because the suspect has the memory to the case ,the first cognitive processe of the suspect is the recognition of memory when displaying the case related information to him. Then ,the suspect have to make cheating reactions which inconsistent with his cognition,in order to pass the test of lie detection.When processing the recognition of memory and cheating reaction ,the brain of the suspect will produce ERPs(Dm,P300,N400 etc.)which show significant differences between relevant information and irrelevant information.And these elements are to distinguish whether he is really involved.A main task of ERPs lie detection research is to innovative methods to discover and select effective electrical components which can distinguish whether a subject has the memory of the case or whether he make a cheating.According to it ,the examiner can find who has invovled in the case. Previous studies mostly analyzed separately the recognition memory or deceit,the article summarizes the relevant research on memory recognition and cheating.By analyzing the ERPs which reported by ever studys,the article believes that researher should foucus their eyes on the combined analysis analysis of recognition memory and deceit in the futhure.Generally,the rigor and scientificity of the ERPs lie detection technology were comprehensivly discussed in a theoretic perspective in the article.It will further improve the efficiency of event related potentials lie detection technology and has important

  9. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: an event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-15

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was inconsistent with the context and no additional pragmatic meaning is available. In the first experiment, only pragmatically inconsistent quantifiers, not semantically inconsistent quantifiers, elicited a sustained posterior negative component. This late negativity contrasts with the N400 effect typically elicited by nouns that are incongruent with their context, suggesting that the recognition of scalar implicature errors elicits a qualitatively different ERP signature than the recognition of lexico-semantic errors. We hypothesize that the sustained negativity reflects cancellation of the pragmatic inference and retrieval of the semantic meaning. In our second experiment, we found that the process of re-interpreting the quantifier was independent from lexico-semantic processing: the N400 elicited by lexico-semantic violations was not modulated by the presence of a pragmatic inconsistency. These findings suggest that inferential pragmatic aspects of meaning are processed using different mechanisms than lexical or combinatorial semantic aspects of meaning, that inferential pragmatic meaning can be realized rapidly, and that the computation of meaning involves continuous negotiation between different aspects of meaning. PMID:23103410

  10. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement.

  11. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement. PMID:26227511

  12. Correlations between event-related potentials with pictures recognition and WMS-RC scores in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Liang; Fan, Zebing; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lingli; Rao, Guangxun; Li, Haixia

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P(170) and P(500), that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P(500) amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P(500) responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (PWMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P(500) may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  13. Theta burst stimulation applied over primary motor and somatosensory cortices produces analgesia unrelated to the changes in nociceptive event-related potentials.

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    Diana M E Torta

    Full Text Available Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 can alleviate pain although the neural basis of this effect remains largely unknown. Besides, the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 is thought to play a pivotal role in the sensori-discriminative aspects of pain perception but the analgesic effect of cTBS applied over S1 remains controversial. To investigate cTBS-induced analgesia we characterized, in two separate experiments, the effect of cTBS applied either over M1 or S1 on the event-related brain potentials (ERPs and perception elicited by nociceptive (CO2 laser stimulation and non-nociceptive (transcutaneous electrical stimulation somatosensory stimuli. All stimuli were delivered to the ipsilateral and contralateral hand. We found that both cTBS applied over M1 and cTBS applied over S1 significantly reduced the percept elicited by nociceptive stimuli delivered to the contralateral hand as compared to similar stimulation of the ipsilateral hand. In contrast, cTBS did not modulate the perception of non-nociceptive stimuli. Surprisingly, this side-dependent analgesic effect of cTBS was not reflected in the amplitude modulation of nociceptive ERPs. Indeed, both nociceptive (N160, N240 and P360 waves and late-latency non-nociceptive (N140 and P200 waves ERPs elicited by stimulation of the contralateral and ipsilateral hands were similarly reduced after cTBS, suggesting an unspecific effect, possibly due to habituation or reduced alertness. In conclusion, cTBS applied over M1 and S1 reduces similarly the perception of nociceptive inputs originating from the contralateral hand, but this analgesic effect is not reflected in the magnitude of nociceptive ERPs.

  14. Stop-event-related potentials from intracranial electrodes reveal a key role of premotor and motor cortices in stopping ongoing movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, M.; Spadacenta, S.; Pavone, L.; Quarato, P.; Esposito, V.; Sparano, A.; Sebastiano, F.; Di Gennaro, G.; Morace, R.; Cantore, G.; Mirabella, G.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e., premotor (PMA) and primary motor (M1) cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs) when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA, and Brodmann's area (BA) 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop (US) trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times (RTs). These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network. PMID:22754525

  15. Event-related brain potentials to change in the frequency and temporal structure of sounds in typically developing 5-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervast, Leena; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Zachau, Swantje; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Heinänen, Kaisu; Veijola, Mari; Heikkinen, Elisa; Suominen, Kalervo; Luotonen, Mirja; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-12-01

    The brain's ability to recognize different acoustic cues (e.g., frequency changes in rapid temporal succession) is important for speech perception and thus for successful language development. Here we report on distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) in 5-6-year-old children recorded in a passive oddball paradigm to repeated tone pair stimuli with a frequency change in the second tone in the pair, replicating earlier findings. An occasional insertion of a third tone within the tone pair generated a more merged pattern, which has not been reported previously in 5-6-year-old children. Both types of deviations elicited pre-attentive discriminative mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN) responses. Temporal principal component analysis (tPCA) showed a similar topographical pattern with fronto-central negativity for MMN and LDN. We also found a previously unreported discriminative response complex (P340-N440) at the temporal electrode sites at about 140 ms and 240 ms after the frequency deviance, which we suggest reflects a discriminative processing of frequency change. The P340 response was positive with a clear radial distribution preceding the fronto-central frequency MMN by about 30 ms. The results indicate that 5-6-year-old children can detect frequency change and the occasional insertion of an additional tone in sound pairs as reflected by MMN and LDN, even with quite short within-stimulus intervals (150 ms and 50 ms). Furthermore, MMN for these changes is preceded by another response to deviancy, temporal P340, which seems to reflect a parallel but earlier discriminatory process. PMID:26342552

  16. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  17. Beyond maximum speed—a novel two-stimulus paradigm for brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials (P300-BCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on event-related potentials (ERP), is inherently limited by the commonly used one-stimulus paradigm. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm that can increase the spelling speed by a factor of 2, thereby extending the one-stimulus paradigm to a two-stimulus paradigm. Two different stimuli (a face and a symbol) are presented at the same time, superimposed on different characters and ERPs are classified using a multi-class classifier. Here, we present the proof-of-principle that is achieved with healthy participants. Approach. Eight participants were confronted with the novel two-stimulus paradigm and, for comparison, with two one-stimulus paradigms that used either one of the stimuli. Classification accuracies (percentage of correctly predicted letters) and elicited ERPs from the three paradigms were compared in a comprehensive offline analysis. Main results. The accuracies slightly decreased with the novel system compared to the established one-stimulus face paradigm. However, the use of two stimuli allowed for spelling at twice the maximum speed of the one-stimulus paradigms, and participants still achieved an average accuracy of 81.25%. This study introduced an alternative way of increasing the spelling speed in ERP-BCIs and illustrated that ERP-BCIs may not yet have reached their speed limit. Future research is needed in order to improve the reliability of the novel approach, as some participants displayed reduced accuracies. Furthermore, a comparison to the most recent BCI systems with individually adjusted, rapid stimulus timing is needed to draw conclusions about the practical relevance of the proposed paradigm. Significance. We introduced a novel two-stimulus paradigm that might be of high value for users who have reached the speed limit with the current one-stimulus ERP-BCI systems.

  18. The Application of Event-Related Potentials in the Studies on Linguistics%ERP在语言学研究中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华华

    2014-01-01

    Event-Related Potentials ( ERP) technology, because of the accuracy up to millisecond time, has been used in psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics and neuropsychology, but with a late start in domestic field of linguistics. The present article describes the application and achievements of ERP in linguistic disciplines internationally and domestically, such as semantics, syntax, and phonology, by highlighting the latest research by ERP on Chinese by Chinese researchers. Meanwhile, the similarities and differences on the brain processing mechanism between Chinese and Indo-European languages are presented, hoping to shed some light on ERP studies in domestic linguistic area.%ERP技术因其毫秒级的时间准确率,已经运用于心理语言学、神经语言学、神经心理学等学科,但在国内语言学界起步较晚。该文介绍了该技术在国际国内语义、句法、语音等语言学领域的运用及成果,并着重介绍了中国研究者在汉语的ERP研究领域取得的一些最新成果。同时,该文对比分析了汉语的大脑处理机制和印欧语言在以上领域存在的异同,以期对于国内语言界的ERP研究提供参考。

  19. Correlations between Event-related Potentials with Pictures Recognition and WMS-RC Scores in Patients with Memory Disorder Caused by Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilong LIU; Liang LIU; Zebing FAN; Xiaorui CHEN; Xiaohong ZHAO; Lingli ZHANG; Guangxun Rao; Haixia LI

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P170 and P500, that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P500 amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P500 responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (P<0.001) and lower in amplitude (P<0.001). P500 latency showed significant negative correlation with MQ and the scores of "addition", "visual recognition", "picture recall", "visual reproduction" and "tactile memory" in WMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P500 may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  20. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  1. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  2. Correlation of cognitive function with acetylcholinesterase activity and P300 event-related potential of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suguo Yu; Yingxue Wang; Jihua Sun; Xuewen Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, central cholinergic neuron system is regarded the most major structural basis of cognitive function. Changes in structure of cholinergic neuron system of brain and receptor expression after brain injury can cause cognitive impairment.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively observe the intelligence quotient (IQ), latent period and wave amplitude of P300 event-related potential and the difference of activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with non-diabetes mellitus, and analyze the correlation of IQ of cognitive impairment patients with diabetes mellitus with AChE activity, latent period and wave amplitude of P300 event-related potential in cerebrospinal fluid.DESIGN: Correlation analysis of contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 32 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received the treatment in the Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College between April 2004 and April 2005 were recruited, serving as diabetes mellitus group. They, including 19 male and 13 female, aged 49 to 73 years, with disease course of 4 to 11 years, all met the diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus revised by World Health Organization in 1999. Another 30 patients with non-diabetes mellitus who homeochronously underwent lumbar anesthesia in the Department of Surgery and Department of Gynecology were recruited, serving as non-diabetes mellitus group. The 30 patients included 18 male and 12 female,and their age ranged from 46 to 71 years. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the involved patients.METHODS: ① Evaluation,on IQ: The IQ of involved subjects was evaluated with Chinese Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale revised by Gong Yao-xian (WAIS-RC). WAIS-RC included 6 verbal subscales and 5 performance subscales. The test scores of the 11

  3. [Comparison of event-related potentials components characteristics obtained during stimulation of symbolical and alphabetic matrixes used in brain-computer interface paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykov, K A; Bark, E D; Kulikov, M A

    2014-01-01

    In order to create a brain-computer interface (BCI) on the basis of paradigm P300 (the so-called Farwell-Donchin paradigm, FD) with a symbolical matrix used as stimuli, there were compared characteristics of event-related potentials (ERP) obtained from stimulation both by symbolical and alphabetical matrixes. The matrixes contained 6 x 6 signs (cyrillic letters or symbols-pictograms). Nine healthy adults were examined in 18 experiments during which 28 channel EEG were recorded while matrixes of two types (containing either cyrillic letters or symbols-pictograms) were used for stimulation. The obtained ERP data, i.e. amplitudes and peak latencies of the following components of ERP: N1, P3 with sub-components P3a and P3b, N4 were compared and analized for different types of the stimulation matrixes. Similar changes in amplitude or peak latency received from 7 or more out of 9 examinees were taken into consideration, matching the criteria of significance. It was discovered that for components P3a, P3b and N4 the amplitudes of ERP in response to a symbolic matrix were bigger than to a letter matrix, the opposite being true for component N1. Latent periods of ERP components were shorter for a symbolic matrix than for a letter matrix in case of components N1 and P3a, and longer in case of P3b and N4. In order to find out which zones of the brain react to stimulation the most, there was conducted a pair t-test (series of pair t-tests) to analize the topography of variety of ERP responses to different types of stimuli, and, through comparing the amplitudes of ERP components, a topographical map detailing the variety of responses to the different types of matrixes was obtained. The data about the differences were analized separately for each of 28 channels, then the (absolute magnitude t-test) were summed up algebraically for all the nine examinees. Thus, it was shown, for amplitudes of all the tested ERP components in the case of pair "significant-insignificant letters

  4. Predicting acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and a continuous-performance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrim G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geir Ogrim,1–3 Knut A Hestad,3,4 Jan Ferenc Brunner,3,5,6 Juri Kropotov3,7,8 1Neuropsychiatric Unit, Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 2National Resource Center for ADHD, Tourettes' Syndrome and Narcolepsy, Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Division of Mental Health, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Neuroscience, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 7Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 8Department of Neuropsychology, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG, event-related potentials (ERPs, and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT. Methods: Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7–16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37 or troublesome side effects (n = 33. We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component – contingent negative variation

  5. Brain Electrical Source Analysis of Event-Related Potentials in Depressive Disorder%抑郁症的ERPs电流源模型与特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岳峙; 胡勇; 王悟夷

    2013-01-01

    采用3-刺激视觉oddball实验范式,研究干扰子刺激和靶刺激条件下抑郁症患者的大脑电流源的异常电流响应过程.分别采集了抑郁症和健康受试者的64导联脑电,以该实验任务的功能磁共振激活簇空间坐标为约束条件,建立了干扰子刺激和靶刺激条件下事件相关电位的脑区域源模型,通过脑源重建法计算得到14个区域源的源电流波形,经非配对t检验和置换检验后发现:在靶刺激条件下,抑郁症患者的右侧脑岛、右侧中央前沟在P300晚期产生的源电流幅度与正常人有显著差异(P<0.05),它引起右侧头皮前额区的异常负电位.在干扰子刺激条件下,患者的左侧中央前沟在P300晚期产生的源电流与正常人有明显差异,差异显著性具有趋势意义(P=0.087),它引起左侧前额区的异常近零电位.结果表明:通过源电流计算发现了抑郁症患者的中央前沟和脑岛的P300活动发生显著异常.%Using visual three-stimulus oddball paradigm, activities of cortical current sources elicited by target and distractor stimuli were investigated in depressive patients. The 64 - channel EEG signals were recorded in healthy subjects and depressed patients during the task. A regional source model with constraints of spatial coordinates from fMRI BOLD clusters was applied to event-related potentials ( ERPs) data in the target and distractor conditions. The reconstructed source activities were sent to unpaired t-test and permutation test, statistical results indicated source activities in the right insular and right precentral sulcus in the late phase of P300 show significant difference between patients and healthy controls in the target condition, and scalp voltage maps projected by the current flow direction of corresponding regional sources in patients show abnormal negative potential over the right prefrontal scalp area. It was also found that source activity in the left precentral sulcus in the

  6. 认知事件相关诱发电位P300的研究进展%Research progress of cognitive event related potential P300

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the research progress of cognitive event-related potential (ERP) P300.Methods Literature data of the cognitive ERP P300 from Wanfang database,Pubmed and other databases were collected and analyzed.Results Brain cognitive processes is reflected in the P300 ERP.ERP-P300 can be used for early detection of cognitive decline of many diseases,the extent of the damage assessment of cognitive function and cognitive function in quantitative analysis,which include dementia,cerebrovascular disease,traumatic brain injury,epilepsy,mental illness,etc.It has a wider range of clinical applications.However,the clinical applications of the P300 have problems:no recognized evaluation criteria value,many factors of the actual impact on the detection and so on.The specific mechanisms and related issues need to be further discussed.Conclusions P300 can be used to detect dynamic cognitive processes of nerve cells.It is characterized by reliable,efficient,objective,non-invasive and so on.It is a method of detecting that other brain imaging techniques can not be replaced.In the future,further researches are needed in the production and positioning of P300 and P300's Copiapo,unified standardized clinical diagnosis and so on.%目的 探讨认知事件相关诱发电位(ERP) P300的研究进展.方法 在万方数据、Pubmed等数据库查阅与认知ERP P300研究相关的文献,进行汇总分析.结果 ERP P300反映了大脑认知的加工过程,可对痴呆、脑血管疾病、脑外伤、癫痫、精神疾病等多种疾病进行早期认知减退的检测、认知功能和损害程度的评估以及认知功能的定量分析,具有较广泛的临床应用价值.但P300的临床应用存在没有业内公认的评定标准值、实际检测中影响因素较多等问题,其具体机制及相关问题的解决还有待于进一步更深入地探讨.结论 P300可以检测大脑神经细胞的动态认知过程,具有可靠、有效、客观、无创伤等特

  7. Event-related potential of facial expression processing%面孔表情加工的事件相关电位研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏珍; 李亚洁; 周曙; 陆雪松; 罗一峰; 郑能韬; 刘玲; 王晓艳

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨面孔表情诱发的事件相关电位(ERP)时空模式特点.方法25名受试者从事简笔画面孔表情识别任务.实验采用单因素(三水平:正性、中性、负性表情)重复测量析因设计和双侧配对t检验进行逐对比较(Bonferroni校正),利用统计参数映像呈现结果.结果显著的表情效应分别于3个时段出现在不同的头皮区域:后顶区和双枕区(280~340ms),左额区(40~420ms)和右额区(48~500ms).正性与中性表情的差异分别于4个时段相继出现在不同的头皮区域:右额顶颞区和左前额区(60~80 ms),右枕区(120~140ms),左枕区(280~320 ms)和左额顶区(400~440 ms).负性与中性表情的差异分别于5个时段相继出现在不同的头皮区域:右枕区(120~140ms),中央额顶区(220~240ms),中央顶区(280~300ms),左顶和右额颞区(320~340ms)和额顶枕颞区(480~500ms).结论面孔表情加工是涉及广泛脑区的动态演化过程,不同情绪的脑加工通路是不同的.%Objective To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of event-related potentials (ERP) evoked by facial expression.Methods ERP was recorded in 25 healthy subjects while they performed facial recognition task. Repeated-measure one-way ANOVA was adopted to compare the subjects' responses to stimulation by 3 different expressions (positive, neutral and negative) with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results Significant facial expression effects occurred separately in the left parietal and bilateral occipital regions (280-340 ms), left frontal region (400-420 ms), and right prefrontal region (480-500 ms).In 4 time periods, significant difference was observed between positive and neutral emotion wave in the right frontoparietotemporal and left prefrontal regions (60-80 ms), right occipital region (120-140 ms), left occipital region (280-320 ms), and left frontoparietal region (400-440 ms). Significant difference between negative and neutral emotion waves was

  8. 情绪的事件相关电位在服装设计中的应用%Application of emotional event-related potentials in fashion design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佳; 陈东生

    2012-01-01

    基于国内外文献分析总结了有关情绪以及与情绪相关的事件相关电位研究,包括情绪刺激引起事件相关电位成分的变化和事件相关电位在不同领域情绪研究上所取得的成果.在此基础上,通过对事件相关电位应用到服装设计的必要性和应用范围的阐述,提出将情绪和事件相关电位技术引入服装设计领域的理论,为定量探讨服装设计与消费者真实的心理感受的关系提供新的思路和方法,以期为未来服装设计的走势和发展提供科学的指导.%Based on analyzing domestic and foreign literatures concerning emotion and emotional event-related potential research, including changes of event-related potential components by emotional stimulations and the findings of event-related potentials in different emotional research areas, this paper expounds the necessity of applying event-related potentials to fashion design as well the application fields, presents the theory for introducing the emotion and event-related potential technology into the field of fashion design. It provides a new concept of quantitatively analyzing the relationship between designers and the true emotion of costumers, hoping to give a scientific guideline for the future trend and development of fashion design.

  9. The Time-Course of Metaphor Comprehension in Chinese:An Event-Related Potential Study%汉语隐喻理解时程的ERPs研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴念阳; 陈俊卿; 居银; 白洁; 马子凤

    2012-01-01

    本研究使用ERPs技术考察汉语隐喻义与本义理解时程的异同,以研究汉语隐喻理解的机制。以句尾范式向被试随机呈现本义句、熟悉隐喻句、新奇隐喻句和错误义句各50句,实验任务为判断每句话是否有意义。结果显示:两种隐喻句诱发的N400波形与头皮分布和本义句类似,且两种隐喻句诱发的N400波幅均显著高于本义句。这证明,汉语隐喻义和本义理解的认知加工机制类似。这支持了隐喻理解的平行加工假说,并说明加工隐喻义需要耗费更多的认知资源。%Are metaphoric and literal meanings processed concurrently? Or should we first try to access the literal meaning and only after failing try to find a metaphorical one in metaphor comprehension? Researchers proposed two hypotheses:the three-stage model and the parallel hypotheses.The present paper experimentally verified the above assumption.We used Event-Related Potentials(ERPs) to study the process of metaphor comprehension and focused on the time-course difference between the comprehension of metaphorical meanings and literal ones.Thirty-one participants were college students.They were asked to perform a semantic judgment task that required them to decide whether the sentence they saw on the computer screen conveyed a meaningful expression or not.The stimuli sentences were familiar metaphors,novel metaphors,literal sentences and error sentences.Each type had 50 ones:thus there were 200 stimuli sentences in all.The E-prime software was used to compile the experimental program.ERPs data revealed that the waveforms and scalp distributions of ERPs,which were evoked by literal sentences and metaphoric ones,were in agreement(see Figure 1 and Figure 2).Two dependent variables,peak amplitude value of N200 and N400s,were entered into the two-way repeated measure analysis of variance(ANOVA),with the following repeated factors;sentence types(familiar metaphors,novel metaphors

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of event-related potentials during mind wandering%神游的事件相关电位时空分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 周曙

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察神游的神经机制.方法 10名被试从事持续注意反应任务(SART).两类视觉刺激分别以罕发与频发概率混合呈现,神游状态出现以罕发刺激的错误反应为依据,比较两种状态(神游有/无)下频发刺激引出的19通道事件相关电位(ERP)和行为绩效.采用(神游状态:有,无)×(罕发/频发概率:0.1/0.9,0.2/0.8,0.3/0.7)两因素重复测量设计.结果 反应时间的概率效应显著:0.1/0.9组(460.54±46.46 ms)短于0.2/0.8组(485.42+ 47.23 ms)与0.3/0.7组(485.99±54.85ms),F(2,18)=14.083,P=0.000;神游的(468.82±48.74ms)显著短于非神游(485.82±51.53ms),F(1,9)=38.108,P=0.000.漏报率概率效应显著:0.1/0.9组[(24.61±11.65)%]高于0.2/0.8组[(19.94±9.94)%]与0.3/0.7组[(20.52±9.60)%],F(2,18)=4.924,P=0.020.感受性指标d无显著概率效应.ERP的F值参数映像显示概率与神游交互效应出现在双侧顶区(500~600 ms);概率效应出现在左前额和右顶区(300~350 ms)以及双额区(800~900 ms);神游效应主要出现在3个时段:感知觉阶段( 150~350 ms)双侧枕区和额极(250~300 ms);判断与决策阶段(400~600ms)的双侧额颞顶区;反应监控阶段(800~900 ms)的双侧额区.结论 在神游阶段,外源信息的认知加工活动整体上削弱,反应虽加速但更易出错.神游可能系执行注意系统的监控失败所致.SART的刺激概率结构通过执行注意系统影响外源性信息加工.%Objective To investigate the neural mechanism of mind wandering. Methods Event-related potentials (ERP) was recorded from 10 healthy college students while having a sustained attention to response task (SART), which consisted of frequent stimuli and rare stimuli with varied probability ratios. The fault response to the rare stimulus suggested the occurrence of an episode of mind wandering. The ERP of the frequent stimuli before the erroneous or correct responses of the rare stimuli were analyzed with two

  11. Influence of an antivertiginous combination preparation of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate on event-related potentials, reaction time and psychomotor performance--a randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipova, D; Tzenova, B; Iwanowitsch, A; Bognar-Steinberg, I

    2004-04-01

    In the present comparative, double-blind, 3-way crossover study, possible effects of an antivertiginous combination preparation on event-related potentials (ERPs) and performance were investigated. Twenty-one healthy volunteers received 4 doses (within 24 h) of a fixed combination of cinnarizine 20 mg and dimenhydrinate 40 mg (Arlevert, ARL), dimenhydrinate 50 mg, or a placebo, in randomized order at 1-week intervals. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs), reaction time (RT) and psychometric tests were assessed before as well as 60 and 150 minutes after the intake of the 1st (Day 1) and the 4th (Day 2) dose of study medication. The evaluation was primarily based on the difference in the outcomes measured 150 min after the 4th dose (t5) and those before the start of medication intake (t0). None of the medications affected the latency and amplitude of the sensory ERP component N100, neither under passive listening nor under discrimination task conditions. The latency of P300 in response to the rare target tones (oddball paradigm and binary series), showed significant (p < 0.05) delays after 4 doses of dimenhydrinate (18-24 ms), and no significant differences between ARL (3-17 ms) and either dimenhydrinate or placebo (4-13 ms). Responses to nontarget tones remained almost unaffected after medication intake. The secondary analysis of the P300 amplitude showed the greatest decreases under DH in both active series, with no significant differences between ARL and either DH or placebo. The 3 medications did not significantly prolong RT nor did they impair the performance of psychometric tests, or cause significant shifts of current mood. The combination preparation ARL showed the lowest rate of adverse events (n = 1), followed by dimenhydrinate (n = 3) and placebo (n = 6). Two subjects withdrew because of adverse events, both after the intake of placebo. In conclusion, the results gave no evidence for an impairment of central information processing and psychomotor

  12. Is empathy necessary to comprehend the emotional faces? The empathic effect on attentional mechanisms (eye movements), cortical correlates (N200 event-related potentials) and facial behaviour (electromyography) in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of social empathy on processing emotional facial expressions. Previous evidence suggested a close relationship between emotional empathy and both the ability to detect facial emotions and the attentional mechanisms involved. A multi-measure approach was adopted: we investigated the association between trait empathy (Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale) and individuals' performance (response times; RTs), attentional mechanisms (eye movements; number and duration of fixations), correlates of cortical activation (event-related potential (ERP) N200 component), and facial responsiveness (facial zygomatic and corrugator activity). Trait empathy was found to affect face detection performance (reduced RTs), attentional processes (more scanning eye movements in specific areas of interest), ERP salience effect (increased N200 amplitude), and electromyographic activity (more facial responses). A second important result was the demonstration of strong, direct correlations among these measures. We suggest that empathy may function as a social facilitator of the processes underlying the detection of facial emotion, and a general "facial response effect" is proposed to explain these results. We assumed that empathy influences cognitive and the facial responsiveness, such that empathic individuals are more skilful in processing facial emotion. PMID:25531027

  13. Is empathy necessary to comprehend the emotional faces? The empathic effect on attentional mechanisms (eye movements), cortical correlates (N200 event-related potentials) and facial behaviour (electromyography) in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of social empathy on processing emotional facial expressions. Previous evidence suggested a close relationship between emotional empathy and both the ability to detect facial emotions and the attentional mechanisms involved. A multi-measure approach was adopted: we investigated the association between trait empathy (Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale) and individuals' performance (response times; RTs), attentional mechanisms (eye movements; number and duration of fixations), correlates of cortical activation (event-related potential (ERP) N200 component), and facial responsiveness (facial zygomatic and corrugator activity). Trait empathy was found to affect face detection performance (reduced RTs), attentional processes (more scanning eye movements in specific areas of interest), ERP salience effect (increased N200 amplitude), and electromyographic activity (more facial responses). A second important result was the demonstration of strong, direct correlations among these measures. We suggest that empathy may function as a social facilitator of the processes underlying the detection of facial emotion, and a general "facial response effect" is proposed to explain these results. We assumed that empathy influences cognitive and the facial responsiveness, such that empathic individuals are more skilful in processing facial emotion.

  14. Event-related potential study on emotional communication not through five conventional senses%不通过5种感觉通道情感交流的事件相关电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅一笑; 侯枭; 覃青; 蒙华庆; 罗庆华; 黄小兰; 齐志国; 富奇志; 杨瑞瑞

    2013-01-01

    目的:在两个成人情侣(发送者和接收者)间,寻找5种感觉通道之外进行情感交流的脑电活动证据.方法:采用高密度事件相关电位(event-related potential,ERP)技术,以不同的情绪视觉刺激材料:中国情绪图片(chinese affective picture system,CAPS),中国情绪面孔图片(chinese affective face picture system,CAFPS)诱发发送者的事件相关电位差异表现的同时,观察接收者(接受的是无差异的视觉刺激)的ERP表现.结果:在CAPS试验中:对于发送者,负性情绪图片与较中性情绪图片诱发的ERP成分存在显著差异(370~430ms:F=5.478;500~550 ms:F=13.852,P<0.05),与此同时,接受者的ERP在各种刺激条件下的差别:负性情绪图片与较中性情绪图片诱发了更正的晚成分(370~430、500~550、600~800ms:F=3.880、4.776、7.441,P<0.05).在CAFPS试验中:在发送者辨别不同情绪的ERP存在显著差别的前提下,3种情绪条件下接受者的ERP在各时间段差别无统计学差异.结论:5种感觉通道之外,成人情侣间进行情感交流有脑电活动的证据,可能在同时发生,也可能存在延迟效应.交流的内容更趋向于有自我体验的情感内容.%Objective:To seek for the evidences of electrical activity of emotional communication in the brain of couples(named as sender and receiver) excluding five conventional senses (look,listen,touch,smell,taste).Methods:We induced performances of event-related potential(ERP) of senders by applying ERP technique and using Chinese affective picture system(CAPS) and Chinese affective face picture system(CAFPS) as stimuli.Simultaneously,we observed the ERP performances of receivers who received the same visual stimulation as senders.Results:During CAPS test,there were significant differences in ERP performances of senders induced by neutral pictures and negative pictures (370-430 ms:F=5.478; 500~550 ms:F=13.852,P<0.05).Simultaneously,under different stimuli of sender

  15. Preprocessing by a Bayesian Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Estimation Technique Allows Feasibility of an Assistive Single-Channel P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Goljahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major clinical goal of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs is to allow severely paralyzed patients to communicate their needs and thoughts during their everyday lives. Among others, P300-based BCIs, which resort to EEG measurements, have been successfully operated by people with severe neuromuscular disabilities. Besides reducing the number of stimuli repetitions needed to detect the P300, a current challenge in P300-based BCI research is the simplification of system’s setup and maintenance by lowering the number N of recording channels. By using offline data collected in 30 subjects (21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and 9 controls through a clinical BCI with N=5 channels, in the present paper we show that a preprocessing approach based on a Bayesian single-trial ERP estimation technique allows reducing N to 1 without affecting the system’s accuracy. The potentially great benefit for the practical usability of BCI devices (including patient acceptance that would be given by the reduction of the number N of channels encourages further development of the present study, for example, in an online setting.

  16. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  17. 中国精神分裂症患者的事件相关电位研究%Research in China on event-related potentials in patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继军; 郭茜

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are objective electrophysiological indicators that can be used to assess cognitive processes in the human brain. Psychiatric researchers in China have applied this method to study schizophrenia since the early 1980s. ERP measures used in the study of schizophrenia include contingent negative variation (CNV), P300, mismatch negativity (MMN), error-related negativity (ERN) and auditory P50 inhibition. This review summarizes the main findings of ERP research in patients with schizophrenia reported by Chinese investigators.

  18. On how the motor cortices resolve an inter-hemispheric response conflict: an event-related EEG potential-guided TMS study of the flankers task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Kuniecki, Michal; Möller, Friderike;

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of human motor control is the ability to resolve conflicting response tendencies. Here we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to track the time course of excitability changes in the primary motor hand areas (M1(HAND)) while the motor system resolved...... of maximum premature activation was individually measured as peak latency of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) in the EEG. In the subsequent TMS experiment, single pulses were applied to left or right M1(HAND) during the same flanker task. The amplitude of the motor evoked potentials...

  19. Snake pictures draw more early attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women : Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, J. W.; Eijlers, R.; Franken, I. H A; Huijding, J.

    2014-01-01

    Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of early and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis tha

  20. Snake pictures draw more early attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); R. Eijlers (R.); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); J. Huijding (Jorg)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSnakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of early and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hy

  1. Heart cycle-related effects on event-related potentials, spectral power changes, and connectivity patterns in the human ECoG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Markus; Aertsen, Ad; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Ball, Tonio

    2013-11-01

    The perception of one's own heartbeat is a fundamental interoceptive process that involves cortical and subcortical structures. Yet, the precise spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns underlying the cortical information processing have remained largely elusive. Although the high temporal and spatial resolution of electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings is increasingly being exploited in functional neuroimaging, it has not been used to study heart cycle-related effects. Here, we addressed the capacity of ECoG to characterize neuronal signals within the cardiac cycle, as well as to disentangle them from heart cycle-related artifacts. Based on topographical distribution and latency, we identified a biphasic potential within the primary somatosensory cortex, which likely constitutes a heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) of neuronal origin. We also found two different types of artifacts: i) oscillatory potential changes with a frequency identical to the heart pulse rate, which probably represent pulsatility artifacts and ii) sharp potentials synchronized to the R-peak, corresponding to the onset of ventricular contraction and the cardiac field artifact (CFA) in EEG. Finally, we show that heart cycle-related effects induce pronounced phase-synchrony patterns in the ECoG and that this kind of correlation patterns, which may confound ECoG connectivity studies, can be reduced by a suitable correction algorithm. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first one to show a focally localized cortical HEP that could be clearly and consistently observed over subjects, suggesting a basic role of primary sensory cortex in processing of heart-related sensory inputs. We also conclude that taking into account and reducing heart cycle-related effects may be advantageous for many ECoG studies, and are of crucial importance, particularly for ECoG-based connectivity studies. Thus, in summary, although ECoG poses new challenges, it opens up new possibilities for the investigation of

  2. Snake pictures draw more early attention than spider pictures in non-phobic women: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, J W; Eijlers, R; Franken, I H A; Huijding, J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes were probably the first predators of mammals and may have been important agents of evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing rapid visual detection of fearful stimuli (Isbell, 2006). By means of early and late attention-related brain potentials, we examined the hypothesis that more early visual attention is automatically allocated to snakes than to spiders. To measure the early posterior negativity (EPN), 24 healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of 600 snake pictures, 600 spider pictures, and 600 bird pictures (three pictures per second). To measure the late positive potential (LPP), they also watched similar pictures (30 pictures per stimulus category) in a non-speeded presentation. The EPN amplitude was largest for snake pictures, intermediate for spider pictures and smallest for bird pictures. The LPP was significantly larger for both snake and spider pictures when compared to bird pictures. Interestingly, spider fear (as measured by a questionnaire) was associated with EPN amplitude for spider pictures, whereas snake fear was not associated with EPN amplitude for snake pictures. The results suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention and that early attention to snakes is more innate and independent of reported fear.

  3. Event-related potentials to tones show differences between children with multiple risk factors for dyslexia and control children before the onset of formal reading instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Ervast, Leena; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-02-01

    Multiple risk factors can affect the development of specific reading problems or dyslexia. In addition to the most prevalent and studied risk factor, phonological processing, auditory discrimination problems have also been found in children and adults with reading difficulties. The present study examined 37 children between the ages of 5 and 6, 11 of which had multiple risk factors for developing reading problems. The children participated in a passive oddball EEG experiment with sinusoidal sounds with changes in sound frequency, duration, or intensity. The responses to the standard stimuli showed a negative voltage shift in children at risk for reading problems compared to control children at 107-215 ms in frontocentral areas corresponding to P1 offset and N250 onset. Source analyses showed that the difference originated from the left and right auditory cortices. Additionally, the children at risk for reading problems had a larger late discriminative negativity (LDN) response in amplitude for sound frequency change than the control children. The amplitudes at the P1-N250 time window showed correlations to letter knowledge and phonological identification whereas the amplitudes at the LDN time window correlated with verbal short-term memory and rapid naming. These results support the view that problems in basic auditory processing abilities precede the onset of reading instruction and can act as one of the risk factors for dyslexia.

  4. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27075686

  5. Temporal dynamics of attention during encoding versus maintenance of working memory: complementary views from event-related potentials and alpha-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas E; Walther, Lena; Wallis, George; Stokes, Mark G; Nobre, Anna C

    2015-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is strongly influenced by attention. In visual WM tasks, recall performance can be improved by an attention-guiding cue presented before encoding (precue) or during maintenance (retrocue). Although precues and retrocues recruit a similar frontoparietal control network, the two are likely to exhibit some processing differences, because precues invite anticipation of upcoming information whereas retrocues may guide prioritization, protection, and selection of information already in mind. Here we explored the behavioral and electrophysiological differences between precueing and retrocueing in a new visual WM task designed to permit a direct comparison between cueing conditions. We found marked differences in ERP profiles between the precue and retrocue conditions. In line with precues primarily generating an anticipatory shift of attention toward the location of an upcoming item, we found a robust lateralization in late cue-evoked potentials associated with target anticipation. Retrocues elicited a different pattern of ERPs that was compatible with an early selection mechanism, but not with stimulus anticipation. In contrast to the distinct ERP patterns, alpha-band (8-14 Hz) lateralization was indistinguishable between cue types (reflecting, in both conditions, the location of the cued item). We speculate that, whereas alpha-band lateralization after a precue is likely to enable anticipatory attention, lateralization after a retrocue may instead enable the controlled spatiotopic access to recently encoded visual information. PMID:25244118

  6. The effects of musical training on movement pre-programming and re-programming abilities: an event-related potential investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatürk, Melis; Jentzsch, Ines

    2015-03-01

    Two response precuing experiments were conducted to investigate effects of musical skill level on the ability to pre- and re-programme simple movements. Participants successfully used advance information to prepare forthcoming responses and showed response slowing when precue information was invalid rather than valid. This slowing was, however, only observed for partially invalid but not fully invalid precues. Musicians were generally faster than non-musicians, but no group differences in the efficiency of movement pre-programming or re-programming were observed. Interestingly, only musicians exhibited a significant foreperiod lateralized readiness potential (LRP) when response hand was pre-specified or full advance information was provided. These LRP findings suggest increased effector-specific motor preparation in musicians than non-musicians. However, here the levels of effector-specific preparation did not predict preparatory advantages observed in behaviour. In sum, combining the response precuing and ERP paradigms serves a valuable tool to examine influences of musical training on movement pre- or re-programming processes. PMID:25666744

  7. Developmental and cross-modal plasticity in deafness: evidence from the P1 and N1 event related potentials in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Campbell, Julia; Cardon, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Cortical development is dependent on extrinsic stimulation. As such, sensory deprivation, as in congenital deafness, can dramatically alter functional connectivity and growth in the auditory system. Cochlear implants ameliorate deprivation-induced delays in maturation by directly stimulating the central nervous system, and thereby restoring auditory input. The scenario in which hearing is lost due to deafness and then reestablished via a cochlear implant provides a window into the development of the central auditory system. Converging evidence from electrophysiologic and brain imaging studies of deaf animals and children fitted with cochlear implants has allowed us to elucidate the details of the time course for auditory cortical maturation under conditions of deprivation. Here, we review how the P1 cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) provides useful insight into sensitive period cut-offs for development of the primary auditory cortex in deaf children fitted with cochlear implants. Additionally, we present new data on similar sensitive period dynamics in higher-order auditory cortices, as measured by the N1 CAEP in cochlear implant recipients. Furthermore, cortical re-organization, secondary to sensory deprivation, may take the form of compensatory cross-modal plasticity. We provide new case-study evidence that cross-modal re-organization, in which intact sensory modalities (i.e., vision and somatosensation) recruit cortical regions associated with deficient sensory modalities (i.e., auditory) in cochlear implanted children may influence their behavioral outcomes with the implant. Improvements in our understanding of developmental neuroplasticity in the auditory system should lead to harnessing central auditory plasticity for superior clinical technique.

  8. Heat pain thresholds and cerebral event-related potentials following painful CO2 laser stimulation in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Losito, Luciana; Puca, Francomichele

    2003-07-01

    Current opinion concerning the pathophysiology of tension-type headache (TTH) and its related pericranial muscle tenderness proposes a primary role of central sensitization at the level of dorsalhorn/trigeminal nucleus as well as the supraspinal level. Investigation of these phenomena can be conducted using laser-evoked potentials (LEPs), which are objective and quantitative neurophysiological tools for the assessment of pain perception. In the present study we examined features of LEPs, as well as cutaneous heat-pain thresholds to laser stimulation, in relation to the tenderness of pericranial muscles in chronic TTH resulting from pericranial muscle disorder, during a pain-free phase. Twelve patients with TTH and 11 healthy controls were examined using the Total Tenderness Scoring (TTS) system. The stimulus was a laser pulse generated by a CO(2) laser. The dorsum of the hand and the cutaneous zones corresponding to pericranial muscles were stimulated. Subjective perception of stimulus intensity was assessed by a visual analogue scale. Two responses, the earlier named N2a and the last named P2, were considered; the absolute latency was measured at the highest peak of each response. The N2a-P2 components' peak-to-peak amplitude was detected. The heat pain threshold was similar in TTH patients and controls at the level of both the hand and pericranial skin. The TTS scores at almost all pericranial sites were higher in TTH patients than in normal controls. The amplitude of the N2a-P2 complex elicited by stimulation of the pericranial zone was greater in TTH patients than in controls; the amplitude increase was significantly associated with the TTS score. Our findings suggest that pericranial tenderness may be a primary phenomenon that precedes headache, and is mediated by a greater pain-specific hypervigilance at the cortical level.

  9. 积极情绪对整体和局部知觉的影响:事件相关电位研究%Effects of positive emotion on global and local processing: An event-related potentials study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 蒋长好; 石长地

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to clarify how different emotions affect neural activity during the visual perception of global or local features. Methods: The ERP elicited by detecting global letters or local letters under three emotion conditions were recorded in 22 college students and their behavioral performance were collected. The ERP waveforms of these two tasks under three emotion conditions were analyzed. Results: Under the positive and neutral emotion priming conditions, global processing induced larger frontal-central N2 (230 ~ 320 ms) waveforms than local processing (P < 0.01); both global and local processing induced the larger posterior P3 (350 ~ 500ms) waveforms under the positive emotion priming condition than under the negative emotion priming (P <0.01). Conclusion: The findings suggest that brain mechanisms of global and local processing under positive emotion condition are different%目的:采用启动范式和事件相关电位方法,研究积极情绪如何调制视觉系统选择性加工刺激整体特征和局部特征的神经机制.方法:对22名大学生,采用Neuroscan公司64导脑电系统记录其在3种情绪图片启动条件下执行整体和局部加工任务时的事件相关电位( ERPs)和行为学结果.结果:250~320ms时间段内,积极情绪和中性情绪启动条件下整体加工引起的事件相关脑电波幅大于局部加工的脑电波幅(P<0.01),差异主要分布于额-中央区;350 ~ 500ms时间段内,积极情绪启动的整体加工(局部加工)诱发的事件相关脑电波幅大于消极情绪启动的整体加工(局部加工)诱发的脑电波幅(P<0.01),差异主要分布于顶-枕区.结论:积极情绪促进整体和局部知觉加工的神经机制,可能存在差别,ERP早期成分的差异可能与额-中央区活动关系密切,晚期成分与顶-枕区活动联系可能更为密切.

  10. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  11. Analysis of event-related potentials elicited by binding tasks during retrieval of working memory%工作记忆中整合信息提取的事件相关电位分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中华; 周曙; 陆兵勋; 连勇军; 吴燕; 刘忆星

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of event-related potentials(ERPs)induced by color-location binding task and semantics-location binding task in retrieval phase of working memory.Methods The ERPs of 19 channels were recorded from 13 healthy subjects while performing two binding delayedmatch-to-sample tasks.A paired t-test was adopted and the result of ERPs analysis was presented in the form of statistical parametric mapping(SPM)of t-values.Results Behavioral performances showed that in color-binding task the reaction time was significant shorter than that in semantics-binding task(P<0.01),but the correct rate in color-binding task was better than that in semantics-bingding task(P<0.05).The SPM of ERPs suggested significant effects occur in left lateral frontal in early stage and bilateral hemispheres later.Conclusion Retrieval information of semantics-location binding needs more resources of working memory than that of color-location binding.%目的 比较语义、颜色分别与其空间位置整合后在工作记忆提取阶段的事件相关电位(event-related potentials,ERPs)时空模式特点.方法 13名受试者分别从事工作记忆中颜色-位置整合和语义-位置整合的延迟匹配样本任务,同时记录其19通道的ERPs,行为数据采用配对t检验分析,ERPs数据利用配对t值的统计参数映像呈现.结果 颜色-位置整合任务的反应时间短于语义-位置整合任务[分别为(919.41±98.88)ms,(1178.96±101.98)ms,差异具有显著性(P<0.01)],且前者反应正确率高于后者[分别为(82.89±6.18)%,(78.14±7.29)%,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)].ERPs的t值统计参数映射显示两者显著差异早期主要出现在左侧额部,晚期则分布在双侧大脑半球.结论 语义较颜色记忆占用更多记忆资源,其记忆提取过程涉及更多脑区.

  12. 脑外伤患者P300与认知功能的相关性研究%Cognition is correlated with auditory event-related potential P300 after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟明华; 李培媛; 朱其秀; 刘云霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate any correlation between cognition and auditory event-related potential (ERP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI),and to explore the diagnostic value of the P300 ERP for TBI patients.Methods Thirty TBI patients and 28 healthy subjects were recruited.Their P300 auditory event-related potentials were measured and the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) was administered.Results The TBI patients' total MoCA scores and their scores on most of the sub-item components were significantly lower than those of the control subjects,though their naming and speech showed no significant difference.The TBI patients had abnormal P300 responses.Their N1,P2,N2 and P3 latencies were significantly longer and their P2 and P3 amplitudes were significantly lower than those of the control group.Stepwise regression and multivariate analysis showed that the P300 latency was significantly associated with delayed memory,impaired visual spatial executive functioning and total MoCA score.Conclusion P300 can be used as a quantitative electrophysiological index for detecting cognitive impairment in patients with TBI.%目的 研究脑外伤患者事件相关电位(ERP) P300与认知功能的相关性,探讨其在检测脑外伤患者认知功能障碍方面的应用价值.方法 采用随机对照方法,分别对入选的30例脑外伤患者(病例组)和28例健康志愿者(对照组)进行P300检测和蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)评定,分析其相关性.结果 与对照组比较,病例组视空间与执行能力[(2.70±0.75)分]、注意[(2.23±0.68)分]、抽象[(0.87±0.63)分]、延迟记忆[(2.13±0.82)分]、定向力[(2.63±0.93)分]等子项目得分及MoCA总分[(16.03±3.00)分]较低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);病例组N1、P2、N2、P3潜伏期较对照组延长(P<0.05),P2、P3波幅较对照组低(P<0.05).通过逐步回归多元分析,发现P300潜伏期与延迟记忆、视空间与执行功能呈负相关(r=-0.673,r=-0.702,P<0.05),

  13. Event related potentials during the visual discrimination of words and pseudowords by children Potenciais evocados cognitivos na discriminação visual entre palavras e pseudopalavras em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Fonseca

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Event related potentials (ERPs in reading were studied in children in a word and pseudoword discriminating task. Seventy-nine children (9 to 11 year old, all with no elements suggesting brain injury and with school performance compatible with their age were studied. The ERP were registered as there were presented, visually, successively and in a random manner, 100 words and 100 pseudowords. For each stimulus the child pressed a key corresponding to the discrimination between word and pseudoword. The register was carried out for the electrodes of the 10-20 system and the mean amplitudes and latency peaks measured and also the amplitude from 200 to 550 milliseconds. The most significant differences between the ERPs occurred in Cz, with greater negativity for the mean of the amplitude between 425 and 550 milliseconds for pseudowords (N400. The N400 was more precocious in 11 year old. The influence of age was thus evident and also the differences in ERPs between words and pseudowords.Foram estudadas 79 crianças (9 a 11 anos sem elementos sugestivos de comprometimento cerebral e com desempenho escolar compatível com a idade. Os PCL foram registrados enquanto eram apresentados, visualmente, sucessivamente e de modo aleatório, 100 palavras e 100 pseudopalavras. Para cada estímulo a criança acionava uma tecla correspondente à discriminação entre palavra e pseudopalavra. O registro foi realizado para os eletrodos do sistema 10-20 e foram feitas medidas de médias de amplitude e de latências de pico e de amplitude de 200 a 550 milissegundos. Em Cz ocorreram as diferenças mais significativas entre os PCL, com maior negatividade da média de amplitude entre 425 e 550 milissegundos para pseudopalavras (N400. O N400 foi mais precoce nas crianças com 11 anos. Evidenciou-se assim a influência da idade e as diferenças no PCL entre palavras e pseudopalavras.

  14. The Impact of Product Forms on User′s Usage Intention with Event Related Potentials%产品造型对用户使用意向影响的事件相关电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伏; 丁一; 张雪峰; 姜均译; 刘玮琳

    2015-01-01

    The ability of product to stimulate user′s intention of anticipated use has a decisive role in further experience or pur-chase decision, while traditional methods cannot give a full understanding of user′s experience on product.The brain controls all of people′s behaviours and cognition, and the development of neurophysiology and mature of electroencephalogram ( EEG) meas-urement method makes it possible to understand people′s mind more accurately. In this study, event related potentials(ERPs) were applied to explore the process of anticipated user experience when users browsed different smart phone designs.Four smart phone forms designed by using Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 5.0 and five selected from website were displayed as stimuli.All the stimuli were processed to have the same size and visual angel.Moreover, the brands were deleted and price was not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms.Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly.Eleven sub-jects took part in the experiment, during which participants were asked to click the left button of mouse when certain picture gave them a feeling of anticipated use.Consequently, according to the behavioral results ( the times of mouse click) , stimuli were di-vided into intended and no response types.EEG signals were processed by applying Curry 7.0 SBA ( Neurosoft Labs Inc) , and computed using EEG epochs that started from 200ms before stimuli onset to 800ms after stimuli onset.Event related potentials of each participant were then averaged separately for each channel and stimulus type.The single-subject ERPs were then used to derive the grand averaged waveforms for display and analysis.Then within-subject repeated-measures analysis of variance ( ANO-VA) was done by SPSS 18.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to stimulate participants′intention for further experience can evoke smaller N

  15. Outcome Prediction and Evaluation in Young Adolescents:A Study of Event-Related Potentials%青少年结果预期与评价的ERP研究术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 索涛; 袁文萍; 冯廷勇

    2011-01-01

    People can generate anticipations from the environmental events and comparing them with the actual results constantly, by evaluating outcomes of feedback information to facilitate the performance of the behavior. Outcome evaluation, the process of evaluation that people act on their own or through external feedback results, is an important cognitive function of human. In event-related potential (ERP) research on the outcome evaluation or feedback processing, feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 were important components particularly induced by evaluating performance outcomes in adult subjects. Adopting a paradigm of lottery gambling task and manipulating the reward-related cenainty. the present study investigated the cognitive and neural electrophysiological processes of outcome anticipation and evaluation in young adolescents, and compared the results with adults', which as the control gfoup. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured when 15 healthy right-handed junior high school students did a lottery-gambling task. The participants were told that the red ball would immediately stop on the box it was passing by once they press the button. The red ball stopping on the green part indicates their gain, whereas, the gray part indicates their loss in the trail. We mainly analyzed ERPs elicited by the gain and loss feedback outcomes following two certainty conditions. The results showed that: Feedback Related Negativity which reflects the automatic rapid outcome evaluation showed not significant differences between adolescents and adults, whether in the high or low certainty condition. whereas, P300 which reflects the controlled elaborately outcome evaluation of the functional significance of feedback stimulus was sensitive both to groups and certainty conditions, which showed a significant interaction. Simple effects analysis showed that, in the high-certainty condition. the difference between amplitude of P300 elicited by gain and loss were

  16. 双相情感障碍患者事件相关电位的对照研究%Matching Analysis of Event Related Potentials in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 郑重; 邹可; 孙学礼

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is to investigate the variation characteristics and clinical application of event related potentials (ERPs) in patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 70 patients with bipolar disorder, with 39 patients in manic phase and 31 patients in depressive phase, and 50 health volunteers were recruited in the case-control study. The ERPs, such as P300, MMN, CNV, P50, were recorded by the Nihon Kohden evoked potential instrument. Compared with the healthy volunteers' latency in the control group, the latency of MMN, CNV, N2, P3a, P3b was longer in the manic phase groups the latency of MMN, CNV, P3a and P3b were longer and the amplitude of CNV was lower in the depressive phase group. The S2/S1 value of P50 obviously increased among the manic phase patients. With manic phase or depression phase of bipolar disorder, the variation characteristics of ERPs were different. The features of ERP reflect the cognitive dysfunction and sensory gating impairment of patient's brain. The results provide neural electrophysiological basis for clinical diagnosis and therapy of bipolar disorder.%为探讨双相情感障碍患者事件相关电位 (ERP) 的变异特点及其临床应用价值.采用日本Nihon Kohden脑诱发电位仪,检测70例双相情感障碍患者(躁狂相39例,抑郁相31例)及50名正常人的P300、失匹配负波(MMN)、关联性负变(CNV)、听觉门控诱发电位P50进行对照研究.与正常对照组比较,双相情感障碍躁狂相患者MMN、N2、P3a、P3b、CNV的A点潜伏期均延长(P<0.05),P50的波幅比(S2/S1)增大(P<0.05);抑郁相患者MMN、P3a、P3b、CNV的A点潜伏期均延长(P<0.05),CNV的A-B波幅降低(P<0.05).双相情感障碍躁狂相、抑郁相患者的ERP各具特点,患者大脑存在认知功能和感觉门控功能的损害,为临床诊断和治疗提供客观依据.

  17. P300 event-related potential of patients with vascular dementia%血管性痴呆患者事件相关电位P300的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吕力; 蔺心敬; 梁浩; 肖继东; 张丽香

    2005-01-01

    ofthe severitv and development of dementia,so as to make instant diagnosis and examination of therapeutic effect on patientswith vascular dementias(VD).Event related potential endogenetic eomponent P300 is proved closely correlated with the cognitive management of examinees but not with stimulus property,thereby considered as one of the most valuable and objective index for brain superior psychological activity.OBJECTIVE:To study the role and significance of events related potential P300,providing objective basis for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic assessment for patients with VD.DESIGN:Non-randomized simultaneous controlled explorative study based on patients. SETTING:Neurological department and electromyography department in aprovincial hospital and neurological department in a medical college hospital.PARTICIPANTS:Between February 2000 and June 2001,64 patients were of VD at neurological clinic and ward ofthe Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical College,including 38 males and 26 females with theaverage age of(66.0±4.6)years(VD group).Culturallevel:19 cases re-ceiyed over senior school education,31 cases of junior school education and14 cases of illiteracy.Meanwhile 60 inpatients without VD were enrolled(non-VD group)including 35 males and 25 females withthe average age of(68.0±3.7)years.Culturallevel:senior school or above,15 cases,junior school, 29 cases and illiteracy,16 cases.METHODS:Mental sate of both VD and non-VD groups were assessed with mini-mental state examination(MMSE),and tested with P300 potential observing the variability of latency and amplitude of P300 in patients.Both methods were compared between VD group and non-VD group, moreover relationship between P300 latency and MMSE scores was also explored.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Variability of P300 latency and amplitude Relationship between P300 latency and MMSE scores.RESULTS:P300 latency was found prolonged in 74% and 7% of VD group and non-VD group respectively,with obvious significance

  18. A study on cognitive function and event related potential in chronic alcoholism patients%慢性酒精中毒患者认知功能与事件相关电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静华; 金丽萍; 王婷

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性酒精中毒患者的认知功能和事件相关电位(ERP)的变化,并评价ERP(P300)在认知功能障碍测评中的应用.方法 对100例慢性酒精中毒患者和70名正常对照进行韦氏成人智力量表、韦氏记忆测验中文版测评和ERP检测.结果 慢性酒精中毒患者的言语智商[(90.77±15.34)分]、操作智商[(91.72±15.30)分]、总智商[(91.05±19.73)分]、Stroop-C时间[(173.81±12.35)s]、Stroop-CW时间[(1176.21±40.92)s]、逻辑记忆测验[(10.32±3.39)s]、视觉再生测验成绩低于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01).慢性酒精中毒患者ERP的P3a、P3b波的潜伏期延长,波幅降低,与对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).慢性酒精中毒患者智力测验的智力障碍检出率43%,明显低于ERP的检出率56%(χ2=7.17,P<0.01).结论 慢性酒精中毒患者的认知功能受到损害.P300变化在发现认知功能损害方面比智力测查更敏感.%Objective To evaluate cognitive function of chronic alcoholism patients.Methods The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revise in China(WAIS-RC) and WMS-RC,including intelligence quotient,logical Memory.visual memory and stroop test,were investigated and P300 component of auditory event-related potential (ERP,P300),especially the subcomponents P3a and P3b were examined in 100 chronic alcoholism patients,and 70 healthv people matched in age,sex and educational level as controls.Results Compared with controls,the score of Verbal intelligence quotient(VIQ),Performance intelligence quotient (PIQ),Full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ),logical memory,visual memory (immediate and delayed),and stroop test were significant lower (P <0.05.P<O.01)in chronic alcoholism patients,but the latencies of P3a and P3b wave were significantly prolonged.the amplitude of P3a and P3b wave were significantly decreased in chronic alcoholism patients.Conclusion Chronic alcoholism patients have cognitive function impairment,and P300 is a more sensitive to discover

  19. 哌甲酯对注意缺陷多动障碍患儿事件相关电位的影响%Effects of Methylphenidate on Event Related Potential in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕴岚; 段敬利; 杨庆南; 郭蕴琦; 王家勤; 寇根生; 高志涛; 宁夔; 张志亮; 王业民; 邓智建

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较哌甲酯对注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患儿治疗前后事件相关电位的影响.方法 ADHD患儿32例口服哌甲酯后应用丹迪Keypoint肌电-诱发电位仪进行Go/Nogo任务的事件相关电位检测,以30名健康儿童作为健康对照组,对事件相关电位主成分进行比较.应用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 ADHD患儿服药后Go-P3潜伏期(355.16±17.04)ms,短于服药前(366.66±19.32)ms,但长于健康对照组(333.70±23.57)ms(Pa<0.05);波幅(5.88±1.72)μV,高于服药前(4.82±2.14)μV,但低于健康对照组(7.19±1.87)μV(Pa<0.05);ADHD患儿服药后Nogo-P3波幅(6.13±1.68)μV,高于服药前(5.04±1.76)μV,但低于健康对照组(8.32±2.03)μV(P<0.05,0.01).结论哌甲酯能改善ADHD患儿的注意性及抑制性执行功能.%Objective To investigate the effect of methylphenidate on event related potential(ERP) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Methods Thirty -two children with ADHD (ADHD group)were treated for oral using methylphenidate and observed for 2 hours, scale for the assessment of methylphenidate were evaluated with the P300 ERP in Go/Nogo task. Thirty healthy children ( healthy control group) were controls, to compare the differences of ERP main components. Results The latency [ ( 355.16 ± 17.04 ) ms ]and amplitude[ (5.88 ± 1.72) μV] of Go - P3 in ADHD group after treatment were significantly shorter and higher than before treatment [ ( 366.66 ± 19.32 ) ms and (4.82 ± 2.14) μV,Pa < 0.05 ], but longer and lower than those in healthy control group[ ( 333.70 ± 23.57 ) ms and ( 7.19 ± 1.87 ) μV ,Pa < 0.05 ]. The amplitude [ ( 6.13 ± 1.68 ) μV ] of Nogo - P3 in ADHD group after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment [ ( 5.04 ± 1.76) μV,P < 0.05 ], but lower than that in healthy control group [ ( 8.32 ± 2.03 ) μV, P < 0.05 ] .Conclusion Methylphenidate can improve the attention and inhibitive executive functions in